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Sample records for machilus thunbergii sieb

  1. Study on dominance growth law of Machilus Thunbergii population in Daiyun mountain%戴云山红楠种群优势度增长规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文周

    2012-01-01

    Growth dynamics of dominance of Machilus Thunbergii population was detected based on Logistic-model, Zhang-Logistic model, Liu-Logistic model and modified Logistic model. And a new model was optimized from the modified simplex method. The results showed that modified Logistic model was more suitable than other models to simulate the actual growth trend of Machilus Thunbergii population. The residual sum of squares was 0.1454, and the intrinsic growth rate was 0.4635. The highest growth rate of basal area was the seventh age classes, namely the phase when breast diameter was 60~70cm, and the basal area reached 1.2049 m2/hm2. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the protection and management of Machilus Thunbergii population.%运用Logistic模型、张-Logistic模型、刘-Logistic模型、改进Logistic模型探讨戴云山红楠种群优势度增长规律,并运用改进单纯形法对模型参数进行优化。结果表明,改进Logistic模型比其他模型更符合红楠种群优势度增长趋势。该模型残差平方和为0.1454、内禀增长率为0.4635,最大增长速度出现在第7龄级附近,即胸径60~70cm时期,平衡位置在环境容量为1.2049m2/hm2处,其结果可为戴云山红楠种群的保护和管理提供科学依据。

  2. 蘡薁中分离的多酚化合物%Polyphenols from Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德强; 周仁平; 任杰; Maggie Cooper; 何曜华; 裴玉萍; Yoshiaki Takaya; Masatake Niwa; 陈英杰; 姚新生

    2003-01-01

    目的 分离鉴定蘡薁地上部分的化学成分.方法 通过硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20及制备HPLC方法分离,对其进行理化常数和光谱分析确定结构.结果 自蘡薁地上部分分离得到11个多酚化合物,均属首次分离.结论 化合物1为新化合物,经鉴定其结构为3,5-二甲氧基-4-羟基苯丙醇-9-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷.%Aim Isolation and structural elucidation of the constituents from the aerial part of Vitis thunbergii. Methods To isolate chemical constituents, column chromatography and HPLC were used. Physico-chemical characterization and spectroscopic analysis were employed for structural identification. Results Eleven polyphenols were isolated and identified. Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure was characterized to be 3,5-dimethoxyl-4-hydroxyl-phenyl-propanol-9-O-β-D-glycopyranoside.

  3. Function of VtPGIP in pathogenic fungus resistance of Vitis thunbergii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... first isolated from the wild grape Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc., which exhibits high resistance to ..... the following equation: ..... Time course of the changes in mRNA levels of PGIP gene in leaves after ABA (A) and SA (B) treatments. .... Reymond P, Weber H, Damond M, Farmer EE (2000) Differential gene.

  4. Comparative analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequences of two tropical trees Machilus yunnanensis and Machilus balansae in the family Lauraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Dong, Wenpan; Liu, Bing; Xu, Chao; Yao, Xin; Gao, Jie; Corlett, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Machilus is a large (c. 100 sp.) genus of trees in the family Lauraceae, distributed in tropical and subtropical East Asia. Both molecular species identification and phylogenetic studies of this morphologically uniform genus have been constrained by insufficient variable sites among frequently used biomarkers. To better understand the mutation patterns in the chloroplast genome of Machilus, the complete plastomes of two species were sequenced. The plastomes of Machilus yunnanensis and M. balansae were 152, 622 and 152, 721 bp, respectively. Seven highly variable regions between the two Machilus species were identified and 297 mutation events, including one micro-inversion in the ccsA-ndhD region, 65 indels, and 231 substitutions, were accurately located. Thirty-six microsatellite sites were found for use in species identification and 95 single-nucleotide changes were identified in gene coding regions.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of two tropical trees Machilus yunnanensis and Machilus balansae in the family Lauraceae

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    Yu eSONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Machilus is a large (c. 100 spp. genus of trees in the family Lauraceae, distributed in tropical and subtropical East Asia. Both molecular species identification and phylogenetic studies of this morphologically uniform genus have been constrained by insufficient variable sites among frequently-used biomarkers. To better understand the mutation patterns in the chloroplast genome of Machilus, the complete plastomes of two species were sequenced. The plastomes of M. yunnanensis and M. balansae were 152, 622 bp and 152, 721 bp respectively. Seven highly variable regions between the two Machilus species and three of them between Machilus and Cinnamomum were identified and 297 mutation events, including one micro-inversion in the ccsA-ndhD region, 65 indels, and 231 substitutions, were accurately located. Thirty-six microsatellite sites were found for use in species identification and 95 single-nucleotide changes were identified in gene coding regions.

  6. Flora of Bokor National Park V: Two new species of Machilus (Lauraceae), M. bokorensis and M. brevipaniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Toyama, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Machilus bokorensis Yahara & Tagane and Machilus brevipaniculata Yahara & Tagane (Lauraceae) are described from Bokor National Park, Cambodia with their illustrations and DNA barcodes of the two plastid regions of rbcL and matK and the nuclear region of ITS.

  7. On Speech and Language: Studies for Sieb G. Nooteboom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quené, Hugo; Heuven, Vincent van

    2004-01-01

    Sieb G. Nooteboom (born in Makassar, former Dutch East Indies, on April 19,1939) is professor of Phonetics at Utrecht University, and chairman of the Netherlands Speech Technology Foundation. After taking his position in Utrecht in 1988, Nooteboom served as director of the Utrecht institute of Lingu

  8. Effect of Sargassum thunbergii on ROS mediated oxidative damage and identification of polyunsaturated fatty acid components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Kong, Chang-Suk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we examined protective effect of Sargassum thunbergii on reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress in cellular systems. In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids from S. thunbergii were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Intracellular ROS levels were measured using a oxidation sensitive dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Treatment with S. thunbergii significantly reduced intracellular ROS mediated cell damage and inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assessed in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated human monocytic leukemia in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, antioxidative mechanisms by S. thunbergii were evaluated by measuring the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. SOD-1 and glutathione reductase were up-regulated by S. thunbergii. Furthermore, S. thunbergii contains polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, arachidic acid, palmitic acid, elaidic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid and cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosanoic acid. Therefore, these results suggested that S. thunbergii has nutraceutical effectiveness in prevention of ROS-induced tissue damage and potential natural antioxidant related to oxidative stress, which can be traceable to polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in S. thunbergii.

  9. Physiological and morphological properties of the Japanese black and red pine trees (Pinus thundergii Parl. and P. densiflora sieb. et zucc. ) on the resistance to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A.; Hasegawa, M.

    1974-01-01

    The physiological effects of SO/sub 2/ to Japanese black and red pines (Pinus Thunbergii Parl. and P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have been studied. After exposure to 3 ppm of SO/sub 2/ gas, photosynthesis by the 1-0 year old seedlings of black pine was conducted for 3 hours with 200..mu..C /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ under 20,000 lux. Hot water soluble materials from the seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that photosynthetic ability of seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 19% of that of the control seedlings. The rate of the photosynthesis decreased 22% when the seedlings were cultivated under nutrient defficient condition. The radioactivity of fixed amino acids, organic acids and sugar components in the seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 28%, 58% and 8% respectively, of the control plants. The organic acid components were analyzed by paper chromatography and gas chromatography. The results showed a quantitative decrease of critic and succinic acids and especially remarkable decrease of malic acid. Japanese red pine seedlings which are more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than black pine seedlings were analyzed under similar conditions. The differences of sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ between these two plants were compared and discussed. Concerning the decrease of photosynthetic ability, changes of morphological structures in chloroplast were observed by an electron microscopy. The deformation of lamellar structures of chloroplast exposed to SO/sub 2/ was found.

  10. Study of propagation of Berberis thunbergii L. by cuttings, with using less-known methods of stimulation

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    Martin Říha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different type of own produce stimulators were tested at Berberis thunbergii L. 'Green Carpet', Berberis thunbergii 'Red Shift' and Berberis thunbergii 'Aureum'. We used the combination of growing inhibitors and quick-dip method, single quick-dip metod in solution of acetone and stimulant in form of gel. Groving inhibitors is including paclobutrazol and CCC in test. We used IBK, NAA, IAA and nicotin acid as auxins in quick-dip method. Medium was aceton solution.

  11. Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidative enzymes of glycine Soja sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2009-03-15

    The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) and parameters of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) of shoots were investigated in S. sieb naturally salt-resistant halophyte. The seedlings of S. sieb were treated with varying (0, 80, 160 and 240 mM) NaCl stress. The results showed that NaCl played an important role in growth of S. sieb. It made obviously promotion of certain NaCl concentration to growth of S. sieb, the seeflings of S. sieb grew best under 80 mM salt stress. MDA concentration of S. sieb obviously decreased under 80 mM salt stress then increased with salt concentration increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased with the increase of the concentration of NaCl in S. sieb. The salt tolerance of this halophyte under salt stress condition are probably due to its ability to exhibit high SOD, POD and CAT enzyme activities and Soluble Sugar (SS) concentration.

  12. [Sexual reproductive allocation of Sargassum thunbergii at Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-hua; Zhang, Quan-sheng; Li, Xiao-jie; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuang-zhi; Wang, De-bin; Han, Hou-wei; Wang, Ru-zhou

    2011-08-01

    This paper studied the dynamics of reproductive allocation (RA) of Sargassum thunbergii during its sexual reproductive season and the related environmental factors at the Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea. The sexual reproduction of S. thunbergii initiated in early June, peaked in mid July when the sea water temperature was about 22 degrees C (the mean proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive organs on July 19 was 76.7%), and ended in late August. The RA had a significant linear correlation with the average length of thallus branches (r = 0.855, P reproductive season, while the thalli longer than 10 cm had a RA up to averagely 70.0% at the peak maturing stage. UNIANOVA analysis showed that both tidal level and wave strength had significant effects on the RA of S. thunbergii (tidal level: F = 175.62, P wave strength > tidal level x wave strength.

  13. Phenological study of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Duan, Delin

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a phenological evaluation of Sargassum thunbergii, a common algal species, along the coast of Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China. The local S. thunbergii population entered a maturation period from early June to mid-August, when seawater temperature was 14.4 to 25.1°C. Our results suggest an increase in temperature and day length during this period initiated thalli maturation. Inhabitants of the low tidal zone had higher thalli length and biomass compared with those from the mid-and high tidal zones. We observed a switch in the length frequency distribution and contribution of length classes to biomass between the small (sexual reproduction and vegetative regeneration.

  14. Lipase inhibitory activity of chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Three compounds (chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol) were isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii extract. The three compounds had two- to fourfold lower lipase inhibitory activity than that of the CHCl3:MeOH (C:M) (100:1) fraction (fraction I, 83.78% at 1 mg/mL). These results suggested that the high lipase inhibitory activity of fraction I was attributable to the actions of the three compounds. Therefore, S. thunbergii has potential for application as an anti-obesity agent.

  15. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf essential oil of Machilus zuihoensis from Taiwan

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    Chen-Lung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of endemic Machilus zuihoensis Hayata, Lauraceae, of Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of M. zuihoensis was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 104 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were n-dodecanal (23.8% and (E-nerolidol (10.5%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 35~43 mm to MIC values of 125 µg mL-1, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species (Trametes versicolor, Phaneochaete chrysosporium, Phaeolus schweintizii, and Lenzites sulphureu. For the antimicrobial and anti-wooddecay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, β-eudesmol, and n-dodecanal.

  16. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation

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    Se-Jin Joo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, normal butanol (n-BuOH, and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+-taxifolin, afzelin, (−-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively.

  17. Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-03-28

    The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii.

  18. Characteristics of water relations in seedling of Machilus yunnanensis and Cinnamomum camphora under soil drought condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tian-tian; ZHAO Lin-sen

    2006-01-01

    The soil drought stress experiment in different durations (no watering within 3d, 6d, 9d, 11d individually) was conducted to study the drought-resistant capacity of one-year-old seedlings for the native tree species (Machilus yunnanensis) in Yunnan Province and the introduced tree species (Cinnamomum camphora). The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, proline content and plasma membrane permeability for two species seedlings were measured in different soil drought conditions. The results showed that, on the 9th day of drought stress, the leaf water potential of two species decreased obviously, whereas the free proline content and plasma membrane permeability increased sharply. On the 11th day, the leaf water potential of C. camphora seedlings was lower than that of M. yunnanensis seedlings; the plasma membrane permeability in C. camphora seedling leaves increased much more than that in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves, which showed that the injury to the former by soil drought stress was more severe than that to the latter. The free proline content in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves continued to increase on the 11th day, but that in the C. camphora seedling leaves started to drop obviously, indicating that the reduction of osmotic regulation substance in C. camphora seedling leaves after the 11th day was unable to maintain the osmotic balance between the plasma system and its surroundings and the water loss occurred inevitably. Comprehensively, M. yunnanensis seedlings enhanced the drought-resistance in the course of soil drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential and by increasing osmotic regulation substance to promote cell plasma concentration and maintain membrane structure integrity so as to reduce water loss. The subordination function index evaluated with fuzzy mathematic theory also showed that the drought-resistant capacity ofM. yunnanensis seedlings was stronger than that of C. camphora seedlings.

  19. [Characteristics of leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in relation to plant size of Machilus pauhoi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei-lei; Zhong, Quan-lin; Cheng, Dong-liang; Zhang, Zhong-rui; Fei, Ling; Xu, Chao-bin; He, Li-zhong; Wang, Wei-jun

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of stand age on variation patterns of leaf C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of Machilus pauhoi, two stands, i.e., 9 and 13 years old, were selected. The relationships between leaf nutrient contents (C, N and P) and diameters at breast height (DBH) of individual plants were analyzed. The data revealed that the individual variations of seedlings in M. pauhoi stands were strengthened with the stand development. The stand age had significant effects on leaf C, N, P contents and C:N ratio but not on C:P and N: P ratios. Specifically, the mean values of leaf C, N, P contents and N:P ratio in the 9-year-old stand were lower than those in the 13-year-old stand, whereas, inverse pattern of C:N and C:P ratios were found in the two stands. Furthermore, leaf N and P stoichiometry varied significantly within the stand. Specifically, leaf N and P contents, as well as their stoichiometric ratios, linearly correlated with DBH in the 9-year-old stand. On the contrary, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed quadratic correlation in 13-year-old stand (except leaf C:N which linearly correlated with DBH). Lastly, nutrient transfer rates of leaf N and P in the 9-year-old stand were higher than that in 13-year-old stand, and the discrepancies of leaf nutrient transfer strategy between growing and non-growing seasons were caused by the different growth phases and environmental conditions.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radial Scavenging Activities of the Constituents Isolated from Machilus zuihoensis

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    Shui-Tein Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9, together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae. The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC50 is 30.4 μM and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3, ethyl caffeate (6, and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7 treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1 and ethyl caffeate (6, were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO production (IC50 value, 27.6 and 42.9 μM, respectively in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6 down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases.

  1. Paraquat-induced resinosis in Japanese pine. I. The effect of paraquat on Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, T.; Sogo, M.; Hata, K.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of Japanese pines (P. densiflora and P. thunbergii) with paraquat induced a zone of lightwood. Determinations of turpentine and ether extractives contents in lightwoods showed high levels as compared with those in control woods. (Refs. 5).

  2. 优良菌用树种浙江润楠的育苗造林技术%Techniques of seedling cultivation and forestation of Machilus chekiangensis S.Lee —— a tree as eminent mushrooms cultur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄平; 彭彪; 黄仁晓; 黄成模; 魏生清

    2011-01-01

    介绍浙江润楠的菌用价值、形态特征及生态习性,阐述了浙江润楠的播种育苗和造林技术.%The paper introduces the fungus-producing forest worth,morphological characteristics and biological characteristics of the Machilus chekiangensis S.Lee and illustrates in detail the techniques of seedling cultivation and forestation of Machilus chekiangen

  3. Identification of the toxic compounds produced by Sargassum thunbergii to red tide microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renjun; WANG You; TANG Xuexi

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from the tissues of three macroalgal species on the growths of three marine red tide microalgae were assessed under laboratory conditions.Extracts of Sargassum thunbergii(Mertens ex Roth)Kuntz tissue had stronger inhibitory effects than those of either Sargassum pallidum(Turner)C.Agardh or Sargassum kjellmanianum Yendo on the growths of Heterosigrna akashiwo(Hada)Hada,Skeletonema costatum(Grey.)Grey,and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg.Methanol extracts of S.thunbergii were further divided into petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,butanol,and distilled water phases by liquid-liquid fractionation.The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions had strong algicidal effects on the microalgae.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of these two phases identified nine fatty acids,most of which were unsaturated fatty acids.In addition,pure compounds of four of the nine unsaturated fatty acids had effective concentrations below 5 mg/L.Therefore,unsaturated fatty acids are a component of the allelochemicals in S.thunbergii tissue.

  4. Acid hydrolysis of crude tannins from infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc to produce ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wang, Yongmei; Xu, Man

    2014-01-01

    The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc is a well-known traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. The infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc is a rich source of ellagitannins that are composed of ellagic acid (EA) and gallic acid, linked to a sugar moiety. The aim of this study was to prepare EA by acid hydrolysis of crude tannins from the infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc, and establish a new technological processing method for EA. The natural antioxidant EA was prepared by using the water extraction of infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc, evaporation, condensation, acid hydrolysis and prepared by the process of crystallisation. The yield percentage of EA from crude EA was more than 20% and the purity of the product was more than 98%, as identified by using HPLC. The structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound.

  5. Nucleotide Diversities and Genetic Relationship in the Three Japanese Pine Species; Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus luchuensis

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    Susumu Shiraishi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide diversities and genetic relationship in the three Japanese pine species, P. thunbergii, P. densiflora, and P. luchuensis, were measured using low-copy anchor loci in Pinaceae. The average nucleotide diversity among these three Japanese pines revealed that P. thunbergii was the highest (6.05 × 10−3, followed by P. densiflora (5.27 × 10−3 and P. luchuensis (5.02 × 10−3. In comparison to other conifer species, it was concluded that the pines possessed an intermediate level of nucleotide diversity. The Heat shock protein (HSP gene in P. thunbergii, Phenylalanine tRNA synthetase, RuBP carboxylase, and Disease resistance response protein 206 genes in P. densiflora were significantly deviated from standard neutral models. Some of these genes were related to stress or pathogen/defense response. As the samples used in this study were collected from natural populations that showed specific characteristics of being resistant to pine wilt nematode, it was hypothesized that the initial selection was an important factor in discriminating the deviation from neutrality models. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the three Japanese pines were split into two lineages corresponding to P. densiflora and P. thunbergii–P. luchuensis. The latter lineage was differentiated further into two clades; P. thunbergii and P. luchuensis. The result concludes that the three Japanese pines are closely related and P. thunbergii is genetically closer to P. luchuensis, than P. densiflora.

  6. 瑶山润楠根的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from roots of Machilus yaoshansis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 朱承根; 石建功; 刘明韬; 甘茂罗; 赵峰; 吴秀丽; 于洋; 岳正刚; 林生; 王素娟

    2012-01-01

    对樟科润楠属植物瑶山润楠Machilus yaoshansis根乙醇提取物的化学成分进行研究.利用多种色谱技术从瑶山澜楠的醋酸乙酯萃取物中分离得到15个化合物;通过理化性质和波谱数据鉴定其结构为12个木脂素类(+)-愈创木素(1),kadsuralignan C(2),(+)-异落叶松脂素(3),(+)-5′-甲氧基异落叶松脂素(4),南烛木树脂酚(5),内消旋-裂环异落叶松树脂酚(6),异落叶松脂素-9′-O-β-D-吡喃木糖苷(7),5′-甲氧基-异落叶松脂素-9 ′-O-β-D-吡喃木糖苷(8),南烛木树脂酚9′-O-β-D-吡喃木糖苷(9),(2R,3R)-2,3-二氢-2-(4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯基)-7-甲氧基-3-甲基-5-(E)-丙烯基苯并呋喃(10),3,5′-二甲氧基-4′,7-环氧-8,3′-新木脂素-4,9,9′-三醇(11),甘密树皮素B(12),和3个黄烷类(+)-儿茶素(13),(-)-表儿茶素(14),bis8,8′-catechinylmethane( 15).化合物1~15均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%To study chemical constituents contained in ethanol extracts from roots of Machilus yaoshansis. Fifteen compounds were separated from the roots of M. yaoshansis by using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified on the basis of their physicochemical properties and spectral data as twelve lignans( + )-guaiacin(1), kadsuralignan C(2),( + )-isolaricires-inol(3), 5'-methoxy-( + )-isolariciresinol(4) ,(7'S, 8R, 8'R)-lyoniresinol(5), meso-secoisolariciresinol(6), isolariciresinol-9'-O-β-D-xylopyranoside( 7), 5'-methoxy-isolariciresinol-9'-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (8), lyoniresinol-9'-O-β-O-xylopyranoside ( 9), ( 2R, 3R)-2, 3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-3-nietbyl-5-(E)-propenylbenzofuran(10), 3, 5'-dimethoxy4', 7-epox-y-8, 3'-neoh'gnan-4, 9, 9'-triol(11), nectandrin B(12), and three flavanes( + )-catechin(13),( - )-epicatechin(14), and bis-8, 8'-catechinylmethane(15). All of the compounds 1-15 were separated from M. yaoshansis for the first time.

  7. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment.

  8. Comparative study of responses in the brown algae Sargassum thunbergii to zinc and cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fang; Dind, Gang; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Dongmei; Wu, Haiyi; Guo, Wen

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic system is becoming a serious problem worldwide. In this study, responses of Sargassum thunbergii to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) exposure separately were studied for 15 days in laboratory-controlled conditions. The results show that the specific growth rates increased slightly under the lower Zn concentration treatment (0.1 mg/L) at the first 5 d and then decreased gradually, which were significantly reduced with the exposure time in higher Zn concentrations and all Cd treatments compared to respective control, especially for 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd. Chlorophyll a contents showed significant increase in 0.1 mg/L Zn treatment, whereas the gradually reduction were observed in the other three Zn treatments and all Cd treatments. The oxygen evolution rate and respiration rate presented distinct behavior in the Zn-treated samples, but both declined steadily with the exposure time in Cd treatments. The P/R value analyses showed similar variation patterns as chlorophyll a contents. Real-time PCR showed that lower Zn concentration (0.1 mg/L) increased mRNA expression of rbcL gene, whereas higher Zn concentrations and Cd reduced the rbcL expression. Taken together, these findings strongly indicate that Zn and Cd had different effects on S. thunbergii both at the physiological and gene transcription levels, the transcript level of photosynthesis-related gene rbcL can be used as an useful molecular marker of algal growth and environment impacts.

  9. [Carbon storage of Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia plantations on Nanchangshan Island, Changdao County of Shandong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ai; Shi, Hong-Hua; Peng, Shi-Tao; Gong, Li-Peng; Qin, Xue-Bo

    2013-05-01

    Using indigenous tree species to transform large area pure plantations has been an effective close-to-nature forest management mode in China islands. By using the biomass allometric equation and combined with the investigation data from sampling plots, the carbon storage of the dominant species Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia in the plantations on the Nanchangshan Island of Miaodao Archipelago in Changdao County of Shandong Province was estimated. The average carbon storage in the arbor layer of P. thunbergii and R. pseudoacacia plantations was 56.81 and 37.26 t x hm(-2), respectively, being higher than the average carbon stock (27.62 t x hm(-2)) of tree plantations in Shandong Province. Slope aspect and stand density were the important environmental and biological factors affecting the tree's carbon stock in the Island, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the average cumulative rate of biomass in the arbor layer of P. thunbergi plantation and the stand age. The P. thunbergii with good carbon sequestration function could be an ideal tree species on Nanchangshan Island.

  10. 宜昌润楠中酚类成分的研究%Phenols from the stem of Machilus ichangensis Rehd. et Wils.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凡; 徐帮; 郭玲芝; 郭志勇; 邹坤

    2012-01-01

    通过溶剂提取法和多种色谱方法对宜昌润楠(Machilus ichangensis Rehd.et Wils.)的干燥茎枝进行分离纯化,利用现代波谱技术(MS、1H NMR、13C NMR、DEPT、CD)和理化性质进行结构鉴定.从宜昌润楠95%乙醇提取物中分离得到16个酚类化合物,分别鉴定为(2R,3R)-4'-羟基-5,7,3'-三甲氧基黄烷-3-醇(1),(2R,3R)-3-羟基-5,7-二甲氧基-4',5'-亚甲二氧基黄烷(2),(+)-儿茶素(3),(-)-表儿茶素(4),柚皮素(5),达维荚蒾苷元(6),反式对香豆酸(7),咖啡酸(8),阿魏酸(9),异阿魏酸(10),东莨菪素(11),异东莨菪素(12),胡椒基酸(13),香草酸(14),原儿茶酸(15),丁香酸(16).所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%To study phenols in the stem of Machilus ichangensis Rend, et Wils. , The obtained compounds were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were identified by modern spectral technology (MS, 'H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT and CD) and physicochemical properties. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of Machilus ichangensis , They were identified as (2R, 3R)-4'-hy-droxy-5,7, 3'-trimethoxyflavan-3-ol (1), (2R, 3R)-3-hydroxy-5 , 7-dimethoxy-3', 4'-methylenedioxy-flavan (2), ( + )-catechin (3), ( — )-epicatechin (4), naringenin (5), davidigenin (6), E-/?-coumaric acid (7), caffeic acid (8), ferulic acid (9), isoerulic acid (10), scopoletin (11), isoscopoletin (12), piperonylic acid (13), vanillic acid (14), protocatechuic acid (15), syringic acid (16). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  11. The Megasporogenesis,Microsporogenesis,Female and Male Gametophyte Development of Machilus ichangensis%宜昌润楠大、小孢子发生及雌、雄配子体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩逸洋; 李利平; 陈发菊; 杨林森; 梁宏伟

    2014-01-01

    宜昌润楠(Machilus ichangensis)属樟科(Lauraceae)润楠属(Machilus)植物,常绿乔木,是中国传统的珍贵优质用材树种。对宜昌润楠的大、小孢子发生及雌、雄配子体发育过程进行了详细的细胞学观察。结果表明,宜昌润楠的雌蕊子房1室,单胚珠,倒生,双珠被,厚珠心。大孢子母细胞经减数分裂形成直线形排列的4个大孢子,合点端的发育成功能大孢子,其余3个退化,胚囊发育类型为蓼型。雄蕊花药多为二室,少三室、四室花药,变形绒毡层,小孢子四分体排列为四面体型,成熟花粉为二胞花粉。小孢子有少量败育及不育现象,雄性不育株绒毡层细胞延迟降解,使小孢子得不到营养而不能正常发育,最后败育。%Machilus ichangensis Rehd.et Wils is an unique high-quality timber species belonging to Lauraceae Machilus. The megasporogenesis,microsporogenesis and development of male and female gametophytes in the flower of Machilus ichangensis were observed at cellular level. The results showed that the ovary of Machilus ichangensi had 1-locules,with single ovule.The ovule was anatropous,bitegmic and crassinucellate with the endothelium.The megaspore mother cell formed a linear tetrad of 4 megaspores after meiosis. The chalazal megaspore developed the functional one and the other 3 at the micropylar pole were degraded. The development of embryo sac was of polygonum type. There were 2-locules,3-locules and 4-locules anther sac in flowers. The tapetum was amoeboid. The microspores tetrad was arranged in a tetrahedral. The mature pollen grains were of 2-celled types. There were little pollen abortion and male sterility since the tapetum of male sterile plants delayed degradation and the microspores could not obtain enough nutrition for normal development.

  12. DETERMINATION OF POLYDATIN IN POLYGONUM CUSPIDTUM SIEB.ET ZUCC.BY TLC-FLUORESCENCE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昭; 唐玉海; 李健军; 杨云

    2004-01-01

    Objective A method of TLC-fluorescence spectrophotometry was established to assay the content of polydatin in polygonum cuspidatum sieb. et zucc. Methods: Polydatin was extracted by methanol and separated with chloroform-acetone-formic acid-water (4∶4∶0.5∶0.2) by thin layer chromatography. The excitation wavelength and emission wavelength were 284nm and 384nm, respectively. Results The linear regression equation of the calibration graph was y=7.02179x+4.5143, a linear regression correlative coefficient r=0.9936. Conclusion This method was proved simple, stable and sensitive. It can be used in quality control of herbs.

  13. Neuroprotective activity of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana extracts in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Kwe; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Ling-Fang; Yen, Shish-Jung; Shen, Yi-Jyun; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2010-02-01

    Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, where it has been used as a folk medicine. In this study, we found that the branch and leaf ethanol extracts of VTT significantly inhibited the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein expression and NO production in BV2 microglia. Using primary neuronal cells, kainic acid (KA) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide production in a dose-dependent manner. All four ethanol extracts of VTT significantly decreased hydrogen peroxide production. However, only root and branch ethanol extracts were able to prevent the neuronal cell death induced by KA in vitro. In the animal study, administration of all four plant part extracts of VTT delayed the onset of seizure and decreased the hippocampus neuronal cell loss, and the neuroprotective activity could be ranked as follows: branch approximately leaf > root > trunk. The results suggest that VTT extracts have a potential to prevent neurodegeneration through the antioxidative activity by their ability to inhibit NO and hydrogen peroxide production.

  14. Amplicon pyrosequencing reveals the soil microbial diversity associated with invasive Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, V C; Pelletreau, K N; Rumpho, M E

    2014-03-01

    The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of the root. Upon introduction and establishment, invasive plants modify the soil microbial communities and soil biochemistry affecting bioremediation efforts and future plant communities. Here, we used tag-encoded FLX amplicon 454 pyrosequencing (TEFAP) to characterize the bacterial and fungal community diversity in the rhizosphere of Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) from invasive stands in coastal Maine to investigate effects of soil type, soil chemistry and surrounding plant cover on the soil microbial community structure. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant bacterial phyla, whereas fungal communities were comprised mostly of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla members, including Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Bulk soil chemistry had more effect on the bacterial community structure than the fungal community. An effect of geographic location was apparent in the rhizosphere microbial communities, yet it was less significant than the effect of surrounding plant cover. These data demonstrate a high degree of spatial variation in the rhizosphere microbial communities of Japanese barberry with apparent effects of soil chemistry, location and canopy cover on the microbial community structure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wen Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71 by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics.

  16. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl. forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojun Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands. We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2 in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2 in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1 at ages 40-50 years is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations.

  17. Application of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sulfur Dioxide Residual in the Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus Treated by Sulfur Fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-fumigated Chinese medicine is a common issue in the process of Chinese medicines. Detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus is important to evaluate the degree of sulfur fumigation and its harms. It helps to control the use of sulfur fumigation in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI was explored as a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate technique to detect SO2 residual contents in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. An HSI system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was applied to build calibration models for SO2 residual content detection. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, weighted regression coefficients (Bw, random frog (RF, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS were used to select optimal wavelengths. PLSR models using the full spectrum and the selected optimal wavelengths obtained good performance. The Bw-PLSR model was applied on a hyperspectral image to form a prediction map, and the results were satisfactory. The overall results in this study indicated that HSI could be used as a promising technique for on-line visualization and monitoring of SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Detection and visualization of Chinese medicine quality by HSI provided a new rapid and visual method for Chinese medicine monitoring, showing great potential for real-world application.

  18. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoping; HUANG Qunce; YANG Lusheng; QIN Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implanta-tion significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for con-tinuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam im-plantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  19. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  20. Adaptability of Paulownia tomentosa (thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. on green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Đurđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxa with the improved esthetical characteristics, increased or decreased productivity, higher resistance to diseases, insect attacks, air pollution, as well as with optimal adaptability in urban coenoses are of great importance to land­scape architecture, horticulture and forestry. The criteria for the selection of individual plants out of the number of many individuals depend on their future usage, but also on their esthetical features, morphology and physiology. One of the species that fulfils the above criteria is Paulownia tomentosa (Thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. Different morphophysiological features of royal paulownia cultivated on green areas in Banovo Brdo, Dorćol, Tašmajdan, Novi Beograd and Zemun are analyzed. The study results prove the adaptability of royal paulownia on green areas in Belgrade, but also the need to select the parent trees with the best combining features prior to production, aiming at the improvement and production of planting material for urban coenoses and specific-purpose plantations of this species.

  1. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy.

  2. Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

    2009-03-11

    Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma.

  3. PROPAGAÇÃO DO UMEZEIRO (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. POR ESTAQUIA HERBÁCEA PROPAGATION OF JAPANESE APRICOT (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. BY HERBACEOUS CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do umezeiro ou damasqueiro-japonês (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. como porta-enxerto de Prunus sp. vem despertando grande interesse em função de sua rusticidade, resistência a pragas e doenças, adaptação e, principalmente, por reduzir o porte de pessegueiros e nectarineiras. Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, e teve por objetivo estudar a propagação vegetativa desta espécie. Para tanto, utilizaram-se estacas herbáceas com 12cm de comprimento dos Clones 02; 05; 10 e 15, provenientes do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, submetidas às concentrações de 0 e 2000mg.L-1 de AIB, por cinco segundos. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições de 20 estacas por parcela, esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo o fator clone em 4 níveis (Clones 02; 05; 10 e 15 e AIB em 2 níveis (0 e 2000mg.L-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, sendo o Clone 15 significativamente superior ao Clone 02 (93,75% e 78,13%, respectivamente. Os Clones 05 (85,0% e 10 (83,13% comportaram-se como intermediários, não diferindo dos demais. Não houve diferença entre os clones testados quanto à formação de calo, raízes por estaca, comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de estacas brotadas. O ácido indolbutírico na concentração de 2000mg.L-1 favoreceu a emissão de raízes adventícias e aumentou o comprimento das raízes, mas não teve influência na brotação das estacas. Não houve efeito da interação entre os fatores testados para as variáveis analisadas.The use of the japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. as rootstock of Prunus sp. has raised a great interest due to its rusticity, resistance to plagues and diseases, adaptation and mainly for reducing the peach and nectarines trees scales. This essay was

  4. The Effects of Biochar and Intercropping on the Cd, Cr and Zn Speciation in Soils and Plant Uptake by Machilus pauhoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiongfei; Li, Huashou; Chen, Hongyue

    2017-04-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment with biochar (BC) applied at 0%, 1%, 4% and 8% (w/w) in monoculture and intercropping settings was used to investigate Cd, Cr and Zn speciation in contaminated soils, the growth of two different plant types, and the heavy metal concentrations within these plants. The results showed that BC application increased the soil pH, decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Cr and Zn, significantly increased the dry biomass of Cassia occidentalis and Machilus pauhoi shoots and slightly increased the root biomass. Both BC addition and intercropping decreased the Cd, Cr and Zn contents in the M. pauhoi shoots and roots, but the effect of BC addition was more significant than the effect of intercropping. The Cd, Cr and Zn uptake by M. pauhoi shoots was reduced by up to 93.91%, 96.41% and 76.76%, respectively, when the concentration and bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn were reduced by using the combination of intercropping and BC application. This treatment resulted in the greatest reduction efficiency, and resulted in a shoot biomass increase of M. pauhoi of up to 122.52% compared to the control (M. pauhoi monoculture). These results could be used as a reference for the promotion of M. pauhoi growth and the utilization of contaminated land.

  5. Isolation of fucoxanthin from Sargassum thunbergii and preparation of microcapsules based on palm stearin solid lipid core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanxuan; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fangqin; Xia, Guixue; Liu, Hongjun; Cheng, Xiaojie; Kong, Ming; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate fucoxanthin from Sargassum thunbergii and develop microcapsules with palm stearin as the solid lipid core for stability and efficient oral delivery of fucoxanthin. The microcapsules had smooth surfaces with the volume weighted mean diameter ( d 4.3) of 19.19 μm. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of microcapsules with fucoxanthin were 98.3% and 0.04%, respectively. Moreover, the fucoxanthin in microcapsules presented higher stability than free fucoxanthin against light, humidity and temperature. Especially, the retention rates of fucoxanthin encapsulated in microcapsules reached 97.20% at 4°C, 92.60% at 25°C, 92.32% with the relative humidity of 33% and 92.60% in the dark. The cumulative amount of fucoxanthin released from microcapsules was 22.92% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 56.55% in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF).

  6. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Wei; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1–4), along with nine known congeners (5–13), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1–4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The absolute configuration of C-8 (a quaternary carbon substituted with a hydroxyl group) in 5 of preechinulin class was firstly determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All these compounds were evaluatedfor brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality and nematicidal activity as well as antioxidativeand antimicrobial potency. PMID:28125012

  7. Isolation of fucoxanthin from Sargassum thunbergii and preparation of microcapsules based on palm stearin solid lipid core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanxuan; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fangqin; Xia, Guixue; Liu, Hongjun; Cheng, Xiaojie; Kong, Ming; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate fucoxanthin from Sargassum thunbergii and develop microcapsules with palm stearin as the solid lipid core for stability and efficient oral delivery of fucoxanthin. The microcapsules had smooth surfaces with the volume weighted mean diameter (d 4.3) of 19.19 μm. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of microcapsules with fucoxanthin were 98.3% and 0.04%, respectively. Moreover, the fucoxanthin in microcapsules presented higher stability than free fucoxanthin against light, humidity and temperature. Especially, the retention rates of fucoxanthin encapsulated in microcapsules reached 97.20% at 4°C, 92.60% at 25°C, 92.32% with the relative humidity of 33% and 92.60% in the dark. The cumulative amount of fucoxanthin released from microcapsules was 22.92% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 56.55% in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF).

  8. Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil U Tatiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE, alkaloidal fraction (CH, acetone extracts (TAN and mucilage (MM (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01 inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.

  9. Extract of Cornus officinalis SIEB ameliorates osteoporosis in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingxi Meng; Baolong Wang; Peng Yu; Qunqun Shan; Zhaohu Mao; Fan Zhang; Jian Li; Tinbao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察山茱萸的提取物对脊髓损伤大鼠的骨质疏松的治疗作用。方法40只Wistar雄性大鼠分成四组:标准对照组、脊髓损伤组、脊髓损伤高剂量提取物治疗组、脊髓损伤低剂量提取物治疗组。除标准对照组外,建立脊髓损伤引起的骨质疏松大鼠模型,然后进行相关生物化学、骨密度及形态的分析和比较。结果与标准对照组相比,脊髓损伤组的大鼠显示骨量、生物化学指标和形态学参数的显著下降。山茱萸提取物高剂量组治疗大鼠胫骨骨干内、外部区域骨质疏松显示剂量依赖性。结论山茱萸提取物治疗可能通过刺激成骨细胞引骨组织反应,从而导致形态学的变化。%This study investigated the effects of extract of Cornus officinalis CO) on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.Forty male Wistar rats were used to establish osteoporosis induced by spinal cord injury, subsequently divided into four groups: standard control group (CG);spinal cord-injured control (SC); spinal cord-injured treated with low-dose extract (L group); and spinal cord-injured treated with high-dose extract ( H group) .Biomechanical, densitometric, and morphometric analyses were performed. SC rats showed a significant decrease in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and morphometric parameters (versus CG).CO-treated rats showed significantly higher values of inner diameter and internal and external areas of tibia diaphysis in a dose-dependent manner.We conclude that the extract of Cornus officinalis SIEB et.ZUCC treatment was able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, might through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activites of Aristolochia Debillis Sieb.et Zucc. Aqueous Extract%青木香(Aristolochin debillis Sieb.et Zucc.)的消炎和镇痛活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金海; 舒孝顺; 伍贤进

    2006-01-01

    目的:检测青木香(Aristolochia debillis Sieb.et Zucc.)的块根水提取液的消炎和镇痛效果及毒性.方法:用蛋清诱导法、热板法和扭体法.结果:青木香的块根水提取液无毒性,1 000 mg/kg,i.g.的青木香块根水提取液比生理盐水的消炎和镇痛效果明显,比200 mg/kg,i.g.乙酰水杨酸的消炎效果好,2 000 mg/kg,i.g.的青木香块根水提取液比乙酰水杨酸的消炎效果更加显著.结论:青木香具有较好消炎和镇痛活性,无毒性.%Objective:To determine anti-inflammatory, analgesic and acute toxicity effects ofAristolochia debillis Sieb.et Zucc. aqueous extract. Methods:Egg-albumin-induced edema in rats, hot-plate and acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction tests models respectively in mice were used. Results: The aqueous extract ( 1 000 mg/kg, i.g. ) had significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects compared to physiological saline solution, and more significant anti-inflammatory effects compared to acetylsalicylic acid ( 200 mg/kg, i.g. ). 2 000 mg/kg extract(i.g.)had a very significant anti-inflammatory effects compared to acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg, i.g. ). Conclusion: The aqueous extract had a significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and had no acute toxicity.

  11. Optimization of extraction and determination of emodin from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. products by HPLC-DAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong-mei; LIANG Yi-zeng; NI Wang-dong; MAN Rui-lin

    2006-01-01

    A uniform experimental design procedure was used to investigate the effects of some operating parameters on the extraction of emodin from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. products. Variables tested were volume ratio of material to solvent, size of material, extraction time and temperature and composition of extraction solvent (mixtures of acetone-water). Each variable was tested at seven levels; 7 experiments were performed in random order. Analyses of the extracts were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection(HPLC-DAD).Analytical responses were processed by using a forward regression analysis, in order to find polynomial function describing the relationship between variables and responses. For all the analytes the experimental conditions for providing the highest extraction yield inside the experimental domain considered were found. Finally, a simple, rapid and accurate analytical method was developed for the determination of emodin by high performance liquid chromatography. The separation is achieved within 25 min on an ODS column using methanol and water as gradient mobiles. Emodin can be quantified by using external standard method detecting at 436 nm. Good linearity is obtained with correlation coefficient exceeding 0.9986 and the detection limit and the quantification limit are 1.53 and 3.23 mg/L respectively. This method shows good reproducibility for the quantification of the emodin with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation less than 2.3% and 5.6% respectively. Under optimized extraction conditions, the recovery of the standard is 96.5%. The validated method is successfully applied to quantify the emodin in seven Polygonum cuspidatum sieb. Et zucc. products, which provided an idea for the pre-treatment of determination of active compounds in traditional Chinese medicines.

  12. Ethanolic extracts and isolated compounds from small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana) with antihypertensive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure.

  13. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii on ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yuxi; WANG Changyun; LI Jing; GUO Qi; QI Hongtao

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii (STP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in New Zealand white rabbits and Wistar rats. The inhibition of STP on platelet aggregation was investigated using a turbidimetric method, and the levels of the terminal products of AA metabolism were measured using the corresponding kits for maleic dialdehyde (MDA), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, as appropriate. We found that STP could inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibitory ratio was 91.50% at the STP concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, STP markedly affected AA metabolism by decreasing the synthesis of MDA (P<0.01) and increasing the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α, thus changing the plasma TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α balance when the platelets were activated (P<0.01). Therefore, STP altered AA metabolism and these findings partly revealed the molecular mechanism by which STP inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Invasive Neophyte Polygonum Cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. (Polygonaceae) and the Chemical Comparison of the Invasive and Native Varieties with regard to Resveratrol

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Peihong; Zhang, Tao; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. has been traditionally used as a member of many anti-inflammatory polyherbal formulations, but is now a widespread invasive neophyte in Europe and America. To discuss if the invasive variety is chemically identical to the native one in traditional medicine, the different constituents of the invasive variety compared to the native variety were isolated and their anti-inflammatory activity was tested. Resveratroloside and catechin-(4α→8)-catechin, the newly ...

  15. Pigments Analysis of Berberis thunbergii cv.Atropurpurea leaves%紫叶小檗叶片色素成分分析1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以紫叶小檗叶片为试材,用薄层层析色谱法(TLC)、颜色特征反应、紫外—可见分光光度计(UV)和高效液相色谱仪—二极管阵列检测器(HPLC-DAD)对其色素进行定性分析;用HPLC-DAD法对其叶片单体酚质量分数进行定量分析。结果表明:紫叶小檗叶片主要含有叶绿素A、类胡萝卜素、矢车菊素、矢车菊素半乳糖苷、矮牵牛素、二氢槲皮素、二氢杨梅素、芦丁、槲皮素、绿原酸、杨梅素、表儿茶素、芹菜素;其叶片呈现紫红色是矢车菊素、矢车菊素半乳糖苷、矮牵牛素、叶绿素A、类胡萝卜素和槲皮素共同作用的结果。%characteristic reaction, UV photo-spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography, and quantitatively analyzed We qualitatively identified pigments of Berberis thunbergii cv.atropurpurea leaves by thin layer chromatography, color the pigments by HPLC-DAD.B.thunbergii cv.atropurpurea leave contains chlorophyll A, carotenoids, cyanidin, cyani-din-galactoside, petunidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydromyricetin, quecetin, chlorogenic acid, myricetin, rutin, epicatechin and apigenin.The purple color of B.thunbergii cv.atropurpurea leaves is caused by the accumulation of cyanidin, cyani-din-galactoside, petunidin, chlorophyll A, carotenoids and quercetin.

  16. Temporal changes in tree-ring nitrogen of Pinus thunbergii trees exposed to Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) breeding colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry, Lopez C.M., E-mail: larry@iwate-u.ac.jp [United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Chitoshi, Mizota [Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Toshiro, Yamanaka [Division of Earth Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 1-1, Naka 3-Chome, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshihiro, Nobori [Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, 1-23 Wakabamachi, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} N concentration and isotope ratio on tree-rings can be an important tool to infer past N soil conditions where trees grow. {yields} Changes in avian population on established or new breeding grounds caused by natural or anthropogenic mechanism could be inferred from the analysis shown in this paper. {yields} The property of trees to retain N concentration and N isotope characteristics is found in Pinus thunbergii. The use of other trees for similar analysis have to be determined because other species (Pinus densiflora, for example) do not have this property. - Abstract: Natural abundances of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratios (commonly designated by {delta}{sup 15}N notation) of annual rings from Pinus thunbergii trees were determined after transplantation from a nursery to breeding colonies of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) in Miyagi and Aomori and a control site in Yamagata, in northeastern Japan. Tree-rings were collected in July/August/September, 2009. Transplanting was conducted in the year 2000 in the Miyagi site, whereas there is no information about transplanting data in the Aomori and Yamagata sites. Soils associated with piscivorous (fish eating) avian colonies receive large seasonal input of organic N in the form of feces. The organic N is microbiologically transformed into inorganic N in soils, from which P. thunbergii derives its N. The resulting NH{sub 4}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}N are characterized by distinctly heavy {delta}{sup 15}N ratios, due to coupled processes of mineralization, volatilization, nitrification and denitrification of feces. In general, total N concentration along with {delta}{sup 15}N values stored in the annual rings of P. thunbergii increased steadily after transplanting from the nursery to locations under continued avian N input. Tree-ring N content and isotopic ratios provided a reliable record of past annual available soil N caused by changes in the Black-tailed Gull population, and thus can

  17. Mycorrhizae of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii): Protection of seedlings from acid mist and effect of acid mist on mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Noritoshi; Kikuchi, Junichi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of acid precipitation on Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) with and without mycorrhizae (Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker et Couch), 1-year-old seedlings were exposed to simulated acid rain mist, pH 3.0, for 10 min per day twice a week for 3 or 4 months. Simulated acid mist adversely affected the transpiration rate and lowered the extractable phosphorus content on seedlings, but seedlings with mycorrhizae were less affected by acid mist than were nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Simulated acid mist also retarded mycorrhiza formation. 41 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana Extracts and Purified Compounds Ameliorate Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyr-Yi; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-10-28

    The increasing prevalence of obesity continues to gain more attention worldwide. In this study, diet-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the antiobesity effects of extracts, fractions, and purified compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT). The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 5-week high-fat diet (HF) concurrently with ethanol extracts (Et-ext, 80 mg/kg) from roots (R), stems (S), and leaves (L) by oral gavage daily. Only R-Et-ext interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group; however, mouse plasma contents of total cholesterols (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) of all three Et-ext intervened groups showed significant reductions compared with those in the HF group. Furthermore, intervention with the ethyl acetate-partitioned fraction (EA-fra, 60 mg/kg) from R-Et-ext but not the n-butanol-partitioned fraction or water fraction from R-Et-ext showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The same molecular weights of three resveratrol tetramers, (+)-hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B, were isolated from the EA-fra of VTT-R. The (+)-vitisin A and fenofibrate (25 mg/kg) but not the (+)-hopeaphenol and (-)-vitisin B interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The total feed intake among the HF groups with or without interventions showed no significant differences. The mouse plasma contents of TC, TG, LDL, free fatty acid, and plasma lipase activity of the three resveratrol tetramer-intervened groups showed reductions in the mice compared with those in the HF group. It was proposed that the lipase inhibitory activities of VTT extracts and purified resveratrol tetramers might contribute in part to the antiobesity effect, and these results suggested that VTT may be developed as functional food for achieving antiobesity objectives and requires further investigation.

  19. Temporal changes in nitrogen acquisition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) associated with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. L. Lopez C.; C. Mizota; ; Y. Nobori; T. Sasaki; T. Yamanaka

    2014-01-01

    The alien woody legume, black locust (Robinia pseudoaca-cia), has invaded Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests located in Japan’s coastal plain and hill regions where gaps are formed in pine forests after nematode infestation. Nitrogen fixation by legumes acceler-ates N cycling in forest ecosystems. We studied temporal change in the annual tree-ring resolution N stable isotope composition (δ15N, a per mil deviation of δ15N/14N ratio, relative to atmospheric N2δ15N=0‰) at two natural locations of Japanese black pine forest with black locust that differed in the time since black locust establishment (Shohnai in north-east and Kita-Kyushu in southwest Japan). Analyzed tree-rings covered the period from 1990/1992 to 2009. N acquisition by Japanese black pine from black locust N input to the soil was evidenced by temporal shifting of N stable isotope composition on the annual pine tree rings. With pro-gressive development of the forest stand,δ15N values of earlier tree-ringsδ15N of -5‰) from black pine associated with black locust shifted to-wards values similar to those of black locustδ15N values nearly to-1‰), which suggests acquisition of N by N2 fixation (Shohnai site). In con-trast, in a forest where black locust had settled for two or three genera-tions, in a black pine stand (Kita-Kyushu site), longer periods of N en-richment in the soil were reflected in the elevated tree-ringδ15N values of newly established black pine trees. Based on tree-ringδ15N data from the Shohnai site, we determined that about 10 years after black locust establishment, soil N had already been enriched by black locust N, this, in turn, contributed to N fertilization of surrounding trees in mixed stands.

  20. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored.

  1. Effects of Extraction Method and Tissues on the Quality of Genomic DNA in Fritillaria thunbergii%提取方法与部位对浙贝母基因组DNA提取质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王晓飞; 金晓霞; 王忠华

    2011-01-01

    探讨了改良CTAB法、SDS法、高盐低pH法和试剂盒法对浙贝母(Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.)基因组DNA的提取效果.综合比较了各方法提取的DNA浓度、纯度、完整性,结果表明高盐低pH法是比较适合浙贝母新鲜叶片基因组DNA提取的方法.比较了分别以叶片和鳞茎为材料提取的DNA质量,发现以新鲜叶片为材料提取的DNA浓度和纯度较高,更适合用于提取浙贝母基因组DNA.%Modified CTAB method, high salt low pH method, SDS method and DNA Mini-prep kit method were used to extract genomic DNA from Fritlllaria thunbergii Miq. Comprehensive comparison of the concentration, purity and integrity of ge-nomic DNA extracted by various methods showed that high salt low pH method was the suitable method for extracting DNA from F. Thunbergii. Comparison between the DNA extracted from fresh leaves and bulb revealed that DNA obtained from fresh leaves was with higher concentration and purity, thus fresh leaves were better materials for DNA extraction of F. Thunbergii.

  2. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Pei, Ke; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Gang; Li, Songlin; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored. PMID:24914306

  3. Identification of Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. endophytic fungi-new species, species known and their metabolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlANGYong; LUAn-guo; WUWen-fang

    2003-01-01

    A total of 94 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the bark of 200-yr.-old Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc.in the primeval forest of the Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve, and 19 species of endophytic fungi were identified, including 10 new recorded-genus-species, 2 new species (Phomopsis Iongiscoleosporu Y. Xiang et Lu An Guo Wu Wen Fang, Coniothyrium macrospoum Y. Xiang J.X. et Lu An Guo Wu Wen Fang), 1 new varied species (Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler var. taxi Y.Xiang et Lu An Guo) and 6 known species of China (Eurotium amstelodomi Mgngin, Eurotium repens de Bary, Botrytis sp.,Penicillium citrinum Thom, Epicoccum nigrium LinK, Fusarium sp.). Through thin layer chromatography (TLC), liquid fermentation metabolite of the strains was determined, and four strains (Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler var. taxi Y. Xiang et Lu An Guo Wu Wen Fang, Botrytis sp., Eurotium amsteloodomi Mgngin, Eurotium repens de Bary) were screened out, whose metabolites reacted positively with the vanillic aldehyde that was one special taxoid developer. Among the four strains, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler var. taxi Y. Xiang et Lu An Guo, produced one compound largely, which positively reacted with one alkaloids developer-Bismuth potassium iodide. The compound is identified as taxoids type through spectrum analysis. This demonstrates that Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler var. taxiY. Xiang et Lu An Guo can highly produce taxoids largely.

  4. Herb-Drug Interaction of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc. Maxim Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Rats

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    Chi-Hung Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc. Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC of sildenafil (10 mg/kg was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions.

  5. Small-scale spatial and temporal reproductive variability of the brown macroalga Sargassum thunbergii in contrasting habitats: A study on the island of Xiaoheishan, Changdao Archipelago, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Quansheng; Lu, Zhicheng; Tang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Shubao; Chu, Shaohua

    2012-10-01

    A study of the reproductive pattern of Sargassum thunbergii, which is distributed widely around the island of Xiaoheishan (Changdao Archipelago, China), shows that it exhibits a flexibility to adapt to contrasting habitats. Populations of S. thunbergii from two depths at nine field sites exposed to increasing degrees of wave action were studied to determine their spatio-temporal variations in reproductive pattern. The start of the reproductive period was significantly delayed with increasing geographical latitude but independent of depth and wave exposure, and seawater temperature was found to be a significant controlling factor for maturation. In contrast with reproductive onset, two-way ANCOVA showed that there were significant effects of both depth and wave exposure on the peak and end point of the reproductive period. The latter were significantly delayed in the semi-exposed deep-water habitats compared to sheltered shallow-water habitats. The shortest duration of the reproductive period was recorded in the wave-exposed shallow-water habitats, while the longest duration was in the semi-exposed deep-water habitats. In addition, reproductive allocation (RA) in the studied populations showed a similar and significant temporal variation during reproduction, and RA increased as time progressed, followed by a rapid decrease in late summer. Wave exposure as well as depth also influenced significantly the RA whereby thalli from exposed and semi-exposed deep-water habitats allocated significantly more biomass to the production of receptacles than did thalli from sheltered shallow-water habitats.

  6. Physiological and Ecological Studies in Environmental Adaptation of Plants. : III. Altitudinal Variation in Some Characters of Cytochrome Oxidase Isozymes in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The number and the activity of cytochrome oxidase isozymes in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. were investigated on the mature plants growing in a few different altitudes and on these seedlings grown under various levels of a constant temperature. The number of the isozymes in the mature plants was 3 at low altitude and 2 at high altitude, but that in the plants transplanted from high to low altitude was 4. The number and the activity of the isozymes in the seedlings derived from the plant...

  7. Protective effect of flavonoid extract from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Qi, Xiangyang; Cao, Shaoqian; Li, Peipei

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the beneficial effects of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) flavonoid extract (CBFE) on chronic alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice, experimental mice were pretreated with different doses of CBFE (50-200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum, liver tissue, mitochondria and microsomes were examined. Our results showed that the activities of TC, TG, L-DLC in serum, the activity of CYP2E1 in microsomes, and the levels of MDA in liver tissue and mitochondria, decreased significantly (P injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  8. Genome-wide characterization and linkage mapping of simple sequence repeats in mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc..

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    Lidan Sun

    Full Text Available Because of its popularity as an ornamental plant in East Asia, mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. has received increasing attention in genetic and genomic research with the recent shotgun sequencing of its genome. Here, we performed the genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the mei genome and detected a total of 188,149 SSRs occurring at a frequency of 794 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the most common type of SSR in genomic regions, followed by di- and tetranucleotide repeats. Most of the SSRs in coding sequences (CDS were composed of tri- or hexanucleotide repeat motifs, but mononucleotide repeats were always the most common in intergenic regions. Genome-wide comparison of SSR patterns among the mei, strawberry (Fragaria vesca, and apple (Malus×domestica genomes showed mei to have the highest density of SSRs, slightly higher than that of strawberry (608 SSR/Mb and almost twice as high as that of apple (398 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the dominant SSR motifs in the three Rosaceae species. Using 144 SSR markers, we constructed a 670 cM-long linkage map of mei delimited into eight linkage groups (LGs, with an average marker distance of 5 cM. Seventy one scaffolds covering about 27.9% of the assembled mei genome were anchored to the genetic map, depending on which the macro-colinearity between the mei genome and Prunus T×E reference map was identified. The framework map of mei constructed provides a first step into subsequent high-resolution genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for this ornamental species.

  9. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  10. Juniperus rigida Sieb. extract inhibits inflammatory responses via attenuation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Kim, Myong-Ki; Shim, Eun-Jeong; Sun, Xiao; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-08-22

    Juniperus rigida Sieb. (J. rigida) is used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries to treat inflammation-related disorders, such as neuralgia, dropsy, and gout. The anti-inflammatory effects of J. rigida extract (JR) and its underlying mechanisms were explored both in in vitro cell lines and in vivo metabolic disease models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages were used to study the changes in inflammatory responses in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of JR on inflammasome activation. The murine model for monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes were employed to study the effect of JR on in vivo efficacy. JR suppressed the MSU-induced in vivo inflammatory response by attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In the in vitro study, JR suppressed IL-1β secretion via regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. JR also inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of JR were mediated through the regulation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway from JAK1/STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, JR showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced type 2 diabetes in a mouse model through the regulation of blood glucose and serum IL-1β. Our results indicate that JR attenuates both LPS-stimulated and danger-signal-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages via regulation of the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of various inflammation-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

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    Xianan Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex, cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal, cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu, pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu, and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha, myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal, quercetin-3– O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu, quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha, kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu, were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources.

  12. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-06-02

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin-hexoside (Dp-Hex), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (C-3-Gal), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-Glu), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3-Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside-gallate (M-DH-G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-Gal), quercetin-3- O-glucoside (Q-3-Glu), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-Rha), kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (K-3-Gal) and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (K-3-Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources.

  13. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  14. Hot-Water Extracts from Roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana and Identified ε-Viniferin Improve Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yeh-Lin; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2017-03-29

    In this study, hot-water extracts (HW) from roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT-R) were shown to lower levels of lipid accumulation significantly (P VTT-R-HW (40 mg/kg) interventions concurrent with a high-fat (HF) diet in C57BL/6 mice over a 5 eek period were shown to reduce body weights significantly (P VTT-R-HW was shown to reduce the size of lipid deposits significantly compared to the control (P VTT-R-HW interventions. It might be possible to use VTT-R-HW or (+)-ε-viniferin as an ingredient in the development of functional foods for weight management, and this will need to be investigated further.

  15. Variation in major antioxidants and total antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) during maturation and between cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong

    2004-09-22

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be

  16. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 microM each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat.

  17. 欧洲赤松引种试验初报%Primary Report of the introduction Experiment on Pinus densifiora Sieb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪杰; 张召军; 倪柏春

    2006-01-01

    树木引种驯化在林业发展中,始终具有较强的魅力.这是由于一个优良的树种,理性地引入一个地区后,所带来的良性变化决定的.欧洲赤松生长快、抗性强、耐干旱瘠薄、耐高寒.我们从80代即开始了国内外松属植物的引种工作,其中欧洲赤松(pinus densiflora sieb.et zucc)是较为成功的一例.本文实录了20余年赤松引种驯化情况,以供同行们参考.

  18. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  19. 黄海太平角鼠尾藻有性繁殖分配%Sexual reproductive allocation of Sargassum thunbergii at Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金华; 张全胜; 李晓捷; 江鑫; 张壮志; 王得宾; 韩厚伟; 王汝洲

    2011-01-01

    以位于黄海的青岛太平角自然生长的鼠尾藻为对象,研究其有性繁殖分配动态及相关环境因子.结果表明:鼠尾藻于6月初开始进入有性繁殖期,于7月中旬海水温度22℃左右达到繁殖高峰,7月19日平均繁殖分配(RA)达76.7%,8月末有性繁殖结束.鼠尾藻繁殖分配与平均分枝长度呈显著线性相关(r=0.855,P<0.01).长度在10 cm以下的藻体在整个繁殖期内的RA较低,而长度在10 cm以上的藻体在成熟高峰期的RA在70.0%以上.析因方差分析表明,潮位和浪冲击度均对鼠尾藻有性繁殖分配有显著影响(潮位:F= 175.62,P<0.001,浪冲击度:F=95.35,P<0.01),且二者之间存在交互作用(F=9.14,P<0.05).其对RA的影响大小依次为潮位>浪冲击度>潮位×浪冲击度.%This paper studied the dynamics of reproductive allocation ( RA) of Sargassum thunbergii during its sexual reproductive season and the related environmental factors at the Taiping Cape of Yellow Sea. The sexual reproduction of S. Thunbergii initiated in early June, peaked in mid July when the sea water temperature was about 22 ℃ (the mean proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive organs on July 19 was 76.7% ) , and ended in late August. The RA had a significant linear correlation with the average length of thallus branches (r = 0. 855, P wave strength > tidal level x wave strength.

  20. Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. and Screening of Isolates Producing Antibiotic Active Substances%虎杖内生真菌的分离及产抗菌活性物质的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾松荣; 徐倩雯; 叶保童; 柯野; 方白玉; 黄晓敏

    2005-01-01

    从植物虎杖(Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.et Zucc.)的根状茎中分离出24株内生真菌,分别对其液体发酵液进行抗菌活性检测,结果筛选出3株内生真菌具有抗菌活性,它们分别属于曲霉属、青霉属和无孢菌类.

  1. Comparative Studies on the Allelopathic Effects of Ulva pertusa Kjellml, Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze on Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Jun Wang; Hui Xiao; Pei-Yu Zhang; Liang Qu; Heng-Jiang Cai; Xue-Xi Tang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the allelopathic effects of three macroalgae, namely Ulva pertusa Kjellml,Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze, on the growth of the microalga Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Creve using culture systems in which the algae coexisted. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on S. costatum were also investigated. Moreover, isolated co-culture systems were built to confirm the existence of allelochemicals and preclude growth inhibition by direct contact. The coexistence assay data demonstrated that the growth of S. costatum was strongly inhibited when fresh tissues, dry powder and aqueous extracts were used; the allelochemicals were lethal to S.costatum at relatively higher concentrations. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on the microalga showed both species specificity and complexity. The inhibitory effect of fresh macroalgal tissue and culture medium filtrate on the microalga was due to the alleochemicals released by the macroalgae.The results of the present study show that the allelopathic effects of macroalgae on the microalga are complex. The present study could shed light onto the basis of the interaction between macro- and microalgae.

  2. Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Alkaloids, Peimisine, Peimine and Peiminine from the Bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts

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    Xiao Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA and ferric reducing capacity (FRAP assay. A central composite design (CCD with four variables and five levels was employed for optimization of process parameters, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Under optimal conditions of 3.0 h, 60.4 °C, 26.5 MPa and 89.3% ethanol, the highest yields were predicted to be 3.8 mg/g for total alkaloids, 0.5 mg/g for peimisine, 1.3 mg/g for peimine and 1.3 mg/g for peiminine, and the antioxidant capacity of extracts displayed EC50, DPPH value of 5.5 mg/mL, EC50, ABTS value of 0.3 mg/mL and FRAP value of 118.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE/100 g.

  3. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  4. Anti-α-glucosidase and Anti-dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Activities of Extracts and Purified Compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Wu, Wei-Hau; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-07-22

    Ethanol extracts (Et) from the stem (S) and leaf (L) of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) were used to investigate yeast α-glucosidase and porcine kidney dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activities. Both VTT-Et showed complete α-glucosidase inhibition at 0.1 mg/mL; VTT-S-Et and VTT-L-Et showed 26 and 11% DPP-IV inhibition, respectively, at 0.5 mg/mL. The VTT-Et interventions (20 and 50 mg/kg) resulted in improvements in impaired glucose tolerance of diet-induced obese rats. (+)-Hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B were isolated from the ethyl acetate fractions of S-Et and showed yeast α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 = 18.30, 1.22, and 1.02 μM) and porcine kidney DPP-IV inhibition (IC50 = 401, 90.75, and 15.3 μM) compared to acarbose (6.39 mM) and sitagliptin (47.35 nM), respectively. Both (+)-vitisin A and (-)-vitisin B showed mixed noncompetitive inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase and porcine kidney DPP-IV, respectively. These results proposed that VTT extracts might through inhibitions against α-glucosidase and DPP-IV improve the impaired glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats.

  5. [Effects of Ozone on Photosynthesis of Several Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao-miao

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ozone on photosynthesis of Machilus pauhoi, Lindera setchuenensis, Phoebe bournei, Phoebe chekiangensis and Machilus thunbergii, the study was carried out in 12 open-top chambers( OTCs) with different levels of ozone in Qianyanzhou experimental station, and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Cond) were detected. The results indicated that ozone treatments changed the variation trend of photosynthesis of all tested plants, but ozone exposure did not always play an inhibitory role on them. In fact, photosynthesis changed with ozone concentration, experimental period, season and specific species. Exposed to ozone could even promote Pn to a peak in a short term, and the indicator of plants treated with ozone was higher than that of the control at this point. Low and medium concentrations of ozone treatment enhanced Pn of Phoebe bournei and Machilus thunbergii. The peak of treatment group also came earlier because of ozone. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Pn and Cond did not existed under the condition of ozone. Machilus thunbergii had the strongest resistance to ozone, followed by Phoebe bournei, by comparison, Phoebe chekiangensis, Machilus pauhoi and Lindera setchuenensis were more sensitive.

  6. 环境因子对鼠尾藻幼苗叶绿素荧光参数的影响%Effects of environment factors on young seedlings of Sargassum thunbergii by chlorophyll fluorescence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洲瑞; 王飞久; 孙修涛; 汪文俊; 丁昌玲; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different temperatures (5-34 ℃) , different salinities (10 - 50 ) , different nutrient concentrations and different nitrogen forms on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of young seedlings of Sargassum thunbergii were researched in this paper. The main parameters determined in the study included the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) of photosystem II. The results are shown as follows: (1) If nitrogen concentration or phosphorus concentration was higher than 8 mg/L and 1.2 mg/L respectively, or temperature was greater than 28 t, there were significant effects on the photosynthesis of young seedlings of 5. Thunbergii. (2) Short time treatments in 5 -15 ℃ and six hours treatments in 10 -50 salinity of seawater did not affect the Fv/Fm of young seedlings of S. Thunbergii obviously. (3) If nitrogen concentration and phosphorus concentration was 2-4 mg/L and 0. 2 -0. 8 mg/L respectively,and moreover,NH4+-N: NO3-N was equal to 1 -3,it was beneficial to the photosynthesis of young seedlings of S. Thunbergii.%为了揭示鼠尾藻幼苗的生态适应性,研究了温度(5 ~34℃)、盐度(10 ~50)和营养盐等环境因子对鼠尾藻幼苗叶绿素荧光参数的影响.结果表明,(1)氮浓度高于8 mg/L或磷浓度高于1.2 mg/L,或温度高于28℃,对鼠尾藻幼苗的光合作用均有显著影响(P<0.05);(2)短时间的5 ~15℃的低温胁迫或10~50盐度胁迫6h对鼠尾藻幼苗的Fv/Fm值影响不明显;(3)氮、磷浓度分别为2~4 mg/L和0.2~0.8 mg/L,且NH4+ -N:NO3- -N的比值为1~3时,较利于鼠尾藻幼苗光合作用的进行.

  7. NUTRIENT ANALYSIS IN SARGASSUM THUNBERGII AND ITS NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION%荣成沿海鼠尾藻的营养成分分析与营养学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 宋理平; 许鹏; 吴君

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional components of Sargassum thunbergii were analyzed with routine methods. The results showed that contents of crude protein,crude fat,carbohydrate and ash from absolute-dried sample were 14. 23 g /100 g,6. 05 g / 100 g,59. 00 g / 100 g and 20. 72 g / 100 g,respectively. Except tryptophan,17 kinds of amino acids were detected from Sargassum thunbergii which include 7 kinds of essential amino acids for human body (24. 15% of the total amino acids),Composition of essential amino acids basically conforms to the FAO/ WHO standard. The main limiting amino acids of Sargassum thunbergii were leucine and lysine. The umami amino acids accounted for 52. 58% of the total amino acids. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fatty acids was 41. 77% ,in which the content of ARA and EPA were 11. 35% and 9. 90% ,respectively. The results showed that Sargassum thunbergii had a high consumption value.%测定并分析鼠尾藻中营养成分组成与含量.结果显示:鼠尾藻粗蛋白含量为14.23 g/100 g,粗脂肪含量为6.05 g/100 g,碳水化合物含量为59.00 g/100 g,灰分含量为20.72 g/100 g;鼠尾藻中测出17种氨基酸(未测色氨酸),其中人体必需氨基酸7种(占氨基酸总量的24.15%),必需氨基酸组成基本符合 FAO/ WHO 标准;主要限制氨基酸为亮氨酸、赖氨酸;鲜味氨基酸占氨基酸总量的52.58%;脂肪酸中多不饱和脂肪酸含量为41.77%,其中 ARA 和 EPA 的含量分别为11.35%和9.90%.结果表明,鼠尾藻具有很高的食用价值.

  8. Effects of pre-treatment on the nitrogen isotope composition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) tree-rings as affected by high N input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, M Larry Lopez; Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-15

    Temporal changes in the acquisition of nitrogen (N) are recorded in tree-rings together with unique N isotopic values. Some debate continues regarding the importance of wood pre-treatment in isotope analysis and, thus, this study focuses on the removal of labile components to determine the intrinsic nature of N in tree-rings. The total concentration and stable isotopic value of N in annual tree-rings were determined for two cores from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) from areas colonized by black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). One core sample was also collected from a control site, without cormorants. Sharp increases in tree-ring δ(15)N values associated with migration of the cormorant population indicate positive incorporation of N from soils, whereas a less pronounced trend was observed for ring samples for periods without or substantially less migration, and for those obtained from the control site. All labile N components were removed by repeated extraction with toluene/ethanol (1:1) solution. Radial translocation of labile N is limited in tree-rings from Japanese black pine, providing intrinsic records on N acquisition. The difference in N isotopic values (up to 7.0‰) following pre-treatment was statistically significant for trees affected by the avian colony, whereas the pre-treatment of the control samples did not influence N values. The implication is that in agreement with previous studies pre-treatment is not necessary when trees are exposed to natural N concentrations in the soil but the removal of enriched δ(15)N labile components is necessary when woody plants are exposed to unusually high inputs of N into soils. However, the temporal trend in tree-ring δ(15)N series of the avian N affected trees did not change. Thus, if the priority is not the value but the trend then pre-treatment is not necessary.

  9. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Gato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Invasive Neophyte Polygonum Cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. (Polygonaceae) and the Chemical Comparison of the Invasive and Native Varieties with regard to Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peihong; Zhang, Tao; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2013-07-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. has been traditionally used as a member of many anti-inflammatory polyherbal formulations, but is now a widespread invasive neophyte in Europe and America. To discuss if the invasive variety is chemically identical to the native one in traditional medicine, the different constituents of the invasive variety compared to the native variety were isolated and their anti-inflammatory activity was tested. Resveratroloside and catechin-(4α→8)-catechin, the newly found constituents in the invasive variety, have similar nitric oxide (NO) inhibition potency as that of piceid (the major constituent of P. cuspidatum), but the newly found major constituent, i.e., piceatannol glucoside, showed no apparent effect. On the other hand, as a marker, the total content of resveratrol in the methanol root extract after glucosidase hydrolysis was measured and compared between the invasive and native varieties. The total content of resveratrol measured in the root extracts of the Swiss sample was about 2.5 times less than that of the Chinese one. This study brings attention to the point that when the invasive variety of P. cuspidatum is used in traditional medicine, the chemical difference should be kept in mind.

  11. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  12. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  14. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 {mu}M each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat. - Fluoranthene and phenanthrene caused negative effects on the needles of Japanese red pine.

  15. A Natural Product from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. Et Zucc. Promotes Tat-Dependent HIV Latency Reversal through Triggering P-TEFb's Release from 7SK snRNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    Full Text Available The latent reservoirs of HIV represent a major impediment to eradication of HIV/AIDS. To overcome this problem, agents that can activate latent HIV proviruses have been actively sought after, as they can potentially be used in combination with the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to eliminate the latent reservoirs. Although several chemical compounds have been shown to activate latency, they are of limited use due to high toxicity and poor clinical outcomes. In an attempt to identify natural products as effective latency activators from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been widely used in human population, we have isolated procyanidin C-13,3',3"-tri-O-gallate (named as REJ-C1G3 from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., that can activate HIV in latently infected Jurkat T cells. REJ-C1G3 preferentially stimulates HIV transcription in a process that depends on the viral encoded Tat protein and acts synergistically with prostratin (an activator of the NF-κB pathway or JQ1 (an inhibitor of Brd4 to activate HIV latency. Our mechanistic analyses further show that REJ-C1G3 accomplishes these tasks by inducing the release of P-TEFb, a host cofactor essential for Tat-activation of HIV transcription, from the cellular P-TEFb reservoir 7SK snRNP.

  16. Component Analysis of Flavonoids from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc%川楝子黄酮类化合物成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋先亮; 张嘉

    2011-01-01

    采用超声波法,以50%乙醇为溶剂从川楝子提取黄酮类化合物.提取液浓缩成浸膏后热水溶解并以石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇连续萃取分离,将正丁醇萃取组分以聚酰胺柱层析进行纯化后得到两个不同流分(Ⅰ和Ⅱ).结合薄层层析法、颜色反应和高效液相色谱法分析.结果表明:流分Ⅰ中含有芦丁和桑色素两种黄酮类化合物,流分Ⅱ中含有芦丁.研究结果为川楝子的综合开发利用打下基础.%The flavonoids in fruits of Melia toowendan Sieb. et Zucc was extracted by 50 % ethanol ultrasonic extraction. They were separated and purified by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butyl extraction and polyamide column chromatography. Two components ( Ⅰ and Ⅱ ) were obtained. Their basic structures were studied by means of TLC, colour test and HPLC. The results showed that there are rutin and morin in the component Ⅰ, however only rutin was found in the component Ⅱ. This result provides the theoretical basis for utilizing M. toowendan fruits.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingshuang Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC and north China (NC, and the other including northeastern China (NEC, Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC and southwestern China (SWC. Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  18. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  19. Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc. Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc. fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4, from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE by C18 Sep-Pak® cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC, which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4–69.5 μg/mL, which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL. Four purified compounds 1–4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved.

  20. 芫花化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 武洁; 李菲菲; 于婷婷; 李玲芝; 宋少江

    2014-01-01

    目的 对芫花(Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc.)的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用减压硅胶柱色谱、SephadexLH-20柱色谱、聚酰胺柱色谱、开放ODS柱色谱及制备高效液相色谱等方法对芫花干燥花蕾体积分数为95%的乙醇溶液提取物进行提取分离,通过理化常数测定、波谱数据分析等方法对化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 共分离得到8个化合物,分别鉴定为(-)—杜仲树脂酚[(-)-medioresinol,1]、(-)-丁香树脂醇[(-)-syringaresinol,2]、(-)-松脂醇[(-)-pinoresinol,3]、3’,4’,7-三甲氧基木犀草素(luteolin-3’,4’,7-trimethyl ether,4)、6,8-二羟基山柰酚(6,8-dihydroxy-kaempferol,5)、山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside,6)、椴苷(tiliroside,7)和椴苷-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(tiliroside-7-O-β-D-glucoside,8).结论 化合物1、4、5、8为首次从瑞香属植物中分离得到.

  1. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  2. 黑松花粉与花粉管中的微管分布%Microtubule Organization in Germinated Pollen of Pinus thunbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 黄群策; 杨鹭生; 秦广雍

    2006-01-01

    应用免疫荧光标记法结合激光扫描共聚焦显微镜术对黑松花粉和花粉管中的微管骨架进行观察.结果表明:黑松萌发花粉内存在一密集的微管网络,在花粉粒中微管呈斜向或横向分布,在伸长的花粉管内微管呈轴向排列,并一直延伸至花粉管顶端.花粉管顶端区域的微管网络荧光特别明亮.在含秋水仙碱的培养基中萌发的黑松花粉,其花粉管形态明显异常,特别是花粉管顶端肿胀的频率显著提高.认为是秋水仙碱破坏了花粉管顶端区域的微管骨架而导致顶端肿胀的产生,这说明分布于裸子植物花粉管顶端的微管网络对于维持正常的花粉管顶端形态具有重要作用.裸子植物花粉管顶端的生长可能与被子植物不同,微管网络参与了引导顶端生长的方向.%Gymnosperms originated earlier than angiosperms. Elongation in gymnosperms pollen tube exhibits some evolutionarily primitive characteristics, i.e. slow germination and growth, branching and longevity. These differences may be orchestrated by cytoskeletal organization. In the study, microtubule organization in germinated pollen of Pinus thunbergii is investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after immunofluorescence labeling. Within germinated pollen,microtubules are arranged obliquely or transversely. In elongated tubes, microtubules are arranged along the longitudinal axis.An enriched microtubules network is presented in the pollen tube tip and has a unique functional role. Following colchicine treatment, the organization of microtubules within pollen tubes is disrupted and the morphology of pollen tubes is changed.Colchicine significantly induces tube tip swelling. Swollen tip is considered to be caused by the disorganization of microtubules in the tip. Our results indicated that microtubules in gymnosperms pollen tube tip play an important role in maintaining tip integrity.The present paper also suggests that microtubules

  3. Development of a EST dataset and characterization of EST-SSRs in a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc. Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhangjun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc. Maxim, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant species, has been used extensively as genuine medicinal materials. Certain Epimedium species are endangered due to commercial overexploition, while sustainable application studies, conservation genetics, systematics, and marker-assisted selection (MAS of Epimedium is less-studied due to the lack of molecular markers. Here, we report a set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs identified in these ESTs for E. sagittatum. Results cDNAs of E. sagittatum are sequenced using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technology. The raw reads are cleaned and assembled into a total of 76,459 consensus sequences comprising of 17,231 contigs and 59,228 singlets. About 38.5% (29,466 of the consensus sequences significantly match to the non-redundant protein database (E-value Epimedium EST dataset. Trinucleotide SSR is the dominant repeat type (55.2% followed by dinucleotide (30.4%, tetranuleotide (7.3%, hexanucleotide (4.9%, and pentanucleotide (2.2% SSR. The dominant repeat motif is AAG/CTT (23.6% followed by AG/CT (19.3%, ACC/GGT (11.1%, AT/AT (7.5%, and AAC/GTT (5.9%. Thirty-two SSR-ESTs are randomly selected and primer pairs are synthesized for testing the transferability across 52 Epimedium species. Eighteen primer pairs (85.7% could be successfully transferred to Epimedium species and sixteen of those show high genetic diversity with 0.35 of observed heterozygosity (Ho and 0.65 of expected heterozygosity (He and high number of alleles per locus (11.9. Conclusion A large EST dataset with a total of 76,459 consensus sequences is generated, aiming to provide sequence information for deciphering secondary metabolism, especially for flavonoid pathway in Epimedium. A total of 2,810 EST-SSRs is identified from EST dataset and ~1580 EST-SSR markers are transferable. E. sagittatum EST-SSR transferability to the major Epimedium germplasm is up to

  4. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  5. 山东赤松种群的个体生长规律%On the individual growth disciplinarian of Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2002-01-01

    利用Logistic增长模型对山东赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群个体生长规律进行了初步研究.结果表明,赤松个体生长密切符合Logistic方程;人工林个体生长好于天然次生林;人工林与次生林个体生长规律一致;树高成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最早,胸径成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现较晚,材积成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最迟.

  6. Relationship Between Quantitative Structure and Chromatographic Retention Time of Volatile Component from Styrax japonicus Sieb%野茉莉花香气成分的定量构效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦正龙; 陈茂繁

    2013-01-01

    计算了从野茉莉花中分离出的37种香气成分的两类分子拓扑指数(m Xt v、En ),采用最佳子集回归方法建立这些拓扑指数与37种香气成分色谱保留时间(RT)的定量构效关系模型。该模型的相关系数(R2)为0.951,逐一剔除法交叉验证系数(R2cv )为0.920。通过 R2、F、R2Adj、R2cv、VIF、FIT 等检验,上述模型具有令人满意的稳健性和预测能力。%Based on the molecular topological theory,the electrotopological state index (En )and Kiers molecular valence connectivity index (m Xt V )of 37 volatile components from Styrax japonicus Sieb were calcu-lated.A six-variable model of the quantitative structure-retention relationship between En ,m Xt V and gas chrom-atographic retention time (RT)of volatile components from Styrax japonicus Sieb was established by Leaps-and-Bounds regression (LBR).Multiple correlation coefficient (R2 )and cross-validation correlation coeffi-cient (R2cv )of leave-one-out(LOO)were 0.951 and 0.920 respectively.The QSRR models have both favora-ble estimation stability and good prediction capability by R2 ,F,R2Adj ,R2cv ,VIF,FIT tests.

  7. 浙贝母花挥发油的气相色谱-飞行时间质谱分析%Analysis of volatile components of flowers of Fritillaria thunbergii by GC-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁君玲; 曹小吉; 李建伟; 任红星; 吴世华

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To determine the structures and contents of the volatile components of flowers of Fritillaria thunbergii, and investigate the effects of operation modes on its volatile components. Method: The volatile oils were first obtained by the hydrodis-tillation assay and then submitted to gas chromatography-time-of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. Result: More than 60 peaks were resolved, and 39 of which were identified quantitatively and qualitatively based on high-resolution spectra and compounds library screening. Among these identified components, the octadecatrienoic acid methyl esters were major components in the unprocessed flowers, while some aromatic aldehydes and ketones, such as benzeneacetaldehyde and l-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-etha-none, were prominent components in the flowers both dried in the fluidized bed and in shadow. In addition, the flowers dried in the flu-idized bed were more fragrant than other flowers. Conclusion: The component and contents closely related to their processing mode, and the fluided bed drying may be a best choice to process the flowers of F. thunbergii.%目的:揭示浙贝母花中挥发性成分的组成和含量,以及不同处理方式对其组分的影响,为浙贝母花的资源开发提供依据.方法:浙贝母花样品经水蒸汽蒸馏得挥发油,并用气相色谱-飞行时间质谱法进行分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发性化学成分的相对含量.结果:在分离到的60种组分中,共鉴定出38种挥发性成分,其中,新鲜浙贝母花中主要的挥发性成分为十八烯酸甲酯类物质,而经流化床或阴干处理后,浙贝母花的芳香醛酮类物质增加,尤以流化床干燥后的浙贝母花,其中的香味成分含量变化最为显著.结论:浙贝母花中挥发性成分的组成和含量与其处理方式密切相关,其中流化床干燥处理的方法增加了其香味成分的比例,因此,可以作为浙贝母花产品加工的一种优选方式.

  8. Simultaneous determination of ten Aconitum alkaloids in rat tissues by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a tissue distribution study on the compatibility of Heishunpian and Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Huanyu; Wang, Yuan; Yuan, Lei; Xie, Jiabin; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Yanjun

    2016-10-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ten Aconitum alkaloids in rat tissues. The tissue samples were prepared by a simple procedure protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 0.1% acetic acid and separated on an Agilent XDB C18 column (4.6 mm×50mm, 1.8μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile (both containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The quantitive determination was performed on an electrospray ionization (ESI) triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) under positive ionization mode. The established method was fully validated according to the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioanalytical method validation guidance and the results demonstrated that the method was sensitive and selective with the lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) at 0.025ng/mL in rat tissue homogenates. Meanwhile, the linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were all within the required limits of biological sample analysis. After method validation, the validated method was successfully applied to the tissue distribution study on the compatibility of Heishunpian (HSP, the processed product of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx) and Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus (Zhebeimu, ZBM). The results indicated that the distribution feature of monoester diterpenoid aconitines (MDAs), diester diterpenoid aconitines (DDAs) and non-ester alkaloids (NEAs) were inconsistency, and the compatibility of HSP and ZBM resulted in the distribution amount of DDAs increased in tissues. What's more, the results could provide the reliable basis for systematic research on the substance foundation of the compatibility of the herbal pair.

  9. 山茱萸总皂苷超高压提取工艺研究%The technology of extraction process saponin from Cornus officinalis Sieb.et Zucc.at ultra high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群雄; 刘煌; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    This study is to develop excellent extraction technology of the saponin in Cornus officinalis Sieb.et Zucc.The optimal technology conditions of the ultra high pressure extraction such as extracting pressure,extracting temperature and solid-liquid ratio have been obtained through orthogonal experimental design L16(34) according to the yield of saponin.The optimal technology conditions were that the extracting pressure was 400 MPa,the extracting time was 8 min and the solid-liquid ratio was 1:15.The highest yield of saponin was 17.6 mg/g.The ultra high pressure extraction technology is rational,stable and feasible.%探讨山茱萸中总皂苷的最佳提取工艺。采用单因素和正交试验,以总皂苷提取得率为指标,对提取工艺中压力、提取时间和料液比3个因素进行优化。最佳工艺条件:提取压力为400MPa,提取时间为8min,料液比为1:15,总皂苷最高提取得率为17.6mg/g。超高压提取山茱萸总皂苷工艺稳定可行。

  10. 昆嵛山天然赤松种群的数量特征及更新动态%The Natural Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.Population in the Mount Kunyu:Quantitative Characteristics and Regenerative Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁卿; 张淑萍; 张治国; 朱建中; 吕以璞

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc.)天然分布于朝鲜、日本和中国,它在我国的天然分布从黑龙江东南部(宁安、东宁)、吉林东部(长白山)、辽东半岛经山东半岛(昆嵛山、崂山、沂山东部)到江苏东北部云台山区,是我国暖温带沿海地区温性针叶林的主要建群种之一[1].昆嵛山地处山东半岛东端,位于N37°16′,E121°43′附近,是赤松在山东半岛的最集中分布地.赤松林在该地区从山麓一直到海拔800m左右都有分布,并与落叶栎林共同组成该地区的地带性天然次生森林植被[2],在调节生态系统结构与功能方面起到重要作用.

  11. Variation in CO2 assimilation rate induced by simulated dew waters with different sources of hydroxyl radical (*OH) on the needle surfaces of Japanese red pine (Pinus densifora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Natanani, N; Hirakawa, T; Suzuki, M; Miyake, T; Chiwa, M; Yuhara, T; Hashimoto, N; Inoue, K; Yamamura, K; Agus, N; Sinogaya, J R; Nakane, K; Kume, A; Arakaki, T; Sakugawa, H

    2002-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) is generated in polluted dew on the needle surfaces of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.). This free radical, which is a potent oxidant, is assumed to be a cause of ecophysiological disorders of declining trees on the urban-facing side of Mt. Gokurakuji, western Japan. Mists of *OH-generating N(III) (HNO2 and NO2-) and HOOH + Fe + oxalate solutions (50 and 100 microM, pH 5.1-5.4) simulating the dew water were applied to the foliage of pine seedlings grown in open-top chambers in the early morning. Needles treated with 100 microM N(III) tended to have a greater maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax), a greater stomatal conductance (g(s)) and a greater needle nitrogen content (Nneedle), suggesting that N(III) mist acts as a fertilizer rather than as a phytotoxin. On the other hand, needles treated with 100 microM HOOH + Fe + oxalate solution showed the smallest Amax, g(s), and Nneedle, suggesting that the combination of HOOH + Fe + oxalate caused a decrease in needle productivity. The effects of HOOH + Fe + oxalate mist on pine needles were very similar to the symptoms of declining trees at Mt. Gokurakuji.

  12. Effect of air pollution on annual ring width of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don, in Kitakyushu city. Kitakyushu shi deno Sugi, Akamatsu no nenrinhaba ni oyobosu taiki osen no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kido, K. (The Kitakyushu Municipal Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1993-05-10

    There is a little of examples to have numerically evaluated an influence of the air pollution in the field for the long period. By using the conifer species growing in the Kitakyushu city and its periphery, in this report, a relation between the annual ring width and the air pollution has been investigated. Two tree species of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria japonica D.Don were selected as the tree species. The individuals, with a breast height diameter of about 50cm, more than 10 pieces for each were selected, and then the annual ring specimens for about 50 years upto 1990 were obtained by using the increment borer. The annual ring width was normalized by converting to the annual ring indices. It was found that there is a significant relation between the annual ring indices obtained from the trees in the city and the air pollution, and that the annual ring growth in the 1990's has recovered to a same degree of the growth in the 1940's. As a result of comparing the multiple regression in 3 cases using the air pollution statistics, meteorological statistics and both of them, in addition, it was found that, while both of the air pollution and climatic factors influence on the growth of annual ring, the influence of air pollution is greater than the climate at the stand in the city. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Simultaneous determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in normal and chronic kidney disease rat plasma by UPLC-MS for investigating the pharmacokinetics of Rehmannia glutinosa and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Tao, Jinhua; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao; Du, Leyue

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive and rapid method for determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in rat plasma after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min, using gradient mode containing 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase A and B. Loganin, morroniside, catalpol, acteoside and the internal standard (chloramphenicol) were detected by selected reaction monitoring in the negative ion mode with the mass transition of m/z 451.0→179.0 (morroniside), m/z 435.0→227.0 (loganin), m/z 407.1→199.1 (catalpol), m/z 623.2→161.0 (acteoside) and m/z 320.8→151.9 (chloramphenicol), respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.991). The precision was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day assays and the RSD% were all within 9.58%. The recovery ranged from 67.62 to 80.14%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in normal and doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease rat plasma.

  14. Effects of Rhus typhina invasion into young Pinus thunbergii forests on soil chemical properties%火炬树入侵黑松幼林过程中对土壤化学性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乔乔; 许慧; 范志伟; 侯玉平

    2013-01-01

    外来植物入侵对生态系统和环境造成严重影响。成功的入侵植物常常可通过改变土壤化学性质来促进自身的竞争和入侵能力。最近几年火炬树(Rhus typhina L.)已经成为北方入侵木本植物之一,火炬树克隆繁殖形成居于绝对优势地位的单优群落已严重威胁着生物多样性和生态系统功能。在本文中,我们研究了火炬树入侵黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parlatore)幼林对土壤化学性质的影响。2011年4月,在山东烟台蓁山,于火炬树入侵程度不同的黑松幼林(在未入侵、轻度、中度、重度入侵下,火炬树盖度分别为0%、30%、50%~70%、90%以上),分别采样表层土壤并带回实验室分析其化学性质。结果表明:火炬树的入侵显著提高了土壤硝态氮(从未入侵下的0.63 mg/kg 提高到重度入侵下的0.98 mg∙kg-1)和有效磷(从未入侵下的0.589 mg∙kg-1提高到重度入侵下的1.189 mg∙kg-1)的含量,降低了土壤铵态氮(从未入侵下的9.25 mg∙kg-1降低到重度入侵下的2.97 mg∙kg-1)的含量,而对土壤pH、有机质和全氮含量没有显著影响。火炬树入侵导致铵态氮降低可能是由于火炬树更易于吸收利用土壤铵态氮;硝态氮含量升高是因为火炬树入侵提高了土壤的硝化速率。同时火炬树入侵导致土壤有效磷升高,说明火炬树能够通过活化分解土壤含磷化合物来满足自身生长的需求。本研究表明,火炬树入侵能显著改变土壤化学性质,火炬树入侵对根际土壤化学性质的影响及其自身的适应性特征等可能是其能够入侵成功和快速扩张蔓延的生态机制之一。%Exotic plant invasions severely threaten ecosystems and the environment. Successful invasive plants often promote their competitive ability and invasiveness through altering soil chemical properties. In recent years Rhus typhina has become one of the invasive woody plant species in North

  15. 金桂芳樟醇合成酶基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Homologous Linalooi Synthase Gene Involved in Floral Scents in Osmanthus fragrans var.thunbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽; 唐芳; 段经华; 刘友全; 钟秋平

    2009-01-01

    In this study,a full length cDNA encoding linalool synthase was successfully cloned from floral organs of Osmanthus fragrans vat.thunbergii with newly designed degenerate primers by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR,Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends(RACE)technology,and Blastn analysis.The gene was named aLs OfLis(Osmanthus fragrans var.thunbergii linalool synthase)and deposited under GenBank accession No.FJ645727.The OfLis full length cDNA was 2 003 bp and contained a complete open reading frame(ORF)of 1731 bp encoding 576 amino acids.Sequence analysis showed that OfLis presented two typical conserved motifs of terpene synthases,i.e DDXXD and(N,D)D(L,I,V)X(S,T)XXXE,which are essential for substrate binding and ionization.There was a N-terminal peptide sequence RR(X)8 W which is essential for the enzymatic activity of many monoterpene synthases.The molecular weight and isoeletric point of OfLis were predicted to be 67.29 ku and 5.26,respectively.Most of the amino acid sequences of OfLis were hydrophilic regions.At the amino acid sequence level,OfLis exhibited the highest similarity(63.6%)with Lavandula angustifolia linalool synthase,and the lowest similarity (19.0%)with Clarkia concinna linalool synthase gene.RT-PCR analysis revealed that OfLis was specifically expressed in petals,pistils and stamens,but not in sepals and leaves in the whole bloom stage.This study lays a scientific basis for breeding,improvement and regulation and control of flavor profile of fragrant plant varieties.%以金桂的花器官为试材,设计芳樟醇合成酶基因简并引物,通过逆转录PCR、快速扩增cDNA末端技术和Blastn分析等,获得金桂芳樟醇合成酶基因的全长cDNA序列,命名为OfLis(Osmanthus frangrans vat.thunbergii linaiool synthase,GenBank登录号FJ645727).OfLis,基因全长cDNA长度为2 003 bp,包含1个1 731 bp的开放阅读框,编码576个氨基酸.序列分析表明:OFLis具有单萜烯类合成酶基因典型的保守结构域,即DDXXD和(N,D)D(L,I

  16. 芫花花蕾化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents of buds of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲芝; 高品一; 李菲菲; 黄宵肖; 彭缨; 宋少江

    2010-01-01

    目的 对中药生品芫花(Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zuce.)花蕾中的化学成分进行研究.方法 运用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、制备HPLC、重结晶等分离手段进行化学成分的分离纯化,根据理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 从芫花花蕾体积分数95%乙醇提取物中分离得到10个化合物.分别鉴定为8-甲氧基山奈酚(8-methoxykaempferol,1)、柚皮素(narin-genin,2)、芫花素(genkwanin,3)、5,4'-二羟基-7,3'-二甲氧基黄酮(velutin,4)、芫花素-5-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(genkwanin-5-O-β-D-glucoside,5)、芫花素-5-O-β-D-茜黄樱草糖苷(genkwanin-Oβ-D-primeveroside,6)、(-)-松脂素((-)-pinoresinol,7)、(-)-落叶松脂素((-)-lariciresinol,8)、(-)-双氢芝麻脂素((-)dihydrosesamin,9)、瑞香烷型二萜酯-7(daphnane-type diterpene ester-7,10).结论 化合物1为首次从瑞香属植物中分离得到,化合物2,9,10为首次从芫花中分离得到.

  17. Optimization of Thermal Treatment of Fresh Chinese Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc)%鲜食青花椒热处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲彪; 姚佳

    2012-01-01

    In order to extent the storage period of Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc), a high- temperature short-time (HTST) steam treatment method was presented for Chinese prickly ash. A series of one-factor-at-a-time experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of steam pressure, treatment time and material load on volatile oil content and POD activity of Chinese prickly ash from Hanyuan. The best processing conditions, as determined using response surface analysis based on central composite design, were steam pressure 0.33 MPa, treatment time 12.4 s and material load 2696 g/m2. After thermal treatment under these conditions, the predicted volatile oil content was 0.41 mid20 g.%为了延长青花椒的贮藏期,以汉源青花椒为实验材料,采用高温蒸汽短时热处理方法,以挥发油含量和过氧化物酶(POD)酶活为指标,在研究蒸汽压力、蒸汽处理时间和载料量单因素试验基础上,进行Box-Behnken中心组合试验,利用响应面分析优化的最佳热处理工艺条件为蒸汽压力0.33MPa、蒸汽处理时间12.4s、载料量2696g/m2,在此条件下响应面模型预测的挥发油含量为0.41mL/20g。

  18. Variation in relationships between SLA and Leaf C, N, P stoichiometry in Machilus pauhoi among locations%基于地理种源的刨花楠苗木比叶面积与叶片化学计量学关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝斌; 钟全林; 程栋梁; 胡松竹; 胡波; 伍伯妍; 孙晓媚; 张佩生

    2015-01-01

    Machilus pauhoi is a native subtropical forest hardwood species. Due to its ecological and economic importance and its growing market demand, it is necessary to explore the survival strategies of M. pauhoi. Specific leaf area ( SLA) , leaf nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration are closely associated with plant performance. For example, SLA is closely related to plant growth and survival strategies. The elements C, N, and P are mainly biogenic elements in plants and relatively stable leaf C, N, and P stoichiometry is fundamental to plant growth and physiological processes. C is a structural material, while N and P are the limiting elements for the plant growth. Therefore, the relationships between leaf nutrients (i. e., C, N, P concentration) and SLA are of considerable interest to researchers attempting to understand nutrient resource use efficiency, as well as to those interested in plant ecological adaption and survival strategies. To understand the mechanisms underlying variation in leaf nutrients and SLA among geographic locations, one-year old seedlings of M. pauhoi were collected from five counties in Jiangxi Province. Leaf C, N, P stoichiometry, and SLA were compared and the relationships between these traits and associated environmental factors analyzed. The results indicated that across the five M. pauhoi populations, mean leaf C, N, and P concentrations were 45. 94%, 1. 983% and 0. 244% respectively. Leaf C concentration had the lowest coefficient of variation (0.0123), whereas leaf P concentration had the highest coefficient of variation (0.2233). Mean values of C/N, C/P, and N/P were 23.7, 224.81, and 9.482, respectively, across the five M. pauhoi populations. SLA was positively correlated with leaf N and P and negatively related to leaf C∶N and C∶P ratios. However, SLA showed no significant relationship with leaf C concentration, which might result from the relatively constant leaf C concentration among the five populations. Furthermore, SLA

  19. Effects of light intensity, temperature and salinity on newborn branches of Sargassum thunbergii evaluated with chlorophyll fluorescence assay%利用叶绿素荧光技术揭示光照、温度和盐度对鼠尾藻嫩芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洲瑞; 王飞久; 孙修涛; 汪文俊; 丁昌玲; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different light intensity (25~220 μmol/(m2·s)), temperatures (5~34 ) and different ℃ erent salinities (0~60) on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of newborn branches of Sargassum thunbergii were studies in this paper. The optimal chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), maximum relative electron transport rate (RrET,max) and initial slope of rapid light curve were determined. The results show: (1) The newborn branch of S. thunbergii suffered from high intensity light and high temperature stress easily and the Fv/Fm decreased significantly under high intensity light. The photosynthesis was remarkably affected when the temperature was higher than 30℃. (2) One hour treatment at 5℃ or nine-hour treatment at 0~60 salinity affected the photosystem II obviously. However, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters could nearly recover to normal level after 24 hours under standard culture condition except those in 60 salinity group. The preliminary analysis of the newborn branches of S. thunbergii about resistance physiology could provide reference for the artificial cultivation of S. thunbergii.%采用鼠尾藻嫩芽为实验材料, 研究了不同光强(25~220 μmol/(m2·s))、温度(5~34℃)和盐度(0~60)对其叶绿素荧光参数的影响。测定的叶绿素荧光参数包括光系统II 最大荧光产量(Fv/Fm)、最大潜在相对电子传递速率(RrET,max)、快速光曲线的初始斜率等。结果表明: (1)鼠尾藻嫩芽易受强光、高温胁迫, 在强光照射下, 其Fv/Fm值明显降低, 温度大于30℃时对其光合作用有显著影响; (2)5℃低温处理1 h 或0~60 盐度处理9 h 对光系统Ⅱ均有明显影响, 但24 h 恢复后, 除了盐度60 组, 其他组的叶绿素荧光参数均可基本恢复正常。初步分析了鼠尾藻嫩芽的抗逆生理, 可为鼠尾藻的人工栽培提供参考。

  20. Changes of Phenolic Compounds Content and Activity of Enzymes Related to Phenolic Compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.Bulbs Stored at Different Cold Temperatures for Breaking Dormancy%浙贝母鳞茎酚类物质含量及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕; 金文韬; 凌庆枝; 何军邀

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨浙贝母鳞茎中酚类物质及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系.[方法]将浙贝母鳞茎分别在4和10C条件下保湿贮藏至75 d,贮藏过程中定期取样测定鳞茎各部位酚类物质含量、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,同时比较了发芽鳞茎与休眠鳞茎中酚类物质含量和PAL与PPO活性的差异.[结果]低温解除休眠过程中,鳞茎及芽内酚类物质含量均呈降低趋势;10℃处理30 ~45 d和4℃处理45~60 d是酚类物质减少、解除休眠的关键时期;浙贝母各部位酚类物质含量与其PPO活性均呈显著负相关;顶芽中酚类物质含量与PAL活性呈显著正相关;鳞片中酚类物质含量与PAL活性没有明显的相关性.[结论]酚类物质与浙贝母鳞茎休眠有一定相关性,酚类物质含量下降是低温处理解除浙贝母鳞茎休眠的生理机制之一.%[ Objective ] To analyze changes of phenolic compounds content and activity of enzymes related to phenolic compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. bulbs stored at different cold temperatures for breaking dormancy. [ Method] Bulbs of F. thunbergii were stored in moist sawdust up to 75 d at 4 or 10 ℃. The samples were taken periodically, and were used to determine phenolic compounds content, PAL activity, PPO activity in different parts of bulb. Differences in phenolic compounds content, PAL activity and PPO activity between dormant and dormancy-broken bulbs were analyzed. [ Result ] The results showed that a downward trend of phenolic compounds content in bulb was observed during the breaking of dormancy; 10 ℃ for 30 -45 d and 4 ℃ for 45 -60 d were the crucial period of dormancy release and the phenolic compounds decrease; phenolic compounds content and PPO activity were negatively correlated; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in buds were significantly positive correlation; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in bulbs had no significant

  1. Changes of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient elements in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different stage naturally infected by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫自然侵染后松树还原糖与矿质营养元素的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀凤; 张慧; 徐华潮

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the contents of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient nutrients in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different Pine wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in P. thunbergii and P. massoniana at different Pine Wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode B. xylophilus conifers. With disease progression, the contents of reducing sugar and nitrogen element decreased in both lodgepole and red pines. The changes in other minerals were inconsistent between the two types of pines. These results indicated that the structural damage caused by nematode infection significantly compromised metabolism, and affected the absorption, movement and utilization of different nutrients in the host plants.%实验测定了马尾松Pinus massoniana、黑松Pinus thunbergii在松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophilus自然侵染状态下针叶内还原糖及矿质营养元素的变化趋势.结果表明,两种松树随病程发展针叶内还原糖及N元素含量均逐渐降低;其余矿质元素含量变化不一.表明由于松材线虫的侵入,破坏了植物的组织结构,影响了寄主的新陈代谢和物质循环,继而影响到对各种元素的吸收、转移及利用.

  2. 長野県におけるマツブサ(Schisandra repanda(Sieb. et Zucc.)Radlk.)の結実と自生地の立地環境との関係

    OpenAIRE

    荒瀬, 輝夫; 熊谷, 真由子; 内田, 泰三

    2012-01-01

    木本性つる植物マツブサ(Schisandra repanda(Sieb. et Zucc.)Radlk.)の地域産物化をはかるため,長野県内において系統収集を試みた。併せて,自生地の立地環境を結実との関連を分析するために現地調査を行なった。得られた系統数は17,自生地の標高は790~1380 !で,サルナシの分布する標高域と類似していた。地形は山腹斜面で,植生はカラマツ林および落葉広葉樹林の林縁が多かった。また,森林管理に伴い,マツブサが周期的に消長を繰り返すことが伺えた。果房あたり果粒数は4.3~14.3,平均果粒重0.594~1.192g,糖度6.8~13.4 Brix%で,系統間差が大きかった。果実収量(対数値)は1.69~2.93(49~853g ・hr-1)であった。果房あたり果粒数が増加すると平均果粒重が減少するという有意な関係が認められた。立地環境との関連ついて,平均果粒重は自生地の緯度,標高および斜面方位の影響が有意であった。糖度についてはいずれも関連が認められなかった。果実収量は高標高域ほど増大する傾向を示し,ピークとなる標高は検出できなかった。...

  3. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y.; Matsumura, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 4株菌根辅助细菌对苗木猝倒病菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of mycorrhizal helper bacteria against damping-off disease of Pinus thunbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亮亮; 吴小芹; 盛江梅

    2011-01-01

    Mycorrhizal helper bacteria(MHB) has effect on promoting the plant growth. In order to discuss its biocontrol function to soilborne fungus pathogen, we used the plate confrontation in vitro and in vivo inoculation methods to assay the inhibition effect to soilborne fungus of 4 MHB isolates. The result showed that, in plate confrontation in vitro experiment, Bacillus cereus HB12 ,HB59 isolates and B. pumilus HR1O isolate had the obvious inhibition effect on Rhizoctonia sp, which caused the seedling damping-off disease. In these isolates, B. pumilus HR10 isolate had the strongest inhibition effect, with 85.58 % inhibition rate. B. cereus HB12, HB59 isolates, B. pumilus HR1O isolate, and Micrococcus luteus HR15 isolate all had no inhibition effect on seedling damping-off pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Then the screened B. pumilus HR1O isolate was chosen for in vivo inoculation test, the result indicated HR10 had the better biocontrol function to P. thunbergii damping-off disease with only 15 % disease incidence and 10 % mortality after inoculation, while the control had 80 % disease incidence and 65 % mortality, with just inoculate Rhizoctonia sp.. Based on the above results, MHB not only had the growth-promoting effect on plant, but also had biocontrol function to some kind of plant soilborne fungus pathogen. So it could serve as a valuable reference for further investigation on tree nursery manAgement practice.%菌根辅助细菌(MHB)对植物具有促生作用,为探讨MHB对土传病原真菌的生防功能,采用离体平板对峙和活体接种的方法测定了4株MHB对土传病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:在离体平板对峙测定中,蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)HB12、HB59菌株和短小芽孢杆菌(B.pumilus)HR10菌株对苗木猝倒病病原丝核菌(Rhizoctonia sp.)有较为明显的抑制作用,其中短小芽孢杆菌HR10对丝核菌的抑制作用最强,抑菌率达85.58%;蜡状芽孢杆菌HB12和HB59、短小芽孢杆菌HR10

  5. 红松仁蛋白的分离、纯化及抗氧化作用研究%Isolation, Purification, and Anti-oxidation of Protein from Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓红; 杨传平

    2015-01-01

    The isolation, purification, primary structure and anti-oxidation of protein from Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. seeds were studied and its function mechanism was discussed. The preliminary classification of the protein was conducted by salting out with ammonium sulfate in the filtrate, then the resulting protein ( P80 ) with the highest collection rate was purified by G-75 gel chromatograph and DEAE-cellulose chromatography,and sample D was separated from P80 . Sample D was analyzed by MADIL-TOF-MS. The result showed that sample D and north American white pine nuts Albumin 4 were matched with high scores, and the matched score was 99. And it had the molecular weight of 18 647 u, isoelectric point of 5. 35, and the coverage of gene sequence 41%. Based on the matched score and research results, Albumin 4 and sample D were similar and both a kind of pine cone proteins, entitled HSR-Protein 1. In vitro antioxidant experiment showed that Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. seeds protein had good scavenging activities of ·OH and O2-·. At the concentration of 800 mg/L, the ·OH cleaning rate of pine nut protein component D, protein components P80 , and crude protein were 93. 12%, 90. 89% and 89. 12%, respectively. Pine nut protein components D had the strongest scavenging ability of ·OH. At the same concentration, the O2-·scavenging rates of pine nut protein component D, component P80 , and crude protein were 64. 19%, 56. 45% and 35. 19%, respectively. Pine nut protein components D was the strongest. With the same concentration, the scavenging ability became stronger with the purity increasing.%研究了松仁蛋白分离、纯化、一级结构及部分蛋白清除·OH和O2-·的活性,探讨松仁蛋白的功能机理。松仁蛋白经过硫酸铵盐析初步分级,对收集量最大的分离蛋白P80通过Sephadex G-75凝胶过滤柱和DEAE 52离子交换层析,收集得到P80分离纯化的组分D,对组分D进行基质激光解析质谱分析,结果显示组分D

  6. 浙贝母花及花粉中8种E族维生素的高效液相色谱-荧光分析%Determination of E Vitamins in the Flowers and Pollens of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. by HPLC-FLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋欣杭; 梁君玲; 李建伟; 吴世华

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To analyze and determine the chemical structures and contents of E vitamins in flowers and pollens of F. thunbergii Miq.,so as to provide scientific basis for its further development. [ Methods ] High-performance liquid chromatography-florescence detection ( HPLCFLD) was first established to determine the compositions of E vitamins. The detection conditions were as follows:Agilent Zorbax RX-SIL column (4.6 mm x 150 mm,5 μm) and guard column (4.6 mm x 10 mm,5 μm) ,mobile phase of hexane -0. 2% isopropanol-O. 8% acetic acid( 1: 4, V/V) ,column temperature of 25 ℃ ,flow rate of 1.0 ml/nin,the maximum excitation wavelength of 292 nm and the maximum emission wavelength was 328 nm. [ Results ] 8 kinds of vitamins were determined simultaneously for the first time,which were in good linear relationship within the detection range,R2 >0.999 0 and recovery rate exceeded 98%. There were 7 kinds of E vitamins in the flower of F. thunbergii Miq. ,among which D-a-tocotrienols was the highest that reached 181.606 mg/kg,however the contents of E vitamins in the pollens of F. thunbergii Miq. were relatively lower. [ Conclusion ] There are multiple kinds of E vitamins in the flowers and pollens of F. thunbergii Miq. ,comparatively speaking,the flower of F. thunbergii Miq. is richer in E vitamins,which deserves further research. Besides,HPLC-FLD is convenient and efficiency that can be used for determining the contents of E vitamins.%[目的]分析浙贝母花及其花粉中E族维生素的组成和含量,为浙贝母花资源的开发提供一定的科学依据.[方法]采用高效液相色谱-荧光分析法(HPLC-FLD)检测E族维生素的成分,检测条件如下:Agilent Zorbax RX-SIL(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,4.6mm×10 mm保护柱,含0.2%异丙醇和0.8%冰乙酸的正己烷溶液为流动相(1:4,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min进行洗脱,柱温25℃,荧光最大激发波长292 nm,最大发射波长328 nm.[结果]首次建立了可同时测定8种维生

  7. in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Actinidia arguta Sieb. et Zucc. Fruits%软枣猕猴桃多糖的体外抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长江; 潘松; 梁爽

    2012-01-01

    Crude polysaccharides from Actinidia arguta Sieb.et Zucc.fruits were extracted by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation,deproteinized and defatted and the yield of crude polysaccharides was found to be 1.41%.The crude polysaccharide extract was separated by DEAE-cellulose 52 ion exchange chromatography to obtain four fractions(Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ).Complete separation of fractions Ⅱ and Ⅲ was achieved by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography.The antioxidant activity of fraction Ⅱ was investigated by measuring free radical scavenging activity.Polysaccharide fraction II was found to have strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH and alkyl radicals with an IC50of 0.497 mg/mL and 0.547 mg/mL,respectively.Its radical scavenging activity increased with increasing concentration within the concentration range investigated and the scavenging rate at a concentration of 1 mg/mL was 86.4% and 87.1% for DPPH and alkyl radicals,respectively,which was comparable to that of vitamin C.Moreover,this fraction also had radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical with an IC50of 0.668 mg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner but was inferior to vitamin C.However,its radical scavenging activity against superioxide anion radical was weak.Based on the above results,we conclude that polysaccharide fraction Ⅱ has potent antioxidant activity.%利用水提醇沉法提取软枣猕猴桃粗多糖,经脱蛋白、脱脂,软枣猕猴桃粗多糖的提取率为1.41%。利用DEAE-52纤维素离子交换层析对软枣猕猴桃多糖进行初步分离,得到4种软枣猕猴桃多糖组分。利用SephadexG-200凝胶柱层析对组分Ⅱ和Ⅲ实现了完全分离。通过测定清除自由基能力,评价软枣猕猴桃多糖组分Ⅱ的抗氧化活性。结果表明:软枣猕猴桃多糖对DPPH自由基及烷基自由基(R)有较强的清除能力,IC50值分别为0.497、0.547mg/mL。在受试范围内,随软枣猕猴桃多糖质量浓度的增加,清除能力增

  8. 浙贝母和平贝母中淀粉的结晶学、形态学和热性质研究及与马铃薯淀粉的比较%Crystallography, morphology, and thermal properties of starch in Fritillaria thunbergii and F. ussurensis as well as comparison with potato starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书军; 高文远; 贾伟; 肖培根

    2005-01-01

    Objective To fully understand the medicinal plants of Fritillaria L. , the physicochemical properties of starch in two species of Fritillaria L. , F. thunbergii and F. ussurensis. were investigated by means of various analytical methods. Methods The properties of starch in the two different species of Fritillaria L. were compared by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and themogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results The crystal type of starch in the two species of Fritillaria L.was the characteristic B-type which was in consistent with that of potato starch. The degrees of crystallinity of F. thunbergii starch and F. ussurensis starch were about 29.9% and 20.1%, respectively. However,the degree of crystallinity of the potato starch was 44.9%. From the crystallinity degree of the starch in two species of Fritillaria L. , it could be concluded that the content of amylose in F. ussurensis starch was higher than that in F. thunbergii starch. The granule size of the starch in two species of Fritillaria L.ranged from 5 to 40 μm, which were all smaller than that of the potato. The starch granule in two species of Fritillaria L. was in cycloidal or elliptic-shape. It could be concluded that the thermal stability of the starch in two species of Fritillaria L. was different due to the different structures of different starch in various plants by TGA. Conclusion The physicochemical properties of starch in two different species of Fritillaria L. differ a lot due to their geographical origin.%目的为了能够更加充分了解贝母属药用植物,通过各种分析方法对两种贝母--浙贝母和平贝母中所包含的淀粉的物理化学性质进行了研究.方法采用X射线衍射,扫描电子显微镜(SEM)以及热分析(TGA)的方法对两种贝母中淀粉的性质进行了比较.结果通过研究发现,两种贝母淀粉的晶体类型都为典型的B型,这与马铃薯淀粉的晶体类型是一致的.浙贝母和平贝母

  9. Soil Physical Properties of the Mixed Forest of Pinus thunbergii and Quercus mongolica in the Rocky Coast of Dalian City%大连岩质海岸黑松蒙古栎混交林土壤物理性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆红

    2015-01-01

    通过对黑松蒙古栎林土壤物理性质的研究,评价了其水土保持效果。结果显示:混交林的土壤物理性质比纯林有显著的改善。从水土保持角度考虑,采用营林技术措施提高人工林和次生林混交度,能防止水土流失和地力衰退,为森林可持续经营提供依据。%Effect of water and soil conservation was evaluated through the study of soil physical properties of the mixed forest of Pinus thunbergii and Quercus mongolica .Result shows that soil physical properties have significant improve than than of pure forest .From the viewpoint of soil and water conservation,increasing the mixture of mixed plantation and secondary forest by adopting silviculture measures can prevent soil erosion and soil fertility decline , and provide the basis for sustainable forest management.

  10. 东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位体外降血糖活性研究%Study on the Hypoglycemic Activity of the Leaves and Twigs of Taxus Cuspidata Sieb et Zucc in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛平; 姚鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位对胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗量和抑制α-葡萄糖苷活性的影响。方法采用胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞和α-葡萄糖苷酶作为体外受体模型,研究东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位的降血糖效果。结果对于胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞,醇提液、乙酸乙酯部位和正丁醇部位均能促进胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞的葡萄糖消耗量,其中醇提液和乙酸乙酯部位在浓度为0.01mg・ mL -1效果最佳,正丁醇部位在浓度为0.05mg・ mL -1效果最佳,而且都与模型组相比具有极显著性差异(P<0.01);东北红豆杉提取物均有不同程度抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性,以乙酸乙酯部位效果最佳(IC50=17.08mg・ L -1),其次正丁醇部位(IC50=28.48mg・ L-1)和醇提物(IC50=31.03mg・L -1),水部位(IC50=80.99mg・ L -1)石油醚部位(IC50=132.38mg・ L -1)最弱。结论初步确定东北红豆杉具有降血糖潜力的部位在乙酸乙酯与正丁醇部位。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the action of different extracts of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc on alpha-glu-cosidase and HepG2 cells′insulin resistance in vitro to supply the separating base of the effective chemical compo -nents.METHODS The HepG2 cells and alpha-glucosidase were used as receptor model to study the hypoglycemic activity in vitro of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc.RESULTS The ethyl acetate extrac(0.01mg・ mL-1)、ethanol ex-tract(0.01mg・ mL-1) and n-butanol extract(0.05mg・ mL-1) of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc could promote glu-cose consumption of insulin resistant HepG 2 cell model.The ethyl acetate extract showed strong activity in the inhibi-tory activities ofα-glucoside.( IC50 =17.08 mg・ L-1 ) The ethanol extract ( IC50 =31.03 mg・ L-1 ) and n-butanol ex-tract(IC50 =28.48mg・ L-1) displayed lower activity.Petroleum ether fraction(IC50 =132.38mg・ L-1) and

  11. 臭氧对几种楠木气体交换参数的影响%Effects of Ozone on photosynthesis of Several plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗苗

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ozone on photosynthesis of Machilus pauhoi, Lindera setchuenensis, Phoebe bournei, Phoebe chekiangensis and Machilus thunbergii, the study was carried out in 12 open-top chambers(OTCs) with different levels of ozone in Qianyanzhou experimental station, and net photosynthesis rate( Pn ) and stomatal conductance(Cond) were detected. The results indicated that ozone treatments changed the variation trend of photosynthesis of all tested plants, but ozone exposure did not always play an inhibitory role on them. In fact, photosynthesis changed with ozone concentration, experimental period, season and specific species. Exposed to ozone could even promote Pn to a peak in a short term, and the indicator of plants treated with ozone was higher than that of the control at this point. Low and medium concentrations of ozone treatment enhanced Pn of Phoebe bournei and Machilus thunbergii. The peak of treatment group also came earlier because of ozone. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Pn and Cond did not existed under the condition of ozone. Machilus thunbergii had the strongest resistance to ozone, followed by Phoebe bournei, by comparison, Phoebe chekiangensis, Machilus pauhoi and Lindera setchuenensis were more sensitive.%为研究不同臭氧处理对刨花楠(Machilus pauhoi)、桢楠(Lindera setchuenensis)、闽楠(Phoebe bournei)、宜昌楠(Phoebe chekiangensis)和红楠( Machilus thunbergii)光合特性的影响,在中国科学院千烟洲生态试验站开展开顶式气室( open-top chambers,OTCs)熏气实验,测定了4种臭氧环境下不同楠木的气体交换参数:净光合速率(net photosynthetic rate,Pn )、气孔导度(stomatal conductance,Cond)、蒸腾速率(transpiration rate,tr ),并对结果进行统计分析。结果表明,臭氧胁迫改变了所有供试植物的 P n、 Cond 变化趋势,不同楠木表现出不同的反应。臭氧对光合作用的影响随着臭氧浓度、处理时间、季节

  12. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extraction of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana induced G0 /G1 phase arrest via inhibition of cyclins D and E and induction of apoptosis through caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsin; Chan, Hsiao-Sung; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Funayama, Shinji; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-09-22

    Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, belonging to the Vitaceae family and Vitis genus, and widely used as folk herbal medicine. It is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, hypertension, neuroprotection, jaundice, and arthritis. We used the wild-collected VTT and sterilized them to establish the plant tissue culture, and then took the leaves for DNA sequencing to determine its original base. We use methanol to extract VTT in four different solvents: 1-butanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. These four preliminary extracts were used to treat human prostate cancer DU145 cells in vitro. We use the flow cytometry to check the cell survival situation. Finally, we found the ethyl acetate layer roughing product (referred VTEA) in human prostate cancer apoptotic effects of cell line DU-145. In the present studies, we use the crude extract of VTT to examine whether or not it can induce apoptosis of DU145 cells in vitro. Viability assays for extracts of VTT treatment showed that it had dose-dependent effect on human prostate cancer DU145 cells. We also found that the extract of VTT induces time-dependent mitochondrial and intrinsic-dependent apoptosis pathways. The in vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated by cell cycle analysis and the determination of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in DU145 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that extracts of VTT induced a significant increase in the number of cells in G0 /G1 phase. The extract of VTT induced chromatin changes and apoptosis of DU145 cells also were confirmed by DAPI and PI staining that were measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Finally, the expression of relevant proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. These results promoted us to further evaluate apoptosis associated proteins and elucidate the possible signal pathway in DU-145 cells after treated with the extract of VTT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 荧光假单胞菌GcM51 A重组鞭毛蛋白的表达及其对黑松细胞的毒性研究%Expression of Recombinant Flagellin from Pseudomonas Fluorescens GcM5 1 A and It’s Toxicity to Pinus Thunbergii Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖莉; 张蕾; 牟卉; 李荣贵

    2013-01-01

    针对松萎蔫病的早期诊断及生物防治,本文利用PCR 技术从荧光假单胞菌 GcM51 A的基因组中克隆了鞭毛蛋白编码基因 fliC,再将该基因克隆到表达载体 pET 15 b的NcoI 和XhoI位点,构建重组质粒pET 15 b fliC,再将重组质粒导入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),构建工程菌,IPTG诱导工程菌高效表达 C 末端具有多聚组氨酸标签的重组鞭毛蛋白,重组蛋白主要以包涵体的形式存在,包涵体经8 mol/L尿素溶解,复性并经 Ni2+螯合柱亲和层析得到了电泳纯的重组鞭毛蛋白。生测结果表明,重组鞭毛蛋白可引起黑松细胞的大量死亡,与天然鞭毛蛋白对黑松愈伤组织细胞有相似的毒性。该研究为松萎蔫病致病机理的研究奠定了基础。%In this paper,gene fliC encoding flagellin was amplified from genomic DNA of Pseudomonasflu-orescens GcM5 1A by polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and cloned into pET 15b to construct recombi-nant plasmid pET 15b fliC.This plasmid was introduced into Escherichiacoli BL21(DE3)to construct engineering bacteria,and overexpression of recombinant flagellin with a his-tag at its C-terminal was a-chieved when engineering bacteria were induced by isopropylβ D 1 thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein in engineering bacteria appeared mainly in the form of inclusion bodies.Recombi-nant flagellin in inclusion bodies,which was dissolved by 8 mol/L urea and refolded,was purified through affinity chromatography on a nickel column.Bioassay results indicated that the recombinant protein was toxic to callus cells of Pinus thunbergii,which had a similar result to native flagellin.This study laid a good foundation for further research on the mechanism of pine wilt disease.

  14. Growth of Sea Cucumber and Water Quality Features in Polyculture of Sea Cucumber with Seaweeds Sargassum thunbergii and Gracilaria lichenoides%仿刺参与鼠尾藻、菊花心江蓠轮养时的生长及对环境因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 田相利; 姜文联

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile sea cucumber A postichopus japonicus with body weight of (5 .07 ± 0 .45) g was stocked at a rate of 11 ind/m2 and polycultured in a bamboo made 4 m(width) × 4 m(length) × 1 .5 m(height) grid tied by PVA strings of sea weeds Sargassum thunbergii with body length of (31 .7 ± 10) cm [body weight of (2 .32 ± 1 .2) g] at a rate of 187 .5 g/m2 (A1 ) ,375 g/m2 (B1 ) ,562 .5 g/m2 (C1 )and 750 g/m2 (D1 )for 45 days and Gracilaria lichenoides with the same size at a rate of 250 g/m2 (A2 ) ,500 g/m2 (B2 ) ,750 g/m2 (C2 )and 1000 g/m2 (D2 ) for 60 days in a pond .The polyculture was conducted alternatively ,that is ,G . lichenoides was stocked later into the grids (A2 ,B2 ,C2 andD2 ) which S .thunbergii was tied initially (A1 , B1 ,C1 and D1 ) .The growth of the sea cucumber and sea weeds and levels of chlorophyll a ,total nitrogen (TN) ,total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in a 15 day interval .The results showed that there was higher specific growth rate (SGR)in the sea cucumber polycultured with the seaweeds than in the sea cucumber in monoculture , significantly higher in polyculture C than in the monoculture(P < 0 .05) .The chlorophyll a level was shown to be declined in the polyculture water with increase in net yield of the sea weeds .There were significantly lower levels of TN ,TP and TOC in the sediments in the polyculture than those in the monoculture of sea cucumber(P < 0 .05) .%将初始体质量(5.07±0.45)g的仿刺参幼参放养在池塘内竹制的4 m×4 m×1.5 m网格中,将夹有初始平均体长(31.7±10)cm ,体质量(2.32±1.2)g的鼠尾藻和菊花心江蓠的聚乙烯苗绳均匀地系在网格竹竿骨架上。仿刺参初始放养密度为11头/m2,鼠尾藻和菊花心江蓠的密度分别为187.5 g/m2、375 g/m2、562.5 g/m2、750 g/m2和250 g/m2、500 g/m2、750 g/m2、1000 g/m2,后轮养的菊花心江蓠按密度从小到大分别放置于

  15. Identification of Taxus cuspidata Sieb.et Zucc endophytic fungi─ new recorded-genus-species of China and the metabolite%东北红豆杉内生真菌的鉴定-中国新记录属种及其代谢产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项勇; 刘君; 刘党生

    2004-01-01

    从长白山自然保护区原始森林200多年生东北红豆杉(Tasxus cuspidata Siebet Zucc.)树皮中分离94株内生真菌,鉴定出19种.其中,除2个新种、1个新变种和6个国内已知种(已详细描述并发表在2003,14(4):290-294),本文还对包括9个新记录属种的形态特征进行了详细描述:坚孢葡萄单孢 (Staphylotrichum coccosporum Meyer et Nicot)、砖红葡萄痕孢(Botryodema lateritium Papendoorf & Upadhyay)、球头孢[Oedocephalum glomerulosum ( Rulliard Sacc.)、球头三型孢(Trichosporonoides oedocephalis Haskins & Spencer )、扁圆球孢 [Beniowskia sphaeroidea (Kal Chbrenner et Caeke ) Mason ]、疣顶孢(Thermomyces verrucosus Pugh, Blakeman & Morgan-jones )、腐殖厚壁孔孢(Gilmaniella humicola Brron )、球乳突孢 [Papularia sphaerosperma (Pers.:Fr.) von Hohnel]、褐钝孢[Ambrosiella brunnea (Verrall) Batra ] 和1个新记录种:假线壳囊孢(Cytosporina notha Died.).对中国新记录属种内生真菌,提供了形态学特征描述与图解及其生境、寄主的记载.用薄层层析技术,测定了各菌种发酵代谢产物可与紫杉烷类物质显色剂--香草试液和稀碘化铋钾试液不发生明显的颜色反应.图10参23.%A total of 94 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the bark of 200-yr.-old Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. in the primeval forest of the Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve, and 19 species of endophytic fungi were identified. Among the taxa 2 new species and 1 new varied species as well as the 6 known species of China had been described in a previous article published on Journal of Forestry Research, Vol. 14 (4): 290-294 (2003). This paper made a detail description on the morphological characteristics of the 9 new recorded-genus-species and 1 new record species with illustrations, including Staphylotrichum coccosporum Meyer et Nicot, Botryodema lateritium Papendoorf & Upadhyay, Oedocephalum glomerulosum (Rulliard) Sacc., Trichosporonoides oedocephalis

  16. 长白山和小兴安岭地区红松种子形态特征与成分比较研究%Diversities of Morphological Characteristics and Constituents of Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc.Seeds from Changbai Moutain and Xiaoxing′anling Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓红; 刘英甜; 宫婕; 冯晨; 汪晓添; 李建新

    2011-01-01

    Seminal morphological characteristics and constituents of firnus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. seeds from Changbai Moutain and Xiaoxing'anting areas were studied. Results show that there are no significant difference among morphological characteristics of seed in two areas. The thousand seed mass was higher in Changbai Moutain, and kernel ratio of seed was higher in Xiaoxing' aiding. The ash content was the same in these two areas. The least moisture content was 1.85 % in Xiaoxing'aiding and 3.75 % in Changbai Moutain respectively. The oil content was 68.45 % in Xiaoxing'anling and all content beyond 65 % in these two areas. The protein content in Xiaoxing'anling was higher than that in Changbai Moutain. It was seen that in pine seed, not only amino acids and trace elements, but also contents of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, magnesium, zinc, manganese and other trace elements were high. Total amino acid content in Xiaoxing'anling was the highest, trace elements had little difference. The nutrient contents were rich in pine seed, as well. The results showed thai the pine seeds from two areas in both morphology and constituents had no significant difference.%采用比较研究的方法对长白山和小兴安岭地区的红松种子的形态特征和成分进行了对比,结果显示长白山的红松种子千粒质量较高,小兴安岭的红松种子的出仁率较高.长白山和小兴安岭地区的红松种子灰分含量均较高;水分质量分数小兴安岭最低为1 85%,长白山地区的为3 75%;蛋白质质量分数小兴安岭地区略高于长白山地区;长白山和小兴安岭地区的红松籽种子油质量分数均在65%以上,小兴安岭地区的红松种子含油质量分数最高为68.45%.红松种子氨基酸和微量元素含量很丰富,谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸、精氨酸、镁、锌、锰等微量元素含量很高.氨基酸总量最高的是小兴安岭的红松种子,微量元素在含量和种类上差异不大,

  17. Growth and physiological characteristics of five island tree species with drought stress%干旱胁迫对5个海岛树种生长及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闻; 赵颖; 叶正钱; 王美琴; 王晶; 王国明

    2013-01-01

    To compare the drought-resistance of five island tree species,namely,Ilex integra,Machilus thunbergii,Cinnamomum japonicum var.chenii,Eurya emarginata,and Eurya japonica,an experiment was conducted using tree seedlings with different soil drought stress levels.Plant physiological responses to the drought stress were measured.Results showed that the root and shoot biomass decreased as drought increased,but the root-to-shoot ratios (R/S) increased first and then decreased.In addition,chlorophyll content (Chl) decreased as drought stress increased.With severe drought stress,the survival rate was C.japonicum var.chenii > I.integra > M.thunbergii =E.emarginata > E.japonica.A subordinate function used to rank drought-resistance showed:C.japonicum var.chenii > I.integra > M.thunbergii > E.japonica >E.emarginata.%为了解全缘冬青Ilex integra,红楠Machilus thunbergii,普陀樟Cinnmomum japonicum va.chenii,滨柃Eurya emarginata,柃木Eurya japonica等5个海岛树种的抗旱性,利用盆栽控水方式对5个海岛树种进行干旱胁迫试验,测定相关的生理指标,比较了5个树种之间抗旱能力的大小.结果表明:各树种的地上部分和地下部分生物量随着胁迫程度的增加而持续下降,而根茎比呈现出先降后升的变化趋势;5个树种的脯氨酸和相对电导率随干旱程度的加剧而呈上升趋势,叶绿素则随干旱程度的加深而明显下降.在重度胁迫下,5个树种的存活率大小依次为普陀樟>全缘冬青>红楠=滨柃>柃木.通过隶属函数法分析得出5个树种在中度干旱和重度干旱条件下的抗旱性顺序为普陀樟>全缘冬青>红楠>柃木>滨柃.

  18. Selection and application of roadside trees in Fujian Province%福建省公路行道树种的选择和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗颀

    2006-01-01

    采用层次分析法对福建省179种公路行道树种进行综合评价和筛选.结果表明,排名较前的主要树种有印度胶树(Ficus elastica)、榕树(Ficus microcarpa)、罗晃子(Tamarindus indica)、蕈树(Altingia chinensis)、波罗蜜(Artocarpus heterophyllus)、耳叶相思(Acacia auriculiformis)、南洋楹(Albizia falcataria)、石栗 (Aleurites moluccana)、秋枫(Bischofia polycarpa)、红楠(Machilus thunbergii)等.这些树种已较广泛应用于福建行道绿化中.

  19. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  20. Determination of Ormosia Hosiei in Ecological Niche%珍贵树种红豆树生态位测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑天汉

    2014-01-01

    红豆树群落的生态位宽度值依次为红豆树、青冈栎、虎皮楠、毛竹、罗木石楠、浙江润楠、枫香、栲树、米槠、苦槠、樟树、山杜英、杨梅叶蚊母树、笔罗子、红楠等。红豆树与其他树种的种对之间,生态位相似性较高树种为虎皮楠、毛竹、苦槠、青冈栎等。红豆树与青冈栎的生态重叠度最高,其他树种依次为毛竹、绒冬青、木荷、虎皮楠、杨梅叶蚊母树、水丝梨、米槠、枫香、浙江润楠等。该研究对制定红豆树人工林发展方案、科学经营和珍稀濒危树种保育等具有指导意义。%The order of Niche breadth of Ormosia hosiei community is Ormosia hosiei,Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Daphniphyllum oldhami, Phyllostachys heterocycla, Photinia davidsoniae, Machilus chekiangensis, Liquidambar formosana, Castanopsis, Castanopsis carlesii, Cas¯ tanopsis sclerophylla, Machilus ichangensis, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Distylium myricoides, Meliosma rigida, Machilus thunbergii and so on. Among the pair of Ormosia hosiei and other species, there is higher niche similarity between it and Daphniphyllum oldhami, Phyllostachys heterocycla, Castanopsis sclerophylla and Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Ormosia hosiei has highest niche overlap with Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and the order is Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Phyllostachys heterocycla, Cashmere holly, Schima superb, Daphniphyllum oldhami, Distylium myricoides, Sycopsis sinensis, Castanopsis carlesii, Liquidambar formosana, Machilus chekiangensis, et al. This research has great signifi¯ cance for the development of Ormosia hosiei plantation programs, scientific management and conservation of rare and endangered species.

  1. Characterization of resistance to pine wood nematode infection in Pinus thunbergii using suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods, and resistant trees have been selected via breeding programs. However, no studies have assessed the molecular genetics, e.g. transcriptional changes, associated with infection-induced physiological changes in resistant or susceptible trees. Results We constructed seven subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH cDNA libraries using time-course sampling of trees inoculated with pine wood nematode at 1, 3, or 7 days post-inoculation (dpi in susceptible trees and at 1, 3, 7, or 14 dpi in resistant trees. A total of 3,299 sequences was obtained from these cDNA libraries, including from 138 to 315 non-redundant sequences in susceptible SSH libraries and from 351 to 435 in resistant SSH libraries. Using Gene Ontology hierarchy, those non-redundant sequences were classified into 15 subcategories of the biological process Gene Ontology category and 17 subcategories of the molecular function category. The transcriptional components revealed by the Gene Ontology classification clearly differed between resistant and susceptible libraries. Some transcripts were discriminative: expression of antimicrobial peptide and putative pathogenesis-related genes (e.g., PR-1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was much higher in susceptible trees than in resistant trees at every time point, whereas expression of PR-9, PR-10, and cell wall-related genes (e.g., for hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein precursor and extensin was higher in resistant trees than in susceptible trees at 7 and 14 dpi. Conclusions Following inoculation with pine wood nematode, there were marked differences between resistant and susceptible trees in transcript diversity and the timing and level of transcripts expressed in common; in particular, expression of stress response and defense genes differed. This study provided new insight into the differences in the physiological changes between resistant and susceptible trees that have been observed in anatomical and biochemical studies.

  2. Antithrombosis activity of protocatechuic and shikimic acids from functional plant Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Lee, Beomgi; Choi, Hakjoon; Kim, Woong; Kim, Ho-Joong; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2016-07-01

    Pine needle extract (PE) and fermented pine needle extract (FPE) have been reported to show various biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cholesterol, gastrointestinal motility control, and fibrinolytic effect. The aims of our research were to isolate fibrinolytic compounds from PE and FPE and evaluate their antithrombotic activity in vitro and in vivo. Protocatechuic (1) and shikimic (2) acids were isolated and identified from FPE. 1 and 2 not only have fibrinolysis activity but also inhibit fibrin formation similar to aspirin. Lysis of fibrin clots by 1 and 2 occurred completely at pH 2-4. Results of SDS-PAGE showed that fibrin polypeptide chains (Aα, Bβ, γ) lysed by 1 and 2 were intact. The antithrombotic effects of 1 and 2 were confirmed by models of carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis, collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice, and FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus. Moreover, 1 and 2 did not induce hemorrhage in the tail veins of mice, unlike common antithrombotic compounds. We also measured changes in the quantities of 1 and 2 obtained from FPE. As fermentation progressed, we demonstrated that the quantity of 1 steadily increased, while the quantity of 2 did not significantly change. We therefore demonstrated that FPE is an excellent resource for 1 and 2 and can be produced inexpensively in sufficient quantities for industrial-scale extraction.

  3. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China.

  4. Genetic linkage maps of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... Genetic linkage maps provide essential information for molecular breeding. ... to plants are: (1) basic knowledge of genomic structure, ... quantitative trait expression. ... 11. A-6. GAA. CTC. 126. 27. 20. A-7. GAA. CTG. 113. 19. 13. A-3 .... combinations) code (the first three letters correspond to the selective ...

  5. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Impor & Ekspor (Sieb Berbasis Web pada PT.Windu Eka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports and imports are driving the nation's economy and state revenue sources. Customs as a state agency is assigned to manage the country's income. Customs and its staff are still experiencing difficulties in reporting receipt of export and import of plant or company. One of the policy is issued, each factory or company shall make the information system to determine information about the export of finished goods and raw material imports. The problem is the lack of standardization in the information that must be made by the manufacturer or company. The problem is the lack of standardization in the information that must be made by the manufacturer or company. This study makes the design of information systems based on web-based exports and imports that can be used by all factories or companies in Indonesia, particularly in PT.Windu Eka. The design method used is the SDLC (System Development Life Cycle Analysis, Design and Testing Prototype. This information system consists of web-based software with PHP programming and MySQL database that aims to provide information online, so the reports more accessible and faster made to be reported to Customs.

  6. [Determination of loganin in Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. by TLC scanner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K M; Yang, X J; Yu, M Q; Xie, C; Xu, L Z

    1994-12-01

    The content of loganin extracted from Cornus of ficinalis was determined directly on a CS-930 TLC scanner. The method is simple and sensitive, and can serve as an index for checking the quality of C. of ficinalis.

  7. Analysis on Pentosan Content in Machilus pauhoi Kanehira Wood%刨花楠木聚戊糖的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓腊云; 覃族; 陈茜文; 何洪城

    2013-01-01

    刨花楠木中含有大量聚戊糖,具有很高的经济利用价值.该文建立了用硫代硫酸钠滴定法测定刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量的方法.主要对木材原木粉、经苯乙醇抽提后的木粉、经1%盐酸加热提取后的木粉、经热水抽提后的木粉等样品进行戊糖测定,对各种方法处理的木粉原料中的戊糖含量进行了比较.该方法操作简单,对于粗测刨花楠木粉中戊糖含量有重要意义.

  8. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PINUS DENSIFLORA SIEB.ET ZUCC.IN SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东三个主要赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑萍; 王仁卿; 朱建中; 石竹; 李慧娟

    2000-01-01

    赤松(Pinus densiflora)是山东半岛地带性针叶林的主要建群种,由于虫害严重,导致种群数量下降.对山东3个主要赤松种群的同工酶分析表明,种群内基因多样度(Hs=0.2680)水平较高,而种群间基因多样度(DST=0.0095)水平较低.总群体表现为杂合体过度,纯合体(F=-0.1290)不足.种群间基因分化度(GST=0.0342)较低,这与赤松种群寿命长、分布连续、风媒异交、种群间基因流(Nm=7.06)较强有关.虫害是导致赤松种群急剧减少的主要自然因素,而人为干扰导致生境片断化,也对赤松形成直接威胁,因此保护天然赤松种群及其生境对于赤松的持续发展具有重要意义.

  9. [Molecular genetic analysis of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population structure in anthropogenic and natural landscapes of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluzhko, A V; Tikhonov, A V; Dorokhov, D B

    2008-08-01

    The data are presented on genetic population structure of wild soybean growing in natural and anthropogenically disturbed landscapes of Primorskii krai of the Russian Federation. Comparative analysis showed that wild soybean populations exposed to anthropogenic influence exhibited lower genetic diversity than natural populations. Recommendations on conservation of the wild plant gene pools using comparative data on population genetic structures are made.

  10. Combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Euonymus alatus (THUNB. SIEB. for treatment of diabetes: A network-based pharmacology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Chen

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Qijian Heji, with proportion of 3:1, could significantly reduce the blood glucose values in kk mice, animal experiment results verified the accurate prediction of network pharmacology, and at the same time, it is verified there was a certain therapeutic effect about the combination of the two herbs on reducing the glucose value. Animal experiments and RT-PCR results showed that Qijian Heji conducted a hypoglycemic effect by modulating estrogen receptor (ESR1 and renin (REN expression.

  11. Injury to Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. ) forest in the vicinity of the smelting works at Hitachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okanoue, M.

    1958-03-01

    In the summer of 1965, smoke from a smelter at Hitachi caused injury to a national forest approximately one to three km distant. The smelter had been equipped with control devices and no previous injuries had been reported. An investigation of meteorological conditions at the time of the emission revealed the presence of a temperature inversion between Mt. Kamimine (594 m) and Sukegawa (52 m). However, these inversions are not uncommon in the area. Presumably, poisonous gas was emitted from the smelter chimney as a result of equipment malfunction just at the time of unfavorable meteorological conditions.

  12. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  13. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  14. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  15. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  16. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  17. A comprehensive strategy using chromatographic profiles combined with chemometric methods: Application to quality control of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangyuan; Xu, Zihua; Wang, Weizhong; Lu, Guocai; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2016-09-30

    For the strict quality control of herbs, a comprehensive strategy based on chromatographic profiles and chemometric methods which could reliably select quantitative indices, robustly quantitate multi-markers and systematically compare different chemometric methods was proposed and successfully applied to the quality analysis of P. cuspidatum. Based on the construction of chromatographic profiles by an efficient accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) methods, different chemometric methods were employed, namely similarity analyses (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The differences in classification of herb samples were studied for the first time. To reasonably determine the quality of herbs and evaluate different chemometric methods, a comprehensive strategy containing three key steps was performed including selection of quantitative indices, development of a reliable quantification method and adoption of an easily calculated and visible parameter. The quantitative method which was acceptable with good linearity with correlation coefficients >0.9995 and satisfactory repeatability (RSD<1.5%), precision (RSD<2.84%), reproducibility (RSD<2.88%), stability (RSD<2.85%) and recoveries (91.5%-105.6%, RSD<2.83%) was applied to quality evaluation of fourteen batches of the P. cuspidatum samples through simultaneous quantitative determination of fifteen marker compounds. The limits of quantitation of fifteen compounds ranged from 1 to 60μg/ml. From the results of the quality evaluation, it was found that the different calculation theories of the chemometric methods resulted in the variation of classifiers of samples: SA classified samples through the mean values and HCA & LDA classified similar objects.

  18. Upward mobilization of 137Cs in surface soils of Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. (hinoki) plantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2004-01-05

    The use of 137Cs has recently been adopted to estimate erosion in hinoki plantations in Japan. However, there have been several reports of the upward mobilization of 137Cs in forest humus layers. In this study, the vertical distribution of 137Cs within the soil profile was measured in a hinoki plantation. In order to confirm the upward migration of 137Cs from mineral soil to fresh surface litter and to identify mechanisms of the transfer, changes in 137Cs specific activity in the contents of litterbags were examined in a hinoki plantation. A controlled laboratory experiment was also conducted to assess the effect of microbial activity on the upward migration of 137Cs. As a result, the higher 137Cs activities in the surface organic layer of a hinoki plantation than in fresh litter and the increasing 137Cs total content of litterbags with time demonstrated the upward mobilization of 137Cs from mineral soil to the surface organic layer. Physical movement of soil particles by raindrop splash was considered an important process in 137Cs upward migration. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate an influence from soil microbial activity on the upward mobilization of 137Cs. Thus, upward migration of 137Cs and constant litter removal by runoff may induce 137Cs loss from steep forested catchments and underestimation of the 137Cs inventory leading to the overestimation of soil redistribution rates.

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Itahana, N; Kondo, T

    2004-08-01

    We established a plant regeneration system for Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic tissues were successfully induced on three kinds of Smith media from megagametophyte explants containing pre-cotyledonary embryos of C. obtusa plus-trees. Factors affecting somatic embryo maturation were examined. The concentration of polyethylene glycol 4000 in the medium was a critical factor for embryo maturation and its effective concentration was 150 g/l. The addition of 30 g/l maltose to the medium had a positive effect on embryo maturation, but sucrose was ineffective. The mature somatic embryos germinated at a germination frequency of approximately 60%, and the presence of activated charcoal was effective in stimulating plantlet growth. The plantlets acclimatized successfully in a greenhouse. To our knowledge, this is first report describing details of a plant regeneration method for C. obtusa via somatic embryogenesis.

  20. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic tissue and transgenic plant regeneration in Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Ohmiya, Y; Kondo, T

    2005-03-01

    A genetic transformation procedure for Chamaecyparis obtusa was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/pMP90, which harbours the sgfp (synthetic green fluorescent protein) visual reporter and nptII (neomycin phoshotransferase II) selectable marker genes. The highest transformation frequency was 22.5 independent transformed lines per dish (250 mg embryogenic tissue) following selection on kanamycin medium. Transgenic plantlets were regenerated through the maturation and germination of somatic embryos. The intensity of GFP fluorescence, observed under a fluorescence microscope, varied from very faint to relatively strong, depending on the transgenic line or part of the transgenic plant. The integration of the genes into the genome of regenerated plantlets was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  1. Growth variation of Paulownia Sieb. and Zucc. species and origins at the nursery stage in Kastamonu-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, S; Sivacioglu, A; Bilir, N

    2006-07-01

    The present study was carried out on Paulownia tomentosa (6), Paulownia elongate (4), Paulownia fortunei (5) and Paulownia fortunei x tomentosa (1) origins at Kastamonu Forest Nursery. The seedling height growth (SH), root collar diameter (RCD), dry root percentage (DRP) and seedling percentage (SP) of one-year old seedlings of the origins were studied for comparing growth performance of the species and origins and discussing for guidance to field stage based on nursery stage. As a result, P. tomentosa x fortunei hybrid has the highest SH (72.62 cm) among the used species. Significant difference was determined among the origins as to the SH and DRP. The maximum SH were determined for P. tomentosa Beijing-Daxin (81.32 cm) and P. elongata Beijing-Daxin (80.76 cm) origins. The maximum DRP were determined for P. tomentosa Anhui-Tongling (77%) origin. There were no significant differences based on RCD and SP among the species and the origins. Among the parents, there were important diversities for SH and RCD. As a final remark, observations and evaluations of the Paulownia studies should be included with the clonal variation for further studies because of the observed growth variations within the population.

  2. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  3. Effects of thinning on wind damage in Pinus thunbergii plantation ——Based on theoretlcal derlvation of risk—ratios for assessing wind damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJiao-jun; LIFeng-qin; CondaYutaka; TakeshiMatsuzaki; MasashiYamamoto

    2003-01-01

    Based on paper of "Theoretical derivation of risk-ratios for assessing wind damage in coastal forest",wind damage in the pine coasteal forest,which was thinned at four levels in December of 1997,was investigated for four successive growing seasons.Besides wind damage,the wind profiles outside and inside the coastal forest stand and the distributions of optical stratification porosity (OSP) were also observed.Based on these data,risk-ratios of wind damage for both individual trees and stands were estimated according to the methods developed in "Theoretical derivation of risk-ratios for assessing wind damage in a coastal forest".The results showed that risk-ratios of wind damage,which were calculated from the meen height and diameter only and from the combination of wind and stand sructure profiles,accurately predicted wind damage in the plantation.Relationships between different thinning ratios and incidence of wind damage showed that stand stability decreased soon after the thinning.This was due to the immediate effects of thinning on increasing the canopy roughness and wind load,and on decreasing the sheltering effects from surrounding trees.However,thinning strategies could improve the stability by long-term effects on growthand development of trees against extreme wind.Only canopy damage was recorded during the experimental period,no stem damage was found,even though the maximum 10-min wind speed outside the coastal forest attained 30.2m s-1.The results obtained in this study indicate that thinning is the most effective silvicultural strategy available for managing coastal forest despite the increased probability of wind damage soon after thinning.

  4. Population Genetics Diversity of Gliadin of Pinus thunbergii from Fuqing%福清黑松醇溶蛋白的群体遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若菁; 赖文胜; 方炜; 阮少宁

    2005-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术,对福清黑松群体进行醇溶蛋白的多样性分析,共获得40种图谱,9个等位基因位点.对这些位点的统计分析表明,福清黑松的多肽位点百分率P=55.56%,等位基因平均数A=3.00,平均等位基因有效数目Ae=2.28,预期杂合度He=0.533,平均实际杂合度Ho=0.402,固定指数F仅为0.246>0.该群体表现出遗传多样性水平较高,但该群体偏离了Hardy-Weinberg平衡定律,原因可能是取样偏差、群体中个体密度分布不均和个体生长状况不好,不能产生充分的随机交配,出现遗传漂移导致的.

  5. Determination of peimine and peiminine in Fritillaria thunbergii by HPLC-ELSD%HPLC-ELSD法测定浙贝母中主要生物碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛燕; 顾好粮

    2005-01-01

    目的利用HPLC-ELSD测定贝母类药材中的贝母素甲和贝母素乙.方法 XTerra RP18色谱柱(150 mm×3.9 mm ID, 5 μm),流动相为乙腈-10 mmol·L -1 NH4HCO3(浓氨水调至pH 10.10)=A∶ B系统,梯度洗脱,以ELSD检测.结果贝母素甲在1.09-4.36 μg,贝母素乙在1.04-4.16 μg与峰面积的对数值呈线性关系,回收率分别为98.96%(n=4),RSD 1.01%;98.40%(n=4),RSD 2.63%.结论本方法能够很好地测定浙贝母药材中的主要生物碱贝母素甲、贝母素乙,可用于浙贝母药材的质量控制.

  6. 浙江六十田常绿阔叶林主要乔木种生态位研究%Niche of Dominant Species in Evergreen Broadleaved Forest in Liushitian Mini Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子林; 张志祥; 刘鹏; 康华靖; 陈煜

    2007-01-01

    应用Shannon-Wiener生态位宽度指数、生态位相似性比例系数及生态位重叠指数,对浙江省六十田省级自然保护小区常绿阔叶林群落中主要乔木树种的生态位特征进行了研究.结果表明:红楠Machilus thunbergii,华东楠Machilus leptophylla,青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauca、紫楠Phoebe sheareri、木荷Schima superba、东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii具有较大的生态位宽度,分别为0.969、0.951、0.898、0.867、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.898、0.86、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.

  7. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume sieb. et zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica (treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Newton Alex

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.

  8. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaxia; Li, Dengwu; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Qiaoxiao; Fan, Sufang

    2016-12-24

    Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of J. rigida by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 10 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane, the SDS-PAGE of protein patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and α-Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.00±0.25mm) and the lowest MIC and MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of cell wall and membrane. The essential oil of J. rigida has potential antibacterial activities against K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial mechanism is the essential oil causing the irreversible damage to the cell wall and membrane, leading to the leakage of proteins and 260nm absorbing materials (DNA and RNA). Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Separation of the potential G-quadruplex ligands from the butanol extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. by countercurrent chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian; Cao, Xueli; Xu, Jing; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yalin

    2017-07-21

    G-quadruplex DNA structure is considered to be a very attractive target for antitumor drug design due to its unique role in maintaining telomerase activities. Therefore, discovering ligands with high stability of G-quadruplex structure is of great interest. In this paper, pH-zone refining counter current chromatography (CCC) and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed for the separation of potent G-quadruplex ligands from the n-butanol fraction of the crude extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, which is a traditional Chinese medicine recently found to display high inhibitory activity against several human cancer cells. The 75% aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Z. ailanthoides and its fractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol displayed almost the same G-quadruplex stabilization ability. Here, pH-zone refining CCC was used for the separation of the alkaloids from the n-butanol fraction by a seldom used solvent system composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:1:2.5) with 10mM TEA in the organic stationary phase as retainer and 10mM HCl in the aqueous mobile phase as eluter. Compounds I, II and III were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 31.2, 94.0, and 26.4mg respectively from 300mg of lipophilic fraction within 80min, which were identified as three tetrahydroprotoberberines isolated for the first time in this plant. In addition, a phenylpropanoid glycoside compound IV (Syringin), an isoquinoline (Magnoflorine, V), and two lignin isomers (+)-lyoniresiol-3α-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (VI) and (-)-lyoniresinol -3α-O-β-D -glucopyranoside (VII) were isolated by traditional CCC together with preparative HPLC. Compounds IV, V, VI and VII were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 4.0, 13.2, 6.7, and 6.5mg respectively from 960mg of hydrophilic fraction. Among the seven isolated compounds, tetrahydroprotoberberine I, II and III were found to display remarkable stabilization effects on G-quadruplex by increasing G-quadruplex's Tm approximately 10°C, which may be the most potent G-quadruplex ligands in Z. ailanthoides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactive effects of simultaneous ozone and fluoranthene fumigation on the eco-physiological status of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Forest decline has long been attributed to air pollution and acid rain/fog, with ozone having a record for damaging trees. This study investigated eco-physiological changes on Japanese red pine caused by simultaneous fumigation of O(3) (O) and fluoranthene (F) over a 90 day period. Seedlings were exposed individually or in combinations to 10 muM fluoranthene and O(3) (3 ppm and 6 ppm in 60 days and 90 days, respectively) inside growth chambers. Eco-physiological parameters monitored included gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chlorophyll content, and visual appearance. After 90 days, O + F treatment showed deleterious effects on visual needle appearance and the net photosynthesis rate near saturated irradiance. In addition, decreased levels in stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark, and total chlorophyll and Chl a: Chl b were observed. F only treatment showed similar results but in lesser magnitude compared with F + O treatment. O treatment alone showed no significant negative effect, probably due to its low concentration in the 60 day treatment. The addition of mannitol (OH radical scavenger) mitigated O + F and F negative effects. Fluoranthene deposited on Japanese red pine presents great eco-physiological damage risk, even at low O(3) concentration. Furthermore, the effects of O(3) assisted phyto-toxicity of fluoranthene on red pine may have relevance to other plant species.

  11. Fluoranthene fumigation and exogenous scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in evergreen Japanese red pine seedlings (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), and *OH is known to be a major mechanism of damage in biological systems. This study investigated and compared effectiveness of scavenging ROI generated in fluoranthene (FLU) pre-fumigated Japanese red pine seedlings. Three kinds of eco-physiological assessments were used to express the impact of the different fumigants used inside the green house. Gas exchange measurements showed negative changes induced by 10 microM FLU on Japanese pine seedlings during a 10 d exposure period whilst no negative change was found during a 5 d exposure period. Moreover, during a 14 d FLU exposure incorporating ROI scavengers, results revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chemical contents and needle dry mass per unit area of the seedlings were affected. The negative effects of FLU on the conifer were dependent on both the dose and period of FLU fumigation. Peroxidase (PERO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mannitol (MANN) were all effective scavengers of ROI. MANN scavenged *OH, the most lethal of the ROI. For practicable use, MANN is more economical, and may be the best ROI scavenger among the three considered. It can be concluded that efficient scavenging of ROI in biological systems is important to mitigate the negative effects of FLU on Japanese red pine trees.

  12. [Study of genetic diversity and spatial structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population from the Ekaterinovka in the south of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetic diversity and spatial structure of the natural wild soybean population from the neighborhood of the settlement of Ekaterinovka in Primorskii krai and on the relationship between the genetic structure of this population and its spatial organization. These data are discussed in comparison with the results of studies of wild soybean populations in the Far East region of the Russian Federation and China. Recommendations are given concerning the collection of genetic wild soybean resources.

  13. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study.

  14. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  15. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  16. Integration of the Draft Sequence and Physical Map as a Framework for Genomic Research in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jungmin; Abernathy, Brian; Nelson, William; Grant, David; Wu, Xiaolei; Nguyen, Henry T; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Yeisoo; Wing, Rod A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Jackson, Scott A

    2012-03-01

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community because of its importance as a crop, densely populated genetic maps, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole-genome shotgun sequence and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution, chromosome-based physical map linked to the sequence assemblies is still needed for whole-genome alignments and to facilitate map-based gene cloning. Three independent G. max BAC libraries combined with genetic and gene-based markers were used to construct a minimum tiling path (MTP) of BAC clones. A total of 107,214 clones were assembled into 1355 FPC (FingerPrinted Contigs) contigs, incorporating 4628 markers and aligned to the G. max reference genome sequence using BAC end-sequence information. Four different MTPs were made for G. max that covered from 92.6% to 95.0% of the soybean draft genome sequence (gmax1.01). Because our purpose was to pick the most reliable and complete MTP, and not the MTP with the minimal number of clones, the FPC map and draft sequence were integrated and clones with unpaired BES were added to build a high-quality physical map with the fewest gaps possible (http://soybase.org). A physical map was also constructed for the undomesticated ancestor (G. soja) of soybean to explore genome variation between G. max and G. soja. 66,028 G. soja clones were assembled into 1053 FPC contigs covering approximately 547 Mbp of the G. max genome sequence. These physical maps for G. max and its undomesticated ancestor, G. soja, will serve as a framework for ordering sequence fragments, comparative genomics, cloning genes, and evolutionary analyses of legume genomes.

  17. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  18. 开化王山采种基地森林群落数量分类与多样性研究%Community Type, Size Distribution and Species Diversity Analysis of Kaihua Wangshan Seed Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琪; 方腾; 汪良义; 程清明; 陈声文; 唐群儿; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    在浙江开化王山阔叶林采种基地群落学调查基础上,根据每个样地内重要值大于1.0的102种木本植物的具体数据,对3 1个样地群落类型进行聚类分析,并对各样地木本植物的物种多样性和物种丰富度指数进行分析.结果表明:(1)王山采种基地木本植物群落类型主要可分为甜槠林、拟赤杨林、短尾柯林、乌楣栲林、木荷林、马银花林、红楠林、钩栲林、杉木林9个类型,总体以常绿落叶林为主,也有少量常绿落叶阔叶混交林和人工杉木林.(2)物种多样性指数(Shannon-Weiner指数)和物种丰富度整体表现出相似趋势,即乔木层>灌木层;不同群落类型中乔灌两层的多样性指数有一定差异.%Cluster method is used to classify 31 plots via analyzing the importance value of 102 tree species, while biodiversity analysis are also used to clarify the development status of these forest plots. The results showed that (1) Communities of Wangshan forest can be classified into nine groups, the most dominant species are Castanopsis eyrei, Alniphyllum fortunei, lithocarpus harlandii, Castanopsis jucunda, Schima superba, Rhododendron ovatum, Machilus thunbergii, Castanopsis tibetana and Cunninghamia lanceolate respectively, most of them are belonged to evergreen broad-leafed forest, some of them are mixed evergreen & deciduous forest or man-made forest. (2) Species diversity and species richness indexes are larger in tree layer than that in ground layer and varied between different forest community types. This study will give advanced understanding in the status of Wangshan forest and provide some reference on forest management.

  19. 次生马尾松、金钱松混交林的针阔异龄混交林改造成效研究%Transformation of Secondary Mixed Forest of Pinus massoniana-Pseudolarix amabilis to Conifer-broadleaf Unevenaged Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良衍; 杨晓东; 曹立光

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of secondary mixed forest of Pinus massoniana-Pseudolarix amabilis was conducted with three zonal dominant broadleaved tree species.The results demonstrated that transformed forest structure changed from single-layer to multi-storied 10 years later.The proportion of neutral or shade-tolerant plants increased,zonal broadleaved species turned to be dominant in the forest,and the importance values of Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis myrsinifolia arrived 59.9% and 19.8%,and the annual growing stock was 3.73m3/ha,increased by 50% than before.Investigation of typhoon damage on transformed forest indicated lower damage index than on pure Chamaecyparis obtusa forest.%采用生态学地域潜在植被原理,选择木荷(Schima superba)、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis myrsinifolia)和红楠(Machilus thunbergii)3种地带性阔叶优势树种对次生马尾松、金钱松混交林进行针阔异龄混交林改造,分析改造后的林分结构和林分生长量的变化规律及其影响,同时分析台风对杉木机械受损的影响.结果表明:改造10 a后,试验林的林分结构由单层变为复层林;林内植物由阳性向耐阴或中性转变,地带性常绿阔叶优势树种地 位明显;更新的木荷、小叶青冈重要值分别达到59.9%和19.8%,林分平均蓄积年生长量达3.73 m3/hm2,比改造前提高50%.经台风风害林木机械受损调查表明,改造后的针阔异龄混交林林木受损指数远优于日本扁柏纯林.

  20. Soil fauna and leaf species, but not species diversity, affect initial soil erosion in a subtropical forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Assmann, Thorsten; Schuldt, Andreas; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In subtropical parts of China, high rainfall intensities cause continuous soil losses and thereby provoke severe harms to ecosystems. In woodlands, it is not the tree canopy, but mostly an intact forest floor that provides protection from soil erosion. Although the protective role of leaf litter covers against soil losses is known for a long time, little research has been conducted on the processes involved. For instance, the role of different leaf species and leaf species diversity has been widely disregarded. Furthermore, the impact of soil meso- and macrofauna within the litter layer on soil losses remains unclear. To investigate how leaf litter species and diversity as well as soil meso- and macrofauna affect sediment discharge in a subtropical forest ecosystem, a field experiment was carried out in Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province, PR China (BEF China). A full-factorial random design with 96 micro-scale runoff plots and seven domestic leaf species in three diversity levels and a bare ground feature were established. Erosion was initiated with a rainfall simulator. This study confirms that leaf litter cover generally protects forest soils from water erosion (-82 % sediment discharge on leaf covered plots compared to bare plots) and this protection is gradually removed as the litter layer decomposes. Different leaf species showed variable impacts on sediment discharge and thus erosion control. This effect can be related to different leaf habitus, leaf decomposition rates and food preferences of litter decomposing meso- and macrofauna. In our experiment, runoff plots with leaf litter from Machilus thunbergii in monoculture showed the highest sediment discharge (68.0 g m-2), whereas plots with Cyclobalanopsis glauca in monoculture showed the smallest rates (7.9 g m-2). At the same time, neither leaf species diversity, nor functional diversity showed any significant influence, only a negative trend could be observed. Nevertheless, the protective effect of the leaf

  1. Chemical constituents and cytotoxicity assay research in small polar substances from Vitis thunbergii var.taiwaniana%小叶山葡萄化学成分及细胞毒活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜超; 王文竹; 廖小军; 曾德泉; 林挺; 徐士兰; 曾锦章; 陈海峰

    2015-01-01

    该文对小叶山葡萄地上部分化学成分进行了研究,运用硅胶柱色谱,ODS中低压柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱,分析型和制备型HPLC从小叶山葡萄60%乙醇提取物大孔树脂95%乙醇-水洗脱部位分离得到12个化合物,利用高分辨质谱,核磁共振等波谱手段鉴定其结构分别为:(1) betulinic acid,(2)2,2,2'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether,(3) eriodictyol,(4)trans-ε-viniferin,(5)(+)-cis-ε-viniferin,(6)kobophenol A,(7)ampelopsin A,(8)nepalenhenol, (9) cis-miyabenol C,(10) cis-vitisin B,(11) cis-gnetin H和(12)(+)-hopeaphenol.化合物2,5,6,8,9,10,11均为首次从为葡萄属中分离得到的化合物,化合物3,7,12为首次从小叶山葡萄中分离得到的化合物.在作用浓度为50μmol.L 1下,化合物6,7和11对MCF-7(乳腺癌细胞株)具有较明显的体外生长抑制作用,其抑制率分别为66.58%,57.16%,52.84%.

  2. 青花椒中的风味物质与营养成分分析%Main Flavor and Nutritional Components of Z.schinifoliumSieb.et Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晨

    2015-01-01

    Pepper was always widely used as a seasoning that were basically purple, commonly known as red Chinese prickly ash. In recent years, green pepper became popular and get more and more loved and popularity, which had obvious re-gionality. Green pepper was also known in folk fragrant pepper son, cliff pepper, wild pepper, green pepper, dogs pepper, and so on. And its unique flavor and nutrients received attention day by day. Classifications, country of origin, main flavor substance, nutritional function, brown stain principle and differences in composition with red Chinese prickly ash of green pepper were ana-lyzed. It makes guidance for further development and utilization of green peppercorns.%一直以来,作为调料被广泛应用的花椒基本都是紫红色,俗称红花椒,近年来,随着广大食客对新奇口感的不断追求,曾经应用并不广泛、具有明显地域性的青花椒开始流行,并得到越来越多人的喜爱与追捧。青花椒在民间又被称为香椒子、崖椒、野椒、青椒和狗椒等,其独特的风味物质和营养成分正日益受到关注。本文分析了青花椒的分类和原产地,其中主要的风味物质、营养功能、褐变原理以及与红花椒的成分区别,意在为青花椒的进一步开发利用作出指导。

  3. Optimization of PCR-DGGE reaction system on rhizosphere soil microorganism for Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc%赤松根际土壤微生物PCR-DGGE反应体系优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽娜; 朴春根; 杭秋瑜; 金东淳

    2013-01-01

    为建立赤松根际土壤微生物的PCR-DGGE反应体系,以赤松根际土壤为材料,利用PCR-DGGE技术,对反应体系中的几个重要因素不同梯度进行优化,包括模板DNA、dNTPs、引物及Mg2+的用量.在25 μLPCR反应体系中,模板DNA浓度为10 ng,dNTPs浓度为0.15 mM,引物浓度为0.32 μM,Mg2+浓度为1.0 mM时,其PCR效果最佳.用该反应体系扩增出来的PCR产物,在DGGE凝胶上能够清晰地分辨出赤松根际土壤细菌和真菌多样性.这为进一步研究赤松根际土壤微生物,特别是研究赤松外生菌根奠定了基础.

  4. Isolation and identification of flavonoids from pine needle of Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc.%红松松针中黄酮类成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岩; 袁久志; 王禹孝; 张保库; 孙启时

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究红松松针中的黄酮类成分,为松属植物的化学分类学研究提供依据.方法 采用反复硅胶、聚酰胺、ODS、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱等方法进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和1H-NMR、13C-NMR等技术对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 从红松松针中分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为蛇葡萄素4'-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[ampelopsin4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,1]、槲皮素3-O-a-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖苷[quercetin 3-O-a-L-arabinofuranoside,2]、山柰酚3-O-a-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-a-L-arabinofuranoside,3]、山柰酚3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,4]、5,7,8,4'-四羟基-3-甲氧基-6-甲基黄酮8-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[5,7,8.4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylfavone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,5]、山柰酚3-O-(5"-O-反式-阿魏酰基)-a-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-(5"-O-E-feruloyl)-a-L-arabinofuranoside,6]、山柰酚3-O-(5"-O-反式一对一香豆酰基)-a-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-(5"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-a-L-arabinofuranoside,7].结论 化合物1-3为首次从松属植物中分离得到,4-7为首次从该种植物中分离得到.

  5. Study on the Properties and Extraction of Pigment from Ligustrum obtusifoliu Sieb.et Zucc%水蜡果实色素的提取及色素性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蕾

    2015-01-01

    Taking the fruits of Ligustrum obtusifoliu as materials, compared the conditions which effected the extraction of pigment and researched the properties of pigment. The results showed that the best extraction conditions were C2H5OH 30%, extraction temperature 75℃, and the ratio of soild to Liquid 1:10 (mg/mL), extraction time 90 min. The stability of Ligustrum obtusifoliu pigment to light was poor, salt was no effects to pigment properties, the antioxidant of Ligustrum obtusifoliu pigment was poor, Na2SO3 had strong reduction to Ligustrum obtusifoliu pigment, the two metal ions of Fe3+and Cu2+were likely to cause Ligustrum obtusifoliu pigment fad.%以水蜡果实为原料,对影响果实中色素的提取条件进行了比较,另对水蜡色素性质进行了研究,结果得出:提取水蜡果实色素的最佳条件为提取剂C2H5OH 30%、提取温度75℃、固液比1:10(mg/mL)、提取时间90 min;水蜡色素对光的稳定性差, 食盐对色素的性质无影响, 水蜡色素的抗氧化性差,Na2SO3对水蜡色素具有较强的还原性, Fe3+、Cu2+两种金属离子容易引起水蜡色素褪色.

  6. HPLC法测定山茱萸配方颗粒中马钱苷的含量%Determination of Loganin in Dispensing Granule of Cornus Officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蓉

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立山茱萸配方颗粒中马钱苷的含量测定方法.方法:色谱柱为HangBangC18(200*4.6mm5μm);流动相为乙腈:水(15:85);检测波长240nm;流速1.0ml/min;柱温30℃.结果:马钱苷的检测浓度线性范围为0.005~0.025 μg(r=0.9998),RSD=2.16%(n=5);平均加样回收率为98.79%,RSD=1.77%(n=6).结论:本法简便、快捷、准确,可用于山茱萸配方颗粒的含量测定.

  7. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  8. Niche characteristics of dominant species populations in Castanopsis fargesii forest in Jinggang mountain national nature reserve%井冈山国家自然保护区栲树林优势种群生态位特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁松; 欧阳杰; 吕丹; 欧阳勋志

    2014-01-01

    Based on the field survey to Jinggang Mountain National Nature Reserve evergreen broad-leaved forest, 8 environmental types for Castanopsis fargesii were selected. Using the plots which in different environmental types as resource state, and the species of important value as the state index on resource state to quantitatively analyzed the breadth, overlap, similarity of the niche dominant species populations in Castanopsis fargesii community. The results showed that: the Castanopsis fargesii, Castanopsis fabric and Machilus thunbergii had great important value and wide niche breadth. Their Hurlbert niche breadth values were 0.853、0.787、0.720, respectively. They played a decisive role in the community structure and function. The Elaeocarpus decipens only appeared in two resource states and it’s weak in resources utilization capacities. Its Hurlbert niche breadth value was 0.026;the niche overlapping of 15 dominant species populations included three degrees which consisted of high overlap, moderate overlap and low overlap, high overlap accounted for 4.8%, moderate overlap accounted for 35.2%and low overlap accounted for 60%.The low overlap found in this study suggests less fierce interspecies competition for communal resource utilization in the Castanopsis fargesii forest. There is a larger niche similarity among most of the dominant species in the Castanopsis fargesii forest, the ecological characteristics of them were similar. Comprehensive analysis shows that, the species of the Castanopsis fargesii forest had higher ability and resource utilization in the study area, and the interspecies competition was not intense. The community was in the relativeiy stable stage.%在对井冈山国家自然保护区常绿阔叶林林分调查的基础上,选择有栲树分布的不同环境类型设置8个典型样地,以不同生境的样地作为资源位,以物种重要值作为资源位上的状态指标,对栲树林优势种群的生态位宽度、生态位

  9. 21 CFR 582.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... source Algae, brown Laminaria spp. and Nereocystis spp. Algae, red Porphyra spp. and Rhodymenia palmata... (see algae, brown). Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine...

  10. Studies on effective compositions of Pine cone Ⅵ.Antitumor activity of fractions from pine cone and pine nut shell of Pinus koraiensis Sieb et Zucc and P.tabulaeformis Carr.%松果有效成分研究——Ⅵ.红松与油松松塔及松子壳的抗癌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永俊; 王士贤; 彭芳; 李好枝; 刘光明

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究松塔和松子壳的抗癌活性.方法:采用给小鼠接种肿瘤细胞法测定松塔和松子壳的抗癌活性.结果:从红松松塔的碱性水提取多糖(60mg/kg) CK-C,对S180抑瘤率为489%,而CK--DEE对U14的抑瘤率为36.0%和40.4%;对Hep A,CK---DEF作用优于环磷酰胺.结论:松塔和松子壳有效成分具有较好的抗癌作用.

  11. The new family Septorioideaceae, within the Botryosphaeriales and Septorioides strobi as a new species associated with needle defoliation of Pinus strobus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Stephen A; Broders, Kirk D

    2016-08-01

    Recent sampling of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) affected by white pine needle defoliation (WPND) within the northeastern U.S. has found that a putative new species, closely related to Septorioides pini-thunbergii, was the most frequently isolated species. Septorioides pini-thunbergii is currently the only known species of its genus in the family Botryosphaeriaceae and is associated with needle cast of Pinus thunbergii in Japan. This study aims to complete a morphological description of the putative new species and use DNA sequence data of six gene loci (SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, EF1, and RPB2) to accurately place the putative new species within the Botryosphaeriales. Morphological comparisons have shown that this putative new species is distinct from S. pini-thunbergii. Comparison of DNA sequence data has further confirmed our morphological findings, indicating the classification of a new species which we describe as Septorioides strobi sp. nov., marking the first report of the genus Septorioides within the U.S. Subsequently, our phylogenetic analysis has further revealed that S. pini-thunbergii and S. strobi do not reside within the Botryosphaereace, but comprise a new family within the order Botryosphaeriales we recognize as Septorioideaceae fam. nov. Taxonomic novelties: New family - Septorioideaceae S. Wyka & K. Broders fam. nov. New species - Septorioides strobi S. Wyka & K. Broders sp. nov.

  12. Controlling Japanese barberry: Alternative methods and impact on tick populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley

    2011-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (

  13. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  14. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  15. Drug: D04360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raniaceae (geranium family) Geranium thunbergii aerial part Major component: Geraniin [CPD:C10230] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04360 Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium herb (JP16) Crude drugs

  16. 長崎県植物誌ノ-ト(10)

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 弘樹

    1992-01-01

    Six species, one veriety and two forms including four alien plants which are newly found in Nagasaki Prefecture, and ten rare species are described in this paper.Juncus hizenensis which had not been found since the description as a new species was found again.The distribution map of Hemerocallis thunbergii in the prefecture was illustrated.

  17. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which ... Development of a juice using a mixture of Amaranthus thunbergii for ... AmaXhosa beadwork (Iintsimbi) for identity affirmation and economic ... food, nutrition security and sustainable livelihoods: a case study of Mkhambathini ...

  18. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction.

  19. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Calinger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0; Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1. Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction.

  20. 山楂树全株的药用性能与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华盛; 李丽英; 华树芳

    2005-01-01

    人们通常称为山楂的原植物有3种,即蔷薇科植物山楂(Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge)、蔷薇科植物野山楂(Crataegus cuneata Sieb.et Zucc.)和蔷薇科植物山里红(Crataegus pinnatifuda Bunge).

  1. Estratigrafía, composición y dinámica de la erupción pliniana del volcán Popocatépetl que hace 4,965 ± 65 años 14C AP produjo el depósito Pómez Ocre /

    OpenAIRE

    Arana Salinas, Lilia

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias de la Tierra, presenta Lilia Arana Salinas ; asesor Meter Schaaf, Lorenzo Vázquez, Claus Grabach Siebe. 150 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias de la Tierra UNAM, Instituto de Geofísica, 2011

  2. Detection of novel QTLs for foxglove aphid resistance in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), is a Hemipteran insect that infected a wide variety of plants worldwide and caused serious yield losses in crops. The objective of this study was to identify the putative QTL for foxglove aphid resistance in wild soybean, PI 366121, (Glycine soja Sieb...

  3. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  4. Fuelwood characteristics of some tropical trees of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two species growing in their natural habitat in Indian forests were collected and fuelwood properties viz. calorific value, ash, density, silica, moisture, carbon, nitrogen and volatile matter were determined and the Fuel Value Index (FVI) calculated to screen desirable species for potential production of fuelwood on marginal lands. The present study revealed that Osmanthus fragrans, Quercus incana, Machilus odoratissma, Lagertroemia indica and Punica granatum have the best fuelwood qualities among the species examined. The other species have calorific value within the acceptable limit except for Zanthoxylum alatum and Grewia tiliaefolia. (author)

  5. Environ: E00333 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00333 Sargassum herb Crude drug Alginic acid [CPD:C01768], Crude protein, Iodine [...CPD:C01382], Iron, Calcium, Sulfur Sargassum fusiforme, Sargassum pallidum [TAX:116055], Sargassum tortile, Sargassum... fulvellum [TAX:3016], Sargassum thunbergii [TAX:127542], Sargassum kjellmanianum, Sargassum [TAX:3015] Sargassaceae Sargass...um whole herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Brown algae E00333 Sargassum herb ...

  6. 江西官山国家级自然保护区彩叶植物资源及其开发利用%Protection and Utilization about Coloured Leaves Plants Resources of Guanshan Mountain Nature Reserve in Jiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬淑萍

    2008-01-01

    通过实地调查和统计,官山国家级自然保护区彩叶植物共有59科81属115种.重点介绍红楠(Macldus thunbergii)、山鸟桕(Sapium discolor)等8种彩叶植物的观赏特性.并对官山保护区开发利用彩叶植物资源提出建议.

  7. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Och

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L. Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L. Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica, B. thunbergii, M. aquifolium, C. cava, G. flavum, and C. majus; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3 μg/g. The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8 μg/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3 μg/g, resp., while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2 μg/g.

  8. Identification of Chinese Herbs Using a Sequencing-Free Nanostructured Electrochemical DNA Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nearly identical phenotypes and chemical constituents, it is often very challenging to accurately differentiate diverse species of a Chinese herbal genus. Although technologies including DNA barcoding have been introduced to help address this problem, they are generally time-consuming and require expensive sequencing. Herein, we present a simple sequencing-free electrochemical biosensor, which enables easy differentiation between two closely related Fritillaria species. To improve its differentiation capability using trace amounts of DNA sample available from herbal extracts, a stepwise electrochemical deposition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs was adopted to engineer a synergistic nanostructured sensing interface. By using such a nanofeatured electrochemical DNA (E-DNA biosensor, two Chinese herbal species of Fritillaria (F. thunbergii and F. cirrhosa were successfully discriminated at the DNA level, because a fragment of 16-mer sequence at the spacer region of the 5S-rRNA only exists in F. thunbergii. This E-DNA sensor was capable of identifying the target sequence in the range from 100 fM to 10 nM, and a detection limit as low as 11.7 fM (S/N = 3 was obtained. Importantly, this sensor was applied to detect the unique fragment of the PCR products amplified from F. thunbergii and F. cirrhosa, respectively. We anticipate that such a direct, sequencing-free sensing mode will ultimately pave the way towards a new generation of herb-identification strategies.

  9. Diet of the endangered big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik-Hei Sung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds. Fruits, primarily of Machilus spp., were most frequently consumed, followed by insects, plant matter, crabs and mollusks. The niche breadth of adults was wider than that of juveniles. Diet composition differed between sites, which may be attributable to the history of illegal trapping at some sites, which reduced the proportion of larger and older individuals. Digestion of Machilus spp. fruits by P. megacephalum enhanced germination success of seeds by about 30%. However, most digested seeds are likely defecated in water in this highly aquatic species, which limits the potential benefit to dispersal. The results of our study can be used by conservation-related captive breeding programs to ensure a more optimal diet is provided to captive P. megacephalum.

  10. Diet of the endangered big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Billy C.H.; Karraker, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds. Fruits, primarily of Machilus spp., were most frequently consumed, followed by insects, plant matter, crabs and mollusks. The niche breadth of adults was wider than that of juveniles. Diet composition differed between sites, which may be attributable to the history of illegal trapping at some sites, which reduced the proportion of larger and older individuals. Digestion of Machilus spp. fruits by P. megacephalum enhanced germination success of seeds by about 30%. However, most digested seeds are likely defecated in water in this highly aquatic species, which limits the potential benefit to dispersal. The results of our study can be used by conservation-related captive breeding programs to ensure a more optimal diet is provided to captive P. megacephalum. PMID:27994979

  11. Antiviral compounds and one new iridoid glycoside from Cornus officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    From Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of four active tannin compounds with high effectiveness of inhibiting Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease in vitro. The compounds are: 1, 2, 3, 6-tetragalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose ( 1 ), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6- pentagalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), Tellimagrandin Ⅰ (3) and Tellimagrandin Ⅱ (4). The four compounds could inhibit HCV NS3 protease in vitro with IC50 values of 6.98, 5.11, 7.0 and 4.8 μmol/L respectively. In addition, a new iridoid glycoside (5) was also isolated from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., which was assigned to be 7-O-butyl morroniside by spectroscopic analysis.

  12. 烟台市植物区系新记录%New recorded plants from Yantai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 解孝满; 李文清; 刘启虎; 姜成平; 王仁滋

    2014-01-01

    通过林木种质资源调查,发现烟台市木本植物分布新记录2种1变种,即青风藤科的多花泡花树Meliosma myriantha Sieb.et Zucc、鼠李科的崂山鼠李Rhamnus laoshanensis和柿树科的野柿Diospyros kaki var.sylvestris.

  13. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Xinjiang [Zhang Pingquan; NONGYE JINGJl WENTI, 23 Oct 87] 72 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China [Xu Bao, ct at.; ZIIONGGUO NONGYE...should be suitably limited. 12986 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China 40110011 Beijing ZHONGGUO NONGYE KEXUE [SCIENTIA...of Agricultural Sciences, Gongzhuling, Jilin] [Text] In 1981-1985, the photo-thermo effects on the development of wild soybean (G. soja Sieb, et

  14. 西藏被子植物新记录%New Records of Angiosperm Plants in Xizang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪书丽; 罗建

    2013-01-01

    报道了西藏被子植物3种新记录,即石竹科(Caryophyllaceae)的坚硬女娄菜(Silene firma Sieb.et Zucc.)、川续断科(Dipsacaceae)的绿花刺参(Morina chlorantha Diels)和菊科(Asteraceae)的粘毛香青[Anaphalis bulley-ana(J.F.Jeffr.)Chang].

  15. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume II. Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Spring Flora Sincies Area I Area 2 Area 3 (Flowerina) I o HERBACEOUS PLANTS Taraxacum officinale Weber. 5 5 x (dandel ion) Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb & 2...Rowlee Sand-bar willow Salix ap. Willow Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Green ash Ulmus americana L. American elm Rhus typhina L. Staghorn sumac Taraxacum ... officinale Weber. Dandelion Trifolium pratense L. Red clover Barbarea vulgaris R. Sr. Winter cress 110 Table 14 (continued). Genus and Species comison

  16. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  17. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-22

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  18. Study on the Effect of Six Sawdust Media on the Growth of the Strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk%6种木屑培养基对银耳菌种生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彪; 戴维浩; 林雄平; 雷银清; 阮毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide the medium optimization and high yield and good quality information, effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth and development, yield and quality on 6 kinds of sawdust medium was studied, [method] 6 tree as culture medium of Multiple hatches of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth was tested on Six Sawdust Media from different tree including Cyelobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ) Oerst. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Sapium sebiferum (L. ) Roxb. and Alniphyllum forut-nei (Hemsl. )Makino. [Result] Tremella fuciformis Berk grew well on six tree media, but growth indexes were different on different tree media. Among these media, Machilus pauhoi Kanehira was the most appropriate, Alniphyllum fortunei (Hemsl. ) Makino was the last one. On Cyclobalarwpsis glauca (Thunb. )Oerst. medium, the mycelium grew slowly ,but strongly and yellowish green, biological efficiency was higher , dried product conversion rate reaching 11. 5% , having better quality. The other tree medium showed general at all aspects. [Conclusion] 6 kinds of tree sawdust medium was suitable for growth as culture medium raw material of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk. Controlling these tree as culture medium, Machilus pauhoi was the best culture medium raw material, followed by Cyclohalanopsis glauca ( Thunb. ) Oerst. , then Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Alniphyllum forutnei (Hemsl. ) Makino.%[目的]研究6种木屑培养基对银耳(Tremella fuciformis Berk)生长发育、产量及品质的影响,为银耳菌种培养基的优化以及银耳的优质高产提供资料.[方法]6个适生银耳树种作为培养基[①青冈木[ Cyclobalanopsis glauca( Thunb.) Oerst.]木屑73%;②柿树(Diospyros kaki L.f.)木屑73%;③盐肢木(Rhus chinensis Mill.)木屑73%;④刨花楠(Machilus pauhoi Kanehira)木屑73%;⑤乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.]木屑73

  19. 浙江六十田常绿阔叶林主要乔木种生态位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子林; 张志祥; 刘鹏; 康华靖; 陈煜

    2007-01-01

    应用Shannon-Wiener生态位宽度指数、生态位相似性比例系数及生态位重叠指数,对浙江省六十田省级自然保护小区常绿阔叶林群落中主要乔木树种的生态位特征进行了研究.结果表明:红楠Machilus thunbergii、华东楠Machilus leptophylla、青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauca、紫楠Phoebe sheareri、木荷Schima superba、东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii具有较大的生态位宽度,分别为0.969、0.951、0.898、0.867、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.

  20. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  1. A brief account of coast vegetation near Port Elizabeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment and vegetation of an area of coast north-east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, are briefly described. Five major vegetation categories are recognized. These are: 1.  Scaevola thunbergii Pioneer Vegetation of  littoral dunes and  Ficinia lateralis Sedgeland of calcrete gravel; 2.  Olea exasperata Bush,  Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus Bushclumps and Dune Woodland; 3. Sundays River Scrub; 4. Fynbos of calcrete areas; and 5.  Themeda triandra Grassland. Invasion of the area by Acacia cyclops (Australian W'attle is described. A recommendation for the conservation of the area as a nature reserve is made.

  2. 草地改良对陆地生态系统养分的影响--以福建省建瓯市牛坑龙草地生态系统试验站为例%Effects of grassland amelioration on terrestrial ecosystem nutrients:a case study in Jianou Niukenglong Grassland Ecosystem Experimental Station, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱连奇; 许叔明; 陈沛云

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of land cover changes on distributions and circulations of nutrients in a terrestrial ecosystem, taking Jianou Niukenglong Grassland Ecosystem Experimental Station as a case study. During a two year experiment from 1994 to 1996, the land cover types were changed from desert slopeland to grasslands, in particular, Chamaecrista rotundifolia(pers) green +Pasalum thunbergii and Glvcine max var. + Pasalum thunbergii. In order to study land cover change cffects on nutrients in the terrestrial ecosystem, we selected organic materials (OMs), nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and aluminum (Al) to study their changes in total soil nutrient concentrations, nutrient reserves in soil, distributions and reservations of nutrients in distinct grassland communities and overall nutrient contents reserved in terrestrial ecosystem, and their circulation with land cover change. The experimental results indicate that with the increase of vegetation coverage, the total concentrations of N, P and K grow rapidly in the soil, but that of Al decreases markedly. The increases of the total concentrations of N, P and K were mainly the consequences of changes of the factors that affect soil evolution, e.g., soil moisture, and changes of soil evolution processes, e.g.,weathering rate and the decrease of soil erosion. These changes were caused by land coverage growth from desert slopeland to grassland. With the change of the land cover types and the increase of land coverage, the activity of Al accelerated as well, and the vertical penetration and lateral penetration of Al have been increased. Therefore, the loss of Al within the experimental terrestrial ecosystem was inevitable, and the total concentration and reserve of Al in soil have become smaller and smaller, in spite of the growth of grass absorbing some amounts of Al. The Al reserve has increased in vegetation,but it has declined in total terrestrial ecosystem. Land cover change also affects the

  3. 松毛虫防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丽颖

    2009-01-01

    @@ 松毛虫鳞翅目Lepidoptera枯叶蛾科Lasio-campidae松毛虫属Tolype昆虫.主要种类有马尾松毛虫Dendrolimus Punctatus(Walker),思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura、油松毛虫Den-drolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu、落叶松毛虫Dendrolimus superans (Butler)等等,主要危害马尾松Pinus massoniana Lamb.、黑松Pinus thunbergii Parl.、湿地松Pinus elliottii Engelm.等.

  4. Disturbance is required for CO2-dependent promotion of woody plant growth in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loveys, Beth R.; Egerton, John J. G.; Bruhn, Dan;

    2010-01-01

    The relative effects of disturbance (here defined as bare soil), competition for edaphic resources, thermal interference and elevated [CO2] on growth of tree seedlings in grasslands were studied under field conditions. Snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) seedlings were grown in open...... due to competition with grass for soil resources or to alteration of the thermal environment caused by a grassy surface (Ball et al. 2002). After the first major autumn frost, seedlings growing in competition with grass lost 59% of their canopy area, whereas those growing in bare soil or straw...

  5. Pharmacological Effects of Benzyl Glucoside and Chlorogenic Acid from Prunus mume Fruit%李属科水果中苯甲基糖苷和氯基因酸的药理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊奈郊二

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fruit of Prunus mume SIEB.et ZUCC.(Rosaceae)has been traditionally used as medicinal food in Japan.In the course of our search on the pharmacologically active constituents of P.nune fruit, we found that the ethanol extract of P.nume showed a remarkable antihypertensive effect.Benzyl glucoside (BG)and chlogenic acid (CA)were isolated from the extract as active components.At this time, I wish to report on antihypertensive effects,antinociceptive effects and antistressive effects of BG and CA.1-3)

  6. Resonance scattering spectroscopy of gold nanoparticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gold nanoparticles in diameter of 10-95 nm have been prepared by Frens procedure, all of which exhibit a resonance scattering peak at 580 nm. The mechanism of resonance scattering for gold nanoparticle has been considered according to the wave motion theory of nanoparticle in liquid. The principle of superamolecular interface energy band(SIEB) has been set up and utilized to explain the relationship between the diameter and colors for gold nanoparticle in liquid. A novel spectrophotometric ruler for the determination of the diameter has been proposed according to the relationship of the maximum absorption wavelength and diameter.

  7. Biosynthesis of monoterpenoids in higher plants. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from amino acids with a carbon-skeleton similar to mevalonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tange, K. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-09-01

    Radioisotopically labeled L-valine, DL-alanine, sodium acetate, and DL-mevalonic acid were incorporated into linalool by the intact plant of Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. var. linalooliferum Fujita and into geraniol and citronellol by that of Pelargonium roseum Bourbon. The uptake of leucine and valine resulted in the preferential location of the radioactivity on the 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety of these acyclic monoterpenoids, whereas the uptake of alanine resulted in the preferential location on the isopentenyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety, much as in the cases of mevalonic acid and sodium acetate. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from the amino acids is discussed.

  8. RISK-FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES FOR TREATMENT OF STEROID-INDUCED BONE INFARCTION OF FEMORAL HEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Hu, Ningning; Miao, Xuman

    2016-01-01

    During first year of steroid usage, osteocyte necrosis and blood vessel blockage may occur, which subsequently may produce steroid-induced bone infarction (SIBI) resulting in painful movement of patient. For treatment of SIBI, pharmaceutical strategy is the basic approach. It involves the use of various pharmacologically active compounds including bisphosphonates, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), coenzyme Q10, erythropoietin, antihyperlipidemics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and tissue repair protein. Out of these, there is no pharmaceutical agent that may completely treat this disease because many factors are found to be responsible for SIBI development; therefore, there are multiple biomarkers of this disease. This situation argues for need of new therapeutic agents for SIEB1.

  9. A stepwise protocol for induction and selection of prominent coniferous cell cultures for the production of β-thujaplicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Shichiken, Masahito; Ito, Chizuru; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taiji; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the potential of plant cell culture systems to produce a target natural bioactive compound, we proposed a stepwise protocol for β-thujaplicin production as follows. 1. Induction phase: Characteristics of callus cultures originating from newly flushed shoots of 10 conifer species were evaluated on different basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS), Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH), and Lloyd and McCown's Woody Plant medium (WP) containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combination with 1 μM of N6-benzyladenine (BA). The conifer species used were as follows: Chamaecyparis (C. obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. and C. pisifera Sieb. et Zucc.), Juniperus (J. chinensis L. 'Kaizuka', J. chinensis L. var. sargentii, and J. conferta Parlatore), Thuja (T. occidentalis L. and T. standishii (Gord.) Carr.), Thujopsis (T. dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. and T. dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. var. hondae), and Cryptomeria (C. japonica D. Don). We observed the phenotypes of each callus to determine the optimal conditions for callus induction and to infer biosynthetic activity of the calli over 4-8 weeks. 2. Habituation phase: Each of the cell cultures obtained was transferred to a modified MS medium containing 680 mg L(-1) KH2PO4 and 10 μM Picloram to select the habituated cells with synchronous growth pattern. The growth of each cell culture was highly improved in the habituation medium, except that of J. chinensis 'Kaizuka'. 3. Metabolite-production phase: The concentration of β-thujaplicin (known as hinokitiol in Japan) in the shoots of donor trees and the habituated cell cultures was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histochemical characteristics of the cells were also observed using laser scanning microscopy (LSM) imaging. After the third step, we tested the biosynthetic activity of two habituated calli (C. obtusa and J. conferta) on a 0.3%, w/v, yeast extract (YE)-containing medium. We found significant improvement

  10. Comparison of Natural Regeneration for Three Different Conifer Species on Zhanggutai Sandyland%章古台沙地3种不同针叶树种天然更新对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长全; 刘淑玲; 郝春英; 吴晓文

    2012-01-01

    通过对章古台沙地樟子松、赤松、油松等3种不同针叶树种天然更新对比试验,结果表明,3种针叶树1年生天然更新强度分别为3 594~5 133、20 300~50 000和8 300~13 900株.hm-2;赤松天然更新的强度好于油松,油松好于樟子松;樟子松天然更新1年生幼苗较难越冬,经覆盖后幼苗越冬成活率达66%;赤松、油松1年生幼苗相对较易越冬,越冬成活率分别为17.20%和20%,经覆盖后幼苗越冬成活率分别为54.94%和51.28%。因此,应采取人工促进措施进行樟子松、赤松、油松天然更新。%Comparative experiments of natural regeneration for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.and Pinus tabulaeformis exist on Zhanggutai’s sandyland in Zhangwu county of Liaoning province were conducted.Natural regeneration intensity of one-year-old three conifer species are separately 3 594-5 133,20 300-50 000 & 8 300-13 900 plants·hm-2;the intensity of natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.is optimal than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;the intensity of natural regeneration of Pinus tabulaeformis is optimal than that of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica;natural regeneration of one-year-old Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica seedlings are difficult to live through winter.Survival rate of seedlings should increase by 66% after covering.One-year-old seedlings of Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.& Pinus tabulaeformis whose overwintering survival rate are 17.20% & 20%,respectively,are relatively easy to live through winter;survival rate of seedlings are 54.94% & 51.28% after covering.Therefore,artificial measures should be taken to promote the natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc.,Pinus tabulaeformis. 更多

  11. 废弃物管理词汇对照(三十七)%Vocabulary of Waste Management(37)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于次丽

    2005-01-01

    @@ (上接2005年第3期第42页) 000435 中文术语:筛分分析 德文术语:Siebanalyse 英文术语:sieve analysis 俄文术语:ситовыйанализ 000436 中文术语:筛上物 中文定义:过筛后筛网表面剩余物质 德文术语:Siebreste 德文定义:Rückstande aus dem Siebüberlauf nach einer Grob-oder Feinabsiebung(z.B.von Komposten)

  12. Leaf anatomy of the genus Ehrharta (Poaceae in southern Africa: the Villosa group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of Ehrharta villosa Schult. f. var.  villosa, var.  maxima Stapf and  E. thunbergii Gibbs Russell is described and illustrated. These three taxa, constituting the Villosa species group, share a diagnostic leaf anatomy distinguished by the absence of a distinct midrib, adaxial semi-radiate mesophyll with the abaxial chloren- chyma palisade-like in arrangement, rectangular long cells and the stomatal apertures which are overlapped by four cuticular flanges projecting from the two adjacent interstomatal cells. These combined attributes characterize this species group, and the stomatal flanges are unique to this group in the genus Ehrharta Thunb. Microhairs are absent in  E. villosa but are present in  E. thunbergii which also possesses abaxial prickles and plentiful, rounded silica bodies not associated with cork cells as in  E. villosa. These two taxa can. therefore, be separated anatomically. Nevertheless, they share many features and are undoubtedly closely related and their classification in the same species group is substantiated by the anatomical evidence presented in this paper.

  13. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  14. A non-derivative method for the quantitative analysis of isosteroidal alkaloids from Fritillaria by high performance liquid chromatography combined with charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Guo, Zhimou; Acworth, Ian N; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye; Liang, Lina

    2016-05-01

    A non-derivative method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of isosteroidal alkaloids from Fritillaria thunbergii. During method development the performance of two universal detectors, the charged aerosol detector (CAD) and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), were evaluated. The CAD was found to be 30 to 55 times more sensitive than ELSD enabling the measurement of low levels of reference compound impurities that could not be detected by ELSD. The peak area percent of the reference compound, peimisine, obtained by CAD was 50.10%, but 91.66% by ELSD showing that CAD is suitable to estimate the presence of impurities. The CAD showed good reproducibility with overall intra- and inter-day peak area RSD values of less than 1.8% and 2.7%, respectively and had a linear dynamic range of up to 4 orders of magnitude (0.06-44mg/L) for peimine and peiminine. The optimized method was used for the quantitative analysis of peimine and peiminine from F. thunbergii.

  15. Morphometric Variation in Pine Wood Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus, Isolated from Multiple Locations in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yil-Sung Moon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation in morphometry of pine wood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in relation to geographical locations in South Korea was investigated using morphometric characters (body length, a, b and c ratio, stylet length, and spicule length for a male nematode and V (% value for a female nematode. B. xylophilus was isolated from Pinus thunbergii in Jinju (1998, Ulsan (2000, Yangsan (2000, Mokpo (2001 and Jeju (2004, and from P. densiflora in Gumi (2001. B. mucronatus was isolated from P. thunbergii in Jinju (1991 and from P. densiflora in Milyang (2001. The body length of male and female B. xylophilus had the highest coefficient of variability and showed significant differences among geographical locations. The V (% value for female B. xylophilus showed the lowest coefficient of variability, changing little with geographical area and host plant. All morphometric characters in B. mucronatus except for stylet length and female body length showed no significant differences between locations or hosts, suggesting they may not be affected by geographical area or host plant.

  16. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.

    1988-12-01

    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-03

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  18. Differential response of two Pinus spp. to avian nitrogen input as revealed by nitrogen isotope analysis for tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Temporal variations in N concentration and δ(15)N value of annual tree rings (1 year of time resolution) of two Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) and three Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) trees under current breeding activity of the Great Cormorant (Pharacrocorax carbo) and the Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris), respectively, in central and northeastern Japan were studied. Both species from control sites where no avian input occurs show negative values (δ(15)N = around -4 ‰ to -2 ‰) which are common among higher plants growing under high rainfall regimes. The δ(15)N values of P. densiflora show uniformly positive values several years before and after the breeding event, indicating N translocation that moved the absorbed N of a given growth year to tree rings of the previous year while a clear historical value of soil N dynamics was kept intact in the annual rings of P. thunbergii. Long-term N trends inferred from tree rings must take into account tree species with limited translocation rates that can retain actual N annual acquisition.

  19. Mechanistic studies of the transport of peimine in the Caco-2 cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. Moreover, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that F. thunbergii Miq. has efficacy in the treatment of leukemia and cancers of the liver and cervix. Although the alkaloid, peimine, is largely responsible for these pharmacological effects, it has very low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of peimine in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Having demonstrated that peimine is non-toxic to Caco-2 cells at concentrations <200 μmol/L, the effect of peimine concentration, pH, temperature, efflux transport protein inhibitors and EDTA-Na2 on peimine transport were studied. The results show that peimine transport is concentration-dependent; that at pH 6.0 and 7.4, the Papp(AP-BL of peimine is not significantly different but the Papp(BL-AP is; that both Papp(AP-BL and Papp(BL-AP at 4 °C are significantly higher than their corresponding values at 37 °C; that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, increase absorption of peimine; and that EDTA-Na2 has no discernible effect. In summary, the results demonstrate that the intestinal absorption of peimine across Caco-2 cell monolayers involves active transport and that peimine is a substrate of P-gp.

  20. Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils. Correlation with the contents of organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Onda, Yuichi [School of Agricultural Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Hamajima, Yasunori [Department of Chemistry, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa (Japan)

    1998-10-27

    The spatial and vertical distributions of {sup 137}Cs in surface soils were surveyed and analyzed then correlated with the contents of organic carbon in the hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantation forest and secondary forest dominated by red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. The spatial variation of {sup 137}Cs activity was observed in the surface soil around the red pine. The average activity of 16 samples around the tree is 42.4 Bq/kg and the standard deviation is 25.9 Bq/kg. This finding indicates the importance in the selection of a sampling site and the number of samples from the surface soils especially around a tree. For the vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity, it was found that the concentration in the surface soil is highest, 149 Bq/kg in the hinoki stand and 101 Bq/kg in the red pine stand, and decreases with depth. The relationship between {sup 137}Cs activity and carbon content in the forest soil was investigated in two undisturbed forest stands. The relations were more precisely expressed using an exponential equation than by a linear equation. From the same forest, similar regression equations were obtained. This indicates that the distribution of {sup 137}Cs could be characterized by the organic carbon content in an undisturbed forest. It is also suggested that the coefficient values in the regression equation help to define the movement of {sup 137}Cs accompanying the decomposition of organic matter

  1. Textual research on the original plants of Bizi and Feishi —Also a discussion with Dr. Chen Chong- ming%彼子和榧实原植物的本草考证——兼与陈重明先生等商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁振声

    2011-01-01

    In most Chinese herbal books since Tang dynasty, Bizi in Shen Nong's Herbal Classic and Feishi in Other Plant Records by Famous Doctors were taken as the same plant with Feizi recorded in Herbal Plant of Tang Dynasty. However,modem researchers take the seed of Torreya grandis Fort. exLindl. as the original plant of Feizi. According to my researches, Bizishould be a species in Cephalotaxus Sieb. et Zucc., and Feishishould be a species in Taxus L. The modem Feizi is not the same plant of Bizi and Feishi.%中国唐代以来的多数本草著作,均认定中的彼子和中的榧实,与中的榧子为同物.现代中药学论著考订其原植物为今红豆杉科榧树(榧子)Torreya grandis Fort.ex Lindl..殊误.经全面考证后确认,彼子是今三尖杉科三尖杉属Cephalotaxus Sieb.et Zucc.植物,榧实是红豆杉科红豆杉属TaxusL.植物,后世本草中的榧子与它们并非同物.

  2. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Seob Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women.

  3. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  4. Response Characteristics of Five Native Plants of South China to Salt Stress and Evaluation of Their Salt Tolerance%盐胁迫下5种华南乡土植物的反应特性及耐盐性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竹妍; 蔡静如; 钱瑭璜; 唐彪; 赵克奇; 沈彦会; 刘晓娇; 廖浩斌

    2015-01-01

    采用盆栽方法,以短序润楠、格木、合欢、假苹婆、玉蕊这5种实生苗为材料,用不同浓度的NaCl溶液进行处理,对盐胁迫下各树种的形态表现、生理指标响应进行研究,结果表明:(1)5个物种在盐胁迫过程中受害程度随着胁迫浓度增加而加重,在同一盐浓度下,受害指数随胁迫时间的延长而逐渐增大,高浓度胁迫30 d后,合欢的存活率高达90%,短序润楠、假苹婆和格木仍有30%以上的存活率。(2)各物种相对电导率、丙二醛含量均有不同程度的增加,同时积累可溶性糖和脯氨酸,大多数物种的可溶性糖先升高后下降,脯氨酸含量显著上升,但各物种上升趋势不同;在盐胁迫后,Na+和K+浓度显著升高。(3)结合存活率和隶属函数法进行综合评价可知,5种参试植物分为4类:合欢和假苹婆为强耐盐植物,短序润楠和格木为中等耐盐植物,玉蕊为弱耐盐植物。%The morphological characteristics and physiological indexes of seedlings of Machilus breviflora, Erythor phleum fordii, Albizia julibrissin, Sterculia lanceolata and Barringtonia racemosa under salt stress were investigated .The seedlings were cul-tivated in pots that were treated with different concentrations of NaCl .The results showed that:(1) In the process of salt stress, the vulnerability of these five indigenous plants increased with the increase in NaCl concentration and in stress time at the same salt con -centration;after being treated with high concentration of NaCl for 30 days, the survival rate of Abli zia julibris in was as high as 90%, and that of Machilus breviflora, Sterculia lanceolata and Erythrophleum fordii was still more than 30%.( 2) Under the salt stress , the relative conductivity and MDA content of each species increased to some extent , and their soluble sugar and proline were accu-mulated.The soluble sugar content of most species first

  5. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those fed with untreated L. japonica feedstuff (mean weight gain of 1.31 g). At the same time, they also showed significantly higher levels of amylase, protease, and alginate lyase activities than the other groups. These individuals and those fed with the commercial feedstuff or heat-inactivated but B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonicas feedstuff showed enhanced levels of activities for the immune enzymes nitric oxide synthase, lysozyme, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase, compared to those fed with nontreated L. japonica feedstuff. Furthermore, A. japonicus individuals fed with B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonica feedstuff exhibited greater resistance to disease following Vibrio splendidus challenge, as shown by the much lower cumulative symptom (10 %) compared to the rest, which showed as much as 73 % in the case of individuals fed with the untreated L. japonica feedstuff. Analysis of their intestinal tract revealed a much lower number of total Vibrio sp. These results demonstrated that L. japonica in which the algin

  6. New records of vascular plants in Zhejiang Province%浙江维管植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬耀; 谢文远; 陈锋; 刘宝权; 陈征海

    2016-01-01

    报道了浙江维管植物分布新记录10种,分别为:睫毛蕨科Pleurosoriopsidaceae的睫毛蕨 Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin;榆科Ulmaceae的山黄麻 Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara;樟科Lauraceae的华南木姜子 Litsea greenmaniana Allen和黄枝润楠 Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei;景天科Crassu‐laceae的东至景天 Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi和高岭景天 Sedum tricarpum Makino ;紫金牛科Myrsinaceae的少年红 Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C .Chen;禾本科 Poaceae的广州鼠尾粟 Sporobolus hancei Rendle、远东芨芨草 Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo和南荻 Miscanthus lutarioriparius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen .其中,睫毛蕨科为浙江新记录科.凭证标本保存于浙江农林大学植物标本室(ZJFC ).%Ten species are reported for the first time in Zhejiang Province ,i .e .Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin of Pleurosoriopsidaceae ,Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara of Ulmaceae ,Litsea greenmaniana Allen and Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei of Lauraceae ,Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi and Sedum tricarpum Makino of Crassulaceae ,Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C . Chen of Myrsinaceae , Sporobolus hancei Rendle ,Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo and Miscanthus lutarioripa‐rius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen of Poaceae .Pleurosoriopsidaceae is a newly recorded family in Zhejiang Province .The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University (ZJFC ) .

  7. Enhanced stability and antibacterial efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine-mediated silver nanoparticle delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun WJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenjie Sun,1,2,* Ding Qu,1,* Yihua Ma,1 Yan Chen,1,2 Congyan Liu,1 Jing Zhou11Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used as antibacterial products in various fields. Recent studies have suggested that AgNPs need an appropriate stabilizer to improve their stability. Some antibacterial traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs contain various reductive components, which can not only stabilize AgNPs but also enhance their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we developed a series of novel AgNPs using a TCM extract as a stabilizer, reducing agent, and antimicrobial agent (TCM-AgNPs. A storage stability investigation of the TCM-AgNPs suggested a significant improvement when compared with bare AgNPs. Further, conjugation of TCMs onto the AgNP surface resulted in stronger antimicrobial potency on antibacterial evaluation using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration 50% (MIC50 ratios (and minimum bactericidal concentration 90% [MBC90] ratios of AgNPs to respective TCM-AgNPs as assessment indices. Among these, P. cuspidatum Sieb. et-conjugated AgNPs (P.C.-AgNPs had the advantage of a combination of TCMs and AgNPs and was studied in detail with regard to its synthesis and characterization. The extraction time, reaction temperature, and concentrations of AgNO3 and Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et extract were critical factors in the preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. Further, the results of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated successful preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. In representative studies, P.C.-AgNPs showed a well-defined spherical shape, a homogeneous

  8. Contributions to the Taxonomy of the Genus Phyllostachys (Gramineae:Bambusoideae)%竹亚科刚竹属植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广辉

    2013-01-01

      描述了竹亚科Bambusoideae刚竹属Phyllostachys的2新种和5个新变型:瓜水竹Ph. longiciliata、浙江甜竹Ph. zhejiangensis、黄槽黄古竹Ph. angusta f. flavosulcata、绿槽人面竹Ph. aurea f. koi、蝶毛竹 Ph. edulis f. abbreviata、黄条燥壳竹Ph. hirtivagina f. flavovittata和笔笋竹Ph. nidularia f. basipilis;作出3个新组合变型:厚皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. pachyloen、安吉锦毛竹Ph. edulis f. anjiensis和花秆早竹Ph. violascens f. viridisulcata;对金条竹Ph. aureosulcata f. flavostriata、对花竹Ph. bambusoides f. duihuazhu、黄槽斑竹Ph. bambusoides f. mixta和黄皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. holochrysa的模式标本给予了重新指定.%Two species and five forms of Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc. (Bambusoideae), Ph. longiciliata G. H. Lai, Ph. zhejiangensis G. H. Lai, Ph. angusta McClure f. flavosulcata G. H. Lai, Ph. aurea Carr. ex A. et C. Riv. f. koi G. H. Lai, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. abbreviata G. H. Lai, Ph. hirtivagina G. H. Lai f. flavovittata G. H. Lai and Ph. nidularia Munro f. basipilis G. H. Lai, are described as new to science, and the photos of the living plants are provided. Three new combinations including Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. pachyloen (G. Y. Yang et al.) Y. L. Ding, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. anjiensis (P. X. Zhang) G. H. Lai and Ph. violascens (Carr.) A. et C. Riv. f. viridisulcata (P. X. Zhang et W. X. Huang) G. H. Lai are proposed. The type specimens of Ph. aureosulcata McClure f. flavostriata S. J. Zhao, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. duihuazhu C. J. Wu, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. mixta Z. P. Wang et N. X. Ma and Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. holochrysa (Muroi et K. Kasahara) Ohrnberger are newly designated here.

  9. Dune advancement 1937—1977 at the Mlalazi Nature Reserve, Mtunzini, Natal, South Africa, and a preliminary vegetation-succession chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foredune advancement on a 2 km coastline north of the Siaya Lagoon Mouth was studied using air photos. Between 1937 and 1977 the dunes advanced about 95 m (2,4 m per year. Vegetation was dated according to its position on a  profile. If a 2,4 m per year seaward advancement of the dunes is assumed, the following succession chronology is  obtained: Scaevola thunbergii Foredunes from 0 to 30 years; Passerina rigida Open Dune Scrub 30 to60 years; Closed Dune Scrub 60 to 90 years and Dune Forest beginning at about 90 years. Variation in dune advancement rates on different coastal stretches and for different time intervals was observed and will be reported on later. This dune succession chronology should, therefore, only be seen as a first rough approximation.

  10. AINTEGUMENTA homolog expression in Gnetum (gymnosperms) and implications for the evolution of ovulate axes in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Hirayama, Yumiko; Imaichi, Ryoko; Kato, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    The expression of GpANTL1, a homolog of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) found in the gymnosperm Gnetum parvifolium, was analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. GpANTL1 was expressed in the leaf primordia, root tips, and young ovules. In the ovulate axis, expression was detected as four distinct rings around the outer, middle, and inner envelope primordia as well as around the nucellar tip. This pattern of expression is similar to that of ANT in Arabidopsis thaliana. A comparison of the expression of GpANTL1 with that of PtANTL1 in the conifer Pinus thunbergii suggests that the integrated expression of PtANTL1 may have been caused by congenital fusion of the integument, ovuliferous scale, and bract.

  11. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  12. 紫叶小檗叶红色素的提取%AAAAAAAAAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎芬

    2001-01-01

    This essay studied the extraction of red pigment that was obtained by aqueous extraction from the purple leaf barberry (B.Thunbergii Var.),refined by macroporous resin, and its basic properties. The results show that the red pigment was stability under acid condition,and the extract method was simple.%对紫叶小檗叶红色素的提取工艺及基本性质进行了初步研究,结果表明:紫叶小檗叶红色素的提取工艺简单,在酸性条件下稳定性较好,是一种值得开发的色素

  13. 几种饲料原料对刺参幼参生长和体成分的影响%Effects of several diets on the growth and body composition of Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娜; 董双林; 刘慧

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同饲料原料对刺参Apostichopus japonicus(Selenka)幼参生长和体成分的影响.实验采用鱼粉、鼠尾藻Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze、浒苔Enteromorpha prolifera、海带Laminaria japonica和海泥5种主要原料配制的饲料投喂体长为4.18±0.23cm、体重为5.99±0.26g的刺参幼参,进行了为期80d的养殖实验.实验结束时,投喂鼠尾藻饲料、浒苔饲料和动物性饲料的刺参特定生长率(SGR)分别为95.36%/d、92.29%/d和84.87%/d.这三者之间无显著差异,但生长效果要好于投喂海带饲料和海泥饲料的刺参.实验结果表明,在特定的室内养殖条件下,虽然刺参能够更好地利用植物性蛋白,但是可以将动物性蛋白作为刺参的辅助性饲料成分,配制出营养更全面的配合饲料;浒苔作为刺参幼参的养殖饲料原料是完全可行的;海带粗加工产品不适于用做刺参饲料的主要成分.%This study was conducted to determine the effects of several diets on the growth and body composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A. japonicus at 4.18-0. 23cm of body length and 5. 99±0. 26g of body weight were fed with different diets,including animal-based (fish meal) diet, Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze, Enteromorpha proli f era , Laminaria japonica,and sea mud-based diet for 80d. Sea cucumbers were maintained in glass aquaria and fed with the five different diets. The special growth rate of sea cucumbers fed with diets of S. thunbergii,E. prolifera,and fishmeal were 95.36%/d-1 ,92.29%/d-1 and 84.87 %/d-1 ,respectively,which were not significantly different but higher than those fed with diets of L. japonica or sea mud. It was found that,although the animal's utilization of plant protein was higher,it is practically feasible to formulate more wholesome feed by using animal-based protein as the diet ingredient; E. prolifera is an alternative food source for juvenile sea cucumbers;Ground dried L. japonica should not be used as the

  14. Search for new type of PPARγ agonist-like anti-diabetic compounds from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Potent ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) such as thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, troglitazone, etc.) improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the levels of adiponectin, an important adipocytokine associated with insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Several constituents from medicinal plants were recently reported to show PPARγ agonist-like activity in 3T3-L1 cells, but did not show agonistic activity at the receptor site different from thiazolidinediones. Our recent studies on PPARγ agonist-like constituents, such as hydrangenol and hydrangeic acid from the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii, piperlonguminine and retrofractamide A from the fruit of Piper chaba, and tetramethylkaempferol and pentamethylquercetin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora, are reviewed.

  15. Cloning and expression of a toxin gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingying; Guo, Daosen; Zhou, Shiyi; Yu, Xinlei; Hou, Guixue; Li, Ronggui; Zhao, Boguang

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A was isolated from the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, obtained from wilted Japanese black pine, Pinus thumbergii, in China. In this paper, a genomic library of the GcM5-1A strain was constructed and a toxin-producing clone was isolated by bioassay. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,290 bp encoding a protein of 429 amino acids with N-terminal putative signal peptide of 36 amino acids, which shared a similarity of 83, 82 and 80% identity with hypothetical protein PFLU2919 from P. fluorescens SBW25, Dyp-type peroxidase family protein from P. fluorescens Pf-5 and Tat-translocated enzyme from P. fluorescens Pf0-1, respectively. The gene encoding a full-length protein or without the putative signal peptide was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a Ni2+ matrix column. Its relative molecular weight was estimated to be 48.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE for full-length protein, and 45.0 kDa for the recombinant protein without putative signal peptide. Bioassay results showed that the recombinant protein with or without the putative signal peptide was toxic to both suspension cells and P. thunbergii seedlings. HPLC analysis demonstrated that components in branch extracts of P. thunbergii were significantly changed after addition of the recombinant full-length protein and hydrogen peroxide, which indicated that it is probably a peroxidase. This study offers information that can be used to determine the mechanism of pine wilt disease caused by the PWN.

  16. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Shen

    Full Text Available Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  17. Influence of Bxpel1 Gene Silencing by dsRNA Interference on the Development and Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses by devastating pine forests worldwide. The pectate lyase gene is essential for successful invasion of their host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. To demonstrate the role of pectate lyase gene in the PWD process, RNA interference (RNAi is used to analyze the function of the pectate lyase 1 gene in B. xylophilus (Bxpel1. The efficiency of RNAi was detected by real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that the quantity of B. xylophilus propagated with control solution treatment was 62 times greater than that soaking in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA after B. xylophilus inoculation in Botrytis cinerea for the first generation (F1. The number of B. xylophilus soaking in control solution was doubled compared to that soaking in Bxpel1 dsRNA four days after inoculation in Pinus thunbergii. The quantity of B. xylophilus was reduced significantly (p < 0.001 after treatment with dsRNAi compared with that using a control solution treatment. Bxpel1 dsRNAi reduced the migration speed and reproduction of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The pathogenicity to P. thunbergii seedling of B. xylophilus was weaker after soaking in dsRNA solution compared with that after soaking in the control solution. Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD.

  18. Conspecific Leaf Litter-Mediated Effect of Conspecific Adult Neighborhood on Early-Stage Seedling Survival in A Subtropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heming; Shen, Guochun; Ma, Zunping; Yang, Qingsong; Xia, Jianyang; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xihua

    2016-11-01

    Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities.

  19. A Preliminary Report of Dead Wood Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes From South of China Ⅰ%中国南方地区枯枝暗色丝孢菌研究初报Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建; 张修国; 张学青

    2007-01-01

    通过对来自中国南方地表枯枝表层暗色丝孢菌室内处理,发现中国大陆一新记录种--管形顶孢(Exserticlava vasiformis)和一中国新记录种--常春藤葚孢(Sporidesmium socium).根据采集的材料对其进行了详细的形态描述和显微绘图.研究标本保存于山东农业大学植物病理标本室(HSAUP).%Two species of Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes belonging to genera Exserticlava and Sporidesmium are described and illustrated. E. vasiformis, occurring on dead branches of Robinia pseudoacia and being new to Mainland China, S. socium, a species new to China, were found on dead branches of Machilus microcaria var. omeiensis. The voucher specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Plant Pathology, Shandong Agricultural University (HSAUP).

  20. Some New Records of Seed Plants from Fujian Province%福建省种子植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 阮少江

    2009-01-01

    在福建闽东地区海岛植被调查中,发现了福建省种子植物地理分布新记录属1个:假还阳参属(Crepidiastrum Nakai);新记录种7个,分别是:碱蓬[Suaeda glauca (Bunge) Bunge]、海滨木槿(Hibiscus hamabo Sieb.et Zucc.)、假还阳参[Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai]、普陀狗哇花(Heteropappus arenarius Kitam.)、浙江大青(Clerodendrum kaichianum P.S.Hsu)、厚叶石斑木[Rhaphiolepis umbellate (Thunb.) Makino]和刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin).标本全部存放于宁德师专植物标本室(NDTC).

  1. 山楂的化学成分及药理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉梅; 王贺振

    2004-01-01

    山楂为蔷薇科(Rosaceae)落叶灌木或小乔木山楂Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge、山里红Grataegus pinnatifida Bunge var.major N.E.Br.及野山楂Crataegus cuneata Sieb et Zucc.的干燥成熟果实。前两种习称“北山楂”,后一种习称“南山楂”。全国各地均有栽培·为药食同源植物。山楂性酸、甘、味温.归脾、胃、肝经.具有消食化积、活血化瘀的功效,临床用于食滞不化及产后瘀阻

  2. Quantitative dynamics of Pinus densiflora population in Shandong Province%山东赤松种群的数量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2000-01-01

    通过静态生命表分析赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群的生命结构与数量动态.结果表明,赤松种群具有不同年龄等级结构,死亡高峰出现在5~15年,此时正是幼龄期向成年期的过渡阶段,度过此阶段的赤松个体大多能达到生理寿命.由此看出,赤松种群静态生命表能较精确地反映赤松种群的数量动态规律.

  3. Antioxidant principles from the needles of red pine, Pinus densi fl ora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jin Ho; Choi, Jae Sue

    2003-11-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (Pinaceae) was evaluated for potential to inhibit hydroxyl radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species generation in kidney homogenates using 2',7'-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites. The methanolic extract of P. densiflora showed strong antioxidant activity in the tested model systems and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate > n-butanol > water > dichloromethane fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further puri fi ed by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. An active lignan (+)-isolarisiresinol xylopyranoside, as well as two active flavonoids [kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and its 6"-acetyl derivative], were isolated.

  4. Changes in the Vascular Cylinder of Wild Soybean Roots Under Alkaline Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Lu; LU Jing-mei; WU Dong-mei; LI Yan; GAO Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the vascular cylinder of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) roots under alkaline stress were investigated in an experiment that applied 90 mmol L-1 alkaline stress for 10 d at the ifve-trifoliate plant growth stage in Huinan County, Jilin Province, China. Root samples were collected and parafifn-cut sections were made, and the root structure was observed under an optical microscope. There were signiifcant changes in the vascular cylinder of G. soja roots under alkaline stress. Root diameter was reduced and the vascular cylinder changed from tetrarch to triarch pattern. Alkaline stress resulted in reduced, diameters of root vessels, and a large amount of residual, alkaline solution was stained cyaneous in vessels. The paratracheal parenchymatous cells of the vessels were large and there was little secondary xylem. Thus, alkaline stress caused structural changes in the vascular cylinder of G. soja.

  5. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  6. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  7. Responses of the seedlings of five dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain to soil water stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Li-min; LI Qiu-rong; WANG Miao; JI Lan-zhu

    2003-01-01

    Soil water stress was studied on the potted seedlings of five dominant tree species (Pinus koraienes Sieb.et Zucc., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim, Tilia amurensis Rupr. and Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz) from the broadleaved/Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain. Leaf growth, water transpiration and photosynthesis were compared for each species under three soil moisture conditions: 85%-100% (high water, CK), 65%-85% (Medium water, MW) and 45%-65% (low water, LW) of 37.4% water-holding capacity in field. The results showed that the characteristic of typical drought-resistance of the leaves is significantly developed. The net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of Fraxinus mandshurica were higher in MW than those in CK. But for the other four species, the net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency in CK were lower than those in MW and LW. The transpiration rate responding to soil moistures varied from species to species.

  8. Automated closed-chamber measurements of methane fluxes from intact leaves and trunk of Japanese cypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenshi; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Kanazawa, Akito; Sakabe, Ayaka

    2012-05-01

    Continuous in situ measurements of methane (CH4) fluxes from intact leaves and trunk of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc) were conducted in a temperate forest from August 2009 to August 2010. An automated closed-chamber system, which was used to evaluate CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and forest ecosystems, was coupled to a laser-based instrument to monitor CH4 concentrations. Temporal changes in CH4 concentrations from the foliage and trunk were measured at one-second intervals during chamber closure to determine CH4 fluxes between the leaf and trunk surfaces and the atmosphere. While recent studies have suggested that some plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions, emission or uptake of CH4 in detectable amounts with our experimental system, by intact leaves or the trunk of C. obtusa, was not significantly observed throughout the measurement period.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on the growth of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Lee, Geun-Shik; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, In-Gyu

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc) leaves and twigs was investigated. The test strains were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophila, and Methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was estimated by measuring bacterial growth inhibition. Histopathological examination was also performed. C. obtusa oil distinctly inhibited the growth of all test strains and exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes. It was chromatographically divided into several fractions. The fractions were further tested against antibacterial activity and their chemical compositions were analyzed. The fraction containing terpinen-4-ol (TA) showed high antibacterial activity toward all strains tested. Tests with authentic samples showed that TA played a major role in the antibacterial activity of C. obtusa oil, and in a mice test, the oil actively minimized inflammation by S. aureus.

  10. 泡桐埋根育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永学

    2001-01-01

    @@泡桐(Paulownia Sieb.et Zucc)是重要的平原绿化树种,其生长迅速、材质好、分布广泛、抗逆性强,深受群众喜爱。泡桐栽植的主要形式是"四旁"栽植和道路绿化。由于泡桐具有假二叉分枝的特点,多数情况下顶芽不能越冬,因此,1年生苗木的干高就决定了第一段材的高度。

  11. 0ccurence of Epilachna anhwaiana(Dieke)%安徽食植瓢虫的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方育卿

    1987-01-01

    @@ 安徽食植瓢虫[Epilachna anhwaiana (Dieke)]在庐山以成虫和幼虫为害野荣莉(Styrax japonica Sieb.et Zucc.)、悬珠花(S.dasyantha Perk.)、灰叶野茉莉(S.calvescens Perk.)等植物,啮食叶片下表皮和叶肉,被害植株经日晒后成焦灼状,严重时导致植株死亡.1980年初庐山植物园内有一片高6米、胸径0.2米的野茉莉,因受安徽食植瓢虫为害致死,最后大部分不得不砍伐.

  12. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  13. The Hypoglycemic and Synergistic Effect of Loganin, Morroniside, and Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Fruits of Cornus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Song, Shanghua; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided separation of ethanol extracts from the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) led to the isolation of loganin, morroniside, and ursolic acid. The antidiabetic capacity of CO extracts and related compounds was further investigated in diabetes mellitus mice. The results suggested that both CO extracts and pure compounds could ameliorate diabetes-associated damages and complications. Oral administration of loganin and morroniside decreased fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus mice. Ursolic acid exhibited the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Notably, we noticed an interesting synergistic effect between loganin and ursolic acid. Given these favorable hypoglycemic properties, C. officinalis, a food and medicinal plant in China, may be used as a valuable food supplement for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  14. An NMR Study on Chrysathain%马钱苷的NMR数据解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范毅; 张海艳; 李坤威; 张剑; 赵天增

    2014-01-01

    通过DEPT及1H-1HCOSY,HSQC,HMBC,NOESY等2D NMR技术,对环烯醚萜苷化合物--马钱苷的1H和13C NMR信号进行了详细解析和全归属,尤其利用NOESY技术确证了其立体结构。%Loganin,an important iro doid,was usually isolated from Cornus officinalis Sieb,et Zucc. and Lonicera chrysatha Thunb.. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of loganin were completely assigned by using a combination of 1D NMR(1H,13C NMR and DEPT)and 2D NMR(1H- 1H COSY,HSQC,HMBC and NOESY)techniques, especially its stereoscopic strcture was studied with NOESY.

  15. The Clinical and Experimental Studies of ChanLe Chongji for Reducing Bleeding after Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣胜; 丁元珍; 胡燕尔

    1999-01-01

    ChanLe Chongji (ChanLe dissolvable granule preparation) is a mixed Chinese traditional medicine composed of Prunus persica Batsch, Carthamus tinctorius, Angelica sinensis Diets, Typha angustifotia Borv. et Chaub. , Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.,etc. which could clear fever and remove blood stasis. The bleeding days in vagina after abortion by drug and the complete abortion rate were observed, 100cases were selected randomly from the treated group and the control group respectively. The results showed that the mean bleeding period in the treated group was 8. 4 days, while 13.3 days in the control. Although the mean complete abortion rate had no distinct difference between these two groups, the absolute level was higher in the treated group. The resuits of animal experiments showed that ChanLe Chongji could increase the contraction of uterus, stop bleeding, resist bacteria and diminish inflammation, thus providing its potentiality for clinical application.

  16. Determination on the Content of Tannin in Castanea Mill Involucre%栗属植物总苞鞣质含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小慧; 刘霞; 牛艳艳; 席啸虎

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the tannins content of dry involucre in plants of Castanea Mill .Methods Collecting involucre of four kinds of plants C.mollissima Bl., C.seguinii Dode, C.henryi Rehd.& Wils, C.crenata Sieb.& Cuce from different growing area , visible spectrophotometry was used to determine the tannin content .Results C.mollissima shell and C .seguinii Dode shell had high tannin content, and C.crenata Sieb.&Cuce and C.henryi Rehd.&Wils.had low tannin content .Conclusion The method of deterring tannin content is accurate .It can provide basis for use chestnut resources involucre .%目的:测定栗属植物干燥总苞的鞣质含量。方法收集不同产地的栗属植物总苞如板栗壳、茅栗壳、锥栗壳、日本栗壳,根据《中国药典》附录ⅩA磷钼钨酸-干酪素法测定鞣质含量,采用紫外-可见分光光度法,在760nm波长处测定总酚与不被吸附的多酚的吸光度。结果板栗壳和茅栗壳鞣质含量较高,日本栗壳及锥栗壳鞣质含量较低。结论建立的鞣质含量测定方法准确,可为栗属资源总苞利用提供依据。

  17. Enhanced stability and antibacterial efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine-mediated silver nanoparticle delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Qu, Ding; Ma, Yihua; Chen, Yan; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antibacterial products in various fields. Recent studies have suggested that AgNPs need an appropriate stabilizer to improve their stability. Some antibacterial traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) contain various reductive components, which can not only stabilize AgNPs but also enhance their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we developed a series of novel AgNPs using a TCM extract as a stabilizer, reducing agent, and antimicrobial agent (TCM-AgNPs). A storage stability investigation of the TCM-AgNPs suggested a significant improvement when compared with bare AgNPs. Further, conjugation of TCMs onto the AgNP surface resulted in stronger antimicrobial potency on antibacterial evaluation using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration 50% (MIC50) ratios (and minimum bactericidal concentration 90% [MBC90] ratios) of AgNPs to respective TCM-AgNPs as assessment indices. Among these, P. cuspidatum Sieb. et-conjugated AgNPs (P.C.-AgNPs) had the advantage of a combination of TCMs and AgNPs and was studied in detail with regard to its synthesis and characterization. The extraction time, reaction temperature, and concentrations of AgNO3 and Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et extract were critical factors in the preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. Further, the results of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated successful preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. In representative studies, P.C.-AgNPs showed a well-defined spherical shape, a homogeneous small particle size (36.78 nm), a narrow polydispersity index (0.105), and a highly negative zeta potential (-23.6 mV) on transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. These results indicate that TCM-AgNPs have a potential role as antibacterial agents in the clinic setting.

  18. 4个桂花品种叶片挥发物成分及其对空气微生物的影响%Volatile organic compounds in leaves of Osmanthus fragrans and their effect on airborne microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林富平; 周帅; 马楠; 张汝民; 高岩

    2013-01-01

    采用动态顶空气体循环吸附法和热脱附-气相色谱-质谱(TDS-GC-MS)联用技术,分析了近自然状态下金桂Osmanthus fragrans‘Thunbergii,,银桂O.fragrans‘Odoratus’,丹桂O.fragrans ‘Aurantiacus’和四季桂O.fragrans‘ Semperflorens’叶片挥发物(VOCs)的组分和含量;同时采用自然沉降法,调查了4个桂花品种林地空气中微生物(细菌、真菌和放线菌)的数量.结果表明:金桂叶片VOCs中主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、辛醛、壬醛、癸醛、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和3-己烯醇;四季桂主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、苯甲醛、壬醛、癸醛、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和壬烷;银桂和丹桂主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、辛醛、壬醛、癸醛、壬烯、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和3-己烯醇.金桂林地中细菌数量在3,5,7,9和11月比对照分别降低46.6%,48.3%,67.6%,34.6%和26.0% (P<0.01),其他3个桂花品种林地中细菌数量在不同月份与对照相比均有不同程度的降低;金桂林在3,7和9月对真菌抑制作用极显著(P<0.01),比对照分别降低33.5%,38.8%和34.1%;4个桂花品种林对放线菌也具有明显的抑制作用.上述结果说明:4个桂花品种树木可以降低林地空气中微生物的数量,对改善空气质量具有显著的作用.%To clarify the functions of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on bacteriostasis and air decontamination , composition and content of VOCs in leaves of four cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans : 'Thunbergii', 'Odoratus', ' Aurantiacus' and ' Semperflorens' were analyzed under near-natural conditions using the thermal -desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer technique. The airborne microorganism count (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) for the four cultivars and a control of open ground were determined for March, May, July, September, and November in 2011 using natural sedimentation. Results showed that the

  19. 4个桂花品种鲜花挥发物成分TDS-GC-MS分析%TDS - GC - MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM THE FRESH FLOWERS OF FOUR Osmanthus fragrans VARIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林富平; 马楠; 周帅; 张汝民; 高岩

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) from the frcsh flowers of four Osmanthus fragrans varieties, 0. fragrans var. thunbergii, 0. fragrans var. lalifolius. 0. fragrans var. aurantiacus and 0. fragrans var. semperflorens, were analyzed using dynamic headspace collecting and TDS - GC - MS. Results showed that the major VOCs were as follows; (Z) - β - ocimene ( relative content of 20.6%), β - ionone (13.8% ) , β -pinene (11.0% ), and D - limoncne (7.3%) in O. fragrant var. thunbergii; p-ionone (39.7%), -γ - decanolactone (8.9%), a-ionone (8.6%) , and (Z) -acetate-3 -hexen -1 -ol (6.9%) in 0. fragrans var. lalifolius; β -pinene (17.2% ), D-limonene (11.2%) , (Z) -p -ocimene (8. 2%), and (E) - P -ocimene (6. 1%) in O. fragrans var. aurantiacus; and β -ionone (15.7% ), a -ionone (8.2% ), β -pinene (7.2% ), and (Z) -β -ocimene (6. 7% ) in O. fragrans var. semperflorens. VOCs constituents and relative content from the different fresh flowers of O. fragrans varieties were different. The studying results will give some theoretical bases for 0. fragrans varieties resources protection, development and landscape plant configuration. The volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) from the frcsh flowers of four Osmanthus fragrans varieties, 0. fragrans var. thunbergii, 0. fragrans var. lalifolius. 0. fragrans var. aurantiacus and 0. fragrans var. semperflorens, were analyzed using dynamic headspace collecting and TDS - GC - MS. Results showed that the major VOCs were as follows; (Z) - β - ocimene ( relative content of 20.6%), β - ionone (13.8% ) , β -pinene (11.0% ), and D - limoncne (7.3%) in O. fragrant var. thunbergii; p-ionone (39.7%), -γ - decanolactone (8.9%), a-ionone (8.6%) , and (Z) -acetate-3 -hexen -1 -ol (6.9%) in 0. fragrans var. lalifolius; β -pinene (17.2% ), D-limonene (11.2%) , (Z) -p -ocimene (8. 2%), and (E) - P -ocimene (6. 1%) in O. fragrans var. aurantiacus; and β -ionone (15.7% ), a -ionone (8.2% ), β -pinene (7.2% ), and (Z) -β -ocimene (6. 7

  20. Seasonal changes of macroalgae community structure in intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago, East China%嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻群落结构的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清菁; 蒋霞敏; 徐镇; 唐锋; 王弢

    2012-01-01

    From August 2010 to August 2011, an investigation was conducted on the macroalgae in the intertidal zone of Shengsi Archipelago. A total of 114 macroalgae species belonging to 53 genera of 3 phyla were identified, among which, 75 species of 33 genera belonged to Rhodophy-ta, 21 species of 13 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 18 species of 7 genera belonged to Chlorophyta. Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, and Chlorophyta accounted for 65. 8% , 18. 4% , and 15. 8% of the total, respectively. The macroalgae had the largest number (87 species) in Gouqi Island, followed by in Jinping Island (42 species) , and in Maguan Island (26 species). 79. 8% of the macroalgae were distributed in low intertidal zone, and 62. 3% distributed in middle intertidal zone. The similarity value of the algae composition between the low and middle intertidal zone, the middle and high intertidal zone, and the low and high intertidal zone was 0. 57 , 0. 15 , and 0. 06, respectively. The species number of macroalgae changed with season and in the order of summer (57 species) > winter (55 species) > spring (52 species) > autumn (46 species) . The dominant species also differed with season. The dominant species in spring were Undaria pinnatifida, Ulva pertusa, Ulva linza, and Pachymenia carnosa, those in summer were Sargas-sum vachellianum, Chondria crassicaulis, Sargassum thunbergii and Alga eucheumae, those in autumn were Gracilaria verrucosa, Gigartina intermedia swing, Sargassum thunbergii, and Ulva lactuca, and the dominant species in winter were Scytosiphon lomentarius, Porphra suborbiculate, Sargassum thunbergii, and Polysiphonia japonica.%于2010年8月-2011年8月对嵊泗列岛潮间带大型海藻进行调查.结果表明:共有大型海藻114种,隶属3门53属,其中红藻门33属75种,占总数的65.8%,褐藻门13属21种,占18.4%,绿藻门7属18种,占15.8%;枸杞最多(87种),金平其次(42种),马关最少(26种);79.8%海藻分布在低潮带,62.3%分布在中潮带,

  1. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  2. 青岛岩礁海藻附植动物的区系组成和季节动态%Phytal Fauna Composition and Seasonal Dynamics on Rocky Shore Seaweeds in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 周红; 张志南; 丛冰清; 王家宁; 许书会

    2011-01-01

    于 2007年11 月~20008年10月对青岛太平角岩石潮间带鼠尾藻附植动物进行了连续12个月的逐月采样调查,并根据蜈蚣藻、角叉菜、扇形叉枝藻、海蒿子和叉节藻等海藻生长期的不同而在不同月份对其分别进行了采样,研究了附植动物的类群组成、丰度、生物量及其季节动态.所有海藻样品共鉴定出附植动物16个类群.鼠尾藻附植动物的年平均丰度为606 ind/g dwt algae,优势类群为线虫和桡足类,其次是腹足类和多毛类.鼠尾藻附植动物的平均丰度最高值出现在4月,最低值出现在7 月 .鼠尾藻附植动物的年平均生物量为282× 103 μg/g dwt algae,最高值出现在6月,最低值为2月.其他海藻附植动物的类群数、丰度、生物量均低于鼠尾藻.海藻附植动物的优势类群及其丰度和生物量在不同月份和不同海藻之间均显著不同.相对于海水理化因 子季节变化的影响,不同海藻生长型形态的复杂性及同一种海藻随生长周期而发生的形态变化对附植动物的区系组成和季节动态的影响能占居更主要地位.%The phytal fauna on the seaweed Sargassum thunbergii was surveyed monthly over an annual cycle from November 2007 to October 2008 at the rocky intertidal zone at Taipingjiao, Qingdao. The phytal fauna on the seaweeds of Grateloupia filicina , Chondrus ocellatus, Gymnogongrus flabellifor-mis, Sargassum palladium and Amphiroa zonata were also surveyed based on their growing periods. The seasonal dynamics of dominant group, abundance and biomass of phytal fauna were analyzed. Sixteen fau-nal groups were identified from the 6 seaweeds. The annual average abundance was 606 ind/g dwt algae on Sargassum thunbergii. Nematodes and copepods were the most dominant, followed by gastropods and polychaetes. The abundance was the highest in April and the lowest in July. The annual average biomass was 282 ×103 g/g dwt algae and the most dominant group was

  3. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  4. Biomass of Secondary Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Mixed Forest in Plateau-type Karst Terrain of Guizhou Province, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Using allometric functions, harvest and soil column methods, we investigated the biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Tianlongshan permanent monitoring plot (a horizontally-projected area of 2 hectares) of Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest is 165.4 Mg·hm-2. The aboveground biomass and root biomass are 137.7 Mg·hm-2 and 27.7 Mg·hm-2, respectively. Among the aboveground biomass, the tree layer accounts for 97.76%, which is obviously greater than the shrub layer and herb layer. Larger trees (the diameter at breast height, DBH is between 5 cm and 20 cm) occupies 76.85% of the aboveground biomass, especially the five dominant species(Lithocarpus confinis, Platycarya longipes, Itea yunnanensis, Machilus cavaleriei and Carpinus pubescens). Shrubs and lianas (DBH = 1 cm) account for more than 30% of total shrub and liana biomass, although their individuals are less than 2% of total shrub individuals and 1% of total liana individuals, respectively. The root biomass differs in root diameters, i.e. coarse root > medium root > fine root. Root biomass decreases with the increase of soil depth. Within soil depth of 20 cm, the root biomass is 20.1 Mg·hm-2, which is more than 70% of total root biomass. Within soil depth of 50 cm, the root biomass is 26.7 Mg·hm-2, which is 96.39% of total root biomass. Compared with non-karst forests in the same climate zone, karst forest has lower biomass and carbon stock, but it further has greater potential of carbon sink.

  5. 南岭大顶山常绿阔叶林群落结构及其物种多样性%Community structure and species diversity of the evergreen broadleaf forest in Nanling Dadingshan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕肖峰; 彭华贵; 黄忠良; 曹洪麟

    2005-01-01

    南岭国家级自然保护区位于欧亚大陆东南部的亚热带和热带区域,是广东省天然的绿色屏障.根据在南岭大顶山建立的1 hm2生物多样性监测研究永久样地的调查,对样地所在的植物群落的结构、物种组成和植物物种多样性进行了分析研究.结果表明,该群落属于中亚热带常绿阔叶林,应称为华润楠(Machilus chinensis)、仁昌厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chingii)-山羡叶泡花树(Meliosma thorelii)群落.该群落结构复杂,各层次的代表种类明显.植物物种多样性丰富,特别是乔木层(DBH>1CM)的1 hm2物种数达163种,高于亚热带其它地区的森林群落.各个层次中,以层间植物的多样性指数最高,乔木层次之,草本层最低.究其原因是层间植物的均匀度指数较高.因此,该森林群落具有重要的保护价值,应该加强其物种维持机制的深入研究.

  6. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  7. [Characteristics of dominant tree species stem sap flow and their relationships with environmental factors in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Wei; Zhang, De-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Yi; Liu, Shi-Zhong; Otieno, Dennis; Li, Yue-Lin

    2012-05-01

    By the method of Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the stem sap flow density of four dominant tree species (Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis chinensis, Schima superba, and Machilus kwangtungensis) in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan Reserve of South China was continuously measured in the dry season (November) and wet season (July) in 2010, and the environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured synchronically, aimed to study the characteristics of the stem sap flow of the tree species in response to environmental factors. During the dry and wet seasons, the diurnal changes of the stem sap flow velocity of the tree species all presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average and maximum sap flow velocities and the daily sap flow flux of broad-leaved trees (C. chinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis) were significantly higher than those of coniferous tree (P. massoniana), and the maximum sap flow velocity of P. massoniana, C. valueschinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis was 29.48, 38.54, 51.67 and 58.32 g H2O x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. A time lag was observed between the sap flow velocity and the diurnal variations of PAR, vapor pressure deficiency, and air temperature, and there existed significant positive correlations between the sap flow velocity and the three environmental factors. The PAR in wet season and the air temperature in dry season were the leading factors affecting the stem sap flow velocity of the dominant tree species.

  8. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  9. 基于ICP-MS法建立散结镇痛胶囊中四味药材多种元素的分析方法*%The Analysis Methodology for Multiple Elements in Four Herbs ofSanjie Zhentong Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金玲; 秦建平; 胡军华; 李家春; 黄文哲; 王振中; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    To develop a method for the determination of 18 elements such as Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Mn, Ni, & Tl in Panax notoginseng,Bulbus fritillariae thunbergii,Coix seed, Resina draconis, and to control the contents of heavy metal elements in Sanjie Zhentong Capsule, the samples were digested by microwaves and then analyzed by appropriate determination parameters through ICP-MS, with the internal standard method to improve the matrix effect and interference. The correlation coefficientR2≥ 0.999 2. The lowest limits of quantification were from 0.002 8 to 0.54 μg·L-1. The experiments had better repeatability, while the recovery values ranged from 73.01% to 109.13%. The method is simple, accurate and high sensitive, and it can be used for the determination of rapid monitoring the multi-elements inPanax notoginseng, Bulbus fritillariae thunbergii, Coix seed,and Resina draconis.%目的:建立三七、浙贝母、薏苡仁、龙血竭药材中Pb,Cu,As,Cd,Hg,Mn,Ni和Tl等18种元素检测方法,对散结镇痛胶囊中重金属元素进行控制。方法:药材采用微波消解法进行消解、电感耦合等离子体质谱仪进行分析,选择内标法定量以改善基体效应和干扰。结果:各元素的线性关系良好,相关系数R2≥0.9992;方法检出限为0.0028-0.54μg·L-1,实验重复性良好;加样回收率在73.01%-109.13%。结论:测量方法灵敏度高,专属性好,可为监控及制订中药材中有害元素的限量提供参考。

  10. Inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme of extraction from algae%海藻提取物环氧加酶-2抑制活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史大永; 李晓红; 李敬; 郭书举; 苏华

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid and plays a critical role in inflammation, pain and fever. In order to search for new type inhibitors against COX-2, extractions from 10 algae were screened indirectly by determination of prostaglandin E2 which was synthesized from arachidonic acid. Human cyclooxygenase-2 genes were cloned from human monocyte cell line THP-1 cells and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) insect cell line by Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression systems. The results showed that ethanolic extraction of Scytosiphon lomentarius, EtOAc phase of Sargassum thunbergii and Codium fragile and butanolic phase of Rhodomela confervoides exhibited good bioactivities with inhibitory ratio higher than 50% at a dose of 10 μg/mL.%系统采集中国沿海10种代表性海藻,进行有效成分提取与粗分;利用昆虫杆状病毒表达系统克隆人COX-2基因,并在昆虫Spodoptera frugiperda(sf9)细胞中表达获得COX-2蛋白;以花生四烯酸为底物,通过测定前列腺素PGE2的生成浓度,测定海藻不同部位对COX-2酶的抑制活性.结果表明,萱藻(Scytosiphon lomentarius)乙醇提取物、鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbergii)和刺松藻(Codium fragile)乙酸乙酯相、松节藻(Rhodomela conferroides)正丁醇相表现出良好的COX-2酶抑制活性(质量浓度为10μg/mL时,抑制率大于50%).首次对上述海藻进行COX-2酶抑制活性研究,其中萱藻乙醇提取物、鼠尾藻和刺松藻乙酸乙酯相、松节藻正丁醇相表现出良好的COX-2抑制活性.

  11. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Biao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollination drop (PD is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus. Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator

  12. cpSSR: a New Tool to Analyze Chloroplast Genome of Citrus Somatic Hybrids%叶绿体S S R标记:柑橘体细胞杂种胞质遗传分析的一种新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江; 郭文武; 邓秀新

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and success-fully used to analyze chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids. Twenty-two previouslyreported cpSSR primer pairs from pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.) were tested in Citrus, nine of which could amplify intensive PCR products by agarose gelelectrophoresis. Chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids from nine fusions was thenanalyzed, and five of the nine pre-screened primer pairs showed polymorphisms by polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis. The results revealed the random inheritance nature of chloroplast genome in all analyzedCitrus somatic hybrids, which was in agreement with previous reports based on RFLP or CAPS analyses. Itwas also shown that cpSSR is a more efficient tool in chloroplast genome analyses of somatic hybrids inhigher plants, compared with the conventional RFLP or CAPS analyses.%从水稻(Oryza sativa L.)、烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)和黑松(Pinus thunbergiiParl.)等植物的22对叶绿体SSR引物中筛选出 5对能用于柑橘叶绿体SSR分析的引物,应用这5对引物对9个组合的柑橘体细胞杂种的叶绿体遗传进行了分析.结果表明:这些组合再生的杂种中叶绿体都呈现随机分离,该现象与以前报道的RFLP分析结果一致,而且其可靠性已被CAPS分析所证实.表明柑橘叶绿体SSR同RFLP及CAPS一样可靠,并且更简单高效、易于操作,特别适合对柑橘等植物体细胞杂种进行早期胞质遗传组成分析.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Cryptomeria japonica D. Don. chloroplast genome and comparative chloroplast genomics: diversified genomic structure of coniferous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Tomonori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kurita, Manabu; Kondo, Teiji; Takata, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas taitungensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Pinus koraiensis have been established. The lack of information regarding the gene content and genomic structure of gymnosperm cp genomes may severely hamper further progress of plant and cp genome evolutionary studies. To address this need, we report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the cp genome of Cryptomeria japonica, the first in the Cupressaceae sensu lato of gymnosperms, and provide a comparative analysis of their gene content and genomic structure that illustrates the unique genomic features of gymnosperms. Results The C. japonica cp genome is 131,810 bp in length, with 112 single copy genes and two duplicated (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG) genes that give a total of 116 genes. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the C. japonica cp has lost one of the relevant large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperms, such as Cycas and Gingko, and additionally has completely lost its trnR-CCG, partially lost its trnT-GGU, and shows diversification of accD. The genomic structure of the C. japonica cp genome also differs significantly from those of other plant species. For example, we estimate that a minimum of 15 inversions would be required to transform the gene organization of the Pinus thunbergii cp genome into that of C. japonica. In the C. japonica cp genome, direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences are observed at the inversion and translocation endpoints, and these sequences may be associated with the genomic rearrangements. Conclusion The observed differences in genomic structure between C. japonica and other land plants, including

  14. TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS DIPTACUS KEIFER (ERIOPHYOIDEA, DIPTILOMIOPIDAE, DIPTILOMIOPINAE)FROM SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA%中国陕西双羽爪瘿螨属二新种(瘿螨总科,羽爪瘿螨科,羽爪瘿螨亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢满超

    2013-01-01

    Two new species,Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.on Lindera glauca (Sieb.et Zucc.) Bl.(Lauraceae) and Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.on Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lind.) G.Don (Rosaceae),are described and illustrated from Shaanxi Province,China.Type specimens are deposited in the College of Agriculture and Life Science,Ankang University,Ankang City,Shaanxi Province,China.%记述在陕西发现的双羽爪瘿螨属2新种:短毛双羽爪瘿螨 Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.,寄主是山胡椒Lindera glauca(Sieb.et Zucc.)Bl.(樟科Lauraceae);商州双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.,寄主是樱桃Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.)G.Don(蔷薇科Rosaceae).模式标本保存在安康学院农学与生命科学学院.短毛双羽爪瘿螨,新种Diptacus brevichaetus sp.nov.(图1~6)正模♀;副模:7♀♀,5♂♂,2008-07-24,陕西省商南县(33°31′N,110°53′E;海拔780m),金丝峡、谢满超采.寄主为山胡椒Lindera glauca(Sieb.et Zucc.)Bl.(樟科Lauraceae).新种与黄肉楠双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus actinodaphne Wang et Wei,2009相似,但新种背盾板饰有网格;足Ⅰ基节间光滑;生殖盖片基部饰有颗粒,端部饰有12短线予以区别(黄肉楠双羽爪瘿螨D.actinodaphne背盾板饰有不规则短线;足Ⅰ基节饰有线条;雌生殖盖片饰有8~10条纵肋).商州双羽爪瘿螨,新种Diptacus shangzhous sp.nov.(图7~12)正模♀;副模:9♀♀,7 ♂ ♂,2008-08-26,陕西省商州市(33°47′N,109°40′E;海拔870 m),秦王山、谢满超采.寄主为樱桃Cerasus pseudocerasus(Lindl.)G.Don(蔷薇科Rosaceae).新种与樱桃双羽爪瘿螨Diptacus pseudocerasis Kuang et Hong,1990相似,但新种具前叶突;足Ⅰ基节分离,无胸线;基节饰有颗粒和少量短线;雌生殖器盖片基部饰有颗粒,端部光滑予以区别(樱桃双羽爪瘿螨D.pseudocerasis无前叶突;足Ⅰ基节间具胸线,基节光滑;雌生殖器盖片光滑).

  15. Changes in coloration of the flower color pigment of Prunus mume ‘Nanjing Hong’ (Nanjing red) caused by physicochemical factors%理化因子导致梅花‘南京红’花色色素的颜色变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昶灵; 郭维明; 陈俊愉

    2004-01-01

    Mei(Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.)flower is one of the candidates of the national flower of China.Belonging to anthocyanin ,the flower color pigment of P.mume Sieb.et Zucc.‘Nanjing Hong’(Nanjing red) can be extracted with methanol containing 1% concentrated HCI(v/v)and the pigment in the extraction solution expresses purely mauve.Experiments in vitro reveal that the pigment is stable at pH0~3.The pigment appears colorless,blackish green or yellowish green because it is sensitive to light ,heat,oxidant and chelation agent.It also expresses various ted ,pruple,blackish yellow,blackish red ofr faint bluish green because of different metal ions or different concentrations of the ions. Glucose and low concentrated sodium be neoate almost have no effects on the cloration.Sucrose can weaken the color, but citric acid can strengthe it .This paper could be a reference or a premise for the exploration on the flower color mechanism ,the identification of the molecular structures f the anthocyanins and the exploitation and utilization of the flower color pigments of red Mei flowers.%梅花是中国的候选国花之一.属于花色苷的梅花‘南京红'花色色素用含1%浓盐酸(v/v)的甲醇提取,并呈现纯净的紫红色.体外试验表明:该色素在pH0~3范围内颜色稳定,因不同光质、热、氧化剂、还原剂、螯合剂而呈现无色、墨绿色或黄绿色,因不同金属离子、离子的不同浓度而呈现程度不同的红色、紫色、黑黄色、红中带黑或微蓝绿色,葡萄糖和低浓度苯甲酸钠几乎不影响其色泽,蔗糖使颜色变淡,柠檬酸却使其颜色变深.该文可为梅花红色花色的机理探索、梅花花色苷的分子结构鉴定、梅花红色花色色素的开发利用提供参考和前提.

  16. Caracterização morfológica de três genótipos de umezeiro selecionados como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro Morphologic characterization of three mume genotypes selected as rootstocks for peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente a cultivar 'Rigitano' e os Clones 05 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., selecionados na FCAV/UNESP, como porta-enxertos clonais para a cultura do pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch]. Procedeu-se à coleta e à caracterização morfológica das folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes de plantas-matrizes com 2 anos de idade, mantidas em condições de campo. Não é possível distinguir os Clones 05; 15 e a cultivar 'Rigitano' de umezeiro por meio das características morfológicas e biométricas de suas flores e frutos. Apesar de terem sido detectados o maior comprimento do pecíolo foliar no Clone 05 e as menores dimensões e massa do endocarpo e da semente na cultivar Rigitano, essas características não constituem um método prático de distinção dos genótipos. O Clone 15 pode ser distinguido dos demais genótipos após poda realizada no mês de fevereiro, por meio da ausência de coloração vermelho-escura nas folhas provenientes de ramos jovens com até 50 cm de comprimento.The objective of this research was to characterize the morphology of 'Rigitano' mume cultivar and Clones 05 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., selected at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil, as clonal rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch]. Leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds were collected and characterized morphologically from mother mume plants that were 2 years old, maintained in field conditions. It is not possible to distinguish mume Clones 05, 15 and 'Rigitano' cultivar by morphology and biometric characteristics of its flowers and fruits. Although the biggest petiole length was observed in the Clone 05 and shorter dimensions and mass of endocarps and seeds were observed in the 'Rigitano' cultivar, these characteristics do not constitute a practical method for genotype

  17. Comparison of the chemical components of different types of cinnamon%不同种类桂皮化学成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琦; 王瑞; 吴喜民; 吴迎春; 吴蓉; 李美玲; 李医明

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过测定不同种类桂皮中化学成分的异同,探讨不同种属桂皮在临床使用中的相互替代性.方法 采用Folin-Cio-calteu比色法、挥发油测定法分别对肉桂、烟桂和柴桂的总多酚成分和挥发油进行含量测定;采用气相色谱-质谱法对3个样品中的低极性化学组成进行分析.结果 3个样品的总多酚含量分别为肉桂1.31%、烟桂1.22%、柴桂1.92%;挥发油含量分别为肉桂1.94%、烟桂2.93%、柴桂1.26%0 3个桂皮样品在低极性部分共鉴定出31种化学成分,其中含量最高的是反式肉桂醛,分别为肉桂89.19%、烟桂94.16%、柴桂74.91%.结论 3个样品的化学成分有一定的差异,不能完全替代使用.%Objective To study the difference of chemical components between different types of cinnamon for their alternatives. Methods The Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay and the analytical method of volatile oil were employed to determine the content of total polyphenol and volatile components of Cinnamomum cassia Presl, C. cassiar and Cinnamomum japonica Sieb. In the mean time, the low-polar components of these samples were analyzed with GC-MS. Results The contents of the total polyphenol in the three different types of cinnamon were 1.31%, 1.22% and 1.92%, while the contents of volatile components were 1.94%,2.93% and 1.26% respectively in Cinnamomum cassia Presl, C. cassiar and Cinnamomun japonica Sieb. Furthermore, as many as 31 low-polar components were identified, among which (E)-cinnamaldehyde was determined as 89.19%, 94.16 and 74.91% respectively in the three cinnamons. Conclusion The three types of cinnamon cannot be not completely substituted as their chemical components were obviously different from each other.

  18. Archeomagnetic dating of the eruption of Xitle volcano (Mexico) from a reappraisal of the paleointensity with the MSP-DSC protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ayala, Manuel; Camps, Pierre; Alva-Valdivia, Luis; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The Xitle volcano, located south of Mexico City, is a monogenic volcano that has provided seven lava flows in a time interval of a few years. The age of these eruptions, estimated by means of radiocarbon dates on charcoal from beneath the flows, is still very poorly known, ranging from 4765±90 BC to 520±200 AD (see Siebe, JVGR, 2000 for a review). This lava field was emplaced over the archaeological city of Cuicuilco whose occupation is estimated between 700 BC and 150 AD. Thus a question is still pending: Is the downfall of Cuicuilco directly attributable to the eruption of Xitle? It seems that the answer is negative if we consider the latest radiocarbon dating by Siebe (2000), which sets the age of the eruption to 280±35 AD, that is significantly younger to the abandon of the city. Because this new age has direct implications on the history of the movements of ancient populations in the Central Valley of Mexico, we propose in the present study to check this estimate by archaeomagnetic dating. Xitle lava have been investigated several times for paleomagnetism, including directional analyses and absolute paleointensity determinations (see Alva, EPS, 57, 839-853, 2005 for a review). The characteristic Remanence direction is precisely determined. It is much more difficult to estimate precisely the paleointensity with the Thellier method: values scatter between 40 and 90 μT in a single flow (Alva, 2005). We propose here to estimate the paleointensity by means of the MSP-DSC protocol (Fabian and Leonhardt, 2010) with the new ultra-fast heating furnace FUReMAG developed in Montpellier (France). The sampling was performed along four profiles, one vertical through the entire thickness of the flow and three horizontal (at the top, middle and the bottom of the flow). Our preliminary results show that there is no difference between the values found in the different profiles, all providing a value around 62 μT. The comparison of our results (Dec = 359.0°, Inc = 35.2

  19. Morphological observation and analyses of viability and germination rate of Daphne genkwa pollen%芫花的花粉形态观察及生活力和萌发率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 汪甜; 王杨; 沈永宝

    2011-01-01

    @@ 芫花(Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc.)别名南芫花、芫花条、药鱼草等,为瑞香科( Thymelaeaceae)瑞香属(Daphne L.)的多年生落叶小灌木.芫花的干燥花蕾是著名的中药材,具有利尿、镇咳、祛痰、抑菌、引产、抗肿瘤等功效[1];另外,芫花花色艳丽、花团锦簇,具有良好的观赏性[2].目前,关于芫花的研究主要集中在化学成分和药理作用方面[1,3-6],也有少量关于其组织培养[7]、遗传多样性[8]、病虫害防治[9]等方面的研究报道,但对芫花的花粉形态及牛理特性方面的研究尚未见报道.作者采用扫描电镜观察了芫花的花粉形态,并检测了其花粉生活力和萌发率,以期为芫花种质资源的利用和保护提供一定的实验基础.%Pollen morphology of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and its viability and germination rate were measured by TTC and sucrose in vitro culture methods. The results show that pollen is stenopalynous type with a diameter of 15.6-21.6 μm. Per pollen has 10-16 apertures which is irregular circular with a diameter of 1.4-2.0 μm. Surface ornamentation of pollen is rough reticulate pattern which is circular polygon ( tetragonheptagon, mostly pentagon-hexagon). Pollen viability is 51% by TTC. Sucrose of different concentrations has a significant effect on pollen germination rate during pollen culture. And pollen germination rate is the highest with a percentage of 27.0% in medium containing 50 g·L-1 sucrose, while pollen could not germinate in medium containing sucrose over 250 g · L-1. Otherwise, there is the phenomenon of "multi-aperture germination" during pollen germinating.

  20. Cloning and analysis of cDNA of photosystem Ⅱ reactor center protein D2 of Dunaliella salina%杜氏盐藻光系统Ⅱ反应中心蛋白D2 基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红涛; 宋建伟; 臧卫东; 鲁照明; 王鹏举; 薛乐勋

    2007-01-01

    根据莱茵衣藻(Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)、Oryza sativa、Chlorella vulgaris以及Mesostigma viride 等真核生物的psbD基因的氨基酸高度保守序列,设计一对简并引物,利用TRIzol试剂提取杜氏盐藻(Dunaliella salina)细胞的总RNA,通过RT-PCR,得到杜氏盐藻cDNA片段的长度大约为1 000bp.该序列的PCR产物经T-A克隆并测序分析以及测序结果推导成氨基酸序列,Blast同源性分析表明所克隆的基因为杜氏盐藻psbD基因,编码杜氏盐藻光系统Ⅱ反应中心D2蛋白,该序列已递交GenBank(GenBank登录号为:DQ074450).编码的氨基酸序列,同源性依次为:Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 92%,Nephroselmis olivacea 88%,Pinus thunbergii 88%,Amborella trichopoda 88%,Chlorella vulgaris 88%.通过密码子偏爱性分析表明,psbD基因存在明显的密码子偏爱性,其(A+T)含量明显高于(G+C)含量.

  1. Structural Determinant and Its Underlying Molecular Mechanism of STPC2 Related to Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Cui, Ning; Bo, Zhixiang; Xiang, Feixiang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to use different strategies to further uncover the anti-angiogenic molecular mechanism of a fucoidan-like polysaccharide STPC2, isolated from brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. A desulfated derivative, STPC2-DeS, was successfully prepared and identified. The native polysaccharide and desulfated product were subjected to evaluate their anti-angiogenic effects. In the tube formation assay, STPC2 showed dose-dependent inhibition. In addition, STPC2 could distinctly inhibit the permeation of HUVEC cells into the lower chamber. Moreover, a significant reduction of microvessel density was observed in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay treated with STPC2. Meanwhile, STPC2 was found to repress the VEGF-induced neovessel formation in the matrigel plug assay in vivo. However, STPC2-DeS failed to suppress the anti-angiogenic activity via these in vitro and in vivo strategies. In addition, we demonstrated that STPC2 could significantly downregulate the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its related downstream Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and AKT kinase. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that STPC2 bound strongly to VEGF to interfere with VEGF–VEGFR2 interaction. Taken together, these results evidently demonstrated that STPC2 exhibited a potent anti-angiogenic activity through binding to VEGF via sulfated groups to impede VEGF–VEGFR2 interaction, thus affected the downstream signaling molecules. PMID:28230794

  2. 苏北山丘区典型次生林下土壤理化性质的对比分析%Comparison in Soil Property Between Soils Under Different Secondary Forests in Low Mountain Regions,North Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于法展; 李保杰; 尤海梅; 李淑芬

    2007-01-01

    在苏北山丘区现存的6种典型次生林下设置8块测试样地,对各林分植被因子进行调查并对其林下土壤理化性质进行分析比较.结果表明,赤松(Pinus densiflora)林、黑松(Pinus thunbergii)林、侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)林以及刺槐(Robinia pseudoacacia)林多为纯林,是该山丘区主要的次生林类型;不同次生林下土壤平均硬度为(11.57±5.26)~(20.92±6.91) kg·cm-2;常绿针叶林下土壤容重、黏粒组成、田间持水量等指标均小于落叶阔叶林;常绿针叶林下土壤呈酸性,而落叶阔叶林下土壤呈弱碱性;刺槐林下土壤有机质、氮、磷等养分含量相对较高,供肥能力较强.

  3. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb. C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Themeda triandra Forssk. var. japonica (Willd. Makino, all of which flower between August and October. SSW was added at three concentrations (1, 5, 10%, v/w to solid, agarized Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium to assess the impact on in vitro organogenesis of hybrid Cymbidium, specifically on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation. The SSW of all five species strongly inhibited the formation of neo-PLBs at all concentrations relative to the control (no SSW added. Since PLBs are considered to be the equivalent of somatic embryos in orchids, and since SSW is able to stimulate the germination of zygotic embryos in other plant families, the mechanism of action is clearly different between zygotic and somatic embryos.

  4. Structural Determinant and Its Underlying Molecular Mechanism of STPC2 Related to Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Cui, Ning; Bo, Zhixiang; Xiang, Feixiang

    2017-02-21

    In this study, we aimed to use different strategies to further uncover the anti-angiogenic molecular mechanism of a fucoidan-like polysaccharide STPC2, isolated from brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. A desulfated derivative, STPC2-DeS, was successfully prepared and identified. The native polysaccharide and desulfated product were subjected to evaluate their anti-angiogenic effects. In the tube formation assay, STPC2 showed dose-dependent inhibition. In addition, STPC2 could distinctly inhibit the permeation of HUVEC cells into the lower chamber. Moreover, a significant reduction of microvessel density was observed in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay treated with STPC2. Meanwhile, STPC2 was found to repress the VEGF-induced neovessel formation in the matrigel plug assay in vivo. However, STPC2-DeS failed to suppress the anti-angiogenic activity via these in vitro and in vivo strategies. In addition, we demonstrated that STPC2 could significantly downregulate the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its related downstream Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and AKT kinase. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that STPC2 bound strongly to VEGF to interfere with VEGF-VEGFR2 interaction. Taken together, these results evidently demonstrated that STPC2 exhibited a potent anti-angiogenic activity through binding to VEGF via sulfated groups to impede VEGF-VEGFR2 interaction, thus affected the downstream signaling molecules.

  5. Structural Determinant and Its Underlying Molecular Mechanism of STPC2 Related to Anti-Angiogenic Activity

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    Min Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to use different strategies to further uncover the anti-angiogenic molecular mechanism of a fucoidan-like polysaccharide STPC2, isolated from brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. A desulfated derivative, STPC2-DeS, was successfully prepared and identified. The native polysaccharide and desulfated product were subjected to evaluate their anti-angiogenic effects. In the tube formation assay, STPC2 showed dose-dependent inhibition. In addition, STPC2 could distinctly inhibit the permeation of HUVEC cells into the lower chamber. Moreover, a significant reduction of microvessel density was observed in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay treated with STPC2. Meanwhile, STPC2 was found to repress the VEGF-induced neovessel formation in the matrigel plug assay in vivo. However, STPC2-DeS failed to suppress the anti-angiogenic activity via these in vitro and in vivo strategies. In addition, we demonstrated that STPC2 could significantly downregulate the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its related downstream Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and AKT kinase. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that STPC2 bound strongly to VEGF to interfere with VEGF–VEGFR2 interaction. Taken together, these results evidently demonstrated that STPC2 exhibited a potent anti-angiogenic activity through binding to VEGF via sulfated groups to impede VEGF–VEGFR2 interaction, thus affected the downstream signaling molecules.

  6. The peiminine stimulating autophagy in human colorectal carcinoma cells via AMPK pathway by SQSTM1

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    Zheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process, which functions in maintenance of cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. The self-eating process engulfs cellular long-lived proteins and organelles with double-membrane vesicles, and forms a so-called autophagosome. Degradation of contents via fusion with lysosome provides recycled building blocks for synthesis of new molecules during stress, e.g. starvation. Peiminine is a steroidal alkaloid extracted from Fritillaria thunbergii which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, peiminine has been identified to induce autophagy in human colorectal carcinoma cells. In this study, we further investigated whether peiminine could induce autophagic cell death via activating autophagy-related signaling pathway AMPK-mTOR-ULK by promoting SQSTM1(P62. Xenograft tumor growth in vivo suggested that both peiminine and starvation inhibit the growth of tumor size and weight, which was prominently enhanced when peiminine and starvation combined. The therapeutical effect of peiminine in cancer treatment is to be expected.

  7. VEGETATION BEHAVIOR AND ITS HABITAT REGION AGAINST FLOOD FLOW IN URBAN STREAMS

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    IL-KI CHOI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic effects on the vegetation behavior and on its habitat region against flood flow in the urban streams were analysed in this paper. Vegetation behavior was classified into stable, recovered, damaged and swept away stages. Criteria between recovered and damaged status were determined by the bending angle of the aquatic plants. Aquatic plants whose bending angle is lower than 30~50 degree is recovered, but they were damaged and cannot be recovered when the bending angle is higher than 30~50 degree. Phragmites japonica was inhabited in the hydraulic condition of high Froude number which shows that it was inhabited in the upstream reaches. Phragmites communis was inhabited in the relatively low Froude number compared with Phragmites japonica. This shows that it was inhabited in the downstream reaches. Persicaria blumei was found in the relatively wide range of flow velocity and flow depth, which shows that it was inhabited in the middle and downstream reaches. Criterion on the vegetation behavior of Persicaria thunbergii was not clear, which implies that it may be affected by the flow turbulence rather than flow velocity and flow depth.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Three Pathogenesis-Related Cytochrome P450 Genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea

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    Xiao-Lu Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant.

  9. Cytotoxicity of (-)-vitisin B in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shing-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Lo, Yueh-E; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2013-07-01

    Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is an indigenous Taiwanese wild grape and is used as a folk medicine in Taiwan. VTT is rich in polyphenols, especially quercetin and resveratrol derivatives, which were demonstrated to exhibit inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis and prevent some neurodegenerative diseases. (-)-Vitisin B is one of the resveratrol tetramers extracted from VTT. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of (-)-vitisin B on the induction of apoptosis in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. First, (-)-vitisin B significantly inhibited cell proliferation through inducing cell apoptosis. This effect appeared to occur in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell-cycle distribution was also examined, and we found that (-)-vitisin B significantly induced a sub-G1 population in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, (-)-vitisin B exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on cell proliferation than resveratrol. Second, (-)-vitisin B dose dependently induced apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as the cleavage form of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, and the proapoptotic Bax protein. Third, (-)-vitisin B treatment also resulted in increases in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Fas ligand (FasL) expression. Moreover, the (-)-vitisin B-induced FasL expression and caspase-3 activation could be reversed by a JNK inhibitor. These results suggest that (-)-vitisin B-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells might be mediated through activation of JNK and Fas death-signal transduction.

  10. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider SAMEE; Zhen-xing LI; Hong LIN; Jamil KHALID; Yong-chao GUO

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities.They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan,and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG),Sargassum thunbergii (STH),and Laminariajaponica (LJ) from China.The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin,an inhibitor against hyaluronidase.Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG),0.74% (STH),0.97% (LJ),3.30% (SC),and 5.06% (ST).The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml,respectively,lower than those of Chinese SG,STH,and LJ (134,269,and 148 μg/ml,respectively).An antiallergic drug,disodium cromoglycate (DSCG),had an IC50=39 μg/ml,and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase,catechin,had an IC50=20 μg/ml.The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml).This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase,indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods.

  11. Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-09-01

    Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, one of the most widespread orchid species, occurs in a broad range of habitats. This orchid is fully myco-heterotrophic in the germination stage and partially myco-heterotrophic in the adult stage, suggesting that a mycorrhizal partner is one of the key factors that determines whether E. helleborine successfully colonizes a specific environment. We focused on the coastal habitat of Japanese E. helleborine and surveyed the mycorrhizal fungi from geographically different coastal populations that grow in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forests of coastal sand dunes. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant haplotypes were then compared with those from inland populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of large subunit rRNA sequences of fungi from its roots revealed that E. helleborine is mainly associated with several ectomycorrhizal taxa of the Pezizales, such as Wilcoxina, Tuber, and Hydnotrya. All individuals from coastal dunes were exclusively associated with a pezizalean fungus, Wilcoxina, which is ectomycorrhizal with pine trees growing on coastal dunes. Wilcoxina was not detected in inland forests. Coastal populations were indistinguishable from inland populations based on plant trnL intron haplotypes. Our results indicate that mycorrhizal association with geographically restricted pezizalean ectomycorrhizal fungi is a key control upon this orchid species' distribution across widely different forest habitats.

  12. Inhibitory effect of Jeju endemic seaweeds on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Min-Jin; Kim, Dong Sam; Kim, Chan-Shick; Lee, Wook Jae; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed has been used in traditional cosmetics and as a herbal medicine in treatments for cough, boils, goiters, stomach ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches. Despite the fact that seaweeds are frequently used in the practice of human health, little is known about the role of seaweed in the context of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Jeju endemic seaweed on a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) under the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from 14 different kinds of Jeju seaweeds were screened for inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators. Our results revealed that extracts from five seaweeds, Laurencia okamurae, Grateloupia elliptica, Sargassum thunbergii, Gloiopeltis furcata, and Hizikia fusiformis, were potent inhibitors of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effects and low cell toxicity of these seaweed extracts suggest potential therapeutic applications in the regulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:20443209

  13. A Set of Plastid Loci for Use in Multiplex Fragment Length Genotyping for Intraspecific Variation in Pinus (Pinaceae

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    Austin M. Wofford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Recently released Pinus plastome sequences support characterization of 15 plastid simple sequence repeat (cpSSR loci originally published for P. contorta and P. thunbergii. This allows selection of loci for single-tube PCR multiplexed genotyping in any subsection of the genus. Methods: Unique placement of primers and primer conservation across the genus were investigated, and a set of six loci were selected for single-tube multiplexing. We compared interspecific variation between cpSSRs and nucleotide sequences ofycf1 and tested intraspecific variation for cpSSRs using 911 samples in the P. ponderosa species complex. Results: The cpSSR loci contain mononucleotide and complex repeats with additional length variation in flanking regions. They are not located in hypervariable regions, and most primers are conserved across the genus. A single PCR per sample multiplexed for six loci yielded 45 alleles in 911 samples. Discussion: The protocol allows efficient genotyping of many samples. The cpSSR loci are too variable for Pinus phylogenies but are useful for the study of genetic structure within and among populations. The multiplex method could easily be extended to other plant groups by choosing primers for cpSSR loci in a plastome alignment for the target group.

  14. A set of plastid loci for use in multiplex fragment length genotyping for intraspecific variation in Pinus (Pinaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Austin M.; Finch, Kristen; Bigott, Adam; Willyard, Ann

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Recently released Pinus plastome sequences support characterization of 15 plastid simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) loci originally published for P. contorta and P. thunbergii. This allows selection of loci for single-tube PCR multiplexed genotyping in any subsection of the genus. • Methods: Unique placement of primers and primer conservation across the genus were investigated, and a set of six loci were selected for single-tube multiplexing. We compared interspecific variation between cpSSRs and nucleotide sequences of ycf1 and tested intraspecific variation for cpSSRs using 911 samples in the P. ponderosa species complex. • Results: The cpSSR loci contain mononucleotide and complex repeats with additional length variation in flanking regions. They are not located in hypervariable regions, and most primers are conserved across the genus. A single PCR per sample multiplexed for six loci yielded 45 alleles in 911 samples. • Discussion: The protocol allows efficient genotyping of many samples. The cpSSR loci are too variable for Pinus phylogenies but are useful for the study of genetic structure within and among populations. The multiplex method could easily be extended to other plant groups by choosing primers for cpSSR loci in a plastome alignment for the target group. PMID:25202625

  15. Assembly of the Complete Sitka Spruce Chloroplast Genome Using 10X Genomics’ GemCode Sequencing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Lauren; Jackman, Shaun D.; Yang, Chen; Vandervalk, Benjamin P.; Moore, Richard A.; Pleasance, Stephen; Coope, Robin J.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Birol, Inanc

    2016-01-01

    The linked read sequencing library preparation platform by 10X Genomics produces barcoded sequencing libraries, which are subsequently sequenced using the Illumina short read sequencing technology. In this new approach, long fragments of DNA are partitioned into separate micro-reactions, where the same index sequence is incorporated into each of the sequencing fragment inserts derived from a given long fragment. In this study, we exploited this property by using reads from index sequences associated with a large number of reads, to assemble the chloroplast genome of the Sitka spruce tree (Picea sitchensis). Here we report on the first Sitka spruce chloroplast genome assembled exclusively from P. sitchensis genomic libraries prepared using the 10X Genomics protocol. We show that the resulting 124,049 base pair long genome shares high sequence similarity with the related white spruce and Norway spruce chloroplast genomes, but diverges substantially from a previously published P. sitchensis- P. thunbergii chimeric genome. The use of reads from high-frequency indices enabled separation of the nuclear genome reads from that of the chloroplast, which resulted in the simplification of the de Bruijn graphs used at the various stages of assembly. PMID:27632164

  16. Theoretical derivation of risk-ratios for assessing wind damage in a coastal forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the discussion of relationships between thinning and wind damage,and published information, a method for estimating risk ratios of wind dama ge was developed. Estimations of risk-ratio for Pinus thunbergii trees and stand s were deduced from stem bending theory and coefficients characterizing wind pro file, distribution of branches and optical stratification porosity. The results showed that if the value of constant ( in the branch distribution-model equals t he attenuation coefficient αs in the wind profile model for a single tree crown , then the parameter H/D1.33 (height over stem diameter cubed) can be used to co mpare and evaluate the risk-ratio of wind damage for individual trees. The same method can be applied to stands using the coefficient of wind profile in a stand , I.e. Attenuation coefficient α, the coefficient from distributions of optical stratification porosity, I.e. Extinction coefficient ν, and the parameter D1.3 3. The application of parameter H/D1.33 and the process of determining risk rati os of wind damage for stands were also given in the paper.

  17. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) against selected foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wen-Rui; Hu, Qing-Ping; Feng, Sai-Sai; Li, Wei-Qin; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2013-06-26

    Green huajiao, which is the ripe pericarp of the fruit of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc, is widely consumed in Asia as a spice. In this work, the chemical composition of the essential oil from green huajiao was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), and the majority of components were identified. Linalool (28.2%), limonene (13.2%), and sabinene (12.1%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oil were evaluated against selected bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. The results showed that the sensitivities to the essential oil were different for different bacteria tested, and the susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria tested was observed to be greater than that of Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was particularly strong against Staphylococcus epidermidis , with MIC and MBC values of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. A postcontact effect assay also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. epidermidis . The antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao may be due to the increase in permeability of cell membranes, and the leakage of intracellular constituents, on the basis of the cell constituents' release assay and electron microscopy observations.

  18. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae

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    Wei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crabs Claw (CRC YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and characterized from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. and Zucc. Maxim. A phylogenetic analysis of EsCRC and previously identified CRC-like genes placed EsCRC within the basal eudicot lineage. Gene expression results suggest that EsCRC is involved in the development of sepals and carpels, but not nectaries. Phenotypic complementation of the Arabidopsis mutant crc-1 was achieved by constitutive expression of EsCRC. In addition, over-expression of EsCRC in Arabidopsis and tobacco gave rise to abaxially curled leaves. Transgenic results together with the gene expression analysis suggest that EsCRC may maintain a conserved function in carpel development and also play a novel role related to sepal formation. Absence of EsCRC and ElCRC expression in nectaries further indicates that nectary development in non-core eudicots is unrelated to expression of CRC-like genes.

  19. 杨梅全基因组测序结果初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚行江; 任海英; 梁森苗; 郑锡良; 吴阳春

    2015-01-01

    杨梅(Myrica rubra Sieb.et Zucc.)是我国南方著名的特产珍果,为促进杨梅分子育种及功能基因研究,对杨梅进行了全基因组测序.采用Illumina Hiseq 2500双端测序策略,构建了200 bp文库,进行双端125 bp (PE125)测序,得到约13.70 Gb的原始数据.数据评估得知杨梅基因组大小约为304.38 Mb,重复序列含量约为45.82%,杂合率约为0.58%,基因组的GC含量约37.99%.利用SOAPdenovo软件进行了拼接组装.这一结果有助于开展杨梅后续的分子育种及基因功能研究.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. Factors determining the diurnal dynamics of blooming of chosen plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to synthesize the determinants which may influence the diurnal rhythm of blooming. Additionally, I tried to explore and bring together topics that concern blooming and have always been considered separately because of their origin in different disciplines. The following species were included: Hydrangea arborescens L. subsp. discolor (Raf., H. paniculata Sieb., Viburnum opulus L., Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L., Adonis vernalis L., Aster saggitifolius Willd., Taraxacum officinale L. Chelidonium majus L. The taxons were observed in Lublin (51008' - 51018' N and 21027' - 21041' E in the years 2001-2007. The blooming of species was determined at least for two vegetation seasons. During observations all flowers developed in one-hour intervals were counted. The diurnal dynamics of blooming differs among species and is modified by different endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous determinants of diurnal dynamics of blooming are morphological diversity of flowers (fertility or sterility within species or heterostyly. The different pattern of blooming succour different mechanisms which prevent self-pollination (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L.. The abiotic factors, such as day length and temperature during the vegetation season, influence the change in the process of diurnal dynamics of blooming (e. g. Taraxacum officinale, Chelidonium majus.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  3. 植物自然群体适应逆境的分子机理%Molecular Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation in Plant Natural Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志昂; 王洪新

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in studies of genetic variation at protein andDNA levels in plant natural populations and its relationship with environmental changes were reviewed with special reference to the works on the wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.). On one side, adaptation was shown in statistic data, on the other side, the fact that a considerable part of genetic variation does exist within populations (subpopulations) under same ecological condition indicated its maintainability of neutral or near-neutral mutations in natural populations. The researches on adaptive populations of plants, especially on wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) mainly conducted in author's laboratory, have shown that the most part of molecular variation within and among populations can not be explained by selection particularly as far as the individual uniqueness was concerned. There are some data shown that adaptation may be caused by accumulation of a few near-neutral mutations. Recent publications on molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution has been received special attention to elucidate the discrepancy between molecular evolution and morphological adaptive evolution. A frame on the unified evolution theory has been built. Finally some related viewpoints of philosophy were discussed.

  4. [Identification of the wild germplasm of Prunus mume based on AFLP markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingwei; Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Junyu

    2012-08-01

    Mei (Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.) is traditionally not only a famous special ornamental plant but also a fruit tree origined in China. In order to conserve and ultilize scientifically the germplasm resources of wild mei, we identified and analysed the germplasm of mei flower in 65 samples collected from the habitat, using AFLP makers in combination with morphological anaylsis. This study amplified clearly 1 728 polymorphic bands, using the 8- pair-primer of Mse I -EcoR I screened totally from 64 -primer combination. According to the Nei' 72 distance coefficient clustering, all of the formas and varieties used in this study, including Prunus mume var. mume, P. mume, P. mume var. goethartiana, P. mume var. pallescens, P. mume var. microcarpa, P. mume var. cenrnus-sempervirens (newly recoeding variety), P. mume var. cernua, P. mume var. pallidus, P. mume var. taomei, were identified at the point of Nei' 72=0.26. Due to the genetic difference obviously among the formas and varieties, we suggested that wild germplasmtypes of all formas and varieties in P. mume should be conserved in their habitats in the furture.

  5. Tracing soybean domestication history: From nucleotide to genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Kil Hyun; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Since the genome sequences of wild species may provide key information about the genetic elements involved in speciation and domestication, the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), a wild relative of the current cultivated soybean (G. max), was sequenced. In contrast to the current hypothesis of soybean domestication, which holds that the current cultivated soybean was domesticated from G. soja, our previous work has suggested that soybean was domesticated from the G. soja/G. max complex that diverged from a common ancestor of these two species of Glycine. In this review, many structural genomic differences between the two genomes are described and a total of 705 genes are identified as structural variations (SVs) between G. max and G. soja. After protein families database of alignments and hidden Markov models IDs and gene ontology terms were assigned, many interesting genes are discussed in detail using four domestication related traits, such as flowering time, transcriptional factors, carbon metabolism and disease resistance. Soybean domestication history is explored by studying these SVs in genes. Analysis of SVs in genes at the population-level may clarify the domestication history of soybean.

  6. Antitumor Activity of Total Flavonoids from Daphne genkwa in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Zi-Jing; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Jun; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-02-01

    Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. is a well-known medicinal plant. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of total flavonoids in D. genkwa (TFDG) in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were cultured to investigate the anticancer activity of TFDG. In addition, the Apc(Min/+) mouse model was applied in the in vivo experiment. Results of the cell experiment revealed that TFDG possessed significant inhibitory effects on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells (both p < 0.01). Furthermore, our in vivo data showed that after treatment with TFDG, there was a significant increase in life span (both p < 0.01) and tumor numbers were reduced in the colon (both p < 0.01), which was supported by the data of tumor distribution, body weight changes and organ index. Our results also indicated that expressions of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in gut tissue were downregulated by treatments of TFDG, and immunity cytokine secretions in the serum were regulated after oral administration of TFDG. Taken together, these findings suggested that TFDG has a potential clinical utility in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and TFDG's action is likely linked to its ability to regulate immune function and inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Phyllostachys bambusoides and Arundinaria racemosa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Upadhyaya; A.Arunachalam; K.Arunachalam; A.K.Das

    2012-01-01

    We investigated decomposition and nutrient release patterns of leaf and sheath litter of two important highland bamboo species (viz.Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb.(Zucc.) and Arundinaria racemosa Munro) by using a litter bag technique.Our objective was to improve understanding of the addition of organic matter and nutrients to soil from the litter of two abundant highland bamboo species,species that support the local population of the region in many ways.N concentration and N/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) in leaf litter of P.bambusoides.Significantly,larger values of lignin concentration,C/N ratio,and lignin/N ratio were found in the sheath litter ofA racemosa.Weight loss of both leaf and sheath litter was strongly positively correlated with N and N/P ratio,and significantly negatively correlated (p<0.01) with C/N ratio.Liginn/N had a negative correlation with decay rate.In both species,only lignin concentration of the litter showed strong positive correlation with N release.Litter decomposition and N release patterns were similar for the two bamboo species,whereas,P release rate from leaf litter was higher in P.bambusoides and differed significantly between sheath and leaf litter for both species.The complex pattern of nutrient release through mineralization and immobilization during litter decomposition ensures nutrient availability in both managed and natural bamboo stands subjected to anthropogenic disturbances.

  8. Analgesia Synergism of Essential Oil from Pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the synergistic analgesic effect of essential oil of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (EOZ and verapamil (Ver. Method. The qualitative and quantitative composition of EOZ were determined with gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. The interaction between EOZ and Ver in antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests in mice and in isolated toad sciatic nerve test. Results. Linalool, limonene, and sabinene are the major components of EOZ. EOZ (middle-dose: 40 mg·kg−1, high-dose: 80 mg·kg−1 and EOZ + Ver (Each dose group have remarkable analgesic effects on pain in mice induced by acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests. Low-dose EOZ (20 mg·kg−1 had no analgesic action, but when it is combined with Ver it has shown significant antinociception. Verapamil has a faint analgesic effect but was not able to inhibit action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. EOZ (0.2% and EOZ + Ver (0.2% + 0.05% also inhibited action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. Combination of EOZ with Ver had a greater analgesic effect and inhibition of nerve action potential transmission compared to its components EOZ and Ver. Conclusion. The combination of EOZ with Ver produces a synergistic analgesic effect.

  9. Analysis on morphology and content of nutrient components of Actinidia polygama fruit%葛枣猕猴桃果实形态及营养成分含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春涵; 刘汉柱; 辛华

    2014-01-01

    Morphology of Actinidia polygama (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim. fruit, contents of VC , total sugar, reducing sugar and total acids, and contents of Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P and Se in its peeled fruit were determined. The results show that its fruit appears oral, the top has a beak with an average length of 39. 38 mm, long and short diameters of 14. 78 and 13. 60 mm at the maximum cross section, respectively. Weight of per fruit is small only with a value of 5. 52 g. Contents of VC , total sugar and reducing sugar are 0. 82, 384. 60 and 102. 90 g·kg-1 , respectively, content of total acids is 2. 24% . Contents of P, Ca, K and Mg are 0. 31, 0. 44, 2. 82 and 0. 26 mg·g-1 , respectively, while those of Fe, Zn and Se are 8. 83, 3. 45 and 0. 10 μg·g-1 , respectively. It is suggested that A. polygama fruit appears gorgeous color, and riches in VC and mineral elements, so it is a kind of wild fruit with edible and ornamental values.

  10. The Relationship Between Senescence and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Microsomal Membrane and Lipid Peroxidation in Harvested Peach Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jun-feng; FAN Xiu-cai; DOU Shi-juan; ZHANG Ji-shu; LI Guang-min

    2006-01-01

    Peach fruit easily soften and have a short storage time at normal temperature. In this study, peach fruit (Prunus persica sieb et Zucc cv. Yingqing) were picked and stored at 25 and 4℃ to investigate the senescence in correlation with Ca2+- ATPase activity of microsomal membrane and lipid peroxidation during ripening and senescence. In comparison with that stored at 25℃, the fruit stored at 4℃ exhibited a higher flesh firmness, lower respiration rate, and generated the late bigger peak value of Ca2+-ATPase activity as well as maintained the higher activity of the enzyme. Meanwhile, the lower levels of super oxygen radical (O2-) production and content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation were observed. Sodium orthovanadate (SO) and erythrosin B (EB), as Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors, could stimulate the respiration rate. The results suggested that the slower senescence rate of peach fruit was closely related to the higher peak value and longer duration of Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomal membrane, with the slighter membrane lipid peroxidation and lower O2(-) production rate.

  11. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  12. 空气污染对延边地区植物过氧化氢酶活性的影响%Impact of Air Pollution for Plants Catalase Activity in Yanbian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同良; 范丽清; 张丽; 金君勇; 姜帆

    2014-01-01

    [目的]筛选敏感植物,为延边地区利用植物进行环境监测与评价提供基础理论依据.[方法]以延边地区具有代表性的城市绿化植物赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)、红皮云杉(Picea koraiensis Nakai)、旱柳(SalixmatsudanaKoidz)、丁香(Syringa oblata Lindl.)4种植物为研究对象,采用过氧化氢氧化法测定过氧化氢酶的活性,研究不同空气污染环境下4种植物叶内过氧化氢酶活性.[结果]空气污染影响植物过氧化氢酶活性;不同植物对空气污染物的敏感程度不同.[结论]旱柳可作为城市空气污染敏感植物,用于延边地区空气环境的监测与评价.

  13. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  14. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  15. Pyrolysis of arylglycol-[beta]-propylphenyl ether lignin model in the presence of borosilicate glass fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Ken-ichi (Institute of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1994-12-01

    Two [beta]-aryl ether type model compounds, guaiacylglycol- and veratrylglycol-[beta]-propyl-phenyl ethers, were copyrolyzed with borosilicate glass fibers. The results provided a better understanding of the effect of copyrolysis with the fibers on the yields of lignin-derived products from lignocellulosics.The observed products indicated the following reactions occurring in the models; (1) cleavage of the C[alpha]-aromatic ring bond, (2) cleavage of the [beta]-ether bond, (3) cleavage of the C[alpha]-C[beta] bond, (4) [alpha],[beta]-dehydration, and (5) demethylation, and others. Of these reactions, reactions (1), (2) and (4) were the main pyrolysis reactions and fully explained the increase in the total yield of lignin-derived pyrolysis products from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in the presence of borosilicate glass fibers. Reaction (1) was a particularly characteristic reaction in copyrolysis with the fibers. Important reactions relating to the increase in the total yield of lignin-derived pyrolysis products were reproduced on the models used

  16. Water flow and hydraulic characteristics of Japanese red pine and oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Tadashi

    2001-07-01

    To assess the characteristics of water flow in a tree and the contribution of the stem water storage to transpiration, some field observations were carried out in two natural forests: a Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forest and an oak (Quercus mongolica Fish) forest. Water potentials of leaf, stem, root and soil water, sap flow rate, volumetric water content of the stem and micrometeorological factors were measured during the observation periods. Clear diurnal variations in volumetric water content of a stem were observed. It was confirmed that water storage in the stem contributed to the transpiration process. This contribution appeared when the difference in water potential between the root and stem was more than 0·3 MPa. The stem water storage was extracted by the driving force due to the difference of the response of the root and stem water potential to change in the leaf water potential in daytime. The stem capacitance of 1·44 kg MPa-1 for the Japanese red pine and 0·44 kg MPa-1 for the oak were evaluated from the variation in the water storage in the stem and the difference of water potential between root and stem. Evaluations of the water budget were made for each test stand. The results indicated that the contribution of water storage in the stem to transpiration accounted for 10 to 20% of the daily transpiration.

  17. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  18. Exploration of presence/absence variation and corresponding polymorphic markers in soybean genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Wang; Tuanjie Zhao; Junyi Gai; Jiangjie Lu; Shouyi Chen; Liping Shu; Reid GPalmer; Guangnan Xing; Yan Li; Shouping Yang; Deyue Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the genome-wide distribution of presence/absence variation (PAV) and to establish a database of polymorphic PAV markers in soybean. The 33 soybean whole-genome sequences were compared to each other with that of Wil iams 82 as a reference genome. A total of 33,127 PAVs were detected and 28,912 PAV markers with their primer sequences were designed as the database NJAUSoyPAV_1.0. The PAVs scattered on whole genome while only 518 (1.8%) over-lapped with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in BARCSOYSSR_1.0 database. In a random sample of 800 PAVs, 713 (89.13%) showed polymorphism among the 12 differential genotypes. Using 126 PAVs and 108 SSRs to test a Chinese soybean germplasm col ection composed of 828 Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L.) Merr. accessions, the per locus al ele number and its variation appeared less in PAVs than in SSRs. The distinctness among al eles/bands of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) products showed better in PAVs than in SSRs, potential in accurate marker-assisted al ele selection. The association mapping results showed SSR þ PAV was more powerful than any single marker systems. The NJAUSoyPAV_1.0 database has enriched the source of PCR markers, and may fit the materials with a range of per locus al ele numbers, if jointly used with SSR markers.

  19. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  20. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  1. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  2. Identification of MicroRNAs in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Zheng Hu; Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality,in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed In a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  3. Growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities of Myricanol from the bark of Myrica rubra in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, G H; Meng, G M; Tong, Y L; Chen, X; Ren, Z M; Wang, K; Yang, F

    2014-09-25

    Myrica rubra (Lour.) Sieb. Et Zucc. is a myricaceae Myrica plant. It is a subtropical fruit tree in China and other Asian countries. The bark of M. rubra is used in Chinese folk medicine because of its antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, the mechanisms underlying such activities remain unclear. This study investigated whether or not Myricanol extracted from M. rubra bark elicits anti-cancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by inducing apoptosis in vivo. Myricanol was extracted from M. rubra bark through system solvent extraction and silica gel layer column separation. The results of tritiated thymidine assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry indicated that Myricanol inhibited the growth of A549 cells. The effects of Myricanol on the expression of key apoptosis-related genes in A549 cells were evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses. Myricanol significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4.85 μg/ml. Myricanol significantly decreased colony formation and induced A549 cell apoptosis. Myricanol upregulated the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bax, and p21 and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. These changes were associated with apoptosis. Based on these results, we propose that Myricanol elicits growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on lung cancer cells. Therefore, Myricanol may be a clinical candidate for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

  4. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.

  5. Bioactive constituents of Corni Fructus: The therapeutic use of morroniside, loganin, and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose as renoprotective agents in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, T; Kang, K S; Park, C H; Noh, J S; Yamabe, N; Shibahara, N; Tanaka, T

    2010-08-01

    Corni Fructus, the fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. (Cornaceae), is an important crude herb used in Chinese medicine to exhibit several biological activities, including hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial effects, and to improve liver and kidney functions. We have been investigating the mechanism and bioactive constituents of Corni Fructus using diabetic animal models. Morroniside, loganin, and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose, the main active compounds of Corni Fructus, exhibit the same lowering effects of elevated triglyceride, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation in the kidney of db/db mice. The effects of morroniside and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose were mediated through modulation by renal sterol regulatory element binding proteins and nuclear factor-kappa B expression, but the effect of loganin was presumably mediated by hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects in the kidney, and also indirectly by the amelioration of metabolic disorders in other organs such as the liver. These findings led us to conclude that morroniside, loganin, and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose would synergistically contribute to the inhibition of metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia), oxidative stress, inflammation, as well as AGE formation in the diabetic kidney.

  6. Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluorobenzene in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han-Na

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Lithospermi Radix, LR is a kind of heat clearing and blood cooling medicinal herbs. It can clear away heat and cool the blood, reduce toxins and disperse maculae. LR has long been used as efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we investigate anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of LR by using the 1-fluoro-2, 4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis mouse model. Results: Topical application of 10 mg/mL of LR effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. Topical application of LR also inhibited hyperplasia, edema, spongiosis and infiltrations of mononuclear cells. In addition, production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG1 in serum were decreased by using LR in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that LR acts as an antiinflammatory agent, improving skin lesions in CD mice.

  7. The β-conglycinin deficiency in wild soybean is associated with the tail-to-tail inverted repeat of the α-subunit genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Hajika, Makita; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Xia, Zhengjun; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Harada, Kyuya

    2012-02-01

    β-conglycinin, a major seed protein in soybean, is composed of α, α', and β subunits sharing a high homology among them. Despite its many health benefits, β-conglycinin has a lower amino acid score and lower functional gelling properties compared to glycinin, another major soybean seed protein. In addition, the α, α', and β subunits also contain major allergens. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb et Zucc.) line, 'QT2', lacks all of the β-conglycinin subunits, and the deficiency is controlled by a single dominant gene, Scg-1 (Suppressor of β-conglycinin). This gene was characterized using a soybean cultivar 'Fukuyutaka', 'QY7-25', (its near-isogenic line carrying the Scg-1 gene), and the F₂ population derived from them. The physical map of the Scg-1 region covered by lambda phage genomic clones revealed that the two α-subunit genes, a β-subunit gene, and a pseudo α-subunit gene were closely organized. The two α-subunit genes were arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation, and the genes were separated by 197 bp in Scg-1 compared to 3.3 kb in the normal allele (scg-1). In addition, small RNA was detected in immature seeds of the mutants by northern blot analysis using an RNA probe of the α subunit. These results strongly suggest that β-conglycinin deficiency in QT2 is controlled by post-transcriptional gene silencing through the inverted repeat of the α subunits.

  8. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties.

  9. New Records of Seed Plants from Guangdong, China%广东省种子植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 肖建生

    2016-01-01

    Eight species (including varieties),Hamamelis mollis, Lychnis senno, Gelidocalamus stellatus, Monochasma sheareri, Epimedium leptorrhizum, Triadenum breviflorum, Juglans cathayensis var. formosana,Corydalis decumbens, are reported as new records from Guangdong. In addition, the generaHamamelis, Lychnis, Triadenum have not been previously recorded in Guangdong.%报道广东省种子植物分布新记录8种(变种):金缕梅Hamamelis mollis Oliver、剪红纱花Lychnis senno Sieb. et Zucc.、井冈寒竹Gelidocalamus stellatusWen、沙氏鹿茸草Monochasma savatieriFranch. ex Maxim.、黔岭淫羊藿Epimedium leptorrhizum Stearn、三腺金丝桃Triadenum breviflorum (Wall. ex Dyer) Y. Kimura、华东野核桃Juglans cathayensis Dode var.formosana (Hayata) A. M. Lu et R. H, Chang、伏生紫堇Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers.。其中,金缕梅属、剪秋罗属、三腺金丝桃属为广东新记录属。

  10. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-nan; Xie, Wen-hua; Zheng, Yi-xiong; Cao, Jin-ping; Cao, Pei-rang; Chen, Qing-jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo. PMID:27690088

  11. A Review of the Pharmacological Effects of the Dried Root of Polygonum cuspidatum (Hu Zhang and Its Constituents

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    Huan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used in China for thousands of years to treat and prevent diseases. TCM has been proven safe and effective, and it is being considered as one of the important types of complementary and alternative medicine and receives increasing attention worldwide. The dried root of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (also known as “Hu Zhang” in Chinese is one of the medicinal herbs listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Hu Zhang is widely distributed in the world. It can be found in Asia and North America and is used as folk medicine in countries such as Japan and Korea. In China, Hu Zhang is usually used in combination with other TCM herbs. The therapeutic uses of those Hu Zhang-containing TCM prescriptions or formulations are for treating cough, hepatitis, jaundice, amenorrhea, leucorrhea, arthralgia, burns and snake bites. Recent pharmacological and clinical studies have indicated that Hu Zhang has antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective functions. This review gives a summary of the reported therapeutic effects of the active compounds and the different extracts of Hu Zhang.

  12. Needle longevity, photosynthetic rate and nitrogen concentration of eight spruce taxa planted in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Masazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Wang, Wenjie; Choi, Dongsu; Koike, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    Growth characteristics of Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis (Sieb. et Zucc) Carr., P. jezoensis var. hondoensis (Mayr) Rehder and P. shirasawae Hayashi from Japan, P. abies (L.) Karst. from Europe and P. glauca Voss, P. mariana Britt., Sterns and Pogg. and P. rubens Sarg. from North America were compared. The trees were grown in similar conditions at the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Japan. Tree growth, needle biomass, longevity, photosynthetic rate, nitrogen concentration and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was calculated. Picea jezoensis, P. jezoensis var. hondoensis, P. abies and P. glauca had high growth rates, high photosynthetic rates in young needles, high needle nitrogen concentrations and short needle life spans. In contrast, P. glehnii, P. shirasawae, P. mariana and P. rubens had low growth and photosynthetic rates, low needle nitrogen concentrations, long needle life spans and maintained a high photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in older needles. Examination of relationships between several growth parameters of the eight taxa revealed positive correlations between SLA and mass-based photosynthetic rate and between SLA and mass-based nitrogen concentration, whereas mass-based photosynthetic rate and mass-based nitrogen concentration were negatively correlated with needle longevity. The species differed greatly in growth characteristics despite being grown in similar conditions.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Epimedium and Ginseng Contained Combinations Using HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYuan-chun; LUOMai; SarahWittenberg; CliveBarwell; ZHOUYu-xin; WEILu-xue

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To develop a rapid,effective method for the detemination of flavonoids and ginsenosides in one injection and evaluate the flavonoids and ginsenosides content to control the ratio of Epimedium and Ginseng herbs in botanical combinations.Methods: The quality evaluation was determinatted using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatog raphy(HPLC),referred by the major flovonoids from Epimedium,epimedin A,epimedin B,epimedin C,and icariin as the standards,and the major ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rf,Rb1,Rb2,and Rd as the standards,included Epimedium brevicornum Maxim.,E.sagittatum(Sieb.et Zucc)Maxim.,E.koreanum NaKai,P.ginseng C.A.Meyer,P.quinquefolium L.,P.notoginseng and some products containing the above herbs.Results:The main flavonoids and ginsenosides could be clearly resolved in the single analysis.Conclusion.The results can be effectively used in evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively the ration of Epimdium and Ginseng contained products.

  14. Determination of Characteristic Components in Essential Oils from Wisteria brachybotrys Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Incremental Dilution Technique

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    Mitsuo Miyazawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of flowers, leaves and stems from Wisteria brachybotrys Sieb.et Zucc, collected in Japan was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-MS/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA. As a result, sixty-eight compounds from flowers of W. brachybotrys, accounting for 96.3%, were identified, and benzyl cyanide (31.7%, palmitic acid (8.7%, and (Z- g -bisabolene (8.4% as the main compounds. Thirty compounds from leaves, accounting for 97.3%, were identified, and phytol (46.0%, palmitic acid (8.2%, and nonanal (5.7% as the main compounds. Twenty-eight compounds from stems, accounting for 98.7%, were identified, and geraniol (32.8%, linalool (22.1%, and nerol (10.4% as the main compounds. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats’ retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-MS/O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, applied to the GC-MS/O technique, the flavor dilution (FD factor was obtained. To our knowledge, the composition of these parts of essential oils is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints.

  15. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis.

  16. Evapotranspiration over a Japanese cypress forest. I. Eddy covariance fluxes and surface conductance characteristics for 3 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ohkubo, Shinjiro; Tani, Makoto; Yano, Masato; Katayama, Tatsuya

    2007-04-01

    SummaryEvapotranspiration above a Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) forest with complex topography in central Japan were observed for 3 years using the eddy covariance method. The observations describe the magnitude and seasonal and inter-annual variations in sensible and latent heat fluxes, evapotranspiration and the parameters describing bulk canopy characteristics. Average annual evapotranspiration over the period was approximately 735 mm. Despite large fluctuations in precipitation (1179-1971 mm) during the 3 years, inter-annual fluctuations in evapotranspiration were small. Midday average dry canopy surface conductance was 6.7 mm s -1 during midseason and decreased in winter. The midday average dry canopy decoupling factor ( Ω) was 0.21 during midseason and decreased in winter. This forest is characterized by relatively small values of surface conductance and decoupling factor compared to other forests. However, several other coniferous forests show smaller values. Surface conductance, and thus stomatal regulation, is important in controlling dry-canopy transpiration in this forest. Inter-annual fluctuations of bulk parameters were small; surface conductance characteristics affected by soil moisture did not vary between dry and wet years.

  17. Metabolite Analysis of Toosendanin by an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Technique

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    Na Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Toosendanin is the major bioactive component of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., which is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal pain and as an insecticide. Previous studies reported that toosendanin possesses hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains unknown. Its bioavailability in rats is low, which indicates the hepatotoxicity might be induced by its metabolites. In this connection, in the current study, we examined the metabolites obtained by incubating toosendanin with human live microsomes, and then six of these metabolites (M1–M6 were identified for the first time by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Further analysis on the MS spectra showed M1, M2, and M3 are oxidative products and M6 is a dehydrogenation product, while M4 and M5 are oxidative and dehydrogenation products of toosendanin. Moreover, their possible structures were deduced from the MS/MS spectral features. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that M1-M5 levels rapidly increased and reached a plateau at 30 min, while M6 rapidly reached a maximal level at 20 min and then decreased slowly afterwards. These findings have provided valuable data not only for understanding the metabolic fate of toosendanin in liver microsomes, but also for elucidating the possible molecular mechanism of its hepatotoxicity.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability

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    Wenkai DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAnthocyanins are present in high concentrations in Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc. Herein, a microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry. The HPLC chromatogram of the extracts showed that the anthocyanin components were slightly hydrolysed during the extraction process. Further experiments confirmed that microwave irradiation slightly hydrolysed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to cyanidin, but did not significantly influence the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Optimized extraction conditions for total anthocyanin content were a solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time of 1:50, 80 °C, and 15 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the anthocyanin content was 2.95 ± 0.08 mg·g−1, and the antioxidant activity yield was 279.96 ± 0.1 μmol.·g−1 Trolox equivalent on a dry weight basis. These results indicated that microwave-assisted extraction was a highly efficient extraction method with reduced processing time. However, under some extraction conditions it could damage the anthocyanins. These results provide an important guide for the application of microwave extraction.

  19. Calculation procedures to estimate fine root production rates in forests using two-dimensional fine root data obtained by the net sheet method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kyotaro; Tanikawa, Toko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ishizuka, Shigehiro

    2017-06-01

    Several recent studies have used the net sheet method to estimate fine root production rates in forest ecosystems, wherein net sheets are inserted into the soil and fine roots growing through them are observed. Although this method has advantages in terms of its easy handling and low cost, there are uncertainties in the estimates per unit soil volume or unit stand area, because the net sheet is a two-dimensional material. Therefore, this study aimed to establish calculation procedures for estimating fine root production rates from two-dimensional fine root data on net sheets. This study was conducted in a hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl.) stand in western Japan. We estimated fine root production rates in length and volume from the number (RN) and cross-sectional area (RCSA) densities, respectively, for fine roots crossing the net sheets, which were then converted to dry mass values. For these calculations, we used empirical regression equations or theoretical equations between the RN or RCSA densities on the vertical walls of soil pits and fine root densities in length or volume, respectively, in the soil, wherein the theoretical equations assumed random orientation of the growing fine roots. The estimates of mean fine root (diameter sheets using these calculation procedures, with the empirical regression equations reflecting fine root orientation in the study site. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  1. Structure identification for compound I separated and purified from taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yong; LIU Jun; LU An-guo; CUI Jing-xia

    2003-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are widely found in almost all kinds of plants. Many endophytic fungi can produce some physiological active compounds, which are same to or analog to those isolated from their hosts. Producing physiological active compounds through microbial fermentation can give a new way to resolve resource limitation and to find out alternative source. Through the methods of organic solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography, compound I was isolated, purified from the liquid fermentation metabolites of the taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011 Y. Xiang et LU An-guo) that was screened from the bark of Taxus. cuspidata Sieb.et Zucc.. Compound I was identified as one kind of taxoids type III, based on the analyzing results by using the methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). This study provides a completed method for separation and purification of the endophytic fungi as well as structure identification of its fermentation metabolite

  2. A study on four species of trees seed-oil with flax acid%富含亚麻酸的四种林木种子油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庐山植物园油脂组

    1983-01-01

    本文报道福建柏[Fokienia hodginsii(Dunn.)Herry et Thomas.]、重阳木(Bischoffia trifoliata Hook.)、化香(Platycarya strobilacea Sieb.ct Zucc.)和白木乌桕(Sapium japonicum pax et Haffmann)种子的含油量、油的理化性质和脂肪酸组成.气液色谱法分析表明,亚麻酸是它们种子油的主要成分,其含量分别为44.58%、50.23%和31.52%.这些种子油的碘值与折光率相关图证实不含有特殊脂肪酸.富含亚麻酸的这四种林木种子油,碘值为163.27-175.12,属干性油.高的碘值与油脂中亚麻酸、亚油酸这两种不饱和脂肪酸比例高相一致.分析表明,这些种子油可以代替亚麻油.

  3. Morroniside protects cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells from damage by high ambient glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qin XU; Hai-ping HAO; Xu ZHANG; Yang PAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether morroniside, a compound in Comus officinalis Sieb et Zucc can prevent cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from damage by high ambient glucose. METHODS: HUVEC was incubated in glucose, 5 or 30 mmol/L, either alone or in the presence of morroniside (final concentration 100, 10,and 1 μmol/L, respectively) for 48 h. The proliferation of HUVEC was quantified by MTT method; its cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry; morphological change was observed with fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS:Survival of HUVEC cultured in high ambient glucose was significantly decreased when compared to that in normal concentration of glucose (P<0.01). High ambient glucose also lowered the rate of cells entering into S-phase, along with severe morphological damage. With the intervention of morroniside (final concentration 100 and 10 μmol/L),the cell survival was significantly recovered (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), accompanied with increased S-phase rate and less extent of morphological damage. CONCLUSION: Morroniside protected HUVEC against high ambient glucose induced injury, which suggested that morroniside could exert a beneficial effect on preventing diabetic angiopathies.

  4. Morphogenesis of Pistillate Flowers of Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling Yan; Yi Ren; Xian-Hua Tian; Xiao-Hui Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Floral morphogenesis and the development of Cercidiphyllumjaponicum Sieb. et Zucc. were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the pistillate inflorescences were congested spikes with the flowers arranged opposite. Great differences between the so-called "bract" and the vegetative leaf were observed both in morphogenesis and morphology. In morphogenesis, the "bract" primordium is crescent-shaped, truncated at the apex and not conduplicate,has no stipule primordium at the base but does have some inconspicuous teeth in the margin that are not glandular. The leaf primordium is triangular, cycloidal at the apex, conduplicate, has two stipule primordia at the base, has one gland-tooth at the apex occurring at first and some gland-teeth in the margin that occur later. In morphology, the "bract" is also different to the vegetative leaf in some characteristics that were also illustrated in the present paper. Based on the hypothesis that the bract is more similar to the vegetative leaf than the tepal, we considered that the so-called "bract" of C. japonicum might be the tepal of the pistillate flower in morphological nature. Therefore, each pistillate flower contains a tepal and a carpel.We did not find any trace of other floral organs in the morphogenesis of the pistillate flower. Therefore we considered that the unicarpellate status of extant Cercidiphyllum might be to highly reduce and advance characteristics that make the extant Cercidiphyllum isolated from both fossil Cercidiphyllum-like plants and its extant affinities.

  5. Self-compatibility in 'Zaohong' Japanese apricot is associated with the loss of function of pollen S genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Ni, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Bin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    While most Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars display typical S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility, some self-compatible (SC) cultivars have also been identified. In this study, we confirmed SC of 'Zaohong' through replicated self-pollination tests. Cross-pollination tests showed that SC of 'Zaohong' was caused by a loss of pollen function, so we determined that the S-genotype of 'Zaohong' was S 2 S 15 . Sequence analysis of the S-haplotypes of 'Zaohong' showed no mutations which were likely to alter gene function. Furthermore, expression analysis based on RT-PCR of S-locus genes revealed no differences at the transcript level when compared with 'Xiyeqing', a self-incompatible cultivar with the same S haplotypes. In addition, except for S-locus genes, a new type of F-box gene encoding a previously uncharacterised protein with high sequence similarity (61.03-64.65 %) to Prunus SFB genes was identified. Putative structural regions of PmF-box genes have been described, corresponding to regions in PmSFB alleles, but with some sequence variations. These results suggest that SC in 'Zaohong' occurs in pollen, and that other factors outside the S-locus, including PmF-box genes, might be associated with the loss of function of pollen S genes.

  6. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  7. Effect of loganin on experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Lin; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Hou, Jian; Zhu, Hai-Bo

    2012-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Loganin, an iridoid glucoside compound was isolated from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of loganin on DN and to elucidate the potential mechanism. High glucose (HG) stimulated cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) analyzed CTGF expression by Western blotting and investigated whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was involved. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DN, randomized to receive intragastric (i.g.) of loganin. Renal tissue, blood and urine samples were collected to determine and analyze. In vitro study, loganin reduced CTGF excretion in HG-induced HK-2 cells through the ERK signaling pathway. In vivo study, I.g. of loganin 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg significantly ameliorated renal function and increased body weight. Meanwhile, loganin reduced renal CTGF expression by immunohistochemical staining, reduced serum levels of CTGF. Besides, there were no significant differences in blood sugar levels between the loganin groups compared to the STZ-treated group. Furthermore, loganin ameliorated renal pathology. These results suggested that loganin exerts an early renal protective role to DN. Inhibition of CTGF may be a potential target in DN therapy, which highlights the possibility of using loganin to treat DN.

  8. Effect of Boron Fertilizer on Flower and Fruit Drop of Prunes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAOLING; BAOSHIDAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effect of boron on falling of prunes (Prunus mune,Sieb,et Zucc) was studied by applying 50g borate per tree into soil on december 15,1993(soil-B) and spraying leaves leves evenly twice with 1.5g kg-1 borate solution on March 1 and 8,1994(spray-B) on the soil with 0.28mg kg-1 rapidly available B.Compared with no borate treatment (CK),B concentrations of leaves,short branches and flowers were higher and the percentage of flower and fruit drop was lower in the treatments of soil-B and spray-B.B fertilizer increased B concentrations in flowers,leaves and short branches,promoted pollen germination,reduced the percentage of fall of flowers and fruits of prunes,increased the percentage of fertile fruits,and thus increased yields of prunes by 46% and 34.3% in the treatments of soil-B and spray-B,respectively.It could be inferred preliminarily that if B concentration of leaves was lower than 35 mgkg-1,the prunes should be fertilized with B.The measured leaves should be picked from branches(3-10cm in legnth)germinating from the central section of a tree crown during the last ten days of May to the early days of June.

  9. [Evaluation on equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells based on their components. Accelerative effect of lithospermi radix and inhibitory effect of coptidis rhizoma on proliferation of granulation tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Y; Suga, C; Yoshioka, T; Morimoto, T; Harada, M

    1990-04-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate an equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells. The effects of ether extract of Lithospermi Radix and cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. and aqueous extract of Coptidis Rizoma and cultured cells of Coptis japonica Makino var. dissecta Nakai on proliferation of granulation tissue in rats were compared. The ether extracts of Lithospermi Radix and the cultured cells enhanced proliferation of granulation tissue by the cotton pellet method. The potency of both extract was about the same, if results were compared with the corresponding doses which contained the same quantity of shikonin derivatives. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts of Coptidis Rhizoma and the cultured cells inhibited it. The potency of both extract was about the same, if results were compared with the corresponding doses which contained the same quantity of berberine-type alkaloids. From these results, to evaluate an equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells, it is concluded that their qualities and quantities are not so different each other and the almost same pharmacological effect expected on the basis of their uses is required.

  10. ANALYSIS ON THE WOOD ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF JAPANESE YEW%紫杉木材解剖构造及其材性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘君良; 洪克诚; 张铁军

    1998-01-01

    运用对比分析的方法对紫杉(Taxus cuspidata Sieb.)木材的解剖特征、管胞的大小、长宽比等进行了较详细地测定与分析;对紫杉木材的气干密度、干缩系数、化学成分进行了测定.结果表明:紫杉木材射线管胞内壁锯齿状加厚明显,交叉场纹孔多为窗格状,偶见松型,管胞的长宽比平均值约为50,气干密度平均值约为598kg/m3,差异干缩约为1.8;1%NaoH抽出物较落叶松高,其它化学指标比落叶松低.

  11. Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Hwang, In Kyeong; Park, Ji Hyun; Moon, BoKyung

    2009-08-01

    Three citrus varieties grown in Korea, namely, Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck), were evaluated for their dietary fiber, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids as well as individual flavonoids composition. The biochemical characteristics of citrus varieties were examined by the antioxidant capacity (731 to 1221 micromol of Trolox equivalent/g), total phenolic (334 to 411 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/100 g), total flavonoid contents (214 to 281 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), and total carotenoid contents (63 to 84 mg/100 g). Six flavonoids, including naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, neohesperidin, and luteolin, were tentatively identified. Naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in 3 citrus varieties. Among the citrus varieties studied, Yuza showed higher antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total carotenoids, and lower superoxide radical scavenging assay (SRSA) IC(50) values than other varieties. Furthermore, Korean citrus showed higher protective effect on gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) as compared to vitamin C and luteolin.

  12. Overexpression of Citrus junos mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Li, Zhengguo; Yang, Yingwu; Hu, Nan; Wu, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major factors that limit plant growth in acid soils. Al-induced release of organic acids into rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al-tolerance mechanism in many plant species. In this study, Al tolerance of Yuzu (Citrus Junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) was tested on the basis of root elongation and the results demonstrated that Yuzu was Al tolerant compared with other plant species. Exposure to Al triggered the exudation of citrate from the Yuzu root. Thus, the mechanism of Al tolerance in Yuzu involved an Al-inducible increase in citrate release. Aluminum also elicited an increase of citrate content and increased the expression level of mitochondrial citrate synthase (CjCS) gene and enzyme activity in Yuzu. The CjCS gene was cloned from Yuzu and overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. Increased expression level of the CjCS gene and enhanced enzyme activity were observed in transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Root growth experiments showed that transgenic plants have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic Nicotiana plants showed increased levels of citrate in roots compared to wild-type plants. The exudation of citrate from roots of the transgenic plants significantly increased when exposed to Al. The results with transgenic plants suggest that overexpression of mitochondrial CS can be a useful tool to achieve Al tolerance.

  13. Involvement of allelopathy in inhibition of understory growth in red pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2017-07-12

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forests are characterized by sparse understory vegetation although sunlight intensity on the forest floor is sufficient for undergrowth. The possible involvement of pine allelopathy in the establishment of the sparse understory vegetation was investigated. The soil of the red pine forest floor had growth inhibitory activity on six test plant species including Lolium multiflorum, which was observed at the edge of the forest but not in the forest. Two growth inhibitory substances were isolated from the soil and characterized to be 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid. Those compounds are probably formed by degradation process of resin acids. Resin acids are produced by pine and delivered into the soil under the pine trees through balsam and defoliation. Threshold concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid for the growth inhibition of L. multiflorum were 30 and 10μM, respectively. The concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the soil were 312 and 397μM, respectively, which are sufficient concentrations to cause the growth inhibition because of the threshold. These results suggest that those compounds are able to work as allelopathic agents and may prevent from the invasion of herbaceous plants into the forests by inhibiting their growth. Therefore, allelopathy of red pine may be involved in the formation of the sparse understory vegetation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Shengmin; Xia, Qile; Fang, Zhongxiang; Johnson, Stuart

    2015-01-15

    To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced detection of polymorphic DNA by multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling of endonuclease-digested DNA: identification of markers tightly linked to the supernodulation locus in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Anollés, G; Bassam, B J; Gresshoff, P M

    1993-10-01

    Multiple endonuclease digestion of template DNA or amplification products can increase significantly the detection of polymorphic DNA in fingerprints generated by multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling (MAAP). This coupling of endonuclease cleavage and amplification of arbitrary stretches of DNA, directed by short oligonucleotide primers, readily allowed distinction of closely related fungal and bacterial isolates and plant cultivars. MAAP analysis of cleaved template DNA enabled the identification of molecular markers linked to a developmental locus of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced supernodulating, near-isogenic lines altered in the nts locus, which controls nodule formation, could be distinguished from each other and from the parent cultivar by amplification of template pre-digested with 2-3 restriction enzymes. A total of 42 DNA polymorphisms were detected using only 19 octamer primers. In the absence of digestion, 25 primers failed to differentiate these soybean genotypes. Several polymorphic products co-segregated tightly with the nts locus in F2 families from crosses between the allelic mutants nts382 and nts1007 and the ancestral G. soja Sieb. & Succ. PI468.397. Our results suggest that EMS is capable of inducing extensive DNA alterations, probably around discrete mutational hot-spots. EMS-induced DNA polymorphisms may constitute sequence-tagged markers diagnostic of specific genomic regions.

  16. 刨花楠树高与胸径异速生长的关系%Relationship between Machilus' Height and Allometric Growth of Diameter at Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波; 钟全林; 程栋梁; 苏永堃; 徐朝斌

    2012-01-01

    通过幂指数函数的对数模型lgH=a+blgD,分析刨花楠树高H与胸径D,以及与0.25H,0.5H,0.75H处直径(D)之间的关系,a和b为常数.结果表明:在刨花楠不同生长阶段其异速生长指数存在显著差异,异速生长指数随着胸径的增长而减小,而且树高与不同高度处直径之间的异速生长指数随着高度的增加而减小.植物异速生长是当前生态学研究的一个热点问题,而植物树高与胸径的关系又是异速生长研究的一个重点.本研究表明不存在一个普适的植物树高与胸径之间的关系,其指数应当随着植物的生长过程而系统减小.%The relationships between Machilus' height (H) and diameter at breast (D), and the diameter(D) at 0. 25H, 0. 5H, and 0. 75H, are analyzed by logarithmic model of power exponent function, lgH=a +blgD. The results show that, there are significant differences in the index of allometric growth in different growth stages of Machilus. The index of allometric growth between the tree height and the diameter at different height decreases with the growth of the diameter at breast; and decreases with the increase of height of the tree. It is indicated that, there is not a universal relationship between tree height and diameter at breast, the index should be systematically reduced with the growth of plant.

  17. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF NATIVE TREE SEEDLINGS IN SECONDARY FOREST OF HONG KONG%香港乡土树种幼苗在次生林下生长的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雪影; Richa.,C

    2000-01-01

    The seedling survival and growth of 21 native tree species were studied by transplanting into two natural forest sites and an open site for approximately 22 months during June-August ]989 and April-October 1991. The results showed that the seedlings of most species had some tolerance to shading and could survive in forests. Only a few species showed extreme tolerance or intolerance to shade. The seedlings of most pioneer species died directly from shading or insect damage and pathogens in forests. The extremely shadeintolerant species in the study were Pinus massoniana, Sapium discolor, and Trema tomentosa.These species with a typical syndrome of pioneer characters do not play an important role in secondary succession in Hong Kong. The major components in current secondary forest,such as Machilus chekiangensis and Gordonia axillaris, have mixed and intermediate characters,which may be an adaptation to the soil degradation caused by centuries of fire and erosion.Bird-dispersed species play an important role in secondary forest of Hong Kong. Research and application of the bird-dispersed woody flora must be enhanced. Some hypotheses on the current floristic succession are briefly discussed.%通过苗木移植试验,测定了21种香港乡土树种在次生林下的成活率及生长状况.结果表明,大多数种类的幼苗具有一定的耐荫性,可在林下生长;只有极少数种类表现出极耐荫或极不耐荫,导致林下先锋树种幼苗死亡率高的主要原因是荫蔽或因荫蔽而生长不良受病虫害致死.在香港次生林演替中占优势的种类通常具有生长快、稍耐荫,或生长稍慢但耐胁迫等特点.这是对香港退化土地长期适应的结果.鸟播植物在香港次生林中占有重要地位,建议加强鸟播树种生态学特性的研究及其在植树造林中应用.结合本实验结果,对一些现代植物群落演替假说进行了简要的讨论.

  18. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  19. 温度对几种大型海藻硝氮吸收及其生长的影响%Effects of temperature on nitrogen uptake and growth in several species of macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 李美真; 曹婧; 徐智广

    2013-01-01

    以大型红藻真江蓠Gracilaria asiatica、脆江蓠Gra(ilaria chouae、蜈蚣藻Grateloupiafilicinu大型褐藻鼠尾藻Sargassumthunbergii海黍子Sargassum pallidum为实验材料,研究了在10~25℃不同温度下这几种海藻对硝氮(NO3-N)的吸收和生长情况.结果表明,几种大型海藻对水体中NO3-N的吸收效果明显,其中真江蓠和脆江蓠的吸收速率15℃时最高,为0.507±0.136和0.448±0.095μmol/g·h,蜈蚣藻和鼠尾藻在20℃时最高,为0.614±0.033和0.289±0.019μmol/g·h,海黍子在25℃时吸收速率最高,为0.748±0.015μmol/g·h.结合去除效率常数来看,海黍子对NO3-N有更好的去除效果.温度变化对大型海藻的生长具有显著的影响,在20℃下大部分海藻相对生长速率达到最高,其中以脆江蓠最高,达到4.79%±0.45%/d.%A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement on nitrogen uptake and growth of macroalgae, including Gracilaria asiatica , G. chouae, Grateloupia fiiicina , Sargassum thunbergii , and S. pallidum. It was found that nitrate absorption of these macroalgae was obvious within certain temperature range. With the rise of temperature, the nitrite uptake rate demonstrated an increasing trend. At 15℃ , G. asiatica and G. chouae exhibited a maximal uptake rate of 0. 507 ± 0. 136 μmol/g ·h and 0. 448 ± 0. 095 μmol/g ·h, respectively. At 20℃ , G. filicina and S. thunbergii exhibited a maximal uptake rate of 0. 614 ± 0.033μmol/g ·h and 0. 289 ± 0. 019μmol/g ·h. At 25℃ , S. pallidum exhibited a maximal uptake rate of 0. 748 ± 0. 015μmol/g · h. These findings indicated that S. pallidum is more efficient than the other species in removing nitrogen. Temperature had a significant impact on macroalgae growth, and at 20℃ ,the highest growth rate in wet weight occurred in most macroalgae, especially G. chouae, reaching 4. 79 ± 0. 45%/d.

  20. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  1. 大型海藻对氮磷吸收能力的初步研究%Preliminary studies on the nitrogen and phosphorus absorption capability of seaweeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵嘉; 曾昭春; 贾佩峤; 郭冉; 夏辉; 曹英昆; 高炬

    2014-01-01

    实验选取了经济价值较高、生态特征较为明显且研究较为深入的三种大型海藻:海带(Laminaria ja-ponica Aresch)、鼠尾藻(Sargassumthunbergii)和龙须菜(Gracilaria lemaneiformis)作为实验材料,在模拟自然环境条件(14℃、1500 lx)和适宜的氮、磷浓度(50μmol/L、5μmol/L)下,研究其在72 h内对氮、磷的吸收能力。实验数据测得,海带、鼠尾藻和龙须菜对氨氮吸收速率分别为0.397μmol/g·h、0.317μmol/g·h和0.300μmol/g·h,吸收效率为66.3%、53.6%和51.2%;对磷的吸收速率分别为0.036μmol/g·h、0.030μmol/g·h和0.033μmol/g·h,吸收效率为65.2%、55.7%和58.8%。结果表明,三种海藻对氮、磷均有明显的吸收效果,吸收能力顺序为:海带>龙须菜>鼠尾藻。%This article has selected three more in-depth study on the ecological characteristics seaweed of high economic value:Laminaria japonica Aresch ,thunbergii ,Gracilaria lemaneiformis,Study on their absorptive capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in 72h under the natural environment (14℃, 1500 lx )and appropriate concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorusin (50μmol/L,5μmol/L).The experiment measured,Laminaria japonica Aresch,Sargassum thunbergii ,Gracilaria lemaneifor-mis’s absorption rate of ammonia nitrogen is 0.397μmol/g·h 0.317μmol/g·h and 0.300μmol/g· h .Their removal ratio of ammonia nitrogen in the cultivation water is 6 6 .3% 5 3 .6% and 5 1 .2%;The absorption rate of phosphorus is 0.036μmol/g·h,0.030μmol/g·h and 0.033μmol/g·h,the re-moval ratio of phosphorusin is 65.2%,55.7% and 58.8%.Experimental results show that the three kinds of seaweed have typically absorbtion of nitrogen and phosphorus.Absorptive capacity order is Laminariajaponica Aresch >Gracilaria lemaneiformis>Sargassumthunbergii.

  2. 秦皇岛海滨林场主要林分凋落物量及其季节动态%Composition and Seasonal Dynamics of Litter Falls of Major Forest Stands in Qinhuangdao Seaside Forest Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解秦皇岛海滨林场主要林分凋落物的凋落量、组成及凋落节律.[方法]每月月底收集凋落物,按组分称量其干质量,计算林地的凋落量,分析其凋落节律.[结果]3种林分的年凋落量分别为刺槐林(3.411 t/hm2)、加杨林(2.680 t/hm2)、黑松林(1.823t/hm2);刺槐、加杨、黑松3种林分凋落物组成中落叶占绝对优势,分别占凋落物总量的72.97%、77.43%、83.21%;3种林分总凋落物量的月变化呈单峰模式,凋落物各组分动态表现出一定的节律,3种林分的落叶量均在10月出现峰值,落枝量主要集中在冬春季节,刺槐林落花量主要集中在4和5月,而落果量则集中在10月,加杨林落花量主要集中在3和4月,而落果量则集中在5月.[结论]该研究为人工林的合理经营、树种合理配置提供依据.%[Objective] The aim of the study was to understand the amount and rhythm of litter falls in three major forest stands in Qinhuangd ao seaside forest farm. [Method] At the end of each month ,the litter falls were collected and dry masses were weighed, it was to obtain the amount and rhythm of litter falls in three major forest stands. [ Result ] The annual litter production was in the sequence of R. Pseudoacacia (3.411 t/hm2), P. Canadensis (2.680 t/hm2), P. Thunbergii (1.823 t/hm2) ; The litter production of leaves of three forests(I·. Pseudoaca cia; P. Canadensis; P. Thunbergii)occupied a higher percentage in the annual total litter production than that of other components, leaf litter production accounted for 72.97% , 77.43% , 83.21% of the total amount of litter respectively. The litter falls showed evident seasonal dy namics, pattern of monthly variation of the annual littermass followed unimodal in the three forests, leaf-litter peaked in October, twig-litter peaked in winter and spring; Flower-litter from R. Pseudoacacia peaked in April to May, while fruit-litter peaked in September; Flower-litter from P. Canadensis

  3. sI olating and Identifying Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria from the Rhizosphere Soil of Pinus thunbergi Inoculated with Rhzi ipogen luet ous%黑松-黄色须腹菌共生体根际菌根辅助细菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛江梅; 吴小芹; 侯亮亮

    2014-01-01

    We isolated two MHB, HR10 and HR15, from the mycorrhizosphere of Pinus thunbergii inoculatedwith Rhizipogen luteous (Rl) by dry-plate confrontation assay and double pot experiment.The confrontation assay shows that HR10 and HR15 can significantly promote the hyphal growth of Rl by 13.1%and 33.6%, respectively.HR10 and HR15 can signif-icantly stimulate P.thunbergii-R.luteous symbiosis.Rl can significantly stimulate the mycorrhizal formation in the pres-ence of HR10 and HR15 (71.54%and 60.97%, respectively), compared with the control Rl (40.83%).By the mor-phological observation, Biolog analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing methods, HR10 and HR15 are identified as Bacillus pumlius and Micrococcus luteus, with the accession number of FJ040808 and FJ040810 in Genbank database, respectively.%采用干皿对抗法和双接种盆栽试验,从黑松-黄色须腹菌( Rh izopogen luteous,Rl)菌根根际土壤中分离筛选获得2株菌根辅助细菌HR10和HR15菌株。离体互作结果表明,菌株HR10和HR15的菌体及胞外代谢产物均可有效提高Rl菌丝的生长,其菌体对Rl菌丝生长的增长率分别达到13.1%和33.6%。盆栽试验表明, HR10和HR15菌株分别与Rl双接种黑松幼苗后对松苗生长有显著的促进作用,同时还有效提高了根系的菌根侵染率,单接Rl处理的菌根侵染率为40.83%,Rl+HR10和Rl+HR15处理的分别为71.54%和60.97%。单接种HR10和HR15也可促进黑松生长,其中单接种HR10处理松苗长势好于双接种。这说明HR10和HR15既是黑松-黄色须腹菌的菌根辅助细菌,也是植物促生细菌,对黑松的生长具有直接的促进作用。经形态学观察、Biolog微生物系统鉴定及16S rRNA分析,菌株HR10和HR15分别被鉴定为短小芽孢杆菌( Bacli lus pumilus)和藤黄微球菌( Microccoc us luteus),两者在GenBank数据库中的登录号分别为FJ040808和FJ040810。

  4. 浙江洞头大竹屿岛潮间带大型底栖生物多样性%Macrobenthos diversity in intertidal zone of Dazhuyu Island,Dongtou County of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永林; 张永普; 李凯; 胡仁勇; 周化斌; 陈国伟; 许曹鲁

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were made on the macrobenthos diversity in intertidal zone of Dazhuyu Island in April 2009 ( spring) , July 2009 ( summer) , October 2009 ( autumn) , and January 2010 ( winter) . A total of 125 macrobenthos species were collected, including 57 mollusca, 24 crustacea, 6 coelenterates, 6 other animals, and 32 macroalgae, accounting for 45.6% , 19. 2% , 4. 8% , 4. 8% , and 25. 6% of the total, respectively. The dominant species in high, mid , and low tidal zones were Nodilittorina exigua and Littorina brevicula , Tetraclita japonica and Septifer virgatus , and Hydroides sp. , Sargassum thunbergii, and Lithophaga curta , respectively. The macrobenthos abundance was averagely 1637 ind . m-2, and the biomass was 2851. 63g · m -2 on average. The Shannon index, Margalef index, and Pielou evenness index were 1.63, 3. 36, and 0. 35 , respectively. There was a consistency between the results of hierarchical clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis. The abundance/biomass curve showed that the community structure of macrobenthos in the intertidal zone of Dazhuyu Island had been disturbed, but the community was relatively steady.%2009年4、7、10月和2010年1月对大竹屿岛潮间带大型底栖生物进行了调查,共采集到大型底栖生物125种,其中软体动物57种、甲壳动物24种、腔肠动物6种、其他动物6种和藻类32种,分别占总种数的45.6%、19.2%、4.8%、4.8%和25.6%.高潮区优势种为小结节滨螺(Nodilittorina exigua)和短滨螺(Littorina brevicula),中潮区为日本笠藤壶(Tetraclita japonica)和条纹隔贻贝(Septifer virgatus),低潮区为盘管虫(Hydroides sp.)、鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbergii)和短石蛏(Lithophaga curta).大型底栖生物总平均丰度和生物量分别为1637 ind·m-2和2851.63 g·m-2.Shannon指数、Margalef丰富度指数和Pielou均匀度指数的平均值分别为1.63、3.36和0.35.等级聚类和非度量多维标度排序分析结果吻合;比较

  5. 4种经济海藻脂肪酸组成分析%Analysis of the fatty acid composition of four economic seaweeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 李瑞霞; 伊纪峰; 沈颂东; 胡传明; 应上云; 汤俊; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    The fat-soluble components were extracted using a modified Bligh-Dyer method, which were further separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with C19:0 as intemal control. The fatty acid composition of four economic algaes including Sargassum thunbergii, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Bangia sp. were determined. The C14-C22 fatty acids were detectable in all of the four algae with total lipid contents varying between 12-19 mg/g. The unsaturated fatty acids were the main compo- nents among the fatty acids, which accounted for more than 60%. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), espe- cially the n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, were the main components among the unsaturated fatty acids. The content ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs were all less than 2. The comparison of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acid designated C16, C 18 and C20 were the major composition in S. thunbergii, exhibiting typical fatty acid composition character- istic of brown algae. C 16 and C 18 were the major fatty acid composition in E. prolifera, the typical characteristic of green algae. Both G. lemaneiformis and Bangia sp. mainly contained C16 and C20, which was the typical charac- teristic of red algae. Meanwhile, G. lemaneiformis and Bangia sp. exhibited typical composition characteristic of Florideophycidae and Bangioideae, respectively.%采用改进的Bligh—Dyer法提取脂溶性成分,气相色谱.质谱联用法(GC.MS)进行分离和鉴定,C19:0内标确定总脂及各组分含量,研究了鼠尾藻(Sargassumthunbergii)、浒苔(Enteromorphaprolifera)、龙须菜(Gracilarialemaneiformis)和红毛菜(Bangiasp.)4种经济海藻的脂肪酸组成及含量。结果表明,4种海藻都检测出C14.C22脂肪酸,总脂含量在12~19mg/g之间,不饱和脂肪酸为主要组成成分,含量均超过60%。不饱和脂肪酸中以多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFAs)为主,富含n-3和n-6

  6. 一株黑松-美味牛肝菌菌根辅助细菌的筛选及鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a MHB Strain from the Rhizosphere Soil of Pinus thunbergi Inoculated with Boletus edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛江梅; 吴小芹; 侯亮亮; 应晨希

    2010-01-01

    为探讨菌根际有益微生物之间的作用关系及其互作对黑松(Pinus thunbergii)生长的影响,对分离自黑松-美味牛肝菌(Boletus edulis,Be)和黑松-黄色须腹菌(Rhizopogen luteous)菌根际土壤的81株细菌进行菌根辅助细菌(Mycorrhiza helper bacteria,MHB)的筛选.通过十皿对抗法筛选获得1株具MHB潜力的菌株HB12,HB12菌株对Be菌丝生长的平均增长率达34.4%.盆栽试验结果表明,单接Be处理的黑松根系菌根侵染率为36.8%,而双接种Be和HB12菌株处理的菌根侵染率为54.5%;双接种Be和HB12处理、单接Be处理和单接HB12处理较未接种处理的黑松苗高提高44%、36%和24.5%.地径提高27.7%、22.9%和26.5%.由此可确定菌株HB12为黑松-美味牛肝菌的菌根辅助细菌.经形态观察、Biolog系统鉴定及16SrRNA分子鉴定,初步确定菌株HB12为蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus).

  7. Control Trail of Monochamus alternatus (Hope) in the Forest%松墨天牛林间防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜珩

    2013-01-01

      Monochamus alternatus (Hope) is the major media of pine wilt disease, and are also the main pests of Masson's Pine, Pinus thunbergii, Cedrus deodara, larch, Larix olgensis and other conifers. Thiacloprid and Metarhizium were chosen in the experiment to control the insect number and find the control techniques. Results showed that both Thiacloprid and Metarhizium anisopliae had good control effects, of which Metarhizium anisopliae controlled Monochamus alternatus (Hope) than what Thiacloprid did if from the angle of maintaining species diversity and forest health.%  松墨天牛[Monochamus alternatus (Hope)]是松材线虫病的主要传播媒介,又是马尾松、黑松、雪松、落叶松、云南松等松类植物的重要害虫。为了控制虫灾探讨有效防治技术,特进行噻虫啉、绿僵菌防治松墨天牛的试验。结果表明:应用噻虫啉和绿僵菌无纺布菌条林间防治松墨天牛均有良好的防治效果,从维护物种多样性和森林健康的角度来看,采用绿僵菌无纺布菌条防治松墨天牛具有更好的发展前景。

  8. Prescription patterns of traditional Chinese medicine for peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Ying; Lai, Wan-Yu; Sun, Mao-Feng; Lin, Che-Chen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Lin, Hung-Jen; Chang, Ching-Mao; Yang, Chung-Hsien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2015-12-24

    Peptic ulcer disease is a common digestive disease. There is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of TCM for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan. We analyzed a random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed peptic ulcer disease between 2001 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Demographic characteristics and TCM usage, including Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with peptic ulcer disease, were analyzed. A total of 96,624 newly diagnosed subjects with peptic ulcer disease were included. 14,983 (15.5%) patients were TCM users. People residing in highly urbanized areas, younger people and female (compared with male) were more likely to use TCM. With regard to the comorbidities, TCM users had a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis and stroke. The average time between onset of peptic ulcer disease and the first visit to a TCM clinic was 4.7 months. Majority of the patients (n=14,449; 96.4%) received only Chinese herbal remedies. The most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb was Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (Pinelliae Decoction to Drain the Epigastrium) and Hai-Piao-Xiao (Os Sepiae), respectively. The core pattern analysis showed that combination of Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang, Hai-Piao-Xiao (Os Sepiae), Yan-Hu-Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis), Bei-Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii) and Chuan-Lian-Zi (Fructus Toosendan) was most frequently used for peptic ulcer disease. Our study identified the core prescription patterns of TCM for patients with peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan. Further basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the efficacy and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of seeds of Pinus species by Microsatellite Markers%利用微卫星标记(SSR)鉴定松属近缘种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 施季森

    2005-01-01

    用从松科7个树种中开发出来的276对SSR引物,利用分群法(bulked segregate analysis, BSA)对引物在黑松组的10个近缘种进行了筛选和鉴定.结果表明:276对引物中有23对在10个松树种中获得了扩增产物,其中有5对引物在种间具有多态性,而在种内具有保守性;用单个引物、2个或多个引物组合可以把10个松树种的8个完全区分开来,但目前还没有有效的SSR引物把高山松和思茅松区分开来. 图2表1参21.%The 276 pair-primers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite) developed from seven species of Pinaceae were selected and identified for cross-species transferability to ten Pinus species (P. Massoniana, P. Kesiya, P. Tabulaeformis, P. Densiflora, P. Thunbergii, P. Caribaea, P. Taeda, P. Yunnanensis, P. Densata, P. Sylvestris) belonging to Sect. Pinus by BSA (bulked segregate analysis) method. The results showed that 23 of 276 (8.0%) markers were successful to have amplification product in ten species, and 5 of 23 (21.7%) were polymorphic cross species and lack of polymorphic within species. Eight of 10 Pinus species were identified by using single primer, two and more combination of primers, but there were still no effective SSR primers for identifying other 2 species (P. Kesiya and P. Densata).

  10. Plant diversity and its elevational gradient patterns in Mengshan Mountain, Shandong, China%山东蒙山植物多样性及其海拔梯度格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高远; 慈海鑫; 邱振鲁; 陈玉峰

    2009-01-01

    2007年7月和2008年7月,采用典型取样法,沿海拔梯度对蒙山自然植被进行调查,发现区域地带性植被为麻栎(Quercus acutissima)林,主要植被类型为麻栎群落、赤松(Pinus densiflora)群落、油松(Pinus tabuliformis)群落、日本落叶松(Larix kaempferi)群落、黑松(Pinus thunbergii)群落和刺槐-麻栎(Robinia pseudoacacia-Q.acutissima)群落,麻栎群落略占优势,已具备继续向温带落叶阔叶林演替的条件基础.蒙山各层次植物物种丰富度呈现出草本层>灌木层>乔木层特征,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson多样性指数整体规律为灌木层>草本层>乔木层.以蒙山森林群落不同层次的各种物种多样性指数和森林群落总体重要值为测度指标,均判断蒙山植被演替正处于亚顶极群落阶段.蒙山植物多样性沿海拔梯度呈现出近似中海拔高的单峰格局,这除受温度、湿度、人为干扰与面积外,蒙山植被亚顶极群落演替现状与所调查区域仅有800 m的海拔梯度也是重要影响因素.

  11. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Y., E-mail: miyata@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Minami, M. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onbe, S. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Archaeological Heritage Management Office, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Imamura, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric {sup 14}C and the Lake Biwa freshwater {sup 14}C is larger for this period because the atmospheric {sup 14}C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the {sup 14}C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 {sup 14}C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 {sup 14}C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  12. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013 (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Gu, Dongyun, E-mail: dongyungu@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Engineering Research Center of Digital Medicine and Clinical Translation, Ministry of Education of PR China (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  13. Specific and functional diversity of endophytic bacteria from pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with different virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus

  14. Molecular Phylogeny Analysis of Allium Sativum in Alliaceae%大蒜在葱科的分子分类地位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯进慧; 李同祥; 蔡文佳

    2014-01-01

    通过扩增获得18S rRNA和叶绿体16S rRNA基因序列,测序并提交GenBank ,登录号分别是JF719285和JF719286.利用大蒜和GenBank相关序列构建系统发育树,进行分子演化分析.结果表明:大蒜18S rRNA 基因与球序韭、韭菜、茖葱等葱科植物序列相似度高;叶绿体16S rRNA基因与龙舌兰科和薯蓣科的物种序列相似度高.大蒜与葱科植物在18S rRNA序列上具有较高的同源性.18S rRNA序列在植物演化方面的区分度比16S rRNA高.%In the paper ,molecular phylogeny of Allium sativum were discussded with the analysis of rRNA gene .18S rRNA gene and chloroplast 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified .The two rRNA genes were submitted to Genbank and the accession numbers were JF719285 and JF719286 .Gene sequences of Allium sativum was analyzed with related species in GenBank .The results showed that :Allium sativum 18S rRNA gene has a high homology with many species within Alliaceae ,such as Allium thunbergii ,Allium tuberosum and Allium victorialis .Allium sativum and Alliaceae plants has a high similarity in 18S rDNA . The discrimination accusation of 18Sr RNA sequences in plant phylogeny analysis is better than that of 16S rRNA .

  15. EVALUATION OF RECOVERABLE FUNCTIONAL LIPID COMPONENTS OF SEVERAL BROWN SEAWEEDS (PHAEOPHYTA) FROM JAPAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FUCOXANTHIN AND FUCOSTEROL CONTENTS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2009-08-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.

  16. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  17. Metal selectivity of Sargassum spp. and their alginates in relation to their alpha-L-guluronic acid content and conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas A; Llanes, Francisco; Volesky, Bohumil; Mucci, Alfonso

    2003-01-15

    The discovery of a consistent and unusual enrichment in homopolymeric alpha-L-guluronic acid G-blocks in alginates extracted from a suite of Sargassum brown algae is described in this study. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize these alginates which display homopolymeric guluronic acid block (G-block) frequency values (F(GG)) between 0.37 and 0.81. The presence of these G-blocks results in an enhanced selectivity for cadmium or calcium relative to monovalent ions such as sodium and the proton as well as smaller divalent ions such as magnesium. Results of competitive exchange experiments for the Cd-Ca-alginate system yield selectivity coefficient, K*(Cd)Ca, values between 0.43 +/- 0.10 and 1.32 +/- 0.02 for a range in F(GG) of 0.23 to 0.81. In contrast to the Cd-Ca-alginate system, the Mg-Ca-alginate and Mg-Cd-alginate systems yielded maximum values of K*(Mg)Ca (18.0 +/- 1.4) and K*(Mg)Cd (16.0 +/- 0.9) for the alginates extracted from Sargassum fluitans (F(GG) = 0.81; Cuba) and Sargassum thunbergii (F(GG) = 0.75; Korea), respectively. Selectivity studies with mixed-metal pair alginate systems highlight the importance of the specific macromolecular conformation of the alginate polymer in determining metal binding behavior in multiple-metal systems. Furthermore, they demonstrate the importance of the conformation of the alginate as it occurs within the tissue of Sargassum in determining the metal binding behavior of this algal biosorbent. The unique composition of the alginates present in species of Sargassum may represent a distinct advantage over other brown algal species when considering their implementation for the strategic removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated and industrial wastewaters.

  18. 白桦APETALA2( AP2)转录因子基因的分离及其表达%Isolation and Expression of APETALA2 Transcription Factor Gene in Betula platyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 刘瀛; 孙丰宾; 戴超; 刘雪梅

    2012-01-01

    AP2 gene is a key transcription factor involved in flower development in plants. The full cDNA of AP2 gene was isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk. by methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) . Results showed that AP2 gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) ,of 1554bp encoding 517 amino acids. Molecular weight of the deduced protein of BpAPl is 56.74kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is 6. 34. The AP2 functional sites and characterized domains were confirmed in the sequence, so the isolated gene was named as BpAPl, and registered in Gen Bank with accession number JN247408. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 51%~77% of identity with other twelve plant species, the maximum identity with Arabidopsis thaliana (77% ) and minimum identity with Pinus thunbergii (51% ). A phylogenetic tree was constructed according to multiple sequences alignment of all the thirteen plant species. Transcription expression of BpAPl was analyzed by qRT-PCR in different tissues and periods in B. platyphylla. Results showed that BpAPl was more highly expressed in floral organs than in vegetative organs, expression quantity more highly in young tissues than in mature tissues. It inferred that BpAP2 transfactor involved in the regulation of development of floral organs and meristematic tissues in Betula. In addition, a natural male inflorescence- abnormal mutant of B. platyphylla was used for transcription analysis of BpAP2. Results showed that BpAPl gene is expressed up-regulatedly in female inflorescences, while down-regulation in male inflorescences, young leaves and young shoots, which predicted that BpAPl should be involved in regulation and expression of multiple genes, and not only be involved in the development of floral organs, but also play some roles in the development of vegetative tissues.

  19. Association of Activation of Induced COX-2, iNOS and Cytokines with NF-kappa B Depression by Taiwan Wild Grape Ethanolic Extract in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yi-Han; Lin, Yu-Chin; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2017-08-31

    Taiwan wild grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana; VTT) is an important traditional herbal medicine used to treat muscle injuries and acute and chronic pain of the ligaments. Information on its bioactivity and the underlying mechanisms, which have not been elucidated thus far, is needed to demonstrate its value for pharmacological and clinical use. This study presents evidence to clarify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanolic extract of VTT stem (VTTEtOH) and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in such biactivities. In the mice, VTTEtOH significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing response (P < 0.01), formalin-induced licking time (P < 0.01), and edema paw volume at 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. VTTEtOH obviously decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001), nuclear factor-kappa B (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (P < 0.001) and Nitric oxide (P < 0.001) in edema-paw tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects might involve significant inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 through suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of the levels of various inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide. Our findings provided pharmacological and histopathological evidences that VTTEtOH alleviates inflammatory pain-related diseases.

  20. 正交实验法优选清肺平喘颗粒的提取工艺%Optimum Extraction Technology on Cleaning Lung and Relieving Asthma Granule by Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉平; 张利; 黎晓敏

    2012-01-01

    利用正交试验法优选清肺平喘颗粒的最佳提取工艺。将浙贝母、葶苈子和桔梗采用乙醇回流提取法提取有效成分,提取后药渣再与其余药材共水煎煮。采用正交试验法,以贝母素甲和甘草酸的含量及出膏率作为考察指标,对各自提取工艺进行优选。试验结果表明,最佳醇提工艺为:浓度为80%乙醇、12倍量,提取2次,每次提取1.5h;最佳水提工艺为:加水量10倍,提取1.5h,提取3次。%To study the optimum extraction of granule by orthogonal test, firstly effective constituent was extracted from the herbs in Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Semen Lepidii Apetali and Radix Platycodi with ethanol, then the reside of herbs were decocted with water together. The rate of extracts and the content of Peimine, Glycyrrhizic Acid as comprehensive evaluation index, were chosen to examine the extraction process by orthogonal Design. The results showed that the optimum ethanol extraction process condition was as follows: adding 12 times of 80% ethanol,extrating for 2 times with 1.5 h each time; the optimum wate extraction process condition was as follows:adding 10 times of water, extrating for 3 times with 1.5 h each time.

  1. Biochemical changes in barberries during adventitious root formation: the role of indole-3-butyric acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tehranifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenolic compounds and total sugars (TS were investigated during root formation in cuttings of Berberis vulgaris var. asperma (BVA and Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (BTA treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and IBA+H2O2. Rooting was observed on BTA cuttings but not on BVA cuttings. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed higher rooting percentages, number of roots, and root length over the control. Those treated with IBA+H2O2 recorded the lowest peroxidase activity after planting. BTA cuttings treated with IBA+H2O2 showed the highest peroxidase activity at 50 d after planting; BVA cuttings under different treatments showed no significant difference for peroxidase activity at planting time or up to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BTA cuttings in the control treatment was lower than for other treatments during root formation. The cuttings in the IBA and IBA+H2O2 treatments showed increased PPO activity from 0 to 50 d after planting and a slight decrease in PPO activity from 60 to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BVA cuttings was significantly lower than for BTA during root formation. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed the highest phenolic compound content during root formation. The BVA cuttings displayed higher TS than BTA during the initial stage of root formation. A comparison of the anatomical structure of easy-to-root and difficult-to-root cuttings indicated that physical inhibitors did not affect the rooting capacity of BVA.

  2. α-三噻吩对松材线虫的室内毒力测定%Nemta icidal To xicity Test ofα-Terthienyl against Pine Wood Nematodes (Bu rsaphelenchus xylophilus)i n Labora-tory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志超; 赵博光

    2013-01-01

    研究了黑松( Pinus thunbergii)木屑不同含水量对松材线虫( Bursahpe lenchus xylohp ilus)繁殖的影响,确定了适于线虫繁殖的最佳含水量,并以黑松木屑作为试验介质,模拟松材线虫生活条件,测定了杀线剂α-三噻吩(α-T)对松材线虫的毒力。结果表明:当黑松木屑相对含水量达到50%时最有利于松材线虫繁殖;α-T对松材线虫具有非常强的毒性,毒力回归方程为Y=14.589+18.720x,半致死质量分数为1.892μgg/。%An experiment was conducted to measure nematicidal activity of pine wood nematodes ( Bursaphle enchus xylophilus) with sawdust of black pine ( Pinus thunbergii) , and determine the best relative water content ( RWC) of the sawdustto culture pine wood nematodes and bioassay the nematicidal activity of α-T by the method.50% of RWC is best suitable condition toculture pine wood nematodes, and bythe regression equation of α-T against pine wood nematodes under the light intensity of 10 000 Lux, the toxicity regression equation is Y=14.589+18.720x, and the medial lethal concentration is LC50=1.892μg/g.

  3. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  4. Histopathological Changes of Cedrus deodara and Other Hosts Inoculated with Different Pine Wood Nematode Isolates%不同松材线虫虫株接种雪松等寄主后的组织病理学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲爱玲; 郑敬荣; 韩正敏; 曾腓力; 续晨

    2012-01-01

    用来自日本和中国的几个松材线虫虫株,分别对黑松、马尾松和雪松进行接种,接种后分离树体内的线虫,并观察树体的组织细胞变化.研究结果表明,2个日本虫株均能使黑松、马尾松和雪松发病并枯死,而中国线虫虫株仅能够使黑松和马尾松发病枯死,不能使雪松致病.接种后不同时间分离线虫,比较线虫在寄主体内的数量消长情况.发现凡接种发病死亡的,其体内线虫数量最多;发病但没有死亡的,其体内线虫数量也较多;中国虫株接种的雪松,一直没有表现任何症状,其体内也分离到了一定数量的线虫.接种后组织病理学变化表明,细胞和组织变化与线虫的移动和扩散有关.黑松和马尾松,接种日本和中国浙江松材线虫虫株后,72 h时皮层和韧皮部的薄壁细胞变形、死亡普遍存在,树脂道泌脂细胞和木射线细胞均遭到线虫破坏.144 h后,皮层、韧皮部、木质部和髓心大量细胞死亡,形成空洞,管胞中可见线虫活动.而对于雪松,接种日本松材线虫虫株后,皮层、韧皮部和形成层细胞死亡,树脂道泌脂细胞和木射线细胞死亡,有少量代谢物聚集.中国松材线虫虫株接种后,初期皮层、韧皮部细胞变形并破坏;但是,细胞的破坏只局限在小范围内.后期皮层、韧皮部细胞被破坏,但形成层完整,木射线和管胞基本完好.%Three nematode isolates were collected from China and Japan and were inoculated in Pinus thunbergii, P. massoniana and Cedrus deodara. The nematodes were separated from infected trees, and the histopathological changes were observed. Results showed that P. thunbergii, P. massoniana and C. deodara wilted and died when inoculated with two nematode isolates from Japan. However C. deodara still kept healthy after inoculated with nematodes from China. Nematodes were re-isolated from the infected trees at different times, and the numbers of nematodes in the host

  5. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  6. 江西庐山自然保护区不同森林植被下土壤的持水性能分析%Analysis of Soil Water-holding Capacity under Different Forest Vegetation in Jiangxi Lushan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艾霏; 于法展; 于晨阳; 沈园园

    2011-01-01

    对庐山自然保护区内6种主要森林植被下枯枝落叶累积量及其吸水量和土壤物理性质、土壤水分的入渗性能进行测定分析.结果表明,该自然保护区森林枯枝落叶层平均累积量为18.67 t/hm2,其平均最大净吸水量为35.75 t/hm2,相当于3.58mm的降雨深度,说明其森林枯枝落叶层涵养水源功能较为显著.6种森林植被下土壤容重的大小顺序为黄山松>玉山毛竹>茅栗、白辛树>青岗栎、化香>山毛榉>马尾松;土壤非毛管孔隙度的大小顺序为马尾松>茅栗、白辛树>山毛榉>玉山毛竹>黄山松>青岗栎、化香;马尾松林下土壤硬度最小,而土壤毛管孔隙度最大;从土壤水分的入渗性能来看,马尾松林涵养水源和理水调洪的功能要远大于其他林地类型,玉山毛竹林地最差.%The litter accumulation and its water absorbing capacity (WAC) of six forest vegetations as well as the physical property and water permeability of soil in Lushan nature reserve were determined. As indicated by the results, the average litter accumulation was 18.67 t/hm2, and its average maximum net WAC was 18.67 t/hm2, equivalent to the precipitation depth of one rainfall process 3.58 mm, indicating that the water-holding function of the forest litter layer was significant. The order of soil bulk density under 6 kinds of forest vegetation could be seen easily: Pinus taiwanensis > Yushan Phyllostachys heterocycla ( Carr. ) > Castanea seguinii Dode and Pterostyrax psilophyllus > Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. Et Zucc. > Fagus > Pinus massoniana; soli non-capillary porosity decreased as Pinus massoniana > Castanea seguinii Dode and Pterostyrax psilophyllus > Fagus > Yushan Phyllostachys heterocycla(Carr. ) > Pinus massoniana > Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. Et Zucc. ; Pinus massoniana forest' s soil hardness was the smallest while its soil minimum capillary porosity was the

  7. Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita.The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were

  8. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro e clones de umezeiros submetidos à aplicação de AIB Rooting of peach and clones of japanese apricot cutting treated with IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do umezeiro ou damasqueiro-japonês (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. como porta-enxerto de Prunus sp. vem despertando grande interesse em função de sua rusticidade, resistência a pragas e doenças, adaptação e, principalmente, por reduzir o porte de pessegueiros e nectarineiras. Visto que trabalhos prévios constataram baixo enraizamento de alguns clones de umezeiro e um estímulo a este processo em estacas herbáceas com uso de 2000 mg.L-1 de AIB, objetivou-se no presente trabalho estudar o enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro e clones selecionados de umezeiros tratados com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB na forma líquida. Estacas lenhosas do pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e dos clones de umezeiro Clone IAC-2, Clone IAC-X, Clone IAC-10 e Clone IAC-XIX, foram padronizadas com 25 cm de comprimento, ausentes de folhas e 5 cm de suas bases tratadas com AIB, nas concentrações 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg.L-1, por cinco segundos. As estacas foram colocadas em leito de areia umedecido, coberto com sombrite 50% de luminosidade. As avaliações ocorreram após 90 dias após o estaqueamento, avaliou-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, com calos, enraizadas, brotadas e o número médio de raízes por estacas. Concluiu-se que a concentração de 2000 mg.L-1 de AIB promoveu os melhores resultados para a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, com calos e número médio de raízes por estacas. De uma forma geral, o Clone IAC-X demonstrou-se superior entre os demais no enraizamento de suas estacas.The use of the japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. as rootstock of Prunus sp. has raised a great interest due to its rusticity, resistance to plagues and diseases, adaptation and mainly for reducing the peach and nectarines. Since previous works had evidenced low cut of rooting of some clones of japanese apricot and stimulation to this process in herbaceous of cut using 2000 mg.L-1 of AIB, the objective of the present work was to

  9. Expression of Ferric Chelate Reductase Gene in Citrus junos and Poncirus trifoliata Tissues%三价铁螯合物还原酶在香橙和枳中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌; 范艳华; 罗小英; 裴炎; 周泽扬

    2002-01-01

    用耐缺铁的香橙(Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)和极不耐缺铁的枳(Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.),在铁胁迫条件下对根的三价铁螯合物还原酶活性变化和酶基因的表达情况进行了研究.离体根的酶活性测定表明,在铁胁迫4周时,香橙根的酶活性增强约20倍,枳仅增强约3倍.用拟南芥的三价铁螯合物还原酶基因作探针进行组织印迹的Northern杂交检测香橙和枳三价铁螯合物还原酶的mRNA,在铁胁迫2周时,香橙吸收根、幼茎和新叶中均检测到强烈的表达信号,而枳相同器官的表达信号则极其微弱.实验结果表明,三价铁螯合物还原酶活性在缺铁胁迫下被诱导强烈增加是香橙耐缺铁的重要原因,该酶活性的调控发生在转录水平上,而且该酶基因在诱导条件下在根、茎和叶中均有表达.%It has been hypothesized that under iron stress high ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in the absorptive root of plants tolerant to iron-deficiency will be induced and result in subsequent Fe2+ transport across the plasmalemma. The activity of FCR and expression of FCR gene (FRO2) in Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka tolerant to iron-deficiency and Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. susceptible to iron-deficiency were determined to elucidate the physiological difference which causes the different tolerance of the two citrus rootstocks to iron stress. The activity of FCR was detectable in excised roots and was stimulated about 20-times in C. junos and only about 3-times in P. trifoliata under iron deficiency for four weeks. The FRO2 of Arabidopsis was used as a probe, the tissue print technique was used to ascertain the expression of the FCR gene in C. junos and P. trifoliata under iron stress. High-level transcripts were observed in the absorptive root, young green stem as well as new leaf of C. junos under iron stress for two weeks, and the transcripts were accumulated only slightly in P. trifoliata at the same time. The results

  10. Impact of Light Intensity on Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Epimedium%光照对淫羊藿活性成分生物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国燕; 陈建军; 廖思红; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    淫羊藿作为传统的中药材,具有补肾阳、强筋骨、祛风湿等功效.其主要功能活性成分为黄酮醇苷成分淫羊藿苷、朝藿定A、B、C等.本实验在武汉植物园内的药园和园外园两个不同生长环境下,研究两种不同光照对巫山淫羊藿(Epimedium wushanense T.S.Ying)WY品系和箭叶淫羊藿(Epimedium sagittatum( Sieb.& Zucc.)Maxim.) LT1、HN3品系4种主要活性成分生物合成的影响.结果显示,在药园环境生长的淫羊藿的光合速率要高于园外园生长的淫羊藿,药园生长的箭叶淫羊藿LT1、HN3品系的4种活性成分含量均高于园外园生长的同品系,而巫山淫羊藿WY品系则相反.光合速率对4种活性成分含量的积累有一定影响,与朝藿定A、B和淫羊藿苷含量呈显著正相关,与朝藿定C含量呈显著负相关.文中对光合速率与活性成分积累间的关系进行了讨论,还针对不同的淫羊藿品系提出了相应的栽培建议.%As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, epimedii has effects on toning kidney, strengthening bones and muscles,and treating rheumatism. Its bioactive ingredients are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, including icariin, epimedin A,B,and C. Two light conditions [Yao-yuan (Medicinal Herb Garden) of Wuhan Botanical Garden,Yuan-wai-yuan of Wuhan Botanical Garden] were used to study how light affected the biosynthesis of the major bioactive ingredients in Epimedium wushanense T. S. Ying and Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. & Zucc. ) Maxim. Results showed that the photosynthesis rate was higher in Yao-yuan than in Yuan-wai-yuan for both species. The four bioactive ingredients of E. sagittatum were higher in Yao-yuan than in Yuan-wai-yuan,but the opposite was found for E. wushanense. Photosynthesis rate had significant positive correlation with the content of epimedin A,B and icariin,but had significant negative correlation with epimedin C. The relationship between photosynthesis rate and accumulation of

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  12. UFGT: The Key Enzyme Associated with the Petals Variegation in Japanese Apricot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Gong, Qinghua; Ni, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.) is an important ornamental plant in China. One of the traits of petals color variegation is attractive, but its formation mechanism is unclear. In our study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome response to the mutation of “Fuban Tiaozhi” associated with petals variegation in Japanese apricot. As a result, 4,579,040 (white-flowered, WF) and 7,269,883 (red-flowered, RF) reads were mapped to P. persica genes, while 5,006,676 (WF) and 7,907,436 (RF) were mapped to P. persica genomes. There were 960 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified. Gene ontology analysis showed that these genes involved in 37 functional groups including 19 biological processes, 10 cellular components and eight molecular functions. Pathway enrichment annotation demonstrated that highly ranked genes were associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanins transports, plant hormone signal transduction, and transcriptional factors. The expression patterns part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. We found that UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene showed differential expression pattern. The UFGT enzyme activities in RF had a significantly higher than that of WF and lower in the initial stage and increased when the red appeared in the petals, which is identical to the accumulation of anthocyanins. And we also validated the SNPs, leading to the nonsynonymous mutations, in the UFGT by Sanger sequencing which may affect the enzyme activity. In summary, our results provide molecular candidates for better understanding the mechanisms of the variegation in Japanese Apricot. PMID:28223989

  13. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  14. Determination of Volatile Flavour Profiles of Citrus spp. Fruits by SDE-GC-MS and Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Compounds by MDGC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joon Ho; Khan, Naeem; Jamila, Nargis; Hong, Young Shin; Nho, Eun Yeong; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong Mi; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-09-01

    Citrus fruits are known to have characteristic enantiomeric key compounds biosynthesised by highly stereoselective enzymatic mechanisms. In the past, evaluation of the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds in fruits has been applied as an effective indicator of adulteration by the addition of synthetic compounds or natural components of different botanical origin. To analyse the volatile flavour compounds of Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu), Citrus limon BURM. f. (lemon) and Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swingle (lime), and determine the enantiomeric ratios of their chiral compounds for discrimination and authentication of extracted oils. Volatile flavour compounds of the fruits of the three Citrus species were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enantiomeric composition (ee%) of chiral camphene, sabinene, limonene and β-phellandrene was analysed by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-seven (C. junos), 77 (C. limon) and 110 (C. aurantifolia) volatile compounds were identified with limonene, γ-terpinene and linalool as the major compounds. Stereochemical analysis (ee%) revealed 1S,4R-(-) camphene (94.74, 98.67, 98.82), R-(+)-limonene (90.53, 92.97, 99.85) and S-(+)-β-phellandrene (98.69, 97.15, 92.13) in oil samples from all three species; R-(+)-sabinene (88.08) in C. junos; and S-(-)-sabinene (81.99, 79.74) in C. limon and C. aurantifolia, respectively. The enantiomeric composition and excess ratios of the chiral compounds could be used as reliable indicators of genuineness and quality assurance of the oils derived from the Citrus fruit species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Assess the damage risk of 11 main street trees%11种常用行道树危险度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡园园; 闫淑君; 吴沙沙; 张采薇; 陈梦依; 张丽鸽

    2015-01-01

    调查与正确评估行道树的危险度,有利于保持景观效果,使城市行道树能够更好、更有效地发挥其应有的作用,降低因行道树倒伏而妨碍交通或对人民生命财产安全造成损失.运用目测树木评估法(VTA)评估法,对福州市常用的11种行道树进行潜在危险度调查与分析.结果表明:垂柳(Salix babylonica Linn.)的潜在危险度指数最高(48.6);潜在危险度指数值达30以上的有白兰(Michelia alba DC.Syst.)、羊蹄甲(Bauhinia purpurea Linn.)和香樟(Cinnamomum camphora Linn.);潜在危险度指数值在20以上的有天竺桂(Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb.)和杧果(Mangifera indica Linn.);麻楝(Chukrasia tabularisA.Juss.)、榕树(Ficus microcarpa Linn.)、大叶榕(Ficus virens Ait.var.sublanceolata)、高山榕(Ficus altissima Bl.Bijdr)和蒲葵[Livistona chinensis(Jacq.)R.Br]等5种行道树的潜在危险度指数值均小于20,潜在危险性相对较小.

  16. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the major defoliators of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc., and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate. Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604. However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  17. Full toxicity assessment of Genkwa Flos and the underlying mechanism in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiao

    Full Text Available Genkwa Flos (GF, the dried flower bud from Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae, is a well-known and widely used traditional Chinese medicine. However, we know little about the in vivo mechanism of GF toxicity. Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been considered as a useful toxicity assay system by offering a system best suited for asking the in vivo questions. In the present study, we employed the prolonged exposure assay system of C. elegans to perform the full in vivo toxicity assessment of raw-processed GF. Our data show that GF exposure could induce the toxicity on lifespan, development, reproduction, and locomotion behavior. GF exposure not only decreased body length but also induced the formation of abnormal vulva. The decrease in brood size in GF exposed nematodes appeared mainly at day-1 during the development of adult nematodes. The decrease of locomotion behavior in GF exposed nematodes might be due to the damage on development of D-type GABAergic motor neurons. Moreover, we observed the induction of intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS production and alteration of expression patterns of genes required for development of apical domain, microvilli, and apical junction of intestine in GF exposed nematodes, implying the possible dysfunction of the primary targeted organ. In addition, GF exposure induced increase in defecation cycle length and deficits in development of AVL and DVB neurons controlling the defecation behavior. Therefore, our study implies the usefulness of C. elegans assay system for toxicity assessment from a certain Chinese medicine or plant extract. The observed toxicity of GF might be the combinational effects of oxidative stress, dysfunction of intestine, and altered defecation behavior in nematodes.

  18. Singly and interactive effects of aluminum, low pH or Ca/Al ratio on growth and chlorophyll contents of red pine seedlings in solution culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Y.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Acid deposition and subsequent soil acidification were considered as possible causes of forest declines. Toxicity due to low pH or aluminum per se is difficult, even impossible, to demonstrate because of complex soil chemistry and lack of well understanding for ion uptake of roots in any case. In solution culture, the concentrations of aluminum and other nutrients can be controlled, therefore, solution culture was used and undertaken to determine singly and interactive effects of aluminum, low pH or Al/Ca (Ca/All) ratio on growth and chlorophyll contents of red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. and Zuecc.) Seedlings. Red pine current year-old seedlings exposed to Al with solution pH 3.90 and 3.60 in solution culture exhibited purplish leaves characteristic, but no visible foliar injury was observed in these with pH 4.60. 30 ppm Al with low pHs reduced the dry weights of leaf and whole-plant, the current needle elongation. Results show that red pine is an intermediate species in sensitivity to Al whose growth may be reduced by high soil Al concentrations. On the other hand, single low pH did not significantly affect the growth parameters measured. Results show that red pine can tolerate acidic conditions and is insensitive to low pH. However, the synergistic interactions of low pH treatments with the elevated aluminum concentrations were significant. Al toxicity to the root and stem matter productions and the current needle elongations of red pine were significantly enlarged with reduced pH.

  19. Relationship between the Seedling Growth of Quercus liaotungensis and Light%辽东栎苗木早期生长与光的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺顺钦; 王发其

    2001-01-01

    @@ 辽东栎(Quercus liaotungensis Koidz)属于落叶栎类中的一种,又称为辽东柞、柴树、小叶青冈.喜光树种,耐寒、喜凉爽气候,耐干旱瘠薄,多生于向阳干燥山坡.辽东栎的分布区位于32°08′~44°05′ N,103°01′~130 °02′ E,涉及13个省区,但主要分布在东北的东部和南部及河北、山西、山东、甘肃、宁夏、青海、陕西、四川的山区,朝鲜半岛也有分布.垂直分布范围为海拔800~2 800 m.在华北北部多成大面积次生纯林或与黑桦(Betula dahurica Pall.)等混生,北京地区在山坡形成杂木林或成纯林;在河北地区分布在阳光充足、土壤干湿适中的山坡上,常与油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)、赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)或其它落叶栎等树种混生;在山西省属于分布最广的树种之一,海拔1 000~2 000 m的阳坡、半阳坡山脊,形成混交林或纯林[1,2].

  20. Change of interception process due to the succession from Japanese red pine to evergreen oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shin'ichi; Tanaka, Tadashi; Sugita, Michiaki

    2005-12-01

    Extensive measurements of rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in a forest during succession from Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) to a combination of red pine and lower canopy trees—evergreen oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume) and evergreen theaceous tree ( Eurya japonica Thunb.) allowed the effect of this succession on the interception of rainfall to be evaluated. The measurements were conducted on two occasions: 1984/1985, and 2001/2002 when the lower canopy trees had become dominant. During this period, 75% of the red pines had been removed, and there was a substantial increase in stemflow ( p<0.01), essentially no change in throughfall ( p<0.01), and a substantial decrease in interception ( p<0.01). The increase in stemflow was attributed to the increase in lower canopy trees; trees that have steeply angled branches, smooth bark surfaces and water repellent leaves; all of which enhance stemflow. The decrease in interception was due to the decrease in canopy water storage (2.6-1.1 mm/event) and an increase in evaporation during rainfall event (0.7-1.1 mm/event). The decrease in storage partly resulted from the removal of red pines, the bark of which is thick, flaky, and therefore, very absorptive. It was responsible for 88% of the actual rainfall storage at the beginning of the experiment. During the 17 year-period, the size of the lower canopy trees increased more rapidly than that of red pines. The increase in evaporation was due to the increase in canopy gaps by the removal of 75% of the red pines during the succession, and was a minor factor in affecting interception loss.

  1. Horizontal and vertical variations in photosynthetic capacity in a Pinus densiflora crown in relation to leaf nitrogen allocation and acclimation to irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Katahata, Shinichiro; Mukai, Yuzuru; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    We measured horizontal and vertical gradients of light (rPPFD) along four first-order branches of a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and compared variations in specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen concentration (N), chlorophyll concentration (Chl) and photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax))) along the two axes. The horizontal gradient of rPPFD along first-order branches was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPFD from the upper to the lower crown. None of the measured parameters (i.e., SLA, N, Chl and Vcmax) were strictly proportional to rPPFD, although they were more or less correlated with light when data obtained for all of the crown were pooled (r(2) = 0.31-0.80). The slope of rPPFD against N on an area basis (Narea) for a branch in the middle of the crown orientated northward was significantly greater than the slope for a similar branch orientated southward. Horizontal variations were unrelated to age effects because measurements were all on 1-year-old needles. We conclude that factors other than light (i.e., orientation) may influence N allocation within branches. There was considerably less variation in the relationship of Vcmax to Narea (r2 = 0.58) than in the relationship of Vcmax to rPPFD (r2 = 0.41). Fractional N distribution among components of the photosynthetic machinery was constant within the crown. Together with the relationships between rPPFD and N on a mass basis (r2 = 0.80) and SLA and Vcmax (r2 = 0.60), these findings suggest that most light acclimation in P. densiflora occurs through changes in needle morphology (e.g., SLA) during development.

  2. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Arisa; Yui, Hiroshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species’ ability to tolerate the sites’ severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations. PMID:28030648

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  4. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of the novel resistance QTL from G. soja could increase the durability of SCN-resistance in soybean cultivars, especially if major gene resistance breaks down.

  5. Shikonin inhibits TNF-α production through suppressing PKC-NF-κB-dependent decrease of IL-10 in rheumatoid arthritis-like cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Xiao; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Li, He-Wei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Zhen-Bing

    2017-04-01

    Shikonin, a major effective component in the Chinese herbal medicine Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb., exhibits an anti-inflammatory property towards rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the potential mechanism is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of shikonin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fibroblast-like synoviocyte (LiFLS) inflammation model. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were treated with 200 μg/ml of LPS for 24 h to establish the RA-like model, LiFLS. FLSs were pretreated with shikonin (0.1-1 μM) for 30 min in the treatment groups. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Signal proteins involved in IL-10 production were analyzed by Western blotting. Shikonin significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of LPS on IL-10 expression in FLSs by inactivating the PKC-NF-κB pathway. In addition, shikonin inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression in FLSs, and this effect was markedly diminished by IL-10-neutralizing antibody. The IL-10-mediated suppression of TNF-α transcription was demonstrated by no response to the protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide and no mRNA decay. Shikonin inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α production in FLSs through suppressing the PKC-NF-κB-dependent decrease in IL-10, and this study also highlights the potential application of shikonin in the treatment of RA.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variation in light and dark respiration in field-grown Eucalyptus pauciflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Danielle A; Holly, Chris; Bruhn, Dan; Ball, Marilyn C; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-08-01

    Respiration from vegetation is a substantial part of the global carbon cycle and the responses of plant respiration to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and light must be incorporated in models of terrestrial respiration to accurately predict these CO2 fluxes. We investigated how leaf respiration (R) responded to changes in leaf temperature (T(leaf)) and irradiance in field-grown saplings of an evergreen tree (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng). Seasonal shifts in the thermal sensitivity of leaf R in the dark (R(dark)) and in the light (R(light)) were assessed by allowing T(leaf) to vary over the day in field-grown leaves over a year. The Q10 of R (i.e., the relative increase in R for a 10 °C increase in T(leaf)) was similar for R(light) and R(dark) and had a value of ∼ 2.5; there was little seasonal change in the Q10 of either R(light) or R(dark), indicating that we may be able to use similar functions to model short-term temperature responses of R in the dark and in the light. Overall, rates of R(light) were lower than those of R(dark), and the ratio of R(light)/R(dark) tended to increase with rising T(leaf), such that light suppression of R was reduced at high T(leaf) values, in contrast to earlier work with this species. Our results suggest we cannot assume that R(light)/R(dark) decreases with increasing T(leaf) on daily timescales, and highlights the need for a better mechanistic understanding of what regulates light suppression of R in leaves. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra fruit development and ripening using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc. is an important subtropical fruit crop and an ideal species for fruit quality research due to the rapid and substantial changes that occur during development and ripening, including changes in fruit color and taste. However, research at the molecular level is limited by a lack of sequence data. The present study was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and examine gene expression in bayberry developing fruit based on RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis, to provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling fruit quality changes during ripening. Results RNA-Seq generated 1.92 G raw data, which was then de novo assembled into 41,239 UniGenes with a mean length of 531 bp. Approximately 80% of the UniGenes (32,805 were annotated against public protein databases, and coding sequences (CDS of 31,665 UniGenes were determined. Over 3,600 UniGenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening, with 826 up-regulated and 1,407 down-regulated. GO comparisons between the UniGenes of these two types and interactive pathways (Ipath analysis found that energy-related metabolism was enhanced, and catalytic activity was increased. All genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were up-regulated during the fruit ripening processes, concurrent with color change. Important changes in carbohydrate and acid metabolism in the ripening fruit are likely associated with expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD. Conclusions Mass sequence data of Chinese bayberry was obtained and the expression profiles were examined during fruit ripening. The UniGenes were annotated, providing a platform for functional genomic research with this species. Using pathway mapping and expression profiles, the molecular mechanisms for changes in fruit color and taste during ripening were examined. This provides a reference for the study of complicated

  8. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; Wang; Haifeng; Chen; Aihua; Sha; Rong; Zhou; Zhihui; Shang; Xiaojuan; Zhang; Chanjuan; Zhang; Limiao; Chen; Qingnan; Hao; Zhonglu; Yang; Dezhen; Qiu; Shuilian; Chen; Xinan; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) is one of the major defoliators of soybean(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean(Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate.Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604.However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid(JA) and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  9. 升麻解毒药对在方剂中的作用%Formula effect of drug combinations paired by herbs Cimicifuga as antidote

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均克

    2011-01-01

    文章就升麻的解毒功效及其药对组合在方剂配伍中的作用,结合本草文献、实验研究和临床经验进行了论述.总结出升麻的解毒作用主要有解时疫疠毒、解疮疡斑疹肿毒、解虫毒和解药毒4个方面.并分别阐述了升麻配玄参、配生地黄、配大青、配黄连、配石膏、配虎杖、配鳖甲、配金银花和连翘、配甘草、配牛蒡子、配马蔺子、配射干、配牛蒡子和桔梗、配葛根、配黄芩、配黄柏、配芍药的意义.%This paper discussed the detoxification efficacy of Cimicifuga and its drug combinations in the prescription compatibility by herbal literature research, experimental research and clinical experience and other methods.Summarized that detoxification efficacy of Cimicifuga including four aspects: detoxication of the epidemic pestilence, the sore rash swollen poison, the insect poison and the antidote to poison. Expounded that formula effect of Paired Herbs or drug combinations paired by Cimicifuga as antidote respectively with Scrophularia , with Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.)Libosch, with Cleredendrum cwtophyllum Turcz, with Coptidis Chinensis, with Gypsum Fibrosum, with Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.Et Zucc, with Carapax Trionycis, with Lonicerae and Forsythiae, with Glycyrrhiza, with Arctium, with Semen Iridis(Seed of Chinese Small Iris), with Rhizoma Belamcandae, with Arctium and Radix Platycodonis , with Pueraria lobata(Willd.)Ohwi, with Radix Scutellariae, with Phellodendron Chinense Schnei, with Paeonia lactiflora Pall, with peony,etc.

  10. Changes in the relationship between tree size and aboveground respiration in field-grown hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) trees over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1998-01-01

    Respiration measurements of aerial parts of 18-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) trees were made under field conditions over three years to study changing relationships with tree age between respiration and phytomass, phytomass increment, and leaf mass. The relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and phytomass (w(T)) was approximated by a proportional function (r(a) = aw(T)), where the proportional constant (a) decreased year by year. The effect of time on the relationship between annual respiration and phytomass of each sample tree was fitted by a power function. Respiration of the tree suppressed by the canopy decreased year by year, but respiration of the other trees increased slightly with age. The relationship between annual respiration and leaf mass was also approximated by a generalized power function. Excluding the suppressed tree, the relationship between annual respiration (r(a)) and the annual increment of aboveground phytomass (Deltaw(T)) was described by a proportional function (r(a) = 2.27Deltaw(T)), where the proportional constant, 2.27, was independent of sample tree and year, indicating that about 2.3 times of the annual aboveground phytomass increment equivalent was respired annually. For any tree, the time constant relationships between annual respiration and leaf mass and phytomass increment for different-sized trees were similar to the corresponding time continuum relationships. In contrast, the time continuum relationship between annual respiration and phytomass differed from the time constant relationship, indicating that respiration of less active woody tissue contributed significantly to aboveground respiration. Based on the relationship between tree size and annual respiration, annual aboveground stand respiration was estimated to be 25.0, 26.9, and 25.8 Mg(dm) ha(-1) year(-1) for the three consecutive years, respectively, and the corresponding aboveground stand biomass was 60.0, 69.0, and 76.8 Mg

  11. Maintenance and growth respiration of the aboveground parts of young field-grown hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, T; Hagihara, A

    1995-06-01

    Aboveground respiration of five 8-year-old trees of field-grown hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) was nondestructively measured at monthly intervals over 1 year with an enclosed standing tree method. The relationship between monthly specific respiration rate and monthly mean relative growth rate at the individual tree level was described by a linear equation. During the dormant season, respiration was used mainly for maintenance purposes, whereas during the growing season, more than 40% of the respiration was used for growth purposes, i.e., 60 to 70% in May. We conclude that annual maintenance and growth respiration of a tree are directly proportional to the aboveground phytomass and its annual increment, respectively. The maintenance coefficient was estimated to be 0.504 +/- 0.039 (SE) kg kg(-1) year(-1), indicating that the amount respired for maintaining already existing phytomass was equivalent to about half of the existing phytomass. The growth coefficient was estimated to be 0.772 +/- 0.043 (SE) kg kg(-1), indicating that the amount respired for constructing new phytomass was equivalent to about three-fourths of the annual phytomass increment. The annual stand maintenance and growth respiration were, respectively, 8.8 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) for an aboveground biomass of 17.4 Mg ha(-1) and 5.0 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) for an annual stand aboveground biomass increment of 6.5 Mg ha(-1) year(-1). About two-thirds of the total respiration was used to maintain already existing biomass, and about one-third was used to construct new biomass.

  12. Fingerprinting suspended sediment sources using fallout and in-situ radionuclides in forested watershed in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Koga, S.; Fukuyama, T.; Hiramatsu, S.

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, forest plantations have became unmanaged because of the lowering of the log price. In unmanaged Hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantations, understory vegetation decreases because of low light conditions, and forest surface become a bare land. The occurrence of Hortonean overlandflow and soil erosion has been reported. Fine surface materials removal from forest floor due to Hortonean overlandflow will affect the downstream environment and fish habitat. However, no studies have been conducted fingerprinting the suspended sediment from unmanaged forest plantations. To study the sources of suspended sediment in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex, U and Th decay series radionuclides were analyzed. Soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, surface erosion area in unmanaged Hinoki plantation and forest road, and sampling of deposited sediment in the channel was also conducted in several tributaries. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210ex, Bi-214 and Tl-208 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma spectroscopy. We also sampled the suspended sediment by pumping up from the streams, and the time-integrated sediment sampler (Phillips et al, 2000) was also used to collect the various storm event samples. The study area is a 0.33 km2 watershed, upstream of the Shimanto river basin, located about 700 km southwest of Tokyo. High concentrations of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex in suspended sediment were detected, which suggest that the suspended sediments are mostly derived from surface soil of the forests. The concentrations of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex vary between events to events, suggesting that the different sources among the storm events.

  13. Detecting Forest Degradation in Kouchi, Japan Using Visible, Near-IR, Mid-IR, and Thermal-IR Data from ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, B.; Onda, Y.; Xu, M.; Otsuki, Y.; Toyota, M.

    2006-12-01

    Forest degradation, mainly due to poor management, is of increasing concern in Japan because some major ecosystem functions, such as biodiversity, productivity, and soil and water retention, are losing or weakening in the forests, especially in the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis Obtusa Sieb.) plantations. The lack of timely thinning in the plantation has resulted in very dense canopy, which has completely excluded the understory species, such as shrubs and herbs. Litter layer is also absent in this plantation due to the frequent litter removal from heavy rain storms as well as the absence of shrub/herb layers in the understory. Therefore, soil erosion and soil compaction/crust have severely changed the soil hydrology, resulting in the decreased soil infiltration, and increased flooding and sedimentation in downstreams, and furthermore, reduced the ecosystem productivity. Therefore, it is a critical issue to detect the degraded forest for effective forest management and protection of downstream ecosystems. This paper describes a method for mapping forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques. Field survey was firstly carried out to record the locations and conditions of the devastated Japanese cypress plantation. Investigation sites were then divided into four groups based the values of relative illuminance (threshold: 5 percent) and the status of understory vegetation (threshold: 8 percent). Several vegetation indices (Land Surface Water Index: LSWI, Water Index: WI, Normalized Difference Water Index: NDWI, Photochemical Reflectance Index: PRI, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI) and the values of the digital number in the ASTER thermal band were calculated/extracted and tested for the four groups, respectively. Results showed that the ASTER thermal band was the most effective for mapping the degraded forest.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  15. 11种常用行道树危险度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡园园; 闫淑君; 吴沙沙; 张采薇; 陈梦依; 张丽鸽

    2015-01-01

    调查与正确评估行道树的危险度,有利于保持景观效果,使城市行道树能够更好、更有效地发挥其应有的作用,降低因行道树倒伏而妨碍交通或对人民生命财产安全造成损失。运用目测树木评估法(VTA)评估法,对福州市常用的11种行道树进行潜在危险度调查与分析。结果表明:垂柳(Salix babylonica Linn.)的潜在危险度指数最高(48.6);潜在危险度指数值达30以上的有白兰(Michelia alba DC.Syst.)、羊蹄甲(Bauhinia purpurea Linn.)和香樟(Cinnamomum camphora Linn.);潜在危险度指数值在20以上的有天竺桂(Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb.)和杧果(Mangifera indica Linn.);麻楝(Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.)、榕树(Ficus microcarpa Linn.)、大叶榕(Ficus virens Ait.var.sublanceolata)、高山榕(Ficus altissima Bl.Bijdr)和蒲葵[Livistona chinensis(Jacq.)R.Br]等5种行道树的潜在危险度指数值均小于20,潜在危险性相对较小。

  16. Effects of. gamma. -irradiation on growth and embryogenesis of citrus callus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nito, Nobumasa; Ling, Jing-Tian; Iwamasa, Masao; Katayama, Yukiyoshi (Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-09-01

    The embryogenic callus of 'Valencia', orange, 'Yoshida' navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Calamondin (C. madurensis Lour.), Yuzu (C. junos Sieb. ex Tan.) and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma (C. unshiu Marc.) were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kiloroentgen (kR) of gamma irradiation at the dosage of 1 kR/h in Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Japan. The irradiation caused a retardation of callus growth. Callus growth was reduced to 50% or less of that in non-irradiated callus, at a dosage of 5 kR in Yuzu, 20 kR in 'Valencia' orange and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma, and 50 kR in 'Yoshida' navel orange and Calamondin. The irradiation stimulated embryoid formation from the callus. Optimum irradiation dosages to produce the maximum number of embryoids were 50 kR in 'Valencia' orange, 20 kR in Yuzu, 10 kR in Calamondin and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma. 'Yoshida' navel orange produced the maximum number of embryoids at the lowest irradiation of 5 kR. The ratios of embryoid number produced at the optimum irradiation to that at non-irradiation were, 16.4, 8.4, 7.8, 6.4 and 2.7 in Yuzu, 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma, 'Valencia' orange, 'Yoshida' navel orange and Calamondin, respectively. (author).

  17. Leaf morphological and anatomical characteristics of epiphytes and their host tress in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest%南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠层附生植物及其宿主叶片的形态解剖特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants have been well characterized in terms of the physiological and morphological traits permitting them to thrive in the absence of access to the soil. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to characterize the morphological and anatomical characteristics of major canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants and their host trees in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Southern China. Results showed epiphytic plants differed from host trees on leaf morphology and anatomy. Compared with host trees, epiphytic plants have smaller leaf area, larger specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf water content, higher leaf thickness, higher leaf abaxial and adaxial epidermis thickness, lower stomatal density and stomata size for the uptake and restore of water and nutrients. Difference of leaf morphological and anatomical characters between epiphytes can be largely explained by changes of environmental factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within forest canopy. D. Chinensis and P. Serpens showed special characteristics with high leaf water contents, low stomatal density, thick spongy tissues and thin palisade tissues to adapt to their upper dwelling environment (high temperature, low air humidity and high PAR). F. Glaucescens and P. Hancei have large leaf area, thin leaf, and high stomata size in acclimatizing to the low temperature, high air humidity and low PAR.%选择南亚热带常绿阔叶林中具有代表性的4种林冠层附生植物:白背瓜馥木(Fissistigma glaucescens)、瓜子金(Dischidia chinensis)、蔓九节(Psychotria serpens)、山蒌(Piper hancei)及其主要宿主植物:厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)、荷木(Schimasuperba)、华润楠(Machilus chinensis)、锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)为研究对象,对其叶片形态结构和解剖结构特征进行比较.研究结果表明:宿主植物与附生植物的叶片形态结构差异显著.相对于4种宿主植物,4种附生

  18. 云台山野生草本植物资源的园林开发利用评价%Comprehensive evaluation of landscape exploitation and application of wild herbaceous plant resources of Yuntai mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳平

    2013-01-01

    为了提高连云港市开发利用乡土野生草本植物资源的效率,选取当地云台山的108种野生草本植物作为研究对象,对其园林开发利用前景予以综合评价.采用层次分析法(AHP)作为评价方法,建立了包括植物适应能力、观赏价值和开发价值的3个准则层和13个因子的评价体系,重点关注耐盐碱性.评价值排序为:珊瑚菜、沙滩黄芩、滨海前胡等32种为第1等级资源,多为滨海耐盐碱草本,且拥有多元化的观赏价值;东海铁角蕨、盐芥、全缘贯众等33种,及海州香薷、球序韭、野百合等43种,分别为第2和第3等级资源.%In order to exploit different wild ornamental plants of Lianyungang city effectively, a synthetical assessment was established to evaluate the potential landscape application value of 108 wild herbaceous plants of Yuntai mountain in Lianyungang based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) , which included criteria adaptability, ornamental value, exploitation value as three principal levels and 13 evaluation factors, among that the saline-alkaline tolerance was especially concerned. According to this evaluation system, 32 species of plants, such as Glehnia littoralis, Scutellaria strigil-losa, Peucedanum japonicum, ect. , most of which are seaside herbaceous plants with high saline-alkaline tolerance and have higher ornamental values, were attributed to the first level, 33 species of plants included Asplenium castaneo-viride, Thellungiella salsuginea, Cyrtomium falcatum, ect. , and 43 species Elsholtzia splendens,Allium thunbergii,Liliumbrow-nii, etc. belonged to second and third level respectively.

  19. Quantitative determination of peiminine in Bulbus Fritillaria available on market by HPLC%HPLC法测定市售贝母中贝母乙素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玥; 张庆林; 陈信义; 唐仲雄; 吴祖泽

    2001-01-01

    目的 为了选择贝母乙素含量较高的贝母原材料。方法 建立了HPLC法分析贝母原材料中贝母乙素含量。贝母生药粉用氨水-95%乙醇(1∶5)混合液提取,柱前用2,4-二硝基苯肼(DNPH)衍生,衍生化条件50℃下反应30min。分析色谱柱:HypersilC18ODS2,流动相:CH3CN-100mmol/LCH3COONH4(41∶59,pH=5.0),流速为1.2mL/min。UV375nm检测。结果 4种市售贝母中东贝母的贝母乙素含量最高。结论 方法灵敏,重现性好,样品用量少,便于应用。%Object To develop a method for the quantitative determination ofpeiminine in bullus Fritillariae as a guide for the choice of a better product on the market. Methods An HPLC method was developed. The powdered drug was extracted with a mixed solution of ammonia-95% alcohol (1:5). The crude peiminine obtained was derivatized to its 2,4-dinitro hydrazone at pH 2.0 and 50 ℃ for 30 min. The HPLC conditions were:Hypersil C18 column, with CH3CN:100 m Mol ammonium acetate (49:51) at pH 5.0 as the mobile phase and detected at the wave length of 375 nm. Results Among the 4 samples obtained from the market, F. thunbergii var. chekiangensis Hsiao et K. C. Hsia gave the highest peiminine content. Conclusion The method was highly sensitive with good reproducibility and need only a small amount of sample, suitable for practical use.

  20. Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qin Wu, Wei-Min Yuan, Xiao-Jing Tian, Ben Fan, Xin Fang, Jian-Ren Ye, Xiao-Lei Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO. The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80% from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist

  1. [Mining analysis and experience summary for chronic atrophic gastritis cases treated by Professor LIU Feng-bin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai

    2015-06-01

    , moodiness and weak constitution; the pathogenesis of CAG was spleen deficiency with qi stagnation, heat depression and blood stasis in the stomach meridian. The above six syndrome types and 12 herbs were determined, including Pseudostellariae Radix, Poria, Atractylodismacrocephalae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus, Sepiae Endoconcha, Arecae Pericarpium, Aurantii Fructus, Perillae Caulis, Herba Hedyotis Diffusae, Scutellariae Barbatae Herba, Curcumae Rhizoma. This study summarized Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts of chronic atrophic gastritis based on clinical practice data and expert interview, with a rigorous design and good scientificity and practicability.

  2. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Zhejiang%浙江省中药材产业提升发展现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蕾; 徐丹彬; 陈红金; 何伯伟

    2016-01-01

    2015年浙江省中药材种植面积3.86万hm2,总产量17.86万t,总产值52.91亿元,形成了以“浙八味”—浙贝母(Fritillaria thunbergii)、杭白菊(Dendranthema morifolium)、延胡索(Corydalis yanhusuo)、白术(Atractylodes macrocephala)、玄参(Scrophularia ningpoensis)、浙麦冬(Ophiopogon japonicus)、杭白芍(Paeonia lactiflora)、温郁金(Curcuma aromatica cv. Wenyujin)为主的传统道地药材和铁皮石斛(Dendrobium officinale)、番红花(Crocus sativus)、灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)等新兴特色药材优势产业。指出了制约中药材产业发展的问题,如中药材资源保护开发相对滞后、产品质量安全生产隐患多、抗市场风险能力较弱、产地初(精)加工受制约、品牌保护意识不强等。提出了贯彻产业发展规划和意见、加大资源保护与开发力度、加强规范化基地建设、推进标准化安全生产、做大做强铁皮石斛产业、着力培育“浙产药材”品牌、加强科技人才培养的发展对策。%In 2015, planting area, total yield and total output value of traditional Chinese medicines in Zhejiang province reached 38,600ha, 178,600t and 5.291 billion Yuan RMB. Eight dao-di herbs in the province likeFritillaria thunbergii,Dendranthema morifolium,Corydalis yanhusuo, Atractylodes macrocephala, Scrophularia ningpoensis,Ophiopogon japonicus,Paeonia lactiflora andCurcuma aromaticacv. Wenyujinand new developed medicines such asDendrobium officinale, Crocus sativusand Ganoderma lucidumhave been great advantages in the market. Advices were put forwarded for further development like protection of resources, standardization of base establishment and production, etc.

  3. Leaf surface wettability of major plant species for urban greening in Xi'an and related affecting factors%西安市常见绿化植物叶片润湿性能及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会霞; 石辉; 李秧秧

    2010-01-01

    利用接触角测定仪测定了西安市21种常见绿化植物叶片表面的接触角,探讨了叶片表面特性如蜡质、绒毛、气孔对接触角的影响.结果表明,植物叶片正背面、物种间的接触角差异均显著,叶片正面和背面接触角大小在40°~140°.接触角大小与变异系数呈负相关,可能由于接触角小的润湿叶片在不同的生境和位置下,受到环境条件的影响较大而出现大的变异;接触角较大的非润湿性叶片,环境物质持留时间较短,对叶片形态和组成影响较小,因而出现小的变异.植物叶片表面的接触角随蜡质含量的升高而增大.表皮蜡质去除后大部分叶片接触角明显降低,尤其是疏水性较强的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、月季(Rosa chinensis)和紫叶小檗(Berberis thunbergii).女贞(Ligustrum lucidum)正背面、加杨(Populus canadensis)背面等亲水型的叶片蜡质去除后接触角反而增大.叶片绒毛的多少及其形态、分布方式对接触角具有重要的影响,不同的作用方式表现出润湿和不润湿的特征,人为将其去除可以增加叶片的润湿性.背面气孔密度与气孔长度、保卫细胞长度呈负相关;接触角则与气孔密度呈负相关,与气孔长度呈正相关.

  4. A preliminary report of the new strategy on eradicating epidemic pine wilt disease and its application effects in a pine forest%防治松萎蔫病的新策略及林间防效初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博光; 王石发; 张志超; 曲花荣; 逄焕臣; 宋绍义

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the new theory, namely that the pine wilt disease is a complex one induced by the pine wood nematode and its associated pathogenic bacteria, and that the special pattern of pine wilt disease in a forest belongs to aggregated distribution, we suggest a new strategy, that is to treat all of the host trees by trunk injecting of the new nematicide, a -terthienyl and a bactericide, oxolinic acid, within the area bounded by a circle of Som radius and the concentration point of the dead trees as the center of the circle. The new strategy had been used in a 20hm2 forest of Pinus thunbergii during 2010 to 2011. Up to now there has not been any dead tree found in the treated area in contrast to 24 dead ones in the control area. The test in the forest is continuing and new results will be followed.%在松萎蔫病是由松材线虫与其携带的致病细菌诱导的一种复合侵染病害的新学说的指导下,根据松萎蔫病在疫区病树呈聚集分布,提出了防治松萎蔫病的新策略,即利用我们研究开发防治松萎蔫病的新药剂α-三噻吩与杀细菌剂恶喹酸对在以病死树中心周围半径50 m的范围内所有寄主树进行注干处理.经过2010-2011年在面积近20 hm2的处理黑松林地的防治试验,至2011年12月已经取得了良好的防效.处理林地中没有再发生病死树,对照区内却有24株病死树.防治仍在继续,新结果将继续报道.

  5. Control of the geomorphic evolution of an active crater: Popocatpetl (Mexico) 1994-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Macias, J. L.; Sanjosé, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic activity often causes intense and successive geomorphic changes to occur inside a crater. In terms of hazard mitigation, it is important to understand the cause of these changes whether they be exterior lava spills, sequences of explosions or massive glacier melt. Access to an active crater, however, is very difficult and dangerous, so analytical approaches involving remote study must substitute actual fieldwork. Several studies done at Popocatepetl volcano during its most recent eruptive phase that began in December 1994, use remote techniques and are described in Cruz-Reyna et al. (1998), Wright et al. (2002), Martín-Del Pozo et al. (2003), Tanarro et al. (2005), Matiella et al. (2008), and Zamorano et al. (1996,1998), among others. The compendium of results reveals that recent volcanic activity on Popocatépetl is characterized by successive dome growth and destruction inside the crater. Macias and Siebe (2005) even suggest that the walls of the crater may no longer withstand future dome growth. The purpose of this study is to understand the morphologic evolution of the interior of the crater during the most active period of the present eruptive phase on Popocatepetl from 1994 to 2003. The methodology is based on photogrammetry techniques that have been used successfully at volcanic sites by Donnadieu et al. (2003), and on a GIS to organize information, draft maps and 3-D images, and to calculate spatial variations in landforms (Procter et al., 2006; Schilling et al., 2006). Traditional aerial photo interpretation was used for 22 triplets selected from a collection of photos taken by the Mexican Highway and Transport Secretariat, from 1982 to 2003, and enabled us to draft geomorphic maps of the interior of the crater. The photos and maps were rectified and georeferenced with ArcGis software, and then the maps were digitized. The areas containing morphologic units associated with a date (exterior crater walls, colluvial ramps and recent volcanic complex

  6. Photo-Activitied Antimicrobial Activities Screening of 10 Tropical Rain Forest Plants%十种热带雨林植物光活化抗微生物活性的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昀; 陈玉

    2012-01-01

    为从植物中寻找具有光调节生物活性的物质,通过滤纸片法和薄层色谱自显影技术,以金黄色葡菌球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、枯草芽胞杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、草分枝杆菌(Mycobacteium phlei)、环状芽胞杆菌(Bacillus circulans)为供试菌,对10种热带雨林植物进行光活化抗微生物活性的筛选和活性部位的确定.结果表明:0.1mg的狗花椒(Y10)氯仿提取物对枯草芽胞杆菌具有明显的光活化抗微生物活性,在紫外光照射后和黑暗中抑菌圈相差4mm,薄层色谱中0.5mg Y10氯仿提取物抗枯草芽胞杆菌的抑菌圈最大.本研究为进一步从该植物中寻找新型光敏剂奠定了基础.%To find the light-medidated biological active substances, 10 tropical rain forest plants were screened by the paper disc method and thin-layer chromatography bioautography technique to test their antimicrobial activity Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacteium phlei and Bacillus circulan were employed as samples. The results showed that 0. ling of Zanthoxylum planispinum sieb. et Zucc. (Y10) chloroform extracts have obvious photo-aetivitied antimicrobial activities for Bacillus subtilis. The antibacterial circle difference between the uhra-violet light and darkness is 4mm. And 0.5rag Y10 chloroform extracts have maximum inhibition zone for Bacillus subtilis in thin-layer chromatography. Our study can be used for further investigation in novel photosensitizers.

  7. Polydatin ameliorates Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang-feng; Zhao, Gan; Deng, Gan-zhen; Wu, Hai-chong; Yin, Nan-nan; Chen, Xiu-ying; Qiu, Chang-wei; Peng, Xiu-li

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that Polydatin (PD) extracted from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb, a widely used traditional Chinese remedies, possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PD on Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice and elucidated the potential mechanisms. In mice with S aureus-induced mastitis, administration of PD (15, 30, 45 mg/kg, ip) or dexamethasone (Dex, 5 mg/kg, ip) significantly suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, ameliorated the mammary structural damage, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase, a biomarker of neutrophils accumulation. Furthermore, PD treatment dose-dependently decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland tissues. PD treatment also dose-dependently decreased the expression of TLR2, MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 as well as the phosphorylation of TAK1, MKK3/6, p38 MAPK, IκB-α and NF-κB in the mammary gland tissues. In mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) infected by S aureus in vitro, pretreatment with PD dose-dependently suppressed the upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling proteins, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and AP-1. A TLR2-neutralizing antibody mimicked PD in its suppression on S aureus-induced upregulation of MyD88, p-p38 and p-p65 levels in mMECs. PD (50, 100 μg/mL) affected neither the growth of S aureus in vitro, nor the viability of mMECs. In conclusion, PD does not exhibit antibacterial activity against S aureus, its therapeutic effects in mouse S aureus-induced mastitis depend on its ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine levels via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27890916

  8. Periodic limb movements during REM sleep in multiple sclerosis: a previously undescribed entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veauthier C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Veauthier,1 Gunnar Gaede,2,3 Helena Radbruch,2 Joern-Peter Sieb,4,5 Klaus-Dieter Wernecke,6,7 Friedemann Paul2,8 1Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Germany; 2NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, St Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weissensee, Berlin, Germany; 4Department of Neurology, HELIOS Hanseklinikum Stralsund, Stralsund, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 6CRO SOSTANA GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 7Institute of Medical Biometry, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 8Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Department of Neurology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Background: There are few studies describing periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS in rapid eye movement (REM sleep in patients with narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavior disorder, and spinal cord injury, and to a lesser extent, in insomnia patients and healthy controls, but no published cases in multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to investigate PLMS in REM sleep in MS and to analyze whether it is associated with age, sex, disability, and laboratory findings. Methods: From a study of MS patients originally published in 2011, we retrospectively analyzed periodic limb movements (PLMs during REM sleep by classifying patients into two subgroups: PLM during REM sleep greater than or equal to ten per hour of REM sleep (n=7 vs less than ten per hour of REM sleep (n=59. A univariate analysis between PLM and disability, age, sex, laboratory findings, and polysomnographic data was performed. Results: MS patients with more than ten PLMs per hour of REM sleep showed a significantly higher disability measured by the Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS (P=0.023. The presence of more than ten PLMs per hour of REM sleep was associated with a

  9. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jia-yin; CHEN Ling; ZHAO Jian-fu; MA Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those ofZn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; Antirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum;Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves orB. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  10. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  11. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in dormancy and germination of red bayberry (Myrica rubra) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Kuo, Shing-Rong; Chien, Ching-Te

    2008-09-01

    Intact seeds from freshly harvested fruits of Myrica rubra (Sieb et Zucc.) were dormant and required 8 weeks of warm stratification followed by 12 weeks of cold stratification for germination. Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) to intact fresh seeds was effective in breaking dormancy, with > 70% of seeds germinating when treated with 5.2 mM GA(3) and incubated at a day/night temperature of 30/20 degrees C for 20 weeks. Removing the hard endocarp or endocarp plus seed coat of fresh seeds promoted germination, and addition of GA(3) to the embryo accelerated germination. The gibberellins GA(1) and GA(4) were more effective than GA(3) in promoting germination of seeds with the endocarp removed. Endogenous contents of GA(1), GA(3), GA(4), GA(7) and GA(20) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring in the endocarps, seed coats and embryos of fresh seeds treated with 5.2 mM GA(3). The content of GA(3) decreased in the endocarp during incubation, whereas GA(1) contents increased in the endocarp and seed coat. A high GA(1) content was detected in the endocarps and embryos of newly germinated seeds. We speculate that GA(3) was converted to GA(1) during incubation and that GA(1) is involved in seed germination. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were measured in fresh seeds and in warm and cold stratified seeds. The ABA content in fresh seeds was distributed in the order endocarp > seed coat > embryo, with the content in the endocarp being about 132-fold higher than in the seed coat and embryo. Total ABA content of seeds subjected to warm or cold stratification, or both, was 8.7- to 14.0-fold lower than that of fresh seeds. Low contents of endogenous GA(1), GA(3), GA(7) and GA(20), but elevated contents of GA(4), were found in the seed coats and endocarps of warm plus cold stratified seeds and in the seed coats and embryos of newly germinated seeds. These observations, coupled with the finding that GA stimulated

  12. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  13. Height-related decreases in mesophyll conductance, leaf photosynthesis and compensating adjustments associated with leaf nitrogen concentrations in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin

    2011-09-01

    Hydraulic limitations associated with increasing tree height result in reduced foliar stomatal conductance (g(s)) and light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)). However, it is unclear whether the decline in A(max) is attributable to height-related modifications in foliar nitrogen concentration (N), to mesophyll conductance (g(m)) or to biochemical capacity for photosynthesis (maximum rate of carboxylation, V(cmax)). Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were made to determine g(m) and V(cmax) in four height classes of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. trees. As the average height of growing trees increased from 3.1 to 13.7 m, g(m) decreased from 0.250 to 0.107 mol m(-2) s(-1), and the CO(2) concentration from the intercellular space (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) decreased by an average of 74 µmol mol(-1). Furthermore, V(cmax) estimated from C(c) increased from 68.4 to 112.0 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with the increase in height, but did not change when it was calculated based on C(i). In contrast, A(max) decreased from 14.17 to 10.73 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) increased significantly with tree height as well as N on both a dry mass and an area basis. All of these parameters were significantly correlated with tree height. In addition, g(m) was closely correlated with LMA and g(s), indicating that increased diffusive resistance for CO(2) may be the inevitable consequence of morphological adaptation. Foliar N per unit area was positively correlated with V(cmax) based on C(c) but negatively with A(max), suggesting that enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is achieved by allocating more N to foliage in order to minimize the declines in A(max). Increases in the N cost associated with carbon gain because of the limited water available to taller trees lead to a trade-off between water use efficiency and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. In conclusion, the height-related decrease in photosynthetic

  14. Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Lee, Wi-Young; Kurepin, Leonid V; Zhang, Ruichuan; Janzen, Loeke; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    In an even-aged pine forest trees can vary considerably in stem size. We examined the basis for this anomaly using a retrospective approach. Twelve open-pollinated families of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. were deliberately chosen for their variation in stem volumes at age 32 years. Seedlings obtained from these families were grown to age 6 months under optimal nursery conditions. Endogenous levels of growth hormones (auxin [IAA] and gibberellins [GAs]) and expression of the GA biosynthesis gene, PdGA20ox1, all assessed at age 3 months, were significantly correlated, across family, with seedling stem and/or shoot dry biomass at age 6 months. Retrospective comparisons of seedling growth, seedling stem tissue GA(20) and seedling stem expression levels of PdGA20ox1 were then made, across family, with tree stem growth at age 32 years. Age 6 months length and shoot dry biomass at age 6 months showed positive and significant Pearson's correlations with age 32 years tree stem diameters and a tree stem volume index, as did seedling stem tissue GA(20). Even seedling stem PdGA20ox1 expression levels were positively and near significantly (P = 0.088) correlated with age 32 years tree stem diameters. Auxin and GAs control nursery growth of seedlings at the family level, and this control also extends, for GAs at least, to field growth of older trees. We propose that family differences in PdGA20ox1 gene expression, and thus endogenous GA levels, may explain much of the natural variation seen for tree stem size in even-aged pine forests. If our hypothesis is correct, then the heritable components of variation in tree stem growth capacity should be predictable by hormonal and gene expression profiling. Such profiling, combined with the measurement of seedling phenotypic growth characters, could have the potential to accelerate the early selection of those conifer families that possess traits for inherently rapid stem wood growth.

  15. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawara, Satoshi; Norisada, Mariko; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (P(i)) requirement for growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.) seedlings is increased by elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and that responses of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch to P(i) supply are also altered. To investigate the growth response of non-mycorrhizal seedlings to P(i) supply in elevated [CO(2)], non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown for 73 days in ambient or elevated [CO(2)] (350 or 700 micromol mol(-1)) with nutrient solutions containing one of seven phosphate concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mM). In ambient [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) was saturated at about 0.1 mM P(i), whereas in elevated [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) supply did not saturate, even at the highest P(i) supply (0.2 mM), indicating that the P(i) requirement is higher in elevated [CO(2)] than in ambient [CO(2)]. The increased requirement was due mainly to an altered shoot growth response to P(i) supply. The enhanced P(i) requirement in elevated [CO(2)] was not associated with a change in photosynthetic response to P(i) or a change in leaf phosphorus (P) status. We investigated the effect of P(i) supply (0.04, 0.08 and 0.20 mM) on the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius in mycorrhizal seedlings grown in ambient or elevated [CO(2)]. Root ergosterol concentration (an indicator of fungal biomass) decreased with increasing P(i) supply in ambient [CO(2)], but the decrease was far less in elevated [CO(2)]. In ambient [CO(2)] the ratio of extramatrical mycelium to root biomass decreased with increasing P(i) supply but did not change in elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that, because elevated [CO(2)] increased the P(i) requirement for shoot growth, the significance of the ectomycorrhizal association was also increased in elevated [CO(2)].

  16. Polydatin ameliorates Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang-Feng; Zhao, Gan; Deng, Gan-Zhen; Wu, Hai-Chong; Yin, Nan-Nan; Chen, Xiu-Ying; Qiu, Chang-Wei; Peng, Xiu-Li

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies show that Polydatin (PD) extracted from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb, a widely used traditional Chinese remedies, possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PD on Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice and elucidated the potential mechanisms. In mice with S aureus-induced mastitis, administration of PD (15, 30, 45 mg/kg, ip) or dexamethasone (Dex, 5 mg/kg, ip) significantly suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, ameliorated the mammary structural damage, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase, a biomarker of neutrophils accumulation. Furthermore, PD treatment dose-dependently decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland tissues. PD treatment also dose-dependently decreased the expression of TLR2, MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 as well as the phosphorylation of TAK1, MKK3/6, p38 MAPK, IκB-α and NF-κB in the mammary gland tissues. In mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) infected by S aureus in vitro, pretreatment with PD dose-dependently suppressed the upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling proteins, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and AP-1. A TLR2-neutralizing antibody mimicked PD in its suppression on S aureus-induced upregulation of MyD88, p-p38 and p-p65 levels in mMECs. PD (50, 100 μg/mL) affected neither the growth of S aureus in vitro, nor the viability of mMECs. In conclusion, PD does not exhibit antibacterial activity against S aureus, its therapeutic effects in mouse S aureus-induced mastitis depend on its ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine levels via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  17. Differential sensitivity to chloride and sodium ions in seedlings of Glycine max and G. soja under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingyun; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Youliang

    2005-09-01

    High Na+ and Cl- concentrations in soil cause hyperionic and hyperosmotic stress effects, the consequence of which can be plant demise. Ion-specific stress effects of Na+ and Cl- on seedlings of cultivated (Glycine max (L.) Merr) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) were evaluated and compared in isoosmotic solutions of Cl-, Na+ and NaCl. Results showed that under NaCl stress, Cl- was more toxic than Na+ to seedlings of G. max. Injury of six G. max cultivars, including 'Jackson' (salt sensitive) and 'Lee 68' (salt tolerant), was positively correlated with the content of Cl- in the leaves, and negatively with that in the roots. In subsequent research, seedlings of two G. max cultivars (salt-tolerant Nannong 1138-2, and salt-sensitive Zhongzihuangdou-yi) and two G. soja populations (BB52 and N23232) were subjected to isoosmotic solutions of 150mM Na+, Cl- and NaCl, respectively. G. max cv. Nannong 1138-2 and Zhongzihuangdou-yi were damaged much more heavily in the solution of Cl- than in that of Na+. Their Leaves were found to be more sensitive to Cl- than to Na+, and salt tolerance of these two G. max cultivars was mainly due to successful withholding of Cl- in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. The reverse response to isoosmotic stress of 150 mM Na+ and Cl- was shown in G. soja populations of BB52 and N23232; their leaves were not as susceptible to toxicity of Cl- as that of Na+. Salt tolerance of BB52 and N23232 was mainly due to successful withholding of Na+ in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. These results indicate that G. soja have advantages over G. max in those traits associated with the mechanism of Cl-tolerance, such as its withholding in roots and vacuoles of leaves. It is possible to use G. soja to improve the salt tolerance of G. max.

  18. 虎杖固体发酵生产白藜芦醇工艺条件优化研究%Optimized Biotransformation Technology of Polydatin from Polygonum cuspidatum by Solid State Fermentation to Produce Resveratrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 李小沛; 曾柏全; 黎继烈; 姚跃飞

    2011-01-01

    Based on the solid slate hydrolysis of polydatin by β-glucosidase in Aspergillus niger, the yield of resveratrol from Po-lygonum cuspidalum Sieb. Et Zncc. Increase. Using ihe conlent of resveratrol from P. cuspUlatum as an evaluation standard, four factors were chosen in the solid state fermentation. They are cell age, temperature, inoculum size and ratio of water to material as the observation factors. The influencing factors of the fermentation technology of polydatin biolransformation from P. Cuspidatum were studied by using univariate and L9 (34) orthogonal test. The optimum fermentation technology of polydatin transformation from P. Cuspidatum was as follows; temperature at 4℃, ratio of water to material 2:1 , a inoculum size in 1 % and a cell age at 40 h. The experimental results showed that after solid state fermentation in 48 h, the yield of resveratrol from P. Cuspidalum increased to 1.48 % and was 4. 35 times of the resveratrol conlent in the raw P. Cuspidatum.%应用黑曲霉固体发酵法酶解虎杖中的虎杖苷,以提高从虎杖中获取白藜芦醇的得率.分别对固体堆积发酵条件:菌龄、温度、接种量、水料比进行单因素分析,并采用正交法对4因素进行组合优化,实验结果表明,最优工艺条件为:温度40℃,水料比2∶1(g∶g),接种量1%,菌龄40h;此条件下,发酵48 h,虎杖中白藜芦醇得率提高到1.48%,是未固体发酵虎杖中白藜芦醇的4.35倍.

  19. 热者寒之细胞中药学初探%Exploring cytological effect of Chinese material medica by treating hot syndrome with cold drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征; 张宁; 王翠玲; 刘竹兰; 刘建利

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether the traditional therapeutic rule“to treat hot syndrome with cold drugs”can ap-ply to the hot syndrome cell model which was established with hot drugs. Methods Five hot herbal drugs white Peper (50 μg / mL),Piper longum L.(50 μg / mL),Alpinia officinarum Hance(100 μg / mL),Evodia rutaecarpa(Juss. ) Benth(10 μg / mL)and Cinnamomum cassia presl.(20 μg / mL)were used to treat the cell to induce hot model. Then three cold herbal drugs Coptis Chinensis Franch,Povygonum cuspidatum sieb,et. Zucc and Cynanchum atratum Bge. 5- 800 μg / mL were used to reverse models. Result Three cold herbal drugs could completely cure the hot syndrome and the results were in accordance with that obtained on animal model. Conclusion The traditional therapeutic rule“to treat hot symptom with cold drug”can apply on cell model.%目的:用热药造热证细胞模型,研究“热者寒之”的基本治则对于细胞来说是否适用。方法分别用白胡椒50μg / mL、荜菝50μg / mL、高良姜100μg / mL、吴茱萸10μg / mL、肉桂20μg / mL 进行造模,再以黄连、虎杖、白薇3味寒药分5~800μg / mL 8个浓度梯度分别进行逆转。结果黄连、虎杖和白薇对5种热药所造模型可以完全逆转,这与动物实验结果一致。结论“热者寒之”这一中医基本治则在细胞水平上是适用的,并将丰富细胞中药学的内容。

  20. Characterizing two inter-specific bin maps for the exploration of the QTLs/genes that confer three soybean evolutionary traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanjie Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc., the wild progenitor of the cultivated soybean (G. max (L. Merr., is valuable for improving the later. The construction of a linkage map is crucial for studying the genetic differentiation between these species, but marker density is the main factor limiting the accuracy of such a map. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps. Here, two sets of inter-specific recombinant inbred line populations, named NJIRNP and NJIR4P, composed of 284 and 161 lines, respectively, were generated from the same wild male parent, PI 342618B, and genotyped by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Two linkage maps containing 5,728 and 4,354 bins were constructed based on 89,680 and 80,995 SNPs, spanning a total genetic distance of 2204.6 and 2136.7 cM, with an average distance of 0.4 and 0.5 cM between neighboring bins in NJRINP and NJRI4P, respectively. With the two maps, seven well-studied loci, B1 for seed bloom (SB; G and I for seed coat color (SCC; E2, E3, qDTF16.1 and two linked FLOWERING LOCUS T for days to flowering (DTF, were detected. In addition, two SB and two DTF loci were newly identified in wild soybean. Using two high-density maps, the mapping resolution was enhanced, e.g., G was narrowed to a region of 0.4 Mb on chromosome 1, encompassing 54 gene models, among which only Glyma01g40590 was predicted to be involved in anthocyanin accumulation, and its interaction with I was verified in both populations. In addition, five genes, Glyma16g03030, orthologous to Arabidopsis Phytochrome A (PHYA; Glyma13g28810, Glyma13g29920 and Glyma13g30710 predicted to encode the APETALA 2 (AP2 domain; and Glyma02g00300, involved in response to red or far red light, might be candidate DTF genes. Our results demonstrate that RAD-seq is a cost-effective approach for constructing high-density and high-quality bin maps that can be used to map

  1. Carbon balance of the aerial parts of a young hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1996-01-01

    The aerial carbon balance of a 9-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) stand with an aerial biomass of 24.6 Mg(DW) ha(-1) was studied over a 1-year period. Various components that constitute gross production were measured on the basis of the summation method. Respiration of the aerial parts of six sample trees was measured at monthly intervals by an enclosed standing-tree method. The aerial respiration of sample trees was partitioned into growth and maintenance respiration by a two-component model. The growth coefficient varied between 1.2791 and 1.7957 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) giving a mean value of 1.5223 +/- 0.0729 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1), whereas the maintenance coefficient ranged between 0.0200 and 0.0373 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1) with a mean value of 0.0299 +/- 0.0031 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1). Growth and maintenance respiration of the stand were estimated to be 8.62 and 10.52 Mg CO(2) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. An open-top cloth trap method was employed to measure the death of the parts of five sample trees. The death of leaves and total organs in the stand were assessed to be 6.26 and 7.60 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Tree mortality and biomass increment were 1.47 and 4.64 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. In terms of carbon, respiration, death, grazing and biomass increment were equivalent to 5.22, 4.53, 0.04 and 2.32 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Net production and gross production were estimated to be 6.89 and 12.11 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Biomass accumulation ratio (biomass/net production) and overall efficiency (net production/gross production) were 1.8 and 0.57, respectively.

  2. Ultrasonic extraction process of amygdalin from bayberry thinning fruits kernels%超声波提取杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 夏其乐; 陆胜民

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the extraction methods of amygdalin from bayberry thinning fruits kernels , the extraction process was studied using the bayberry ( Myrica rubra Sieb.et Zucc.var.Ding ao) fruits by ultrasonic technology . Based on the single-factor and 2-level extraction experiment , a three-factor and three-level experimental strategy was designed with the Design-Expert 8.0 software using the ethanol concentration , solid-liquid ratio and the extraction temperature as the experimental factors and the extraction yield as response value .The predictable model of quadratic regression equation was obtained . The optimum extraction conditions were concluded as follows: ethanol concentration 27%, solid-liquid ratio 1∶45 ( m/V ) , extraction time 20 min, extraction temperature 44℃, and ultrasonic power 250 W.In this condition , the predicted value of amygdalin extraction yield by the model was 94.03%, which was in good agreement with the experimental value of 93.80%.%为了明确杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷的提取方法,采用丁岙种杨梅的疏果为原料,以苦杏仁苷提取率为响应值,在超声波提取单因素试验和二水平试验的基础上,选择乙醇浓度、料液比、提取温度作为试验因子,利用Design-Expert 8.0软件进行三因素三水平的响应面试验设计,并建立二次回归方程的预测模型。试验确定了杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷的最佳提取工艺条件:乙醇浓度27%,料液比1∶45(m/V),提取时间20 min,提取温度44℃,超声功率250 W。在该条件下苦杏仁苷理论提取率为94.03%,实际提取率为93.80%,与模型预测值基本相符。

  3. Local uses of Aristolochia species and content of nephrotoxic aristolochic acid 1 and 2--a global assessment based on bibliographic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael; Chan, Jennifer; Wanke, Stefan; Neinhuis, Christoph; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2009-08-17

    More than 100 cases of nephropathy over the last 10 years caused by the systemic and longer term application of Chinese snakeroot (Aristolochia fangchi) highlighted the risk of using preparations which contain aristolochic acids. On the other hand anecdotal evidence highlights the widespread use of Aristolochia species (Aristolochiaceae) in many regions of the world. Therefore, it was our objective to systematically assess the scientific literature available on the local and traditional use of Aristolochia spp. on a worldwide scale. Our review identifies core species which need to be investigated and which may need monitoring (esp. in national and international trade). An extensive review of the literature available in libraries in London on the uses of species of Aristolochia was undertaken. Relevant information was extracted and entered into a database for analysis. Based on the assessment of 566 reference sources 685 individual sets of data were recorded. Seven species--Aristolochia indica L. (Asia), Aristolochia serpentaria L. (North America), Aristolochia debilis Sieb & Zucch. (China), Aristolochia acuminata Lam (India), Aristolochia trilobata L. (Central/South America, Caribbean), Aristolochia clematitis L. (Europe) and Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. (Africa)--are reported widely as being used medicinally. The medical uses vary, but of particular interest are uses in case of gastrointestinal problems, which is likely to result in repeated exposure to the botanical drugs by an individual. About half of all records relate to uses of Aristolochia species in Asia, one-third to the Americas, a continent which has so far received practically no attention in terms of assessing the risk of using species of Aristolochia. Of the 99 species (plus several identified at genus level only) for which we were able to summarise ethnobotanical information, preliminary phytochemical information is only available for 24 species and some of the most common ones including

  4. Origin and age of the Volcanic Rocks of Tláloc Volcano, Sierra Nevada, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Arce, J. L.; Rueda, H.

    2007-05-01

    The Tláloc volcano (TV) is a 4125 m high stratovolcano of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and is located in the northern end of the N-S trending Sierra Nevada, 30 km NE of Mexico City. Few data on the petrological and temporal evolution of TV have been published to date. Recently dated deposits gave ages between 32'000 and 34'500±500 years BP (Huddart and Gonzalez, 2004). Mapping and sampling of extrusive rocks in the summit region of TV revealed a dome structure with radiating lava flows consisting of dacitic rocks containing plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Some flows, however, seem to be associated with a collapse structure E of the main summit. Crossing relationships indicate that this structure is older (“Paleo Tláloc”). A stratigraphy of the pyroclastic deposits was established along the northern slope of TV. From the numerous pyroclastic flows, separated by paleosoils and fluviatile deposits, only two pumice and one block and ash flow (BAF) have regional extent. Their thickness - distance relationship and their granulometry point to major explosive events. A carbonized wood sample from the BAF deposit gave ages similar to the previous ages (33'180±550 yr BP and 23'170±270 yr BP), a sample from a pyroclastic flow gave even a younger age (16'620±110 yr BP), suggesting that TV remained active also after the volcanoes Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl further to the South started their activity. Based on these preliminary data it may be necessary to reconsider the accepted scenario of the temporal evolution of the central section of the TMVB, which assumes that the activity migrates from North to South with time. Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S., 2004. Pyroclastic flows and associated sediments, Tláloc-Telapón, piedmont fringe of the eastern basin of Mexico. In: G.J. Aguirre-Diaz, Macías, J.L., and Siebe, C., (Editor), Penrose Conference. UNAM, Metepec, Puebla, Mexico, pp. 35.

  5. Age Structure and Growth Pattern of an Endangered Species, Amentotaxus formosana Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinsu Lin; Ming-Hsun Chan; Feng-Sheng Chen; Ya-Nan Wang

    2007-01-01

    Amentotaxus formosana Li is a native, tolerant, and under-wood species in Taiwan. This particular species is only distributed around the Chachayalaishan and Dawushan areas. Because of its rarity, and the endangered and native properties of the species, we explored the regeneration process of the species in the native environment. This paper, therefore, aims to outline the age distribution and growth characteristics of A. formosana in the native stand using the techniques of tree ring analysis. An inventory was conducted in a site at the Chachayalaishan area from 2004 to 2006. According to the inventory, there are 67 trees in the sampling plot among which 16 individual A.formosana trees were counted. This is roughly 24% of the total population. This particular species is distributed around the understory space, while other species such as Litsea spp., Meliosma squamulata Hance, Schefflera octophylla Harms, Elaeocarpus japonicus Sieb et Zucc and Cleyera japonica Thunb are the major species whose canopy occupying the upperstory space of the stand. Results of tree-ring analysis suggest that the age of most of the trees in the sampling plot is between 31 and 90 years old with an average of 56. For the endangered species, A.formosana, age of the individuals varied from 14 and 126 years old and the average was 58 years old. Age distribution of the species was modeled using the Weibull probability density function and was statistically assessed using Sigmaplot statistical software. The estimate of shape parameter is 1.404 5 indicating a medium regeneration situation. The diameter growth rate of A. formosana is 0.32 cm and ranks 20th among the 26 species in the sampling plot. Using the age as a regressor variable, we can predict the diameter increment of A. formosana efficiently. The coefficient of determination, R2, is 0.832 2. The diameter growth among the trees of the upperstory and understory was competitive. Relationship between the growth change percentage of A

  6. Geology and radiocarbon ages of Tláloc, Tlacotenco, Cuauhtzin, Hijo del Cuauhtzin, Teuhtli, and Ocusacayo monogenetic volcanoes in the central part of the Sierra Chichinautzin, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Abrams, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Tláloc, Tlacotenco, Cuauhtzin, Hijo del Cuauhtzin, Teuhtli, and Ocusacayo monogenetic volcanoes located within the Sierra del Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF) at the southern margin of Mexico City were studied to further refine attendant volcanic hazards in this heavily populated region. Based on fieldwork and Landsat imagery interpretation, a geologic map was produced, morphometric parameters characterizing the cones and lava flows were determined, and the areal extent and volumes of erupted products were estimated. The longest lava flow was produced by Tlacotenco and reached 9.5 km from its source; total areas covered by lava flows from each eruption range between 12.8 km 2 (Tlacotenco) and 54.4 km 2 (Tláloc); and total erupted volumes range between 0.26 and 1.36 km 3 per volcano. Radiocarbon measurements of a paleosol underneath an ash layer from the Tláloc scoria cone yielded an age of 6200 years BP, while charcoal found within block-and-ash flow and lahar deposits from Cuauhtzin dome yielded ages of 7360 and 8225 years BP, respectively. The Tlacotenco dacite lava flow overlies Popocatépetl's Tutti Frutti Plinian pumice fall deposit dated at 14,000 years BP and is therefore younger than this prominent stratigraphic marker. On the other hand, Teuhtli and Hijo del Cuauhtzin scoria cones and the Ocusacayo andesite lava flows are overlain by the Tutti Frutti and therefore older than 14,000 years BP. These new dates together with other published dates for scoria cones in the SCVF imply that the previously determined recurrence interval during the Holocene for monogenetic eruptions in the SCVF of <1700 years [Siebe, C., Rodríguez-Lara, V., Schaaf, P., Abrams, M., 2004a. Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico_City: implications for archaeology and future hazards. Bull. Volcanol. 66, 203-225.] needs to be corrected to <1250 years. This means that the time of quiescence since the last eruption of the SCVF

  7. Insertion Mutation of Pollen SFB Gene in Self-compatibility of Japanese Apricot Cultivars Native to China%中国原产果梅自交亲和变异品种花粉决定基因SFB的插入突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 侍婷; 高志红; 章镇; 庄维兵

    2012-01-01

    Japanese apricot(Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)is a fruit crop with gametophytic self-incompatibility. Some self-compatible varieties appeared during long-term evolution. In this study,a typical self-incompatibility cultiva‘rNanko’and self-compatible cultiva‘rKoshinoume’of Japanese apricot were taken as controls. We identified the self-compatibility of two cultivars‘Sichuan Baimei’and ‘Changnong 17’native to China through field self-pollination test,the results demonstrated that the rate of fruiting set were 30.73% and 16.27%,respectively. Further analysis of AS-PCR showed that there were insertion mutation in pollen SFB genes of the two cultivars,which possibly resulted in self-compatibility of these two cultivars.%果梅是配子体自交不亲和树种,但在长期进化过程中也出现了自交亲和品种。以果梅典型的自交不亲和品种‘南高’和自交亲和品种‘甲州小梅’为对照,采用田间自交授粉试验对原产于中国的‘四川白梅’和‘长农17’两个果梅品种进行了自交亲和性鉴定,结果表明:其自花授粉坐果率分别为30.73%和16.27%,属于自交亲和品种。进一步通过AS-PCR分析发现花粉SFB基因存在一段插入序列,造成了分子水平的基因突变。推测该基因的突变使‘四川白梅’和‘长农17’SFB功能发生改变,从而自交亲和。

  8. Discovery of Epimedium franchetii Stearn (Berberidaceae) in Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces%木鱼坪淫羊藿江西和湖南的新分布记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑛; 李风琴; 徐艳琴

    2014-01-01

    木鱼坪淫羊藿Epimedium franchetii Stearn被认为狭域分布于湖北神农架和贵州贵阳,在花期开展的箭叶淫羊藿E.sagittatum (Sieb.et Zucc.) Maxim野外调查中发现,原本记载为箭叶淫羊藿的部分居群经鉴定为木鱼坪淫羊藿,为江西和湖南的新分布。导致这种鉴定错误的主要原因有:1)花部特征对淫羊藿属物种鉴定极其关键,但该属腊叶标本,尤其是早期标本,多缺乏花部特征。2)淫羊藿属植物花期较短,多数物种尚未开展花期的野外调查。因此,淫羊藿属的分类学研究应尽量以花期的居群为对象。木鱼坪淫羊藿的新分布记录扩充了其分布范围和生境需求,对淫羊藿属系统地理与区系研究和资源利用具有重要意义。%Epimedium franchetii Stearn ( Berberidaceae ) ,a species native to Shonnongia Forest of Hubei and Guiyang of Guizhou,was discovered in Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces .These populations have previously been considered as E.sagittatum ( Sieb.et Zucc.) Maxim.The main reasons for this misclassification were:1) Floral characters of the genus Epimedium are most important for its taxonomy .However ,these features are often lacking in most herbarium specimens due to the fact that the Epimedium species have very short flowering peri-od.2) Most species are lack of field investigation ,especially that during the full-bloom stage.Therefore,the au-thers suggest that plant taxonomists should use the populations during flower season in their plant taxonomy , which can not only provide fundamental data for its classification , but also conduce to understanding plant a-daptability and probe into its evolution mechanism .The discovery of E.franchetii in Jiangxi and Hunan Prov-inces would provide the foundation for the study of resource utilization and phylogeography of Epimedium.

  9. Endobacteria from different virulence Bursaphelenchus mucronatus%拟松材线虫不同致病力虫株体内细菌的种类差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁为敏; 项杨; 吴小芹

    2015-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus is one of plant parasitic nematodes and similar to the causative agent of pine wilt disease B. xylophilus in morphology. To understand the interaction between B. mucronatus and endobacteria, ten strains of B. mucronatus from seven provinces were inoculated to 2⁃year old Pinus thunbergii to evaluate their virulence. Besides, endobacteria of B. mucronatus were also isolated and analyzed. Pathogenic measurement showed that six strains of B. mucronatus were pathogenic to P. thunbergii, but the other four strains had no pathogenicity. Seventeen strains of endobacteria were isolated from 9 of 10 B. mucronatus strains. Physiological and biochemical characteristics, biolog methods combined with molecular revealed that seventeen strains of endobacteria belonged to Stenotrophomonas malto⁃philia, Ewingella americana, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium tumefaciens,Luteibacter anthropi, Microbacterium oxydans, Agreia pratensis, Leifsonia naganoensis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans ssp. xylosoxidans. Further analysis showed that species and population of endobacteria strains from virulent B. mucronatus strains were more abundant than that from non⁃virulent strains. S. maltophilia were usually isolated from virulent B. mucronatus strains, while endobacteria M. oxydans were mainly isolated from avirulent strains.%拟松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus mucronatus)为伞滑刃属植物寄生线虫,在形态上与引起松树萎蔫病( Pine Wild Disease)的松材线虫( B. xylophilus)极其相似。为探讨拟松材线虫的致病力与其体内细菌的关系,笔者将来自中国7省市不同地区的10个拟松材线虫虫株接种黑松测定其致病力,并对拟松材线虫的体内细菌进行了分离鉴定。结果表明,供试的10个拟松材线虫虫株中有6个虫株对黑松具致病力,4个虫株无致病力。通过分离拟松材线虫的体内细菌,发现有9个虫株体内存在细菌,共分离获得17

  10. Study on Carbon Storage and Carbon Density of Forest Ecosystems in Mount Tai%泰山森林生态系统碳储量及碳密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成杰; 李建华; 曹宁; 申卫星; 崔传洋; 肖宇; 周才平

    2014-01-01

    According to the vegetation composition,we divided the vegetation types of Mount Tai forest farm into ten types,including Pinus tabuliformis forest,Pinus densiflora forest,Pinus thunbergii forest,Pinus armandii forest,Platycladus orientalis forest,Quercus forest,Robinia pseudoacacia forest,mixed forest,economic forest and Meadow.By setting up typical sample plots of different types and combining with the biomass experience model method,we measured and calculated the forestry carbon storage and carbon density of Mount Tai forest ecological system.The results were as follows:The total carbon storage of Mount Tai forest ecological system was 240.54 × 104 t.Forest carbon storage of vegetation types from high to low was Pinus tabuliformis forest(85.63 ×104 t), mixed forest(57.29 ×104 t),Robinia pseudoacacia forest(28.1 1 ×104 t),Quercus forest(22.50 ×104 t),Platy-cladus orientalis forest(16.75 ×104 t),Pinus densiflora forest(14.90 ×104 t),economic forest(6.12 ×104 t),Pi-nus thunbergii forest(3.93 ×104 t),Pinus armandii forest(2.75 ×104 t)and Meadow(2.55 ×104 t).Forest car-bon storage rate of spatial levels from high to low was soil layer (77.52%),tree layer (20.60%),litter layer (1.49%),herbaceous layer(0.22%),shrub layer(0.17%).Soil layer and tree layer accounted for 98.12%of total carbon storage.Carbon storage in soil layer was 3.69 times to those in vegetable layer.The total carbon densi-ty of Mount Tai forest ecological system was 202.17 t/hm2 ,and the biggest one was Robinia pseudoacacia forest (310.88 t/hm2).In terms of the forest carbon sinks function,we shouldn′t reduce the area of Robinia pseudoaca-cia forest,but should be strengthen the operation and management in the future.%按照植被组成差异将泰山森林划分为油松林、赤松林、黑松林、华山松林、侧柏林、栎林、刺槐林、混交林、经济林和草甸共10种植被类型,分类型设置典型样地,并结合生物量经验(回归)模型估计法测算了

  11. Preliminary Study on the Phytal Meiofauna on Three Rocky Shore Seaweeds in Qingdao%青岛三种岩礁海藻附植小型底栖生物的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙齐; 祝婉露; 赵娅兰; 宋恬; 慕芳红

    2015-01-01

    2013年6月-2014年6月对青岛岩礁潮间带鼠尾藻、孔石莼、蜈蚣藻附植小型底栖生物进行了连续13个月的逐月采样,对小型底栖生物的丰度、生物量、生产量、类群组成及其季节动态进行了研究。共鉴定出小型底栖生物16个类群。鼠尾藻附植小型底栖生物的年平均丰度和生物量分别为7×103 ind·g-1 dwt algae·a-1和56×103μg·g-1 dwt algae·a-1。孔石莼附植小型底栖生物的年平均丰度和生物量分别为2×103 ind·g-1 dwt algae·a-1和8×103μg·g-1 dwt algae·a-1。蜈蚣藻附植小型底栖生物的年平均丰度和生物量分别为3×103 ind·g-1 dwt algae·a-1和16×103μg·g-1 dwt algae·a-1。三种藻类附植小型底栖生物平均丰度和生物量的高低依次为:鼠尾藻>蜈蚣藻>孔石莼。附植小型底栖生物及其主要类群的丰度具有明显的季节变化,其中鼠尾藻、孔石莼附植小型底栖生物丰度与海水温度和盐度显著相关。附植小型底栖生物的丰度还可能与藻类生长周期关系密切,三种藻类附植小型底栖生物的丰度的最高值均出现在藻类的快速生长期之前。三种藻类附植小型底栖生物群落差异显著,鼠尾藻上线虫为最优势类群,孔石莼和蜈蚣藻上底栖桡足类为最优势类群。藻类形态和藻类生活周期是影响附植小型底栖生物类群组成、丰度和生物量的关键因素。%The phytal meiofauna on the seaweeds Sargassum thunbergii, Ulva pertusa Kjellm and Grateloupia filic ina were surveyed monthly over an annual cycle from June 2013 to June 2014 at the rocky intertidal zone in Qingdao. Meiofaunal abundance, biomass, production, faunal composition and their seasonal dynamics were studied, and 16 faunal groups were identified from the three seaweeds. On S. thunb e rgii, the annual average abundance and biomass were 7 × 103 ind·g-1 dwt algae·a-1 and 56 × 103μg·g-1 dwt algae·a-1, respectively. On U. pertusa

  12. Plant selection for bioremediation of Mn polluted soils and their improvement effects%锰污染土壤修复的植物筛选与改良效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳林男; 吴晓芙; 郭丹丹; 陈永华

    2012-01-01

    以锰矿渣作为基质,选用牛耳枫Daphniphyllum calycinum Benth、蚊母Distylium racemosum Sieb.et Zucc.、小叶女贞Ligustrum quihoui Carr.、大叶樟Cinnamomum parthenoxylon(Jack) Nees、构树Broussoneti papyrifera作为测试植物,进行了室外盆栽植物筛选和基质改良对比试验.结果表明,种植十个月后,5种试验植物生长良好,改良组成活率均在63%以上,试验植物中生物量较大的为构树和蚊母,其次是小叶女贞,大叶樟与牛耳枫的生物量最小.牛耳枫的茎叶和根部Mn含量均比较高,对照组根部达792.4 mg·kg-1.构树在根系Mn含量超过493 mg·kg-1的情况下,植株的生长状态良好,根系十分发达,表现出来极强的耐受力,是锰矿区理想的先锋树种.小叶女贞的Mn转运能力最强,对照组的Mn转运系数高达6.28,植株地上部分Mn富集量达到7.92 mg.土壤改良剂(有机肥+矿物吸附剂+抗锰菌种)应用在一定程度上增大了植物的成活率与生物量,降低了植物根系重金属含量,但对植物生长的促进作用不显著,改良剂用量的最佳比例尚有待进一步考察.%Five plant species, Daphniphyllum calycinum Benth, Distylium racemosum Sieb.et Zucc, Ligustrum quihoui Carr, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon(Jack) Nees, Broussonetia papyrifera, were selected as testing plants for outdoor screening of manganese tolerant plants. Pot experiments were conducted using residuals collected from manganese mining area as the plant growth medium. The results show that the tested plants grew well and their survival rates were above 63% in pots added with remediation agents after the seedlings were transplanted for ten months. B. papyrifera and D. racemosum had the largest biomass quantity, followed by L. quihoui, C. parthenoxylon and D. calycinum. The manganese contents of D calycinum were high in both its roots and above-ground tissues and its average root manganese content obtained for the control pots reached 792.4 mg·kg-1

  13. Effects of NaCl stress on growth and physiological indexes of five greening plant seedlings and comprehensive evaluation of their salt tolerance%NaCl胁迫对5种绿化植物幼苗生长和生理指标的影响及耐盐性综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀君; 殷云龙; 芦治国; 莫海波; 华建峰; 徐建华

    2011-01-01

    采用分次浇灌的方法,对2、4、6、8和10 mg·g-1 NaCl胁迫条件下光叶决明(Cassiafloribunda Cav.)、紫穗槐(Amorpha fruticosa L.)、海滨木槿(Hibiscus hamabo Sieb.et Zucc.)、决明[Senna tora(L.)Roxb.]和田菁[Sesbania cannabina(Retz.)Poir.]幼苗的3个生长指标和6个生理指标的变化进行了测定和分析,采用相关性分析、主成分分析(PCA)与隶属函数法相结合的方法对5种植物对NaCl的耐性进行了鉴定和综合评价,并利用回归分析确定了5种植物的生长临界NaCl浓度(C50).结果表明:在2~10 mg·g-1 NaCl胁迫条件下,5种植物幼苗的株高生长量和全株干质量总体上小于对照,且总体上随着NaCl质量浓度的提高而降低.随NaCl质量浓度的提高,5种植物幼苗的相对电导率、叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量、脯氨酸含量、可溶性糖含量和SOD活性均受到不同程度的影响,说明5种植物对NaCl胁迫的响应不同.除MDA含量外,5种植物的生长和生理指标间大多存在显著或极显著的相关性.通过主成分分析和隶属函数法获得的5种植物的综合评价值D及C50均表明田菁和海滨木槿对NaCl的耐性较强,其次为紫穗槐和决明,光叶决明对NaCl的耐性最差.%The changes of three growth indexes and six physiological indexes of seedlings of Cassia floribunda Cav., Amorpha fruticosa L., Hibiscus hamabo Sieb.et Zucc., Senna tora (L.) Roxb.and Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Poir.were determined and analyzed under NaCl stress conditions with 2, 4,6, 8 and 10 mg· g-1 by franctional irrigation method.And the tolerance of five plants to NaCl was identified and comprehensively evaluated by correlation analysis method and principal component analysis method (PCA) combined with subordination function method, and the growth critical NaCl concentration (C50) of five plants was calculated by regression analysis.The results show that under 2-10 mg · gNaCl stress conditions, height increment and dry weight of

  14. Comparative Analysis of Eight Major Polyphenolic Components in Leaves of Crataegus L. by HPLC%山楂叶中主要多元酚类成分的HPLC法比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣华; 余伯阳; 邱声祥; 郑丹

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the content of eight principal polyphenolic components (Vitexin, 2″-O-Rhamnosylvitexin, Rutin, Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin, Hyperoside, 4″-O-Glucosylvitexin and 4-O-Rhamnosylrutin) in hawthorn leaves of different species, locations and growth stages. METHOD: By HPLC method, Lichrospher C18 column (250×4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm) was used; mobile phase consisted of solvent A [acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (95︰5, v/v)] and solvent B (0.5% orthophosphoric acid); elution profile was: O~12 min 12% to 17% A in B (linear gradient), 12~25 min 17% to 18% A in B (linear gradient), 25~35 min 18% to 40% A in B (linear gradient), 35~40 min 40% to 100% A in B (linear gradient), 40~45 min 100% A; flow rate was 1.00 ml/min, column temperature 30 ℃ and the injection volume 10 μl. The UV detector was set at 360 nm. RESULT: Crataegus. cuneata Sieb.& Zucc contained the highest content of polyphenolic components (3.70%~6.20%), and the second abundant was C. pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. (1.12%~2.28%), C. monogyna Jacq contained 0.98%, C. scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd. contained 0.70%~0.87%. For the same species, the contents are very different among the different locations, the highest content of polyphenolic components contained in C. cuneata Sieb.& Zucc is from Yudu county, Jiangxi Prov.; and the highest content in C. pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. is from Rizhao city, Shandong Prov. At different growth stages, the highest content of main polyphenolic compounds was found during t