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Sample records for mach-zehnder quantum sensor

  1. Quantum heat engines based on electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Sothmann, Björn

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties of heat engines based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The energy dependence of the transmission amplitudes in such setups arises from a difference in the interferometer arm lengths. Any thermoelectric response is thus of purely quantum-mechanical origin. In addition to an experimentally established three-terminal setup, we also consider a two-terminal geometry as well as a four-terminal setup consisting of two interferometers. We find that Mach-Zehnder interferometers can be used as powerful and efficient heat engines which perform well under realistic conditions.

  2. Mach-Zehnder Phasing Sensor for Elts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Montoya-Martinez, Luzma

    Segmented mirror technology has been successfully applied to 10m class telescopes (Keck HET GTC) and its application to future extremely large telescopes (20m NG-CFHT 30m CELT 50m EURO50 100m OWL) is required. Extensive use of adaptive optics in these telescopes puts stringent specifications on wavefront error allowing typically of the order of lambda/20 to segmentation errors. Several phasing metrology schemes adaptable to these giant telescopes are under development. We investigate a novel technique based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a spatial filter in one arm. Atmospheric turbulence is tolerated in this setup if the spatial filter has the size similar to that of the seeing disk. The resulting interference pattern only contains the high-frequency spatial information including information about the piston step height. We describe the theoretical analysis of this system and show simulated and experimatal results. Different error sources are analyzed in order to provide a preliminary idea of the merits of this technique compared with other phasing techniques.

  3. Quantum interference in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, A.; Borghi, M.; Mancinelli, M.; Price, H. M.; Fontana, G.; Pavesi, L.

    2016-08-01

    A re-visitation of the well known free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer is reported here. The coexistence between one-photon and two-photons interference from collinear color entangled photon pairs is investigated. Thisarises from an arbitrarily small unbalance in the arm transmittance. The tuning of such asymmetry is reflected in dramatic changes in the coincidence detection, revealing beatings between one particle and two particle interference patterns. In particular, the role of the losses and of the intrinsic phase imperfectness of the lossy beamsplitter are explored in a single-port excited Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This configuration is especially useful for quantum optics on a chip, where the guiding geometry forces photons to travel in the same spatial mode.

  4. Quantum logic processor: Implementation with electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patwardhan, Ajay

    2006-05-01

    An approach for implementation of quantum logic in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been described in this letter. All single qubit gates can be achieved by electron spin manipulation using Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Double qubit gates can also be implemented using the orbital degree of freedom of the electron. The MZI can be realized with intertwined ballistic nanowires. Spin injection and detection in the system can be done by a mesoscopic Stern-Gerlach apparatus. The system can be coupled in an array to form the quantum logic processor.

  5. A new magnetic sensor with Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac optical fiber interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang LI; Xinwan LI; Xin WANG; Jianping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new structure for magnetic sensor with Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac optical fiber interferometer. The magnetostrictive optical fiber sensor is placed in one of the two arms of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which can detect the optic phase shift by testing the length difference of the arm caused by environmental magnetic field. Because of forward and backward transmission in the arms, the Mach-Zehnder/ Sagnac optical fiber interferometer can deduce twice exactly of the phase shift proportional to the length difference as Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Theoretically, description of the Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac interferometer is given, and some main issues in the magnetic field sensor with optical fiber interferometer are demonstrated with experiments. The magnetic sensors are implemented using the proposed methods.

  6. Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Zhou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10 made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20–1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30–350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3–5 fold by fabricating an inline micro–trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N2 is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI–type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.

  7. Ultra-abrupt tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benye; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Zhou, Lanying; Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2011-01-01

    A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10) made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20-1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30-350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3-5 fold by fabricating an inline micro-trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N(2) is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI-type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.

  8. Positioning approach based on Mach-Zehnder fiber sensors and a DSP processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Zhimin; Zhang, Huaming; Wang, Peng

    2013-12-01

    A positioning system based on Mach-Zehnder optical fiber interferometer is proposed, which can sense vibration information along the circumference of the fiber sensor and hence be applied to positioning invasions as a safe-guard system in residence communities. A cross-correlation algorithm fulfilled with a DSP processor has been adopted to calculate the time difference of two channels of the Mach-Zehnder optical fiber interferometer. A signal identification algorithm is proposed to decrease the workload of the DSP when no vibration occurs. An experiment with 11.28 kilometers sensing fiber has been carried out, whose results show the Mach-Zehnder positioning system identifies the position of vibration instantaneously and has a 44 meters positioning error within the total sensing distance.

  9. On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…

  10. On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…

  11. Analysing surface plasmon resonance phase sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique using glycerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Hashim, Fazida Hanim

    2016-12-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a very accurate tool for the detection and analysis of molecular interactions. The performance of the proposed SPR phase sensor is dependent upon multiple performance parameters that include sensitivity, repeatability, drift and the induction speed of fluid into the flow cell. The SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer is tested for different glycerin-water concentrations to check its performance based on the different parameters. This paper highlights the enhancement of the performance of SPR phase technique based on MZI that is influenced by different parameters, measured using glycerin solutions. These four performance parameters can affect the performance of SPR based on MZI and have a particular impact on the sensor output. It also provides us information about suitable working conditions for the SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor. The experiment data shows that the sensor's sensitivity is high for small concentrations of glycerin-water mixtures. Also, any change in drift as well as in induction speed of fluid can affect the performance of SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The sensitivity of SPR phase sensor is high as it can measure glycerin concentration as low as 0.05%.

  12. Refractometric sensor based on all-fiber coaxial Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for ethanol detection in fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, L; Osorio, Jonas H; Hayashi, Juliano G; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B, E-mail: lmosquera@uni.edu.pe [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, Campinas - Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    A refractometric sensor based on mechanically induced interferometers formed with long period gratings is reported. It is also shown two different setups based on a Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application to measure ethanol concentration in gasoline.

  13. Integrated optical displacement sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Qian, Guang; Fu, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Li-Jiang; Hu, Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Zhang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Displacement sensor is one of the most important measuring instruments in many automated systems. We demonstrated an integrated optical displacement sensor based on an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer chip on a flexible substrate. The sensing chip was made of polymer materials and fabricated by lithography and lift-off techniques. Measured results show that the device has a loss of less than 5 dB and a potential sensitivity of about 0.105 rad/μm with quite a large space for promotion. The sensor has advantages of antielectromagnetic interference, high reliability and stability, simple preparing process, and low cost; it will occupy an important place in displacement sensors.

  14. Migrating the Mach-Zehnder chemical and bio-sensor to the mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, L.; Ewald, M.; Sieger, M.; Mizaikoff, B.; Gauglitz, G.

    2013-05-01

    The properties of integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (IO-MZI) are used to set up a new generation of chemical and biochemical sensors working in the mid-infrared. First applications of the MZI principle were introduced in the beginning 1990s. They range from a gas sensor to monitor organic solvent concentrations1 to setting up an immunoassay for the detection of the herbicide simazine2. Most if not all sensors of MZI type operate at wavelengths of the visible or near infrared spectrum. There are several reasons to change this strategy and move into the mid-infrared spectral range (MIR): higher manufacturing tolerances, increased evanescent field penetration depth, signal amplification by surface enhanced infrared absorption effect (SEIRA), species identification by MIR fingerprints. The basis of the planned MIR-MZI is a GaAs waveguide pattern epitaxially grown on a substrate3. As a first step towards nanostructuring the waveguide surface, chemical deposition of Au nanoparticles on GaAs transducers was established. For the use of MIR-MZI sensors in bioanalytical assay development, chemical immobilization of molecular recognition elements on GaAs transducers was carried out. The modified surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), dark field microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometric data as well as by a modified version of Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS)4. It was possible to monitor both the immobilization of gold nanoparticles and time-resolved specific binding using a model antibody antigen assay. After successful setup of relevant assays with RIfS, e.g. the detection of bacteria or endocrine disruptors, the assays are designed to be transferred onto the mid-infrared Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  15. Manipulation of quantum states in a memory cell: controllable Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, A. S.; Golubeva, T. Yu; Golubev, Yu M.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we consider the possibility of manipulation of quantum signals, ensured by the use of the tripod-type atomic memory cell. We show that depending on a configuration of driving fields at the writing and reading, such a cell allows the signal to both be stored and transformed. It is possible to provide the operation of the memory cell in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer mode passing two successive pulses at the input. We proposed a procedure of partial signal readout that provides entanglement between the retrieved light and the atomic ensemble. Thus, we have shown that a tripod atomic cell is a promising candidate to implement quantum logical operations, including two-qubit ones, which can be performed on the basis of only one cell.

  16. Pass-through Mach-Zehnder topologies for macroscopic quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Khalili, F Ya

    2011-01-01

    Several relatively small-scale experimental setups aimed on prototyping of future laser gravitational-wave detectors and testing of new methods of quantum measurements with macroscopic mechanical objects, are under development now. In these devices, not devoted directly to the gravitational-wave detection, Mach-Zehnder interferometer with pass-through Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms can be used instead of the standard Michelson/Fabry-Perot one. The advantage of this topology is that it does not contain high-reflectivity end mirrors with multilayer coatings, which Brownian noise could constitute the major part of the noise budget of the Michelson/Fabry-Perot interferometers. We consider here two variants of this topology: the "ordinary" position meter scheme, and a new variant of the quantum speed meter.

  17. A distributed fiber vibration sensor utilizing dispersion induced walk-off effect in a unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingming; Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Lu, Chao; Yang, Liang; Li, Guifang

    2014-02-10

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel ultra-long range and sensitive distributed fiber vibration sensor. Only one unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is employed in this scheme as the sensing element. In this sensor structure, we utilize chromatic dispersion-induced walk-off effect between the vibration signals sensed by two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers at different wavelengths to locate the vibration position. Vibration signals with frequencies up to 9 MHz can be detected and the spatial resolution of 31 m is achieved over 320 km of the standard single mode fiber. Monitoring multiple vibration sources can also be realized using this scheme.

  18. Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailiang; Wu, Zhifang; Shum, Perry Ping; Dinh, Xuan Quyen; Low, Chun Wah; Xu, Zhilin; Wang, Ruoxu; Shao, Xuguang; Fu, Songnian; Tong, Weijun; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-18

    Optical fiber sensors for strain measurement have been playing important roles in structural health monitoring for buildings, tunnels, pipelines, aircrafts, and so on. A highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structures (HSs) assisted Mach-Zehnder interference in an all-solid heterogeneous multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the HSs, a maximum strain sensitivity as high as -61.8 pm/με was experimentally achieved. This is the highest sensitivity among interferometer-based strain sensors reported so far, to the best of our knowledge. Moreover, the proposed sensor has the ability to discriminate axial strain and temperature, and offers several advantages such as repeatability of fabrication, robust structure and compact size, which further benefits its practical sensing applications.

  19. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  20. Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  1. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Novel Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors and Its Cost-Effective Alternative Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sumei; Jiang Lan; Li Benye; Zhao Longjiang; Yang Jinpeng; Wang Mengmeng; Xiao Hai; Lu Yongfeng; Hai-Lung Tasi

    2011-01-01

    The recent progresses of fiber sensor fabrication in our group are reviewed. Novel inline fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensors with various structures are proposed and manufactured by femtosecond laser fabrication and fusion splicing for high-quality sensing of refractivity-sensitive parameters such as temperature, concentration, humidity, pressure, stress and strain., a) for an MZI sensor with a trench on a single-mode fiber, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of acetone vapor is about 10 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the temperature sensitivity is 51.5 pm/℃ from 200 to 875℃ ; b) For an MZI consisting of two micro-air-cavities, the sensitivity is501.5 nm/RIU and the detection limit is 1. 994 × 10 RIU at the refractive index of 1.4; c) to reduce the fabrication cost, a new fusion-splicing based method is proposed to fabricate MZI sensors; the sensitivity is 664.57 nm/RIU witha detection limit of 1.5 x 10 RIU and its cost is tens of times cheaper than those of commercialized long period fiber Gratings; Also, 5×10 acetone vapors are successfully detected by the MZI sensors coated with zeolite thin films.

  2. Sensitivity distribution of a vibration sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer designed inside the window system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboril, Ondrej; Nedoma, Jan; Cubik, Jakub; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Interferometric sensors are very accurate and sensitive sensors that due to the extreme sensitivity allow sensing vibration and acoustic signals. This paper describes a new method of implementation of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensing of vibrations caused by touching on the window panes. Window panes are part of plastic windows, in which the reference arm of the interferometer is mounted and isolated inside the frame, a measuring arm of the interferometer is fixed to the window pane and it is mounted under the cover of the window frame. It prevents visibility of the optical fiber and this arrangement is the basis for the safety system. For the construction of the vibration sensor standard elements of communication networks are used - optical fiber according to G.652D and 1x2 splitters with dividing ratio 1:1. Interferometer operated at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The paper analyses the sensitivity of the window in a 12x12 measuring points matrix, there is specified sensitivity distribution of the window pane.

  3. Development of an ELT XAO testbed using a Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor: calibration of the deformable mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Delacroix, Christian; Loupias, Magali; Thiébaut, Eric; Adjali, Louisa; Leger, Jonathan; Tallon, Michel

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Extreme adaptive optics (XAO) encounters severe difficulties to cope with the high speed (>1kHz), high accuracy and high order requirements for future extremely large telescopes. An innovative high order adaptive optics system using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor (MZWFS) allows counteracting these limitations. This sensor estimates very accurately the wavefront phase at small spatial scale by measuring intensity differences between two outputs, with a $\\lambda /4$ path length difference between its two legs, but is limited in dynamic range due to phase ambiguity. During the past few years, such an XAO system has been studied by our team in the framework of 8-meter class telescopes. In this work, we report on our latest results with the XAO testbed recently installed in our lab, and dedicated to high contrast imaging with 30m-class telescopes (such as the E-ELT or the TMT). After reminding the principle of a MZWFS and describing the optical layout of our experiment, we will show the...

  4. Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers as high performance refractive index sensors: theory and monolithic implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiakos, K; Raptis, I; Salapatas, A; Makarona, E; Botsialas, A; Hoekman, M; Stoffer, R; Jobst, G

    2014-04-21

    Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometry is analytically described and experimentally demonstrated as an analytical tool capable of high accuracy refractive index measurements over a wide spectral range. Suitable photonic engineering of the interferometer sensing and reference waveguides result in sinusoidal TE and TM spectra with substantially different eigen-frequencies. This allows for the instantaneous deconvolution of multiplexed polarizations and enables large spectral shifts and noise reduction through filtering in the Fourier Transform domain. Due to enhanced sensitivity, optical systems can be designed that employ portable spectrum analyzers with nm range resolution without compromising the sensor analytical capability. Practical detection limits in the 10(-6)-10(-7) RIU range are achievable, including temperature effects. Finally, a proof of concept device is realized on a silicon microphotonic chip that monolithically integrates broad-band light sources and single mode silicon nitride waveguides. Refractive index detection limits rivaling that of ring resonators with externally coupled laser sources are demonstrated. Sensitivities of 20 μm/RIU and spectral shifts in the tens of a pm are obtained.

  5. A chitosan-coated humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged fusion bitapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu; Chen, Lihan; Dong, Xinyong; Huang, Ran; Ma, Qifei

    2017-01-01

    A novel humidity sensor, which adopts a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in normal single mode fiber (SMF) modified by the deposition of chitosan (a moisture-sensitive natural polymer) on the cladding, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It is fabricated by the fusion splicing of a segment between the two SMF with waist-enlarged fusion bitapers. This all-fiber MZI based on SMF incorporates intermodal interference between the core mode and the cladding mode. Due to the fact that it is sensitive to external refractive index and that the RI of the chitosan multi-layer film coat depends on the environmental humidity, the SMF-MZI with a chitosan coating layer of nanometer thickness is employed in humidity measuring. The sensitivity of ∼119.6 pm/RH (relative humidity unit) is achieved within the range from 10% to 90% on the experimental level. Moreover, the chitosan coat has good biocompatibility for in vivo biomedical applications like immunosensing and DNA hybridization detection in the near future.

  6. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-08-28

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10(-6) RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things.

  7. A novel and small curvature sensor based on butterfly-shape Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-qing; Zhao, Yong; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A novel hollow-core fiber (HCF) curvature sensor based on a tapered HCF sandwiched between two single mode fibers (Butterfly-Shape Structure) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The collapsed region around the first fusion interface excites the high-order modes, and the butterfly shape couples the high-order modes back into the core and interferes with the fundamental mode in the second fusion interface. Simulation of the butterfly-shape structure is carried out using the beam propagation method to determine an optimized size of sensing element. The experimental results show that the variation of the interference spectrum light intensity is almost linearly proportional to the change of curvature, and the curvature sensitivity and resolution of the proposed sensor can be up to -10.9041dB / m-1 and 0.000917m-1 respectively in the range from 0.387 to 1.285 m-1. The proposed curvature sensor is compact size, high sensitive, and inexpensive.

  8. A carboxy-methyl cellulose coated humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged bi-tapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qifei; Ni, Kai; Huang, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) humidity sensor is proposed, comprising a pair of waist-enlarged bi-tapers and carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) coating. The MZI utilizes intermodal interference between the core mode and cladding modes for the measurement of the effective refractive index (RI) of the CMC film that varies with surrounding humidity, through change in the sensor's interference pattern. The proposed sensor is linearly responsive to relative humidity (RH) within the humidity range from 70% RH to 85% RH, with maximum sensitivity of -0.8578 dB/% RH. The advantages of this sensor are its compact size and a facile fabrication process. More importantly, humidity sensitivity can be improved by changing the thickness of the CMC film, which makes this structure a highly promising for real-time, practical RH monitoring application.

  9. Slow light Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yundong Zhang; Jinfang Wang; Xuenan Zhang; Hao Wu; Yuanxue Cai; Jing Zhang; Ping Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A slow light structure Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer is theoretically demonstrated.The sensitivity of the interferometer is significantly enhanced by the dispersion of the slow light structure.The numerical results show that the sensitivity enhancement factor varies with the coupling coefficient and reaches its maximum under critical coupling conditions.Interferometers have been investigated in relation to their applications in fields such as metrology[1],optical sensing[2],optical communication[3,4],quantum information processing[5],and biomedical engineering[6].A number of schemes have been proposed to improve the performance of interferometers[7],such as using photonic crystal structures to minimize the size of on-chip devices[8],utilizing the dispersive property of semiconductor to enhance the spectral sensitivity of interferometers[9,10],utilizing slow light medium to enhance the resolution of Fourier transform interferometer[11],exploiting fast light medium or slow light structure to increase the rotation sensitivity of a Sagnac interferometer[12,13],enhancing the transmittance of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in the slow light region by gratings[14],and using liquid crystal light valve to derive high sensitivity interferometers[15].%A slow light structure Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer is theoretically demonstrated. The sensitivity of the interferometer is significantly enhanced by the dispersion of the slow light structure. The numerical results show that the sensitivity enhancement factor varies with the coupling coefficient and reaches its maximum under critical coupling conditions.

  10. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  11. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Kyung Pan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM. Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications.

  12. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  13. Refractometric sensor based on all-fiber coaxial Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for ethanol detection in fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, L.; Osório, Jonas H.; Hayashi, Juliano G.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.

    2011-01-01

    A refractometric sensor based on mechanically induced interferometers formed with long period gratings is reported. It is also shown two different setups based on a Michelson and Mach-Zender interferometer and its application to measure ethanol concentration in gasoline.

  14. Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, T; van Frank, S; Bücker, R; Schumm, T; Schaff, J-F; Schmiedmayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Particle-wave duality enables the construction of interferometers for matter waves, which complement optical interferometers in precision measurement devices. This requires the development of atom-optics analogues to beam splitters, phase shifters and recombiners. Integrating these elements into a single device has been a long-standing goal. Here we demonstrate a full Mach-Zehnder sequence with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates confined on an atom chip. Particle interactions in our Bose-Einstein condensate matter waves lead to a nonlinearity, absent in photon optics. We exploit it to generate a non-classical state having reduced number fluctuations inside the interferometer. Making use of spatially separated wave packets, a controlled phase shift is applied and read out by a non-adiabatic matter-wave recombiner. We demonstrate coherence times a factor of three beyond what is expected for coherent states, highlighting the potential of entanglement as a resource for metrology. Our results pave the way for integrated quantum-enhanced matter-wave sensors.

  15. Temperature sensitivity of waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project that aims to develop a sensor for the detection of methane in the air and in water based on a waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The main application of this sensor is monitoring the environment and the ability to detect a leakage of methane. The development of a sensor includes analysis of operational conditions. In this project one of the greatest concerns is temperature. The temperature difference can reach several tens of degrees in the air, and severa...

  16. Event-based simulation of single-photon beam splitters and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; De Raedt, K; Michielsen, K

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit a behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event

  17. The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Brugman, A.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.; Dominguez, C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the realization of a symmetric integrated channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder sensor which uses the evanescent field to detect small refractive-index changes (¿nmin ¿ 1 × 10¿4) near the guiding-layer surface. This guiding layer consists of ridge structures with a height of 3 nm and a width of

  18. Mach-Zehnder Fiber-Optic Links for ICF Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E. K., Hermann, H. W.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the operation and evolution of Mach-Zehnder links for single-point detectors in inertial confinement fusion experimental facilities, based on the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility.

  19. Label-free detection in a lab-on-a-chip with a three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, A.; Gu, Y.; Ngamson, B.; Dongre, C.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Vlekkert, van den H.H.; Watts, P.; Pollnau, M.; Cerullo, G.; Osellame, R.

    2010-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor is inscribed in a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip by exploiting the unique three-dimensional capabilities of femtosecond laser fabrication. This enables high sensitivity and spatially resolved label-free detection of biomolecules.

  20. Electro-optic metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roney; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a CMOS-compatible electro-optic Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator is investigated using electromagnetic and carrier transport simulations. Each arm of the Mach-Zehnder device comprises a metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) structure on a buried oxide substrate. Quantum mechanical effects at the oxide/semiconductor interfaces were considered in the calculation of electron density profiles across the structure, in order to determine the refractive index distribution and its dependence on applied bias. This information was used in finite element simulations of the electromagnetic modes within the MISIM structure in order to determine the Mach-Zehnder arm lengths required to achieve destructive interference and the corresponding propagation loss incurred by the device. Both inversion and accumulation mode devices were investigated, and the layer thicknesses and height were adjusted to optimise the device performance. A device loss of <8 dB is predicted for a MISIM structure with a 25 nm thick silicon layer, for which the device length is <3 μm, and <5 dB loss is predicted for the limiting case of a 5 nm thick silicon layer in a 1.2 μm long device: in both cases, the maximum operating voltage is 7.5 V.

  1. Developing an Interactive Tutorial on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Single Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations and explore differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about quantum phenomena and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We also discuss findings from a preliminary in-class evaluation.

  2. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mičuda, Michal, E-mail: micuda@optics.upol.cz; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav, E-mail: jezek@optics.upol.cz [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  3. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E. K.; Abbott, R. Q.; McKenna, I.; Macrum, G.; Baker, D.; Tran, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbits, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Waltman, T. B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Santa Barbara and Livermore, California 93111 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); and National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Caldwell, S. E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  4. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E K; Abbott, R Q; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  5. Mach-Zehnder Recording Systems for Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E K; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as Z-R at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at OMEGA and NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  6. Mach-Zehnder interferometer for movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Doricak, Jan; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Fiber optical interferometers belong to highly sensitive equipments that are able to measure slight changes like distortion of shape, temperature and electric field variation and etc. Their great advantage is that they are insensitive on ageing component, from which they are composed of. It is in virtue of herewith, that there are evaluated no changes in optical signal intensity but number interference fringes. To monitor the movement of persons, eventually to analyze the changes in state of motion we developed method based on analysis the dynamic changes in interferometric pattern. We have used Mach- Zehnder interferometer with conventional SM fibers excited with the DFB laser at wavelength of 1550 nm. It was terminated with optical receiver containing InGaAs PIN photodiode. Its output was brought into measuring card module that performs on FFT of the received interferometer signal. The signal rises with the composition of two waves passing through single interferometer arm. The optical fiber SMF 28e in one arm is referential; the second one is positioned on measuring slab at dimensions of 1x2m. A movement of persons around the slab was monitored, signal processed with FFT and frequency spectra were evaluated. They rose owing to dynamic changes of interferometric pattern. The results reflect that the individual subjects passing through slab embody characteristic frequency spectra, which are individual for particular persons. The scope of measuring frequencies proceeded from zero to 10 kHz. It was also displayed in experiments that the experimental subjects, who walked around the slab and at the same time they have had changed their state of motion (knee joint fixation), embodied characteristic changes in their frequency spectra. At experiments the stability of interferometric patterns was evaluated as from time aspects, so from the view of repeated identical experiments. Two kinds of balls (tennis and ping-pong) were used to plot the repeatability measurements and

  7. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  8. Theoretical and experimental study on white light interferometric fiber optic sensors network configuring by tandem of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers%级联式光纤白光干涉传感网络拓扑结构理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海丽; 苑勇贵; 杨军; 苑立波

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the multiplexing ability of optical sensors, based on the low interferential optic fiber sensing technology, a novel combination interferometer of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson system has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a Michelson interferometer and a series of tandem Mach-Zehnder interferometers which are linked with one arm of the Michelson intefferometer, forming a multi-fiber optic sensors measuring network. It can be used to measure the distribution strain or temperature, especially suitable for monitoring large scale structural deformation due to its sensing gauge length could be chosen as long as tens of meters. It also could be used in the temperature compensation mode, in which one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer measures strain caused by the variation of deformation and temperature, the other arm only measures the ambient temperature for eliminating the apparent strain caused by temperature.%为了提高传感器的多路复用能力,基于低相干光纤传感技术,提出一种新型干涉仪组合拓扑结构.该结构由Michelson干涉仪的一个臂与若干个Mach-Zehnder干涉仪混合级联而成,构成了可以同时实现多传感器测量的传感网络.构建了实验系统,对传感特性进行了分析.实验结果表明:该拓扑结构可以实现一个解调干涉仪对网络系统中多个传感器的问询,可以实现应变和温度的测量.该系统中传感器的长度可自由选取,能用于大尺度结构形变的检测;也叮以配对使用,并自动补偿应变测量过程中环境温度变化带来的影响.

  9. Optical Coupling Structures of Fiber-Optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Using CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI can be used to test changes in the refractive index of sucrose solutions at different concentrations. However, the popularity of this measurement tool is limited by its substantial size and portability. Therefore, the MZI was integrated with a small fiber-optic waveguide component to develop an interferometer with fiber-optic characteristics, specifically a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FO-MZI. Optical fiber must be processed to fabricate two optical coupling structures. The two optical coupling structures are a duplicate of the beam splitter, an optical component of the interferometer. Therefore, when the sensor length and the two optical coupling structures vary, the time or path for optical transmission in the sensor changes, thereby influencing the back-end interference signals. The researchers successfully developed an asymmetrical FO-MZI with sensing abilities. The spacing value between the troughs of the sensor length and interference signal exhibited an inverse relationship. In addition, image analysis was employed to examine the size-matching relationship between various sensor lengths and the coupling and decoupling structure. Furthermore, the spectral wavelength shift results measured using a refractive index sensor indicate that FO-MZIs with a sensor length of 38 mm exhibited excellent sensitivity, measuring 59.7 nm/RIU.

  10. Vibration sensing using a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Qin, Zengguang; Harris, Jeremie; Baset, Farhana; Lu, Ping; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-02-11

    In this study, a novel fiber-optic sensor consisting of a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to realize damped and continuous vibration measurement. The double cladding structure and the central coating region of the in-fiber interferometer ensure an enhanced mechanical strength, reduced external disturbance, and a more uniform spectrum. A damped vibration frequency range of 29-60 Hz as well as continuous vibration disturbances ranging from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz are successfully demonstrated.

  11. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  12. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Marshman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  13. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Du, Shusong

    2015-11-01

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a new kind of Fourier-transform spectroscopic technique capable of very high spectral resolution. In this paper, a spatial heterodyne spectrometer based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZ-SHS) is proposed. It is modified by replacing one mirror in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a diffraction grating. This technique retains many of the advantages of traditional SHS. Moreover, the spatial frequency of the interferogram is strictly linear with wavenumber. We describe the concept of the new MZ-SHS and elaborate the exact expression of the interferogram. Also, a design example and two kinds of imitated interferograms are presented in this paper. One is simulated in MATLAB and the other is generated in ZEMAX using ray tracing method. The retrieved spectra from these two interferograms show a good agreement with the theoretical results.

  14. Temperature characterization of integrated optical all-polymer Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Langenecker, Alexa; Shermann, Stanislav; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Two new design concepts for all-polymer-based integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers in foil as chemical or bio-chemical sensors are presented. Fabricated with hot-embossing and printing techniques, these all polymer optical components are designed for low-cost fabrication and yield highly sensitive response to external refractive index changes. Compared to traditional semiconductor based systems, these polymer sensors do not need the interaction window and do not require a cleanroom for fabrication. The optical response of the asymmetric interferometers to temperature variations is determined theoretically and compared for two designs. Using the designed asymmetric interferometer, a chemical micro-fluidic test system with temperature controller experimentally demonstrates the sensors' temperature characteristics.

  15. Photonic crystal fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Feng, Wenlin

    2016-02-08

    We report a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer used as a gas sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). The interferometric sensor head is formed by embedding a segment of large-mode-area/grapefruit PCF between standard single-mode fibers via butt coupling, which produces two small air gaps in between terminated fiber ends with ceramic ferrule connectors as coupling regions, which also serve as inlet/outlet for the gas. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The selectivity to TNT vapor is achieved by immobilizing a molecular recognition ployallylamine layer on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF. The TNT-induced variations of the interference fringes are measured and the sensing capability of the proposed sensor is demonstrated experimentally.

  16. 60dB high-extinction auto-configured Mach--Zehnder interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkes, Callum M; Wang, Jianwei; Santagati, Raffaele; Paesani, Stefano; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Miller, David A B; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2016-01-01

    Imperfections in integrated photonics manufacturing have a detrimental effect on the maximal achievable visibility in interferometric architectures. These limits have profound implications for further photonics technological developments and in particular for quantum photonics technologies. Active optimisation approaches, together with reconfigurable photonics, have been proposed as a solution to overcome this. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-high (>60 dB) extinction ratio in a silicon photonic device consisting of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which additional interferometers function as variable beamsplitters. The imperfections of fabricated beamsplitters are compensated using an automated progressive optimization algorithm with no requirement for pre-calibration. This work shows the possibility of integrating and accurately controlling linear-optical components for large-scale quantum information processing and other applications.

  17. 60 dB high-extinction auto-configured Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, C. M.; Qiang, X.; Wang, J.; Santagati, R.; Paesani, S.; Zhou, X.; Miller, D. A. B.; Marshall, G. D.; Thompson, M. G.; O'Brien, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Imperfections in integrated photonics manufacturing have a detrimental effect on the maximal achievable visibility in interferometric architectures. These limits have profound implications for further photonics technological developments and in particular for quantum photonics technologies. Active optimisation approaches, together with reconfigurable photonics, have been proposed as a solution to overcome this. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-high (>60 dB) extinction ratio in a silicon photonic device consisting of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which additional interferometers function as variable beamsplitters. The imperfections of fabricated beamsplitters are compensated using an automated progressive optimization algorithm with no requirement for pre-calibration. This work shows the possibility of integrating and accurately controlling linear-optical components for large-scale quantum information processing and other applications.

  18. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Kale, S. N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Girinagar, Pune 411 025, Maharashtra (India); Choubey, Ravi Kant [Department of Applied Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201 313 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  19. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Kale, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  20. Optical waveguide biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator with Vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been extensively investigated owing to its various advantages and many potential applications. In this article, we demonstrate a novel highly sensitive biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and ring resonator with the Vernier effect using wavelength interrogation. The experimental results show that the sensitivity reached 1,960 nm/RIU and 19,100 nm/RIU for sensors based on MZI alone and cascaded MZI-ring with Vernier effect, respectively. A biosensing application was also demonstrated by monitoring the interaction between goat and antigoat immunoglobulin G (IgG) pairs. This integrated high sensitivity biosensor has great potential for medical diagnostic applications.

  1. Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.

  2. Structure optimization of polymeric Mach-Zehnder rib waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-guo; LiU Yong-zhi; LIAO Jin-kun; LIAO Yi-tao; HAN Wen-jie

    2007-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the polymeric Mach-Zehnder rib waveguide is presented based on the calculation and optimization. The simulation is carried out with the Effective Index Method (EIM) and two-dimensional (2-D)Finite Difference Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM). The large refractive index step between the consecutive polymer layers is reduced by using EIM and thus the precision of the calculation is ensured. The important parameters of the waveguide such as Y-junction angle and the separation gap are discussed and their relationships with the optical power propagation and the loss characteristics are investigated in this paper. The total loss of the optimized structure is 0.258 dB.

  3. Vibration induced phase noise in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J; Miffre, Alain; Jacquey, Marion; B\\"{u}chner, Matthias; Vigu\\'{e}, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The high inertial sensitivity of atom interferometers has been used to build accelerometers and gyrometers but this sensitivity makes these interferometers very sensitive to the laboratory seismic noise. This seismic noise induces a phase noise which is large enough to reduce the fringe visibility in many cases. We develop here a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are thus able to explain the observed dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. The dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to further reduce this phase noise in atom interferometers and this reduction should open the way to improved interferometers.

  4. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Coupled Dielectric Pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ding-Shan; HAO Ran; ZHOU Zhi-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on coupled dielectric pillars. It is composed of single-row pillar coupled waveguide modulating arms and three-row pillar waveguide 3 dB couplers. The slow light property and transmission loss of the single-row pillar modulating arm are optimized by the plane wave expansion method. A short 3dB coupler is designed based on the modes transformation in three-row pillar waveguide. Finite difference time domain simulations prove the validity of this MZI and show that it has low insertion loss of<1.1 dB and high extinction ratio of>12 dB.

  5. Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2001-01-01

    Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a reversely biased semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and successfully demonstrated in a commercial device. The converted signals exhibit extinction ratio >13 dB and penalty......Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a reversely biased semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and successfully demonstrated in a commercial device. The converted signals exhibit extinction ratio >13 dB and penalty...

  6. Biosensors based on Si3N4 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Pasquardini, Laura; Falke, Floris; Zanetti, Manuela; Guider, Romain; Gandolfi, Davide; Schreuder, Eric; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Heideman, René G.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a study on photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (aMZI) for Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) detection. AFM1 is an hepatotoxic and a carcinogenic toxin present in milk. The biosensor is based on an array of four Si3N4 aMZI that are optimized for 850nm wavelength. We measure the bulk Sensitivity (S) and the Limit of Detection (LOD) of our devices. In the array, three devices are exposed and have very similar sensitivities. The fourth aMZI, which is covered by SiO2, is used as an internal reference for laser (a VCSEL) and temperature fluctuations. We measured a phase sensitivity of 14300+/-400 rad/RIU. To characterize the LOD of the sensors, we measure the uncertainty of the experimental readout system. From the measurements on three aMZI, we observe the same value of LOD, which is ≍ 4.5×10-7 RIU. After the sensor characterization on homogeneous sensing, we test the surface sensing performances by flowing specific Aflatoxin M1 and non-specific Ochratoxin in 50 mM MES pH 6.6 buffer on the top of the sensors functionalized with Antigen-Recognising Fragments (Fab'). The difference between specific and non-specific signals shows the specificity of our sensors. A moderate regeneration of the sensors is obtained by using glycine solution.

  7. On-chip integrated mid-infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Balluff, Franz; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kim, Seong-Soo; Leidner, Lothar; Gauglitz, Guenter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-19

    We report the design, fabrication, and first functional verification of mid-infrared (MIR; 3-12 μm) Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The developed MIR-MZIs are entirely chip-integrated solid-state devices based on GaAs/AlGaAs technology waveguide fabricated via conventional optical lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). Thus, fabricated MIR-MZIs were combined with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (tQCL) providing a wavelength coverage of 5.78-6.35 μm. MIR-MZIs have been designed with a waveguide width of 5 μm to ensure single mode behavior, avoiding optically undefined interference patterns. Several structures with different opening angles of the Y-junction were fabricated and tested for maximizing IR radiation throughput. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the very first chip-integrated mid-infrared Mach-Zehnder structures via interference patterns produced by minute amounts of water deposited at different positions of the MIR-MZI structure.

  8. Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2012-01-01

    We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

  9. Microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on long period grating for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanzhen; Sun, Li-Peng; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2013-01-14

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) composed by a pair of long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in silica microfiber for sensing applications is demonstrated. Each LPG is fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser by creating six periodical deformations along fiber length with only one scanning cycle. The length of the MZI can reach as short as 8.84 mm when the diameter of the microfiber is 9.5 μm. Compared with the ones fabricated in single-mode fibers, the present MZI is much shorter owing to the large effective-index difference between the fundamental and higher order modes. The microfiber MZI exhibits a sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (RI) of 2225 nm per refractive index unit and the temperature sensitivity of only 11.7 pm/°C. Theoretical analysis suggests that the performances of the MZI sensor can be improved by using thinner microfibers with a diameter down to 3.5 μm: The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced due to the stronger evanescent-field interaction and reduced dispersion factor; the transmission dips become narrower which benefits high-resolution measurement; the thinner fiber also allows further reduction in device length. The present device has great potential in biochemical and medical sensing due to the advantages including easy fabrication, excellent compactness and high sensitivity.

  10. Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer for people monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Vitasek, Jan; Skapa, Jan

    2010-10-01

    Fiber optical interferometers belong to highly sensitive equipments that are able to measure slight changes like distortion of shape, temperature and electric field variation and etc. Their great advantage is that they are insensitive on ageing component, from which they are composed of. It is in virtue of herewith, that there are evaluated no changes in optical signal intensity but number interference fringes. To monitor the movement of persons, eventually to analyze the changes in state of motion we developed method based on analysis the dynamic changes in interferometric pattern. We have used Mach- Zehnder interferometer with conventional SM fibers excited with the DFB laser at wavelength of 1550 nm. It was terminated with optical receiver containing InGaAs PIN photodiode. Its output was brought into measuring card module that performs on FFT of the received interferometer signal. The signal rises with the composition of two waves passing through single interferometer arm. The optical fiber SMF 28e in one arm is referential; the second one is positioned on measuring slab at dimensions of 1x2m. A movement of persons over the slab was monitored, signal processed with FFT and frequency spectra were evaluated. They rose owing to dynamic changes of interferometric pattern. The results reflect that the individual subjects passing through slab embody characteristic frequency spectra, which are individual for particular persons. The scope of measuring frequencies proceeded from zero to 10 KHz. It was also displayed in experiments that the experimental subjects, who walked around the slab and at the same time they have had changed their state of motion (knee joint fixation), embodied characteristic changes in their frequency spectra. At experiments the stability of interferometric patterns was evaluated as from time aspects, so from the view of repeated identical experiments. Two kinds of balls (tennis and ping-pong) were used to plot the repeatability measurements and

  11. Mach-Zehnder Modulator Performance on the NIF South Pole Bang Time Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Chow, R.; Carpenter, A.; Bond, E.; Zayas-Rivera, Z.; Bell, P.; Celeste, J.; Clancy, T.; Miller, E. K.; Edgell, D.; Donaldson, W. R.

    2013-09-01

    We present performance data for Mach-Zehnder optical modulators fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a potential signal path upgrade for the South Pole Bang Time diagnostic. A single channel demonstration system has been deployed utilizing two modulators operating in a 90-degree In phase and Quadrature (I/Q) configuration. X-ray target emission signals are split and fed into two recording systems: a reference CRT based oscilloscope, Greenfield FTD10000, and the dual Mach-Zehnder system. Results of X-ray implosion time (bang time) determination from these two recording systems are compared and presented.

  12. Twist and temperature characteristics of the PD-NSN fiber structure based on in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Sun, Chunran; Xiao, Han; Dong, Changbin; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel polarization-dependent (PD) no core-single mode-no core (NSN) fiber structure for twist and temperature sensing has been experimentally investigated. The proposed structure simply involves a section of polarization maintain fiber sandwiched into NSN fiber structure, only using the splicing method. We have analyzed and demonstrated the transmission characteristics of the no core fiber (NCF) with the different lengths. Experimental results indicate that the extinction ratio of the PD-NSN fiber structure comb spectrum based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) various with twist rate. The maximum sensitivity of 0.33904 dB/(rad/m) for range from -240° to 360° is achieved. The temperature sensitivity of the proposed structure reaches 41.89 pm/°C for temperature ranging from 20 to 70 °C in the experiment. By using the peak-wavelength discrimination method, the proposed sensor can overcome the temperature and twist cross-sensitivity effects.

  13. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  14. All optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in a Mach-Zehnder configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, T.; Jørgensen, C.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1994-01-01

    Penalty free wavelength conversion is demonstrated at 2.5 Gbit/s over a wavelength span of 12 nm by the use of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)'s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. An increase in the extinction ratio is measured for the converted signal compared to the input signal implying si...... signal regeneration as well as wavelength conversion...

  15. A versatile all-optical modulator based on nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.; Villeneuve, A.; Stegeman, G.I.; Lambeck, P.V.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A device based on a Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NMI) which exploits cross-phase modulation of two co-propagating modes in bimodal branches has been described in this paper. The advantage of this device is that it becomes polarisation independent while keeping phase insensitive by using di

  16. Integrated all-polymer Mach-Zehnder interferometers without interaction window in asymmetric configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Sherman, Stanislav; Li, Pei; Zappe, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) based on semiconductors or glasses have been widely used as evanescent field sensors for the monitoring of liquid or gas concentrations. In these systems the upper cladding of the sensing arm is removed partially to form an interaction window by means of subtractive fabrication techniques like etching. The use of polymer materials implicates new options and challenges. Polymers are tunable in terms of refractive index and viscosity offering a great flexibility in design and fabrication in a certain range. They enable a cost-efficient and large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing of integrated optics on flexible foils as substrate material. The foils can be pre-patterned for example by hot-embossing. Additive steps such as printing a pattern or dispensing a homogeneous layer of liquid monomer material followed by a UV induced polymerization can be used to define the optical structure. However, when a large scale fabrication is required, the reliable production of small lateral structures and thin layers is challenging. Thus the fabrication according to the classical MZI design including an interaction window is difficult so that new design approaches are required. We present here the design and systematic evaluation of MZI sensors without interaction window based on polymer materials. The phase shift at the recombining Y-splitter of the MZI upon a refractive index change of an analyte, which serves as upper cladding of the entire system, is generated by a geometrical asymmetricity of the MZI. The waveguides in the sensing and the reference arm have different width leading to different effective refractive indices and sensitivities. We consider theoretically the expected interference signal and show results from numerical simulations of the whole system using commercial software. The simulations include the material as well as propagation losses and give an overall optimal system length.

  17. Distributed optical fiber perturbation sensing system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wengang WANG; Deming LIU; Hairong LIU; Qizhen SUN; Zhifeng SUN; Xu ZHANG; Ziheng XU

    2009-01-01

    A novel distributed optical fiber vibration-sensing system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Firstly, the principle of Mach-Zehnder optical path interferometer technique is clarified. The output of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proportional to the phase shift induced by the perturbation. Secondly, the system consists of the laser diode (LD) as the light source, fiber, Mach-Zehnder optical interferometers as the sensing units, a 1×N star fiber-optic coupler, an N×1 fiber-optic coupler, a photodiode (PD) detector, and a computer used in signal processing. The entire monitoring region of this system is divided into several small zones, and each small monitoring zone is independent from each other. All of the small monitoring zones have their own sensing unit, which is defined by Mach-Zehnder optical interferometer. A series of sensing units are connected by the star fiber-optic couplers to form a whole sensing net. Thirdly, signal-processing techniques are subsequently used to calculate the phase shift to estimate whether intruders appear. The sensing system is able to locate the vibration signal simultaneously, includ-ing multiple vibrations at different positions, by employing the time-division multiplexed (TDM) technique. Finally, the operation performance of the proposed system is tested in the experiment lab with the conditions as follows: the number of the sensing units is 3, the length of the sensing fiber is 50 m, and the wavelength of the light diode is 1550nm. Based on these investigations, the fiber surrounding alert system is achieved. We have experimen-tally demonstrated that the sensing system can measure both the frequency and position of the vibration in real time, with a spatial positional resolution better than 50 m in an area of 1 km2.

  18. High Accuracy Microwave Frequency Measurement Based on Single-Drive Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement based on bias manipulation of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 10-3 relative error verifies a significant accuracy improvement by this method.......A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement based on bias manipulation of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 10-3 relative error verifies a significant accuracy improvement by this method....

  19. Stabilized fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for carrier-frequency rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Nathan; Bateman, James; Dunning, Alexander; Freegarde, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated stabilization of a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with a centimeter-scale path difference, to the transmission minimum for the carrier wave of a frequency-modulated laser beam. A time-averaged extinction of 32 dB, limited by the bandwidth of the feedback, was maintained over several hours. The interferometer was used to remove the carrier wave from a 780 nm laser beam that had been phase modulated at 2.7 GHz.

  20. Mach-Zehnder-based five-port silicon router for optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyao; Xiao, Xi; Xu, Hao; Li, Zhiyong; Chu, Tao; Yu, Jinzhong; Yu, Yude

    2013-05-15

    We propose and fabricate a five-port silicon optical router based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches. Only 10 switching elements and five low-loss waveguide crossings are required in our design. Through thermal control of the switching network, we successfully demonstrate 20 possible I/O paths of the five-port optical router at a data transmission rate of 32 Gb/s. The results here show great potential for application in ultrahigh-capacity optical interconnects.

  1. Time-dependent simulation and analytical modelling of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometry with edge-states wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggi, Andrea; Bordone, Paolo; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We compute the exact single-particle time-resolved dynamics of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on Landau edge-states transport, and assess the effect of the spatial localization of carriers on the interference pattern. The exact carrier dynamics is obtained by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a suitable 2D potential profile reproducing the interferometer design. An external magnetic field, driving the system to the quantum Hall regime with filling factor one, is included. The injected carriers are represented by a superposition of edge states, and their interference pattern—controlled via magnetic field and/or area variation—reproduces the one of (Ji et al 2003 Nature 422 415). By tuning the system towards different regimes, we find two additional features in the transmission spectra, both related to carrier localization, namely a damping of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with increasing difference in the arms length, and an increased mean transmission that we trace to the energy-dependent transmittance of quantum point contacts. Finally, we present an analytical model, also accounting for the finite spatial dispersion of the carriers, able to reproduce the above effects.

  2. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1–20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas. PMID:28378783

  3. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1-20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas.

  4. Tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer is realized by using cascaded long-period fiber gratings. The long-period fiber gratings can couple the guided core mode to several cladding modes. If two identical long-period fiber gratings are concatenated, an interference pattern can be generated, which results from an interaction of the core and the cladding modes in the second long-period fiber grating. Therefore, a simple multichannel filter based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer can be realized. The wavelength spacing of the proposed multichannel filter is controlled by the number of long-period fiber gratings. We apply the proposed multichannel fiber to the generation of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a tunability on the order of the wavelength spacing. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier is implemented as a gain medium. The gain competition of erbium ions is suppressed by soaking the erbium-doped fiber in liquid nitrogen. The power fluctuation of the proposed multiwavelength fiber laser is measured to be less than 0.5 dB. A high-quality multiwavelength output with a high extinction ratio of more than 40 dB is achieved. The wavelength spacing of the proposed multiwavelength fiber laser is controlled by increasing the number of long-period fiber gratings. The wavelength spacing is changed from 0.8 nm to 1.6 nm discretely.

  5. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to deduce nitrogen density mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, F.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an optical method using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We especially diagnose a pure nitrogen gas subjected to a point to plane corona discharge, and visualize the density spatial map. The interelectrode distance equals 6 mm and the variation of the optical path has been measured at different pressures: 220 Torr, 400 Torr, and 760 Torr. The interferograms are recorded with a CCD camera, and the numerical analysis of these interferograms is assured by the inverse Abel transformation. The nitrogen density is extracted through the Gladstone-Dale relation. The obtained results are in close agreement with values available in the literature.

  6. A Novel Method to Monitor OSNR Using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to monitor optical signal to noise ratio using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is introduced. The OSNR meter is composed of two 3dB couplers, one phase tuner and one power meter which are of low cost. The experiments show that the error of our novel method is less than 0.5dB and the dynamic range is from 10dB to 25dB. They also show that the method works well under different cases of bit rates.

  7. Lateral-shearing, delay-dithering Mach-Zehnder interferometer for spatial coherence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly

    2013-11-15

    An image-shearing interferometer of Mach-Zehnder type with corner cubes is introduced for the purpose of measuring spatial coherence at the output of inhomogeneous optical sources, such as multimode fibers (MMFs). One arm of the interferometer is modulated in optical delay to produce dynamic interference fringes. Fringe visibility and the two individual intensities are measured nearly simultaneously to allow direct calculation of the modulus of the complex degree of coherence as a function of the lateral shear between the two interferometer arms. Spatial degree of coherence is measured for a step-index MMF pumped with monochromatic and broadband optical sources.

  8. Linearization of Mach-Zehnder modulator using microring-based all-pass filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyi Yang; Fan Wang; Xiaoqing Jiang; Hongchang Qu; Yaming Wu; Minghua Wang; Yuelin Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ By applying the microring resonator to the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical modulator and employing the super-linear phase change characteristic of the all-pass filter, the sublinear modulation curve of the conventional MZ modulator is highly linearized. With properly controlled power coupling between the microring and the arm of the MZ modulator, the third-order distortion can be suppressed. If the transmission coefficient is set between 0.25 and 0.42, the linearity range larger than 90% can be easily achieved. The maximum linearity range is even up to 99.5%.

  9. Theoretical Analysis and Experiment of Temperature Stability for Fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer(MZI) can be used as wavelength-multiplexers and demultiplexers. The △L and △φ directly influence the properties of MZI. To lengthen the △L can demultiplex much more wavelengths, but when the △L is longer, the temperature will influence MZI more seriously. A method to solve this problem is proposed, which enables MZI to work stably. The wavelength distance is 0.8nm, and the extinction ratio is high.

  10. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  11. Investigation on characteristics of self-organization in Mach-Zehnder erbium-doped fiber laser cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengnian Liu; Bo Liu; Bangcai Huang; Guiyun Kai; Shuzhong Yuan; Xiaoyi Dong

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of coherent coupling in Mach-Zehnder erbium-doped fiber laser cavity are experimentally studied.By virtue of a seemly controlling of length difference between two interferometric arms,the obtained comb-like spectrum of interferometer resonator with a period of 0.06 nm commendably agrees with the theory of self-organization coherence The coherent output exits from the output mirror of a fiber Bragg grating with 4.5% reflectivity.A high coherent combining efficiency of 94% is obtained.Investigation on characteristics of the leak power opens out self-organization mechanism in Mach-Zehnder composite cavity.

  12. All-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boyun; Xiong, Liangbin; Zeng, Qingdong; Chen, Zhihong; Lv, Hao; Ding, Yaoming; Du, Jun; Yu, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate all-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an all-optical analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect. The free-carrier plasma dispersion effect modulation method is applied to improve the tuning rate with a response time of picoseconds. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and coupled-mode formalism. Compared with no phase-shift multiplication effect, the average pump power of all-optical switching required to yield the π-phase shift difference decreases by 55.1%, and the size of the modulation region is reduced by 50.1% when the average pump power reaches 60.8 mW. This work provides a new direction for low-power consumption and miniaturization of microstructure integration light-controlled switching devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  13. ALL OPTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED AND LOW POWER REVERSIBLE FULL ADDER USING SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER BASED MACH-ZEHNDER INTERFEROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bommi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years reversible logic design has promising applications in low power computing, optical computing, quantum computing. VLSI design mainly concentrates on low power logic circuit design. In the present scenario researchers have made implementations of reversible logic gates in optical domain for its low energy consumption and high speed. This study is all about designing a reversible Full adder using combination of all optical Toffoli and all optical TNOR and to compare it with the Full adder designed using all optical Toffoli gate in terms of optical cost. All optical TNOR gate can work as a replacement of existing NAND based All optical Toffoli Gate (TG. The gates are designed using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI based optical switch. The proposed system is developed with the basic of reversibility to design all optical full Adder implemented with CMOS transistors. The design is efficient in terms of both architecture and in power consumption.

  14. Gain Flattening Filter for Hybrid Sb-Doped EDFA Using All-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjung Han; Youngeun Im; Woojin Shin; Uh-Chan Ryu; K. Oh

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel gain-flattening filter based on all fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers for Sb-doped silica hybrid EDFA. A gain flatness of better than 0.9dB has been achieved for three concatenated filters in C-band.

  15. High extinction ratio multiplexer/demultiplexer with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a fiber loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglin Huang(黄勇林); Jie Li(李杰); Guiyun Kai(开桂云); Xiaoyi Dong(董孝义)

    2003-01-01

    A novel structure of high extinction ratio multiplexer/demultiplexer with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a fiber loop mirror (FLM) is proposed. The experimental results show that the extinction ratio can be enhanced about two times in comparison with the conventional MZI.

  16. Ultrafast optical reversible double Feynman logic gate using electro-optic effect in lithium-niobate based Mach Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-02-01

    In this ultra fast computing era power optimization is a major technological challenge that requires new computing paradigms. Conservative and reversible logic opens up the possibility of ultralow power computing. In this paper, basic reversible logic gate (double Feynman gate) using the lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The results are verified using beam propagation method and MATLAB simulations.

  17. Violation of a Bell-like inequality by a combination of Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a statistical operator that contains a negative quasi-probability can be related to the corresponding quantum mechanical experiment. It is demonstrated that the derivation and usage of the T-matrix and the Green's function is equivalent to what is known from classical scattering theory. It is shown moreover that the negative quasi-probability of the statistical operator may be interpreted as a sink of probabilities related to two single events of the considered 4-dim. event space. A necessary condition for the violation of the CHSH-inequality is derived and discussed afterwards. In the second part of this paper I discuss a modification of the 4-dim. event space considered in the first part. It is shown that a combination of conventional Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup would be able to put this modification into practice. Thus it becomes possible to achieve a maximum violation of the CHSH-inequality, if formulated in terms of intensities, on a pure classical way. The combination of classical light scattering with correlation experiments such as proposed in this paper may open new ways to study and to use the violation of Bell-like inequalities in modern optics.

  18. A Thermally Annealed Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyao Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI for high temperature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is constructed of a piece of thin-core fiber (TCF sandwiched between two short sections of multimode fiber (MMF, i.e., a MMF-TCF-MMF structure. A well-defined interference spectrum is obtained owing to the core-mismatch, and the interference dips are sensitive to the ambient temperature. The experimental results show that the proposed interferometer is capable of high temperature measurement up to 875 °C with a sensitivity of 92 pm/°C over repeated measurements. The explored wavelength drop point may limit the measurement range, which can be improved by repeated thermal annealing.

  19. High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Trevor Reed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new experimental data from a lateral PN junction silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. Efficiencies in the 1.4V.cm to 1.9V.cm range are demonstrated for drive voltages between 0V and 6V. High speed operation up to 52Gbit/s is also presented. The performance of the device which has its PN junction positioned in the centre of the waveguide is then compared to previously reported data from a lateral PN junction device with the junction self-aligned to the edge of the waveguide rib. An improvement in modulation efficiency is demonstrated when the junction is positioned in the centre of the waveguide. Finally we propose schemes for achieving high modulation efficiency whilst retaining self-aligned formation of the PN junction.

  20. Simulation of acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    ]. In [3] it is explained how a SAW can be employed to modulate the output light of a GaAs Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and experimental results with a relative modulation depth of 40 % are presented. To modulate the light using a MZI a SAW is transmitted perpendicularly to the two waveguide arms...... in waveguide structures is to let the light interact with surface acoustic waves (SAW) [1]. SAWs are elastic waves that propagate along a material surface, they consist of a longitudinal and a shear component and they have most of their energy density concentrated within one wavelength of the surface [2...... and the elastic stress field from the SAW results in a periodic change of the refractive index and therefore a periodical phase change in the waveguide arms. At a wave crest the refractive index will increase and at a trough it will decrease. Thus, if the distance between the arms is chosen as an unequal multiple...

  1. Terahertz Detection Based on Spectral-Domain Interferometry Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Akram; Sharma, Gargi; Singh, Kanwarpal; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to improve the performance of terahertz electric field measurements based on spectral-domain interferometry. The interferometer is introduced into the probe beam line to improve the temporal overlap between the two probe pulses. The probe pulse in the sample arm of the interferometer passes through the detection crystal and overlaps with the terahertz pulse, while the probe pulse in the reference arm does not. We measure the phase change between spectral components of these two pulses using spectral-domain interferometry. Using this new technique, we enable an unlimited temporal scanning window without the loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, thus overcoming the major limitation of conventional spectral-domain interferometry techniques for terahertz electric field detection.

  2. Phase noise due to vibrations in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J

    2006-01-01

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive to accelerations and rotations. This property, which has some very interesting applications, induces a deleterious phase noise due to the seismic noise of the laboratory and this phase noise is sufficiently large to reduce the fringe visibility in many experiments. We develop a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are able to explain the observed phase noise which has been detected through the rapid dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. We think that the dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to reduce the vibration induced phase noise in atom interferometers, making many new experiments feasible.

  3. Mach-Zehnder fiber-optic links for reaction history measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. Kirk; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2010-08-01

    We present the details of the analog fiber-optic data link that will be used in the chamber-mounted Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. The system is based on Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators integrated into the diagnostic, with the source lasers and bias control electronics located remotely to protect the active electronics. A complete recording system for a single GRH channel comprises two MZ modulators, with the fiber signals split onto four channels on a single digitizer. By carefully selecting the attenuation, the photoreceiver, and the digitizer settings, the dynamic range achievable is greater than 1000:1 at the full system bandwidth of greater than 10 GHz. The system is designed to minimize electrical reflections and mitigate the effects of transient radiation darkening on the fibers.

  4. Vortex array laser beam generation from a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2008-11-24

    This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  5. Mach-zehnder based optical marker/comb generator for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Kirk

    2015-03-03

    This disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for generating marker and comb indicia in an optical environment using a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator. High speed recording devices are configured to record image or other data defining a high speed event. To calibrate and establish time reference, the markers or combs are indicia which serve as timing pulses (markers) or a constant-frequency train of optical pulses (comb) to be imaged on a streak camera for accurate time based calibration and time reference. The system includes a camera, an optic signal generator which provides an optic signal to an M-Z modulator and biasing and modulation signal generators configured to provide input to the M-Z modulator. An optical reference signal is provided to the M-Z modulator. The M-Z modulator modulates the reference signal to a higher frequency optical signal which is output through a fiber coupled link to the streak camera.

  6. Frequency measurement of THz waves by electro-optic sampling using Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Isao; Kirigaya, Mayu; Kaneko, Yuta; Katayama, Ikufumi; Sakamoto, Takahide; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-02-01

    In the recent progress in terahertz (THz) devices, various kinds of source devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum cascade lasers and so forth, have been developed. Frequency measurement of THz radiations, which can operate in high speed and at room-temperature, is important for development of high-performance THz source devices. Recently, frequency measurement using optical combs are demonstrated by several groups. In these techniques, modelocked lasers (MLLs) are used for optical comb source, so that phase-locking techniques are required in order to stabilize the repetition frequency of the MLLs. On the other hand, a modulator-based optical comb generator has high accuracy and stability in the comb spacing, which is comparable to that of microwave signal driving the modulator. Thus it is suitable for frequency measurement of THz waves. In this paper, we demonstrated frequency measurement of THz waves using a Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator (MZ-FCG). The frequency measurement was carried out by an electro-optic (EO) sampling method, where an optical two-tone signal extracted from the optical comb generated by the MZ-FCG was used for the probe light. A 100 GHz signal generated by a W-band frequency multiplier and the probe beam collinearly traveled through an EO crystal, and beat signals between them were measured by a combination of a balanced photodetector and a spectrum analyzer. As a result, frequency measurement of the 100 GHz wave was successfully demonstrated, in which the linewidth of the beat signal was less than 1 Hz.

  7. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a...... 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications.......A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing...... a two-stage frequency measurement cooperating with digital signal processing. In the experiment, 10GHz measurement range is guaranteed and the average uncertainty of estimated microwave frequency is 5.4MHz, which verifies the measurement accuracy is significantly improved by achieving an unprecedented...

  8. Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William; Lee, Reginald; Derose, Guy; Scherer, Axel; Yariv, Amnon

    2005-03-07

    An InGaAsP-InP optical switch geometry based on electrical control of waveguide-resonator coupling is demonstrated. Thermooptic tuning of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated with a racetrack resonator is shown to result in switching with ON-OFF contrast up to 18.5 dB. The optical characteristics of this unique design enable a substantial reduction of the switching power, to a value of 26 mW in comparison with 40 mW for a conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch. Modulation response measurements reveal a 3 dB bandwidth of 400 kHz and a rise time of 1.8 micros, comparing favorably with current state-of-the-art thermooptic switches.

  9. Ultra-compact and temperature-insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on one multimode waveguide on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huizhan; Zhang, Jianhao; Zhu, Yuntao; Zhou, Xuan; He, Sailing; Liu, Liu

    2017-02-01

    An ultra-compact and temperature-insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer device is introduced on the silicon-on-insulator platform. The device is constructed through one straight multimode waveguide, which consists of two densely packed silicon wires with a narrow gap of varying positions along the device. The total width of the proposed Mach-Zehnder interferometer is only about 1 μm. Interference patterns with extinction ratios of better than 20 dB are achieved. Temperature insensitive operation of the proposed device is also demonstrated for both global and local temperature changes. The shift rate of the wavelength response with respect to the substrate temperature change is within ±10  pm/K in a 30 nm wavelength range.

  10. High dynamic range microwave photonic down-conversion based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Jia, Yupeng; Li, Jingnan; Zhong, Xin; Yang, Dengcai; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    In order to enhance conversion efficiency and spurious free dynamic range of microwave photonic link, we present a microwave photonic down-conversion system based on an integrated dual-parallel Mach Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and microwave photonic filter. The principle of frequency down conversion is analyzed. We demonstrate the conversion efficiency of system through theoretical derivation and simulation. The performance of the microwave photonic link is tested experimentally. It is found that the spurious free dynamic range of the proposed method is up to 102.5dB/Hz2/3 and the conversion efficiency is up to -22.01dB. The integrated dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator link can serve as a good alternative to improve the conversion efficiency and spurious free dynamic range.

  11. Design of 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators using electro-optic effect in Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Bisht, Ashish; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Kuldeep; Raina, K. K.; Amphawan, Angela

    2015-12-01

    The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures collectively show powerful capability in switching an input optical signal to a desired output port from a collection of output ports. Hence, it is possible to construct complex optical combinational digital circuits using the electro-optic effect constituting MZI structure as a basic building block. Optical switches have been designed for 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators based on electro-optic effect using Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. Analysis of some factors influencing the performances of proposed device has been discussed properly. The study is verified using beam propagation method.

  12. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  13. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  14. 40-Gb/s star 16-QAM transmitter based on single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Xinyu Xu; Qingjiang Chang; Yikai Su

    2009-01-01

    We propose a 40-Gb/s star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) transmitter using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM). This transmitter is demonstrated through experiment and simulation and shows the advantage of simplicity for implementation. Simulation results indicate that error free performance could be achieved for the generated signal after 80-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission with coherent detection scheme.

  15. Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers and directional coupler switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosciniak, J.; Markey, L.; Dereux, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report detailed experimental studies of compact fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components-Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and directional couplers (DCs)-whose operation at telecom wavelengths is controlled via the thermo-optic effect by electrically heating the gold st......, and wavelength dependent low power (similar to 0.92 mW) rerouting is achieved with DC switches. Furthermore, simulations were performed to confirm the switching characteristics of the components....

  16. On-chip modulation for rotating sensing of gyroscope based on ring resonator coupled with Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity.

  17. Design and analysis of various multifunctional operations at ultrahigh speed by using a semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovkesh; Marwaha, Anupma

    2016-03-01

    Various multifunctional operations are performed by proposing designs of optical adder, subtractor, comparator, and decoder at 60 Gb/s. In all operations, constructive interference is produced by choosing optimized parameters, i.e., optical pulse generator power, input power, semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer parameters, and so on, for delivering a true output signal. An optical pulse-generated signal is required for all operations except addition, subtraction and equal to in a comparator.

  18. Characteristics of an add-drop filter composed of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and double ring resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fufei Pang; Xiuyou Han; Haiwen Cai; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ A planar lightwave circuit (PLC) add-drop filter is proposed and analyzed, which consists of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) combined with double microring resonators. A critical coupling condition is derived for a better box-like drop spectrum. Comparisons of its characteristics with other schemes,such as a MZI with a single ring resonator, are presented, and some of the issues about device design and fabrication are also discussed.

  19. Optical directional coupler and Mach-Zehnder interferometer enhanced via 4H-SiC phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Michael F.; Saunders Filho, Claudio A. B.; Lail, Brian A.

    2016-09-01

    Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), similar to it cousin phenomenon surface plasmon polaitons (SPPs), are quasi-neutral particles resulting from light-matter coupling that can provide high modal confinement and long propagation in the mid to long infrared (IR). Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a combination of two connected optical directional couplers (ODC). With the use of SPhPs, sub-wavelength feature sizes and modal areas can be achieved and to this end a hybrid SPhP waveguide, where propagation length and modal area can be trade-off, will be employed in the design of an ODC and MZI. This endeavor analyzes and characteristics both an ODC and MZI using commercially available numerical simulation software employing finite element method (FEM). The ODC and MZI are design using a novel SPhP hybrid waveguide design where a 4H-SiC substrate provides the polariton mode. The output ports power and relative phase difference between ports are investigated. SPhP enhanced ODC and MZI has applications including, but not limited to, next-generation ultra-compact photonic integrated circuits and waveguide based IR sensing.

  20. Design of all-optical multi-level regenerators based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjian; Wu, Baojian; Zhou, Xingyu; Wan, Qingyao; Jiang, Shanglong; Wen, Feng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a design method for all-optical multi-level regenerators by mimicking the normalized power transfer function (PTF) in the first-order approximation to the ideal step-like PTF, in which a key step is to appropriately select the amplitude and phase conditions of Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MZI)-based regenerators. As an example, we describe the design process of the self-phase-modulation (SPM)-based MZI regenerator constructed by a section of nonlinear fiber and an optical phase shifter (OPS). It is shown that the parameter of reference power level (RPL) can be regarded as the upper limit of input power, which is useful for the measure of the multi-level regeneration performance. The number of regenerative power levels increases with the RPL parameter. For 4-level pulse amplitude modulated (4PAM) optical signals degraded by the Gaussian noises with the standard deviation of 0.02, the SPM-based MZI regenerator has an average noise reduction ratio (NRR) of 6.5 dB, better than that of 1st-order regenerator by about 5 dB.

  1. An innovative single development process for integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer pattern transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, NurulBariah; Lau, Kuen Yau; Khor, Kang Nan; Abdul Wahid, Mohamad Halim; Ahmad Hambali, Nor Azura Malini; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer

    2017-02-01

    Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (IO-MZI) has been widely researched for various usage including for biosensor application. However, the success rate of IO-MZI pattern transfer has been low using the conventional multidevelopment process. One of the main factors is the particle contamination due to the practice of reused developer bath. In this work, an innovative single development process had been proposed with the utilization of the same conventional set-up but with a different protocol. The concept of this method is the estimation of total development time based on the calculated development rate. By doing so, the development process can be completed with only one immersion of the substrate in the developer bath. Besides, the manipulation of development rate by varying exposure time in this work also had revealed the possibility of manipulation of line-width based on the exposure time. In short, the proposed single development process has increased the success rate of IO-MZI pattern transfer from 30% (multi-development method) to 90%.

  2. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on orbital angular momentum for improved vortex coronagraph efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Piron, P; Huby, E; Mawet, D; Ruane, M Karlsson ad G; Habraken, S; Absil, O; Surdej, J

    2016-01-01

    The Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) is a vectorial vortex phase mask. It acts as a half-wave plate with a radial fast axis orientation operating in the mid infrared domain. When placed at the focus of a telescope element provides a continuous helical phase ramp for an on axis sources, which creates the orbital angular momentum. Thanks to that phase, the intensity of the central source is canceled by a down-stream pupil stop, while the off axis sources are not affected. However due to experimental conditions the nulling is hardly perfect. To improve the null, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing Dove prisms differently oriented can be proposed to sort out light based on its orbital angular momentum (OAM). Thanks to the differential rotation of the beam, a {\\pi} phase shift is achieved for the on axis light affected by a non zero OAM. Therefore the contrast between the star and its faint companion is enhanced. Nevertheless, due the Dove prisms birefringence, the performance of the interferometer is relativ...

  3. Optimization design of optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder electro-optical polymer modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; ZHANG Xiao-xia; LIAO Jin-kun

    2011-01-01

    @@ In order to reduce transmission loss of the optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) electro-optical (EO) polymer modulator,the basic iterative formula of semi-vector finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is obtained from the scalar wave equation.The transition waveguide is combined with S-type bend branch waveguide for the M-Z EO modulator in the branch waveguide.The effects of structure parameters such as ridge width, length of the branch waveguide and interferometer spacing on the transmission loss are systematically studied by using the semi-vector FD-BPM method.The structure is optimized as an S-sine bend branch waveguide, with rib width w=7 μm, length of branch waveguide L=1200μm and interferometer spacing G=22 μm.The results show that the optimized structure can reduce transmission loss to 0.083 dB,which have a certain reference value to the design of optical waveguide in M-Z polymer modulator.

  4. Silicon photonics athermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wide thermal and spectral operating range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peng; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-02-01

    In the context of 3D-integrated circuit (3DIC) integration of photonic and electronic components on vertical stacks covering different domains (digital, analog, RF, optical and MEMS), the control and minimization of adverse thermal effects on the behavior of the different parts of the microsystem is a major concern. Solutions based on passive athermal design are good candidates for enabling operation of optical components over electronic ICs with variable temporal and spatial thermal load while at the same time, minimizing energy loss on thermal biasing resistive loads. In this work, an improved athermal design method and the corresponding validating fabricated prototype are presented with the aim of extending the spectral athermal operating range of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) over a wide thermal range with minimal temperature sensitivity. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator process flow fabrication run. The fabricated MZIs have a temperature sensitivity of around 20 pm/K over a spectral range larger than 60 nm for operating temperatures in the range of 20°C to 60°C. These devices are suitable for future optical and electronic 3D IC integration.

  5. Silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for next-generation short-reach optical communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Liu, Z.; Thomson, D.; Ke, Li; Fedeli, J. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Reed, G. T.; Petropoulos, P.

    2016-02-01

    Communication traffic grows relentlessly in today's networks, and with ever more machines connected to the network, this trend is set to continue for the foreseeable future. It is widely accepted that increasingly faster communications are required at the point of the end users, and consequently optical transmission plays a progressively greater role even in short- and medium-reach networks. Silicon photonic technologies are becoming increasingly attractive for such networks, due to their potential for low cost, energetically efficient, high-speed optical components. A representative example is the silicon-based optical modulator, which has been actively studied. Researchers have demonstrated silicon modulators in different types of structures, such as ring resonators or slow light based devices. These approaches have shown remarkably good performance in terms of modulation efficiency, however their operation could be severely affected by temperature drifts or fabrication errors. Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM), on the other hand, show good performance and resilience to different environmental conditions. In this paper we present a CMOS-compatible compact silicon MZM. We study the application of the modulator to short-reach interconnects by realizing data modulation using some relevant advanced modulation formats, such as 4-level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM-4) and Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation and compare the performance of the different systems in transmission.

  6. Mach-Zehnder modulator modulated radio-over-fiber transmission system using dual wavelength linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Hui, Ming; Shen, Dongya; Zhang, Xiupu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, dual wavelength linearization (DWL) technique is studied to suppress odd and even order nonlinearities simultaneously in a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission system. A theoretical model is given to analyze the DWL employed for MZM. In a single-tone test, the suppressions of the second order harmonic distortion (HD2) and third order harmonic distortion (HD3) at the same time are experimentally verified at different bias voltages of the MZM. The measured spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) with respect to the HD2 and HD3 are improved simultaneously compared to using a single laser. The output P1 dB is also improved by the DWL technique. Moreover, a WiFi signal is transmitted in the RoF system to test the linearization for broadband signal. The result shows that more than 1 dB improvement of the error vector magnitude (EVM) is obtained by the DWL technique.

  7. Investigation on Nyquist pulse generation using a single dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zang, Jizhao; Li, Yan; Kong, Deming; Qiu, Jifang; Zhou, Siyuan; Shi, Jindan; Lin, Jintong

    2014-08-25

    The generation of Nyquist pulses with a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) driven by a single RF signal is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. A complete theoretical analysis is developed and the limitation of the proposed scheme is also discussed. It is theoretically proved that Nyquist pulses with a spectrum of 5 flat comb lines can be generated using a single DPMZM, which is also verified with simulation. 7 flat comb lines in frequency domain can also be obtained if a large RF driving voltage is applied to DPMZM but the generated waveforms won't present a sinc-shape. This scheme is further investigated experimentally. 40 GHz Nyquist pulses with full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) less than 4.65 ps, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than 29.5 dB, and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) less than 2.4% are generated. It is found that a tradeoff exists between the insertion loss of the DPMZM and the deviation of generated pulses. The tunability of repetition rate is experimentally verified by generation of 1 GHz to 40 GHz Nyquist pulses with SNR better than 28.4 dB and NRMSE less than 6.15%.

  8. Tunable Photonic Crystal Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Self-collimation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-Yao; LI Hui; QIU Yi-Shen; WANG Yu-Fei; NI Bo

    2008-01-01

    @@ A theoretical model for tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers (TMZIs) constructed in a two-dimensional pho-tonic crystal (2D PhC) is proposed.The 2D PhC consists of a square lattice of cylindric air holes in silicon.The TMZI includes two mirrors and two splitters.Light propagates between them employing a sell-collimation effect.The two interferometer branches have different path lengths.Parts of the longer branch are infiltrated with a kind of liquid crystal (LC) with ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices 1.522 and I.706, respectively.The transmission spectra at two TMZI output ports are in the shape of sinusoidal carves and have a uniform peak spacing 0.0017c/a in the frequency range from 0.26c/a to 0.27c/a.When the effective refractive index neff of the liquid crystal is increased from 1.522 to 1.706, the peaks shift to the lower frequencies over 0.0017c/a while the peak spacing is almost kept unchanged.Thus this TMZI can work as a tunable power splitter or an optical switch.For the central operating wavelength around 1550nm, its dimensions are only about tens of micron.Thus this device may be applied to photonic integrated circuits.

  9. Temperature sensing setup based on an aluminum coated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Chacón, Eliana I.; Gallegos-Arellano, E.; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Hernandez, Emmanuel; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a temperature sensing setup based on a Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI), coated with aluminum is proposed. Here, this interferometer is fabricated through the concatenation of two sections of Single Mode Fiber (SMF) with a segment of PCF between them. The SMF-PCF joint acts as beam splitter causing the excitement of PCF's, both cladding and fundamental core modes. In the PCF-SMF union, the cladding modes couple again to the core of the SMF, and interfere with the fundamental core mode, this interaction results in an interference pattern spectrum. Moreover, the MZI was coated with aluminum, using the evaporation technique. By adding a thin metal layer to the PCF section, the general thermal coefficient of the structure changes, enhancing the sensitivity of the device. Experimental results show that a visibility of 13 dBm can be obtained and a sensitivity of 250 pm/°C. Finally, the proposed structure is simple, cost effective and easy to fabricate.

  10. Stochastic dual-plane on-axis digital holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-09-01

    For traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography, the robustness is lower because it is difficult to maintain the stability of the phase difference between the object beam and the reference beam, and it may be invalid when the objects are on the surface of a medium with uneven thickness. An improved dual-plane digital holographic method based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to address these problems. Two holograms are recorded at two different planes separated by a small distance. Then, the zero-order image and conjugated image are eliminated by Fourier domain processing. In order to enhance the robustness of the system, the object is illuminated by a stochastic beam that is a speckle wave produced by a diffuser. Simulated and experimental results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method has greater robustness than the traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography and it can be used to imaging on the irregular surface of a transparent medium.

  11. Binary to Octal and Octal to Binary Code Converter Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Speed Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-05-01

    Binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using external gates. In this paper, binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  12. Reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xia, Yuhao; Zhang, Fanfan; Chen, Qiaoshan; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches. For all optical links in its 9 routing states, the optical signal-to-noise ratios are larger than 15 dB in the wavelength range from 1525 to 1565 nm. Each optical link of the optical router can manipulate 50 wavelength-division-multiplexing channels with the data rate of 32 Gbps for each channel in the same wavelength range. Its average energy efficiency is about 16.3 fJ/bit, and its response time is about 19 μs.

  13. Design of reversible sequential circuits using electro-optic effect of lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that reversible logic can play an important role in power optimization for computer design. The various reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, Peres, and Toffoli gates have been discussed by researchers, but very little work has been done on reversible sequential circuits. Design of reversible sequential circuits using lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers is proposed. Here, flip-flops are designed with the help of basic reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, and Peres gates. Theoretical descriptions along with mathematical formulation of the devices are provided. The devices are also analyzed through finite difference-beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation.

  14. An all-optical switch of Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active fibre ring resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Qing; Alireza Bananej; Li Qiang-Hua; Chen Qiang; Li Chun-Fei

    2004-01-01

    We propose an all-optical switch of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active nonlinear ring resonatorand analyse the significance of the parameter A, a product of gain and total loss, for performing an ideal 1 by 2switch. We found that in the range of 1 - κ≤ A ≤√/1 - k, the increment of A can compensate the losses insidethe ring, therefore increase the finesse of the ring and enhance the nonlinearity contribution to reduce the switchingpower threshold effectively. We also emphasize the importance of the initial switching point and discuss the feasibilityof utilizing a high-nonlinear fibre in the ring.

  15. A 2×2 SOI mach-zehnder thermo-optical switch based on strongly guided paired multimode interference couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator 2×2 Mach-Zehnder thermo-optical switch is developed based on strongly guided paired multimode interference couplers. The multimode-interference couplers were etched deeply for improving coupler characteristics such as self-imaging quality, uniformity and fabrication tolerance. The proposed switch achieves good performances, including a low insertion loss of -11 .OdB, a fiber-waveguide coupling loss of -4.3dB and a fast response speed measured to be 3.5 and 8.8 μs for raise and fall switching time, respectively.

  16. Mach-Zehnder Interferometers with Asymmetric Modulation Arms in Applications of High Speed Silicon-on-Insulator Based Optical Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fei; YU Jin-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Modulation arms with different widths are introduced to Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) to obtain improved performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have shown that when the widths of the two arms are properly designed to achieve an inherent mπ/2 (m is an odd integer) optical phase difference between the arms, the asymmetric MZI presents higher modulation speed. Furthermore, the carrier-absorption induced divergence of insertion losses in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based MZI optical switches can be obviously improved.

  17. Compact silicon-on-insulator-based 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer electro-optic switch with low crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejiang Xing; Zhiyong Li; Peiji Zhou; Yuanhao Gong; Yude Yu; Manqing Tan; Jinzhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    We report a compact 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) electro-optic switch fabricated on a siliconon-insulator using standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes.With a short modulation arm length of 200 μm,the crosstalk is reduced to-22 dB by the new modulation scheme of push-pull modulation with a pre-biased π/2 phase shift.The new modulation scheme can also work with a fast switching time of about 5.4 ns.

  18. Design of 4 to 2 line encoder using lithium niobate based Mach Zehnder Interferometers for high speed communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.

    2016-04-01

    Encoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using encoder and external gates. In this paper, 4 to 2 line encoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  19. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  20. Versatile photonic microwave waveforms generation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator without other dispersive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang-Fu; Hu, Lin; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Jing; Zi, Yue-Jiao; Wu, Ting-Wei; Huang, Feng-Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic microwave waveform generator based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this reported scheme, only one radio frequency signal is used to drive the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. Meanwhile, dispersive elements or filters are not required in the proposed scheme, which make the scheme simpler and more stable. In this way, six variables can be adjusted. Through the different combinations of these variables, basic waveforms with full duty and small duty cycle can be generated. Tunability of the generator can be achieved by adjusting the frequency of the RF signal and the optical carrier. The corresponding theoretical analysis and simulation have been conducted. With guidance of theory and simulation, proof-of-concept experiments are carried out. The basic waveforms, including Gaussian, saw-up, and saw-down waveforms, with full duty and small duty cycle are generated at the repetition rate of 2 GHz. The theoretical and simulation results agree with the experimental results very well.

  1. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays with dramatically improved both intra-chip response repeatability and assay detection sensitivity.

  2. Comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations using Sagnac loop mirror and Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ytterbium doped fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Shahi, S.; Lim, K. S.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-02-01

    A multiwavelength Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser operating at 1030 nm region is demonstrated using a Sagnac loop mirror and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We report the Performance comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations in Yb3+ doped fiber lasers (YDFL) with typical commercial ytterbium doped silica fibers. By adjusting the polarization controller (PC), a widely tunable laser range of 22 nm from 1030 nm to 1050 nm is obtained. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) design has exhibited simplicity in the operation for controlling the smallest wavelength spacing compared to Sagnac loop mirror method. In our observations, the smallest achieved stable wavelength spacing in Sagnac loop mirror setup and MZI setup were 2.1 nm and 0.7 nm, respectively. In case of nine-wavelength operation with a MZI setup, the stability, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) and side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of laser lines are not affected by increasing pump power, While for above four wavelength operation, the laser stability with Sagnac loop mirror becomes worse specially for higher input pump power and the power fluctuation among the wave-lengths would be also slightly larger.

  3. Laser frequency stabilisation via quasi-monolithic, unequal arm-length Mach-Zehnder interferometer with balanced DC readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency high precision laser interferometry is subject to excess laser frequency noise coupling via arm-length differences which is commonly mitigated by locking the frequency to a stable reference system. This is crucial to achieve picometer level sensitivities in the 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz regime, where laser frequency noise is usually high and couples into the measurement phase via arm-length mismatches in the interferometers. Here we describe the results achieved by frequency stabilising an external cavity diode laser to a quasi-monolithic unequal arm-length Mach-Zehnder interferometer read out at mid-fringe via balanced detection. This stabilisation scheme has been found to be an elegant solution combining a minimal number of optical components, no additional laser modulations and relatively low frequency noise levels. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been designed and constructed to minimise the influence of thermal couplings and to reduce undesired stray light using the optical simulation tool IfoCAD...

  4. All-optical clear/drop optimisation for a 4x40 Gbit/s signal in Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Optimisation of the all-optical clear and drop functionality using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is investigated for 2, 4 and 8x40 Gbit/s signals. The performance of different devices is compared, and critical design issues are discussed....

  5. A system-level model for high-speed, radiation-hard optical links in HEP experiments based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M.; Detraz, S.; Olantera, L.; Sigaud, C.; Soos, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators have been shown to be relatively insensitive to displacement damage beyond a 1-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence of 3ṡ1016n/cm2. Recent investigations on optimized device designs have also led to a high resistance against total ionizing dose levels of above 1 MGy. Such devices could potentially replace electrical and/or optical links close to the particle interaction points in future high energy physics experiments. Since they require an external continuous-wave light source, radiation-hard optical links based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators need to have a different system design when compared to existing directly modulated laser-based optical links. 10 Gb/s eye diagrams of irradiated Mach-Zehnder modulators were measured. The outcomes demonstrate the suitability for using these components in harsh radiation environments. A proposal for the implementation of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators in CERN's particle detectors was developed and a model to calculate the system performance is presented. The optical power budget and the electrical power dissipation of the proposed link is compared to that of the upcoming Versatile Link system that will be installed in 2018.

  6. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  7. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For mic

  8. Effect of Radiation on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Silicon Modulator for HL-LHC data Transmission Applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Nasr-Storey, Sarah Seif; Baudot, Charles; Detraz, Stephane; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Olantera, Lauri; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Sigaud, Christophe; Soos, Csaba; Troska, Jan; Vasey, Francois; Vivien, Laurent; Zeiler, Marcel; Ziebell, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    High-speed Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulators were irradiated with neutrons and X-rays in two separate radiation tests. The devices were exposed to a total fluence of 1.2 x 10$^{15}$ neutrons/cm$^2$ and a total ionizing dose of 1.3 MGy; levels comparable to the worst radiation levels for a tracking detector after 10 years of operation at the High- Luminosity LHC. Our measurements indicate that the devices performance does not significantly degrade after exposure to nonionizing radiation and begins to be affected by ionizing radiation after a dose of a few hundred kGy; the phase-shift for an applied reverse bias of 1 V is 10% of its pre-irradiated value after 600 kGy of received ionizing dose.

  9. Refractive index sensing performance analysis of photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on BP neural network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Teng; Wang, Wenyue; Zhu, Qiguang; Bi, Weihong

    2015-04-01

    According to the band gap and photon localization characteristics, the single-arm notching and the double-arm notching Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures based on 2D triangular lattice air hole-typed photonic crystal waveguide are proposed. The back-propagation (BP) neural network is introduced to optimize the structural parameters of the photonic crystal MZI structure, which results in the normalized transmission peak increasing from 85.3% to 97.1%. The sensitivity performances of the two structures are compared and analyzed using the Salmonella solution samples with different concentrations in the numerical simulation. The results show that the sensitivity of the double-arm notching structure is 4583 nm/RIU, which is about 6.4 times of the single-arm notching structure, which can provide some references for the optimization of the photonic devices and the design of high-sensitivity biosensors.

  10. Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Ruiqiang; Tian, Yonghui; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Min, Rui

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate a carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator, which is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works well at a low driving voltage. This is achieved by the optimization of the coplanar waveguide electrode to reduce the electrical signal transmission loss. At the same time, the velocity and impedance matching are both considered. The 12.5 Gbit/s data transmission experiment of the fabricated device with a 2-mm-long phase shifter is performed. The driving voltages with the swing amplitudes of 1 V and 2 V and the reverse bias voltages of 0.5 V and 0.8 V are applied to the device, respectively. The corresponding extinction ratios are 7.67 and 12.79 dB.

  11. Polarization independent thermally tunable erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain equalizer using a cascaded Mach-Zehnder coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P P

    2008-02-10

    A thermally tunable erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain equalizer filter based on compact point symmetric cascaded Mach-Zehnder (CMZ) coupler is presented with its mathematical model and is found to be polarization dependent due to stress anisotropy caused by local heating for thermo-optic phase change from its mathematical analysis. A thermo-optic delay line structure with a stress releasing groove is proposed and designed for the reduction of polarization dependent characteristics of the high index contrast point symmetric delay line structure of the device. It is found from thermal analysis by using an implicit finite difference method that temperature gradients of the proposed structure, which mainly causes the release of stress anisotropy, is approximately nine times more than that of the conventional structure. It is also seen that the EDFA gain equalized spectrum by using the point symmetric CMZ device based on the proposed structure is almost polarization independent.

  12. 160 Gb/s all-optical AND gate using bulk SOA turbo-switched Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Salgado, I.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2017-09-01

    A novel architecture to implement an all-optical AND gate that relies on the use of a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier-based active Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the turbo-switch effect is presented. Its performance is analyzed in terms of relevant physical parameters and its power consumption calculated. Error-free operation at 160 Gb/s is numerically demonstrated, thus becoming the fastest AND gate of its kind. Accurate simulations using a well-tested design suite predict a 2.7 dB improvement in terms of quality factor when compared to a conventional scheme. The performance advantages of the proposed architecture remain when combined with a turbo-switched XOR gate: the resulting all-optical half-adder also operates error-free at 160 Gb/s. Our research work boosts the potential of interferometric turbo-switched photonic structures as ultra-fast all-optical processing elements.

  13. Grazing angle Mach-Zehnder interferometer using reflective phase gratings and a polychromatic, un-collimated light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Camille K; Auxier, Julie; Lynch, Susanna K; Bennett, Eric E; Morgan, Nicole Y; Wen, Han

    2010-12-20

    Normal incidence Talbot-Lau interferometers in x-ray applications have the drawbacks of low fringe visibility with polychromatic sources when the wave propagation distance is increased to achieve higher phase sensitivity, and when fabrication limits the attainable grating density. In contrast, reflective gratings illuminated at grazing angles have dramatically higher effective densities than their physical values. However, new designs are needed for far field interferometers using grazing angle geometry with incoherent light sources. We show that, with the appropriate design and choice of reflective phase gratings, there exist pairs of interfering pathways of exactly equal lengths independent of the incoming beam's incidence angle and wavelength. With a visible light grazing angle Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we show the conditions for achieving near ideal fringe visibility and demonstrate both absolute and differential phase-contrast imaging. We also describe the design parameters of an x-ray interferometer and key factors for its implementation.

  14. A recirculating delayed self-heterodyne method using a Mach-Zehnder modulator for kHz-linewidth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuo; Li, Min; Gao, Hongyun; Dai, Yawen

    2016-09-01

    A laser linewidth measurement method which uses a Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (MZM) is proposed in a loss-compensated recirculating delayed self-heterodyne interferometer (LC-RDSHI). Compared with the traditional acousto-optic modulator (AOM), the electro-optic modulator has the merits of broader bandwidth, lower insertion loss, higher extinction ratio and thus, a wider application. A theoretical analysis shows that the power spectrum curve of the novel measurement system is a Lorentzian line, which fits well with experiment. The linewidth is measured to be 137 ± 7 kHz at a frequency shift of 4 GHz. Measurement of a distributed feedback Bragg (DFB) laser has manifested that the linewidth broadens from 98.5 kHz to 137.4 kHz as the operating temperature changes by 16 °C. This work will allow investigation of narrow linewidth semiconductor and fiber laser stability.

  15. A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagasabey, Albert; Michie, Andrew; Canning, John; Holdsworth, John; Fleming, Simon; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Aslund, Mattias L

    2011-01-01

    Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI) with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are w(L) (MZI) = (1.6 ± 0.2) kHz and w(L) (MI) = (1.4 ± 0.1) kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  16. W-band OFDM photonic vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator and precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple radio-over-fiber (RoF) link architecture for millimeter-wave orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and precoding technique. In the transmission system, the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) OFDM signal on each sub-carrier are precoded, to ensure that the OFDM signal after photodetector (PD) can be restored to original OFDM signal. The experimental results show that the bit-error ratios (BERs) of the transmission system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3), which demonstrates that the generation of OFDM vector signal based on our proposed scheme can be employed in our system architecture.

  17. A Comparison of Delayed Self-Heterodyne Interference Measurement of Laser Linewidth Using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fleming

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are wL (MZI = (1.6 ± 0.2 kHz and wL (MI = (1.4 ± 0.1 kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  18. Label-free in-situ real-time DNA hybridization kinetics detection employing microfiber-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Lin, Wei; Wu, Jixuan

    2016-07-15

    A label-free DNA biosensor based on microfiber-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MAMZI) for in-situ real-time DNA hybridization kinetics detection has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber of hundreds of microns in length is fabricated by tapering a segment of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) to construct the U-shaped microcavity between the lead-in and lead-out SMFs. Thanks to the mode field mismatching between the SMF and microfiber, the incident guided mode light would separate into two beams that respectively propagate in the air microcavity and the microfiber. Consequently, interference between different light modes would occur at the joint between the microfiber and the lead-out SMF. Experimental results indicate that owing to the participation of opening cavity modes in the modal interference process, the interferometric spectrum of our proposed microcavity sensor is highly sensitive to the variation of environmental refractive index (RI), especially for the RI range around 1.34 which is useful for most biological applications. The microfiber functionalization is achieved by stepwise modifying the microfiber with monolayer Poly-l-lysine (PLL) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes to produce the sensitive surface that could uniquely attach specific target ssDNAs. The fiber surface functionalization as well as DNA hybridization processes have been experimentally investigated for different target ssDNA solutions in real time. The interferometric transmission spectrum shows large wavelength shift for different biological phases, and a detection limit conservatively down to 0.0001pmol/μL has been acquired by employing the U-shaped microcavity of 176.88μm in length. Our proposed DNA biosensor possesses several advantages such as compact size, ease of fabrication, and strong response for DNA hybridization, which make it a promising candidate for potential applications in such rapidly expanding areas as medical diagnosis, cancer

  19. N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Minming; Tang, Zhenhua; Chang, Kan; Huang, Xufang; Zheng, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    A universal method for constructing an N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on 2×2 Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip is proposed. By analyzing the routing table of the N-port optical router, the relationship between the optical links of port m→port n and port m→port n-1 is indicated, as well as the relationships between the block matrices of the N-port optical router. The strictly non-blocking property of the N-port optical router is proved by the contradiction method. The scale of the N-port optical router can be increased with the improvement of the performance of the Mach-Zehnder optical switch.

  20. 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Lu, Ping; Zhao, Shui; Liu, Deming; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrated a 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect. Few-mode fiber-embedded Sagnac ring configuration and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are cascaded to form a multiwavelength filter for our previous 2-μm fiber laser. By adopting suitable fiber length and adjusting the polarization controller, we obtained a 2-μm dual-wavelength fiber laser with switchable wavelength interval. Experimental results revealed that the proposed laser shows higher quality and better stability compared with our previous work and it has potential applications in the fields of atmospheric propagation and microwave photonics.

  1. In Situ Observation of NaCI Crystal Growth by the Vapor Diffusion Method with a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; MIAO Hong; DUAN Li; KANG Qi; HE Ling-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer, a microscope and an image processor. Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process. The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed. It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments, according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve. This can help us understand the details of crystal growth. The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed, and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.%Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer,a microscope and an image processor.Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process.The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed.It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments,according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve.This can help us understand the details of crystal growth.The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed,and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.The growth of large crystals with a high degree of perfection is essential in the chemical industry and the protein field.Vapor diffusion[1] is the most widely used technique in protein crystallization,the principle of which is that the solution gradually reaches

  2. Multi-wavelength Operation of an Er3+-doped Fiber Laser at Room Temperature with a Novel Optical Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hong-Lin; LIN Xiang-Zhi; LIU Hong-Du

    2000-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a double-pass Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer acting both as a comb filter and as a reflection mirror is demonstrated. The spatial hole burning effect introduced by the standing wave cavity configuration enables the simultaneous operation of multiple wavelengths in the homogeneously broadened erbium-doped fiber at room temperature. In the experiment, simultaneous oscillation of four wavelengths at room temperature has been obtained.

  3. Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Eva [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bruck, Roman [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Hainberger, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.hainberger@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Laemmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@univie.ac.at [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We realize a biosensing platform for polyimide evanescent photonic wave sensors. {yields} We show that the surface functionalization via silanisation and biotinylation followed by streptavidin immobilization do not destroy or damage the thin polyimide film. {yields} A highly dense streptavidin layer enables the immobilisation of biotinylated ligands such as biotinylated ssDNA for the selective measurement of DNA hybridization. - Abstract: The process of surface functionalization involving silanization, biotinylation and streptavidin bonding as platform for biospecific ligand immobilization was optimized for thin film polyimide spin-coated silicon wafers, of which the polyimide film serves as a wave guiding layer in evanescent wave photonic biosensors. This type of optical sensors make great demands on the materials involved as well as on the layer properties, such as the optical quality, the layer thickness and the surface roughness. In this work we realized the binding of a 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on an oxygen plasma activated polyimide surface followed by subsequent derivatization of the reactive thiol groups with maleimide-PEG{sub 2}-biotin and immobilization of streptavidin. The progress of the functionalization was monitored by using different fluorescence labels for optimization of the chemical derivatization steps. Further, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized for the characterization of the modified surface. These established analytical methods allowed to derive information like chemical composition of the surface, surface coverage with immobilized streptavidin, as well as parameters of the surface roughness. The proposed functionalization protocol furnished a surface density of 144 fmol mm{sup -2} streptavidin with good reproducibility (13.9% RSD, n = 10) and without inflicted damage to the surface. This surface modification was applied to polyimide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  4. Calibration-free and bias-drift-free microwave characterization of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators using heterodyne mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    An electrical method is proposed for the microwave characterization of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators based on heterodyne mixing. The proposed method utilizes the heterodyne products between the two-tone modulated optical sidebands and frequency-shifted optical carrier, and achieves calibration-free and bias-drift-free microwave measurement of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators with high resolution electrical-domain techniques. Our method avoids the extra calibration for the photodetector and reduces half the bandwidth requirement for the photodetector and the electrical spectrum analyzer through carefully choosing a half frequency relationship of the two-tone modulation. Moreover, our measurement avoids the bias drifting problem due to the insensitivity to the bias phase of the modulator under test. The frequency-dependent modulation depths and half-wave voltages are measured for a commercial dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator with our method, which agree well with the results obtained by the conventional optical spectrum analysis method.

  5. Improved silica-PLC Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches with error dependence compensation of directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yi, Jia; Guo, Lijun; Liu, Peng; Hall, Trevor J.; Sun, DeGui

    2017-03-01

    For the most popular structure of planer lightwave circuit (PLC) 2×2 thermo-optic switches, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), a full range of splitting ratio errors of directional coupler (DC) are investigated. All the parameters determining the splitting ratio are the dimensions and the refractive indices of the waveguide core and cladding layers. In this work, the coherent relationships between the waveguide size and the refractive indices are analyzed and then the error compensation between the width and the refractive index of waveguide core, and the controllable effect of over clad layer refractive index error upon the MZI-type optical switch are all discovered with numerical calculation and BPM simulations. Then, an MZI-type 2×2 thermo-optic switch having a higher error tolerance is established with the efficient optimizations of all the 3 dB-DC parameters. As a result, for the symmetric MZI switch, an insertion loss of 1.5 dB and optical extinction ratio of over 20 dB are realized for the average tolerance of±5.0%. An asymmetric arm optical phase and unequal arm lengths is also employed to improve the uniformities of insertion loss. The agreements between the designs and the experiments are recognized, leading to a wide adoption of practical silica-PLC optical switch products.

  6. Switchable and multi-wavelength linear fiber laser based on Fabry-Perot and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Gutierrez, J.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Sierra-Hernández, J. M.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Vargas-Treviño, M.; Tepech-Carrillo, L.; Grajales-Coutiño, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript, switchable and multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser arrangement, based on Fabry-Perot (FPI) and Mach-Zehnder (MZI) interferometers is presented. Here, the FPI is composed by two air-microcavities set into the tip of conventional single mode fiber, this one is used as a partially reflecting mirror and lasing modes generator. And the MZI fabricated by splicing a segment of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) between a single-mode fiber section, was set into an optical fiber loop mirror that acts as full-reflecting and wavelength selective filter. Both interferometers, promotes a cavity oscillation into the fiber laser configuration, besides by curvature applied over the MZI, the fiber laser generates: single, double, triple and quadruple laser emissions with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 30 dB. These laser emissions can be switching between them from 1525 nm to 1534 nm by adjusting the curvature radius over the MZI. This laser fiber offers a wavelength and power stability at room temperature, compactness and low implementation cost. Moreover the linear laser proposed can be used in several fields such as spectroscopy, telecommunications and fiber optic sensing systems.

  7. Manufacture tolerance analysis and control for a polymer on-silicon Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-based electro-optic switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-tao; MA Chun-sheng; YAN Xin; CUI Zhan-chen; ZHANG Da-ming

    2011-01-01

    To enhance the electro-optic (EO) modulation efficiency and realize the impedance-matching, a polymer-on-silicon multi mode interference (MMI) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) -based electro-optic (EO) switch is designed and optimized.Under the central operation wavelength of 1550 nm, the driving voltages of the designed switch are O and ±1.375 V,respectively, with a short active region length of 5 mm, and the characteristic impedance of the electrode is about 49.6 Ω.The manufacture tolerance is analyzed for instructing the device fabrication. The results show that to realize ideal switching function, high fabrication accuracy on the buffer thickness, core thickness, electrode width and MMI wavegnide width is extremely required, and a small voltage drift of-0.03-0.05 V is also expected for reducing the crosstalk to less than -30 dB.The allowed 3 dB bandwidth is 60 nm, and within this spectrum range, the insertion loss and crosstalk are less than 6.71 dB and -30 dB, respectively.

  8. Analysis of frequency noise properties of 729nm extended cavity diode laser with unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan M.; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Lazar, Josef; Hrabina, Jan; Řeřucha, Šimon; Lešundák, Adam; Obšil, Petr; Filip, Radim; Slodička, Lukáš; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the frequency noise investigation of a linewidth-suppressed Extended Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL), working at 729 nm. Since the ECDL is intended as an excitation laser for the forbidden transition in a trapped and laser cooled 40Ca+ ion, an Hz-level linewidth is required. We present the experimental design that comprises a two-stage linewidth narrowing and a facility for frequency and noise analysis. The linewidth is first narrowed with a phase lock loop of the ECDL onto a selected component of an optical frequency comb where the frequency noise was suppressed with a fast electronic servo-loop controller that drives the laser injection current with a high bandwidth. The second stage comprises locking the laser onto a selected mode of a high-finesse passive optical cavity. The frequency analysis used an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fiber spool inserted in the reference arm in order to give a general insight into the signal properties by mixing two separated beams, one of them delayed by the spool, and processing it with a spectral analyzer. Such a frequency noise analysis reveals what are the most significant noises contributions to the laser linewidth, which is a crucial information in field of ion trapping and cooling. The presented experimental results show the effect of the linewidth narrowing with the first stage, where the linewidth of ECDL was narrowed down to a kHz level.

  9. Wide Spectral Characteristics of Si Photonic Crystal Mach-Zehnder Modulator Fabricated by Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Hinakura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical modulators for optical interconnects require a small size, small voltage, high speed and wide working spectrum. For this purpose, we developed Si slow-light Mach-Zehnder modulators via a 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. We employed 200 μm lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides with interleaved p-n junctions as phase shifters. The group index spectrum of slow light was almost flat at ng ≈ 20 but exhibited ±10% fluctuation over a wavelength bandwidth of 20 nm. The cutoff frequency measured in this bandwidth ranged from 15 to 20 GHz; thus, clear open eyes were observed in the 25 Gbps modulation. However, the fluctuation in ng was reflected in the extinction ratio and bit-error rate. For a stable error-free operation, a 1 dB margin is necessary in the extinction ratio. In addition, we constructed a device with varied values of ng and confirmed that the extinction ratio at this speed was enhanced by larger ng up to 60. However, this larger ng reduced the cutoff frequency because of increased phase mismatch between slow light and radio frequency signals. Therefore, ng available for 25 Gbps modulation is limited to up to 40 for the current device design.

  10. Comment on "Particle path through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-06-01

    Griffiths [Phys. Rev. A 94, 032115 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032115] analyzed, in the framework of a consistent histories interpretation, the controversy regarding the approach to the past of a quantum particle introduced by Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 87, 052104 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052104]. I argue that Griffith's criticism of my approach using an analysis of experiments with weak probes is unfounded.

  11. Performance of a Mach-Zehnder based analogue data recording system for use with the Gas Cherenkov Detector on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Beeman, B. V.; Lopez, F. E.; Hernandez, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper covers the performance of a high speed analogue data transmission system. This system uses multiple Mach- Zehnder optical modulators to transmit and record fusion burn history data for the Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) on the National Ignition Facility. The GCD is designed to measure the burn duration of high energy gamma rays generated by Deuterium-Tritium (DT) interactions in the NIF. The burn duration of DT fusion can be as short as 10ps and the optical photons generated in the gas Cherenkov cell are measured using a vacuum photodiode with a FWHM of 55ps. A recording system with a 3dB bandwidth of ≥10GHz and a signal to noise ratio of ≥5 for photodiode output voltage of 50mV is presented. The data transmission system uses two or three Mach-Zehnder modulators and an RF amplifier to transmit data optically. This signal is received and recorded by optical to electrical converts and a high speed digital oscilloscope placed outside of the NIF Target Bay. Electrical performance metrics covered include signal to noise ratio (SNR), signal to peak to peak noise ratio, single shot dynamic range, shot to shot dynamic range, system bandwidth, scattering parameters, are shown. Design considerations such as self-test capabilities, the NIF radiation environment, upgrade compatibility, Mach-Zehnder (MZ) biasing, maintainability, and operating considerations for the use of MZs are covered. This data recording system will be used for the future upgrade of the GCD to be used with a Pulse Dilation PMT, currently under development.

  12. Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Folkert; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Shank, Steven M; Vlasov, Yurii A; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2013-05-20

    We present 1-to-8 wavelength (de-)multiplexer devices based on a binary tree of cascaded Mach-Zehnder-like lattice filters, and manufactured using a 90 nm CMOS-integrated silicon photonics technology. We demonstrate that these devices combine a flat pass-band over more than 50% of the channel spacing with low insertion loss of less than 1.6 dB, and have a small device size of approximately 500 × 400 µm. This makes this type of filters well suited for application as WDM (de-)multiplexer in silicon photonics transceivers for optical data communication in large scale computer systems.

  13. Comparison of all-optical co- and counter-propagating high-speed signal processing in SOA-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Buxens, Alvaro; Fischer, S.;

    2001-01-01

    The all-optical signal processing performance of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated. Calculated switching windows are used to investigate and understand the physical mechanisms limiting the high speed performance. Especially, the co- and counter-propagating operation of the MZI...... is discussed and important differences in the performance for the two schemes are addressed. The non-regenerative all-optical clear and drop functionality is investigated for a 2, 4 and 8 x 40 Gbit/s signal, showing good performance in the co-propagating case. Regenerative simultaneous clear and drop...... functionality in a single MZI is demonstrated experimentally and compared to the large signal model predictions....

  14. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhifang [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry [OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Quyen Dinh, Xuan [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Thales Solutions Asia Pte Ltd, R and T Department, 28 Changi North Rise, Singapore 498755 (Singapore)

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  15. Design of Excess 3 to BCD code converter using electro-optic effect of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for efficient data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Amphawan, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Excess 3 code is one of the most important codes used for efficient data storage and transmission. It is a non-weighted code and also known as self complimenting code. In this paper, a four bit optical Excess 3 to BCD code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  16. Zero-Chirp Return-to-Zero Pulses Generation with Two Single-Driver z-Cut Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xi; CAO Ji-Hong; ZHANG Feng; WANG Mu-Guang; ZHANG Jian-Yong; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to suppress the frequency chirp of single-driver z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators.Theoretical analysis shows that by multiplying the output pulses of a half clock frequency driving single-driver z-cut modulator with the one delayed odd multiple bit duration,the frequency chirp can be removed entirely,and return-to-zero(RZ)pulses with duty cycles of about 25% and 56% are obtained.An experimental scheme is proposed to validate the proposed method.The experimental results show that perfect 40 GHz zero-chirp RZ pulses can be obtained by using this scheme.

  17. Switchable Multi-Wavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using a Twin-Core Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Su-Chun; XU Ou; LU Shao-Hua; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer comb filter at room temperature is presented.The comb filter is formed by splicing a section of twin-core fiber between two single mode fibers.By adjusting the states of the polarization controller appropriately,the laser can be made to operate in stable single-,dual- and three-wavelength lazing states.The operation principle is based on spectral hole burning induced by the saturated effect and polarization hole burning.

  18. Thermo-optically driven silicon microring-resonator-loaded Mach-Zehnder modulator for low-power consumption and multiple-wavelength modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Rajdeep; Kaneshige, Hiroki; Yamada, Hitoshi; Katouf, Redouane; Arakawa, Taro; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2014-02-01

    Low-power-consumption thermo-optically controlled silicon-microring-resonator loaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MRR-loaded MZMs) are demonstrated. We experimentally characterized a single microring and cascaded-multiple-microring resonators coupled to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The driving power consumption of the proposed MZM is significantly reduced owing to the enhanced phase shift in the MRR. The device was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide structure, and each microring is equipped with TiN microheater for thermo-optic tuning. The coupling efficiency between the microring and a busline waveguide was regulated by varying the gap between two waveguides at a directional coupler. The power consumption of single microring and cascaded MRR-loaded MZMs was approximately 0.4 and 1 mW, respectively. The phase-shift enhancement factor of up to 19 with a maximum extinction ratio of 18 dB was obtained experimentally. Multiple-wavelength operation was also demonstrated in the cascaded MRR-loaded MZM.

  19. A novel scheme to generate 40-GHz CSRZ pulse trains using a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei Xing; Caiyun Lou

    2011-01-01

    A new technique to generate 40-GHz carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) optical pulse trains using only a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum of the generated CSRZ pulses is calculated by simulation and compared with conventional MZM-based RZ and CSRZ pulse trains. The experimental results demonstrate that CSRZ pulse trains are obtained, and that the carrier and the unwanted 20-GHz low-frequency component are suppressed by 25 dB. The technique can also be extended to 160-GHz CSRZ pulse generation when 40-GHz devices are employed.%@@ A new technique to generate 40-GHz carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) optical pulse trains using only a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum of the generated CSRZ pulses is calculated by simulation and compared with conventional MZM-based RZ and CSRZ pulse trains. The experimental results demonstrate that CSRZ pulse trains are obtained, and that the carrier and the unwanted 20-GHz low-frequency component are suppressed by 25 dB. The technique can also be extended to 160-GHz CSRZ pulse generation when 40-GHz devices are employed.

  20. Efficient regenerative wavelength conversion at 10Gbit/s over C- and L-band (80nm span) using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dülk, M.; Fischer, St.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    A demonstration is presented of 10Gbit/s 2R regenerative wavelength up- and down-conversion within the C-band as well as up-conversion to the L-band using a monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer module with semiconductor optical amplifiers (MZI-SOAs). The converted output signals ...

  1. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I.; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost. PMID:27294930

  2. Coplanar-waveguide-based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using a meandering optical waveguide and alternating-side PN junction loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Po; Sinsky, Jeffrey H; Gui, Chengcheng

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line electrode structure using a meandering optical waveguide and alternating-side PN junction loading of the electrodes, which helps suppress the signal distortion caused by the parasitic slot-line mode and improves the electro-optic (EO) bandwidth. The silicon MZM exhibits a π-phase-shift voltage (Vπ) of 4.5 V with an EO 3 dB bandwidth of ∼20  GHz for a 5 mm long phase shifter. This achieved Vπ is among the lowest for silicon-only modulators with a bandwidth of more than 20 GHz.

  3. Generation of Carrier and Odd Sidebands Suppressed Optical MM-Wave with Signal Only on One Sideband Using an External Integrated Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; XIN Xiang-Jun; ZHAO Tong-Gang; LING Jing; YU Chong-Xiu

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme to generate millimeter(mm)-wave is proposed where the quadrupling of local radio frequency is formed by using an external integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator through intensity modulation or phase modulation.Generated optical mm-wave signal suffers from neither power periodical fading nor time shift of the sidebands as it is transmitted along the fiber.Receiver sensitivity of our 10Gbit/s radio-over-fiber system based on the proposed scheme is-28.3dBm under intensity modulation while-24dBm under phase modulation after 65 km transmission,and bit error rate is at 10~(-4) level after 100km transmission.Optical carrier in uplink is provided by the central station to simplify the base station,which also reduces the cost of the base station.

  4. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  5. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  6. A quantum sensor: simultaneous precision gravimetry and magnetic gradiometry with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hardman, Kyle S; McDonald, Gordon D; Manju, Perumbil; Wigley, Paul B; Sooriyabadara, Mahasen A; Kuhn, Carlos C N; Debs, John E; Close, John D; Robins, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A $5\\times 10^6$ atom F=1 spinor condensate of $^{87}$Rb is released into free fall for up to $750$ms and probed with a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states, $\\left| m_f=1,0,-1 \\right\\rangle$, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with an asymptotic precision of $2.1\\times 10^{-9}$$\\Delta$g/g and the magnetic field gradient to a precision $8$pT/m.

  7. Classical and quantum interference in multiband optical Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, S

    2010-01-01

    Classical and quantum interference of light propagating in arrays of coupled waveguides and undergoing multiband optical Bloch oscillations (BOs) with negligible Zener tunneling is theoretically investigated. In particular, it is shown that Mach-Zehnder-like interference effects spontaneously arise in multiband BOs owing to beam splitting and subsequent beam recombination occurring in one BO cycle. As a noteworthy example of quantum interference, we discuss the doubling of interference fringes in photon counting rates for a correlated photon pair undergoing two-band BOs, a phenomenon analogous to the manifestation of the de Broglie wavelength of an entangled biphoton state observed in quantum Mach-Zehnder interferometry.

  8. Phase-selective quantum eraser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, A.; Pieplow, G.; Menzel, R.

    2015-07-01

    A quantum-eraser experiment is reported with photon pairs generated by two synchronously pumped parametric down-converters coupled via induced coherence. The complementarity between which-source information and two-photon interference fringe visibility is demonstrated explicitly. Changing the phase in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer allows a continuous transition from wavelike to particlelike behavior of photons.

  9. Temperature measurement of axisymmetric partially premixed methane/air flame in a co-annular burner using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoost, M. S.; Ashjaee, M.; Askari, M. H.; Ahmadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame is established on an axisymmetric co-annular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame characteristics for methane/air axisymmetric partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. Different equivalence ratios (φ=1.4-2.2) and Reynolds numbers (Re=100-1200) are considered in the study. Flame generic visible appearance and the corresponding fringe map structures are also investigated. It is seen that the fringe maps are poorly influenced by equivalence ratio variations at constant Reynolds number but are significantly affected by Reynolds number variations in constant equivalence ratio. Temperatures obtained from optical techniques are compared with those obtained from thermocouples and good agreement is observed. It is concluded that the effect of Reynolds number increment on maximum flame temperature is negligible while equivalence ratio reduction increases maximum flame temperature substantially.

  10. Exploration of Whole Atmosphere Lidar: Mach-zehnder Receiver to Extend Fe Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements from the Thermosphere to the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-06-01

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrowband Fe Doppler (372 nm) lidar from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with an MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift from Rayleigh-Mie scattering that is independent of aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature and pressure of the lidar volume and also independent of geometric overlap, the chopper function and any other factor affecting the signal in both MZI channels equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). Using actual data obtained recently from the Fe Doppler lidar, we show the expected measurement performance of this whole atmosphere lidar instrument concept.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of flexible Mach-Zehnder waveguide structure embedded in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin film using a proton microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Saruya, Ryota; Akutzu, Naoki; Miura, Satoshi; Kada, Wataru; Kawabata, Shunsuke; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Miura, Kenta; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    A flexible Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical waveguide was fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film by proton beam writing (PBW). A focused 750 keV proton microbeam was used to fabricate a 40 × 20 mm2 MZ optical waveguide structure with a width of 8 µm embedded in a PDMS film for the single-mode light propagation of infrared (IR) laser light. The structure was measured by ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) analysis and the beam fluence was optimized according to the IBIL intensity obtained from the waveguide structure. The entire structure of the MZ waveguide functioned well, confirmed by observing the near-field pattern (NFP) with a tunable IR laser (1.55 µm) for different PDMS film conditions. The optical throughput measurements for different sample configurations were obtained under continuous mechanical stress and a relatively low optical loss was observed at an inclination angle of 16°. Our results suggest that the MZ waveguide can be used for optical interlink connections under continuous mechanical stress.

  12. Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromu; Miura, Hiroki; Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M; Kashino, Tsubasa; Kikuchi, Takamasa; Ozawa, Masaaki; Nawata, Hideyuki; Odoi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2017-01-23

    An electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide using an ultra-thin silicon hybrid has been designed and fabricated. The silicon core has the thickness of 50 nm and a width of 5 μm. The waveguide was completed after covering the cladding with the high temperature stable EO polymer. We have demonstrated a low half-wavelength voltage of 0.9 V at the wavelength of 1.55 μm by using a Mach-Zehnder interference modulator with TM mode operation. The measured modulation corresponded to an effective in-device EO coefficient of 165 pm/V. By utilizing the traveling-wave electrode on the modulator the high-frequency response was tested up to 40 GHz. The 3 dB modulation bandwidth was measured to be 23 GHz. In addition, the high frequency sideband spectral measurement revealed that a linear response of the modulation index against the RF power was confirmed up to 40 GHz signal.

  13. Design of an optical 4-bit binary to BCD converter using electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh

    2017-07-01

    Binary to Binary coded decimal (BCD) converter is a basic building block for BCD processing. The last few decades have witnessed exponential rise in applications of binary coded data processing in the field of optical computing thus there is an eventual increase in demand of acceptable hardware platform for the same. Keeping this as an approach a novel design exploiting the preeminent feature of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is presented in this paper. Here, an optical 4-bit binary to binary coded decimal (BCD) converter utilizing the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based MZI has been demonstrated. It exhibits the property of switching the optical signal from one port to the other, when a certain appropriate voltage is applied to its electrodes. The projected scheme is implemented using the combinations of cascaded electro-optic (EO) switches. Theoretical description along with mathematical formulation of the device is provided and the operation is analyzed through finite difference-Beam propagation method (FD-BPM). The fabrication techniques to develop the device are also discussed.

  14. Design and experimental verification of a novel Mie Doppler wind lidar based on all-fiber Mach-Zehnder frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Fei; Wang, Jun; Yan, Qing; Chang, Bo; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-04-01

    Spaceborne Doppler wind lidar is currently one of the hot spots on the lidar technology. The all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) as a frequency discriminator of Doppler wind lidar is proposed for profiling the atmospheric wind velocity. The frequency discriminator system parameters are optimized, and the retrieval method of wind velocity based on FMZI is deduced. The arm length difference of FMZI for the aerosol backscattering signal is optimized to be 74.8 cm at the laser wavelength of 532 nm. The maximum system sensitivity for wind profiling can reach up to 2.62%/(m/s), and the dynamic range of wind velocity is ±18.2 m/s. The system simulation shows that the detection range is up to 6.7 km for 1 m/s wind velocity error at a wind velocity of 15 m/s with laser energy of 250 mJ and telescope diameter of 406 mm. A rotating disc experimental system is designed to simulate the atmospheric wind field for verifying the feasibility of the system, and the results show that there is good agreement between the retrieved wind velocity and simulated wind velocity. The simulation and experimental test results show that FMZI is feasible as a frequency discriminator and can be suitable for direct Mie Doppler lidar, especially for satellite-based platform lidar due to its desirable characteristics, including its small volume, light weight, good stability and compact structure.

  15. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  16. Co-integrated 1.3µm hybrid III-V/silicon tunable laser and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at 25Gb/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrotti, Thomas; Blampey, Benjamin; Jany, Christophe; Duprez, Hélène; Chantre, Alain; Boeuf, Frédéric; Seassal, Christian; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2016-12-26

    In this paper, the 200mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is used to demonstrate the monolithic co-integration of hybrid III-V/silicon distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tunable lasers and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), to achieve fully integrated hybrid transmitters for silicon photonics. The design of each active component, as well as the fabrication process steps of the whole architecture are described in detail. A data transmission rate up to 25Gb/s has been reached for transmitters using MZMs with active lengths of 2mm and 4mm. Extinction ratios of respectively 2.9dB and 4.7dB are obtained by applying drive voltages of 2.5V peak-to-peak on the MZMs. 25Gb/s data transmission is demonstrated at 1303.5nm and 1315.8nm, with the possibility to tune the operating wavelength by up to 8.5nm in each case, by using metallic heaters above the laser Bragg reflectors.

  17. Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

    2014-04-15

    We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of ∼0.6  V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ∼50  GHz at -2  V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50  Gb/s operation under 2.5  Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88  dB/100  μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration.

  18. 一种基于空芯光纤的微型Mach-Zehnder干涉仪%A Miniature Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Hollow-core optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小军; 刘艳; 李卫东

    2016-01-01

    Miniature interferometer has a high value in many micro-sensor areas. All-fiber Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer based on hollow-core optical fiber has become a hot research point in recent years. The principle of light transmission and the mechanism of interference about the all-fiber MZ interferometer are researched. In refer⁃ence to the study of the previous air-core optical fiber interferometer, a novel MZ interferometer based on hol⁃low-core optical fiber is proposed. The transmission spectrum of the MZ interferometer in the experimental environ⁃ment is verified. Experimental results show that the free spectral range of the interferometer is about 140 nm when the wavelength is 1 550 nm and the sensor arm length of the interferometer is 50μm. The new MZ interferometer is simulated by using BPM method and simulation results accord with theoretical expectations. At the same time, the stimulated high-order mode is discussed and the transmission characteristics of radiation modes are obtained.%微型干涉仪在许多微传感领域有很高的应用价值。基于空芯光纤的全光纤Mach-Zehnder干涉仪成为了近些年研究的热点。研究了全光纤MZ干涉仪的传光原理及干涉机制。在参考前人对空芯光纤干涉仪研究的基础上,提出了一种基于空芯光纤的新型MZ干涉仪。搭建实验环境对该结构的MZ干涉仪的传输谱进行了验证。实验得出,当波长为1550 nm,传感臂长度为50μm时,自由波谱范围大约为140 nm。利用BPM法对该新型MZ干涉仪进行了仿真,仿真结果符合理论预期。同时对激发出的高阶模式进行了仿真探讨,并且得到辐射模的传输特性。

  19. Assessment of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion Based on Elimination of Second-Order Harmonics in Optical OFDM Single Sideband Modulation Using Mach Zehnder Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the analytical and numerical investigations of the transmission performance of an optical Single Sideband (SSB) modulation technique generated by a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) with a 90° and 120° hybrid coupler. It takes into account the problem of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers in Passive Optical Networks (PON), which severely degrades the performance of the system. Considering the transmission length of the fiber, the SSB modulation generated by maintaining a phase shift of π/2 between the two electrodes of the MZM provides better receiver sensitivity. However, the power of higher-order harmonics generated due to the nonlinearity of the MZM is directly proportional to the modulation index, making the SSB look like a quasi-double sideband (DSB) and causing power fading due to chromatic dispersion. To eliminate one of the second-order harmonics, the SSB signal based on an MZM with a 120° hybrid coupler is simulated. An analytical model of conventional SSB using 90° and 120° hybrid couplers is established. The latter suppresses unwanted (upper/lower) first-order and second-order (lower/upper) sidebands. For the analysis, a varying quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal with a data rate of 5 Gb/s is upconverted using both of the SSB techniques and is transmitted over a distance of 75 km in Single Mode Fiber (SMF). The simulation results show that the SSB with 120° hybrid coupler proves to be more immune to chromatic dispersion as compared to the conventional SSB technique. This is in tandem with the theoretical analysis presented in the article.

  20. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  1. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  2. Violation of a Bell-like inequality by a combination of Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup

    OpenAIRE

    Rother, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a sta...

  3. Frequency entanglement characterization of short-pulse pumped SPDC biphoton source with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwei; Dong, Ruifang; Li, Baihong; Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang

    2017-06-01

    Frequency entangled biphoton sources have played an important role in quantum information. There are two key characteristics which determine the extent of their applications: the spectral indistinguishability and the degree of frequency entanglement. Previously, the spectral indistinguishability of the biphoton state is measured by the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference visibility, whereas the degree of frequency entanglement is normally characterized with independent spectral measurements. However, these two quantum features have not been successfully measured with a single experimental setup. In this paper, we deduce the temporal distribution of a short-pulse pumped type-II spontaneous parametric down converted (SPDC) biphoton source and its relevant temporal entanglement parameter R t for operationally quantifying the degree of frequency entanglement. Furthermore, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate, due to the inherent group delay, the difference between the signal and idler photons at the exit of the type-II nonlinear crystal, resulting in a HOM-shape dip at both sides of the center fringed envelope of the MZ interferometric coincidence diagram. By measuring the HOM-shape dip depth, the separation between the two sideband dips as well as the MZ fringed envelope width, both the spectral indistinguishability and the temporal entanglement parameter can thus be simultaneously quantified. This implementation provides us a unified and convenient method to characterize the frequency entanglement of the short-pulse pumped biphotons.

  4. New method to simulate quantum interference using deterministic processes and application to event-based simulation of quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam-splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event-b

  5. Investigation of a field-widened Mach-Zehnder receiver to extend Fe Doppler lidar wind measurements from the thermosphere to the ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-02-20

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrow-band Fe Doppler lidar operating at 372 nm from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to near the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with a novel MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift that rejects the influence of atmospheric parameters such as the aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature, and pressure of the lidar volume and receiver parameters such as the geometric overlap, the chopper function, and any other factor affecting the proportion of the signal in both channels of the MZI equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). In addition, we show how the use of multiple transmitted frequencies can yield a wind measurement wherein the accuracy is insensitive to the optical imperfection and misalignment of the MZI or any other factor that affects the contrast, though the precision is still impacted by the fringe contrast. Simply adding a second surface mirror of a particular thickness to the basic tilted MZI can allow the field of the MZI to be widened sufficiently for most resonance Doppler lidar receivers in operation today. Provided that the detection sensitivity in each channel is known, the original resonance fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering signals can be recovered by simply scaling and adding the contributions from both channels. Consequently, the wind and temperature from the MLT region and the temperature from the Rayleigh region can be derived alongside the Rayleigh Doppler wind measurement without compromising the

  6. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  7. Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  8. 基于光纤M-Z干涉的高灵敏度液体折射率传感器的实验研究%Experimentally Study on High-sensitivity Fiber-optic Refractometers Based on Mach-Zehnder Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周赢武

    2012-01-01

    A high sensitivity fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed and fabricated. The relationship between the resonance wavelength shifts to the refractive index is studied with NaCl and glycerin solution. The experimental results show that the resonance wavelength shifts to longer wavelength with the increase of the refractive index of the surrounding media, and the wavelength shift is nearly linear to the refractive index with a sensitivity is of 4 086 nm/refractive-index as the refractive index ranges from 1. 333 to 1. 356. The sensor is easy to fabricate, compact, and will be usefull in chemical and biotechnological industry.%提出并制备了一种基于Mach-Zehnder干涉效应的高灵敏度光纤液体折射率传感器.分别利用NaCl溶液和甘油溶液,研究了传感器的透射光谱和外界介质折射率的关系.实验结果表明,随着周围介质折射率的增大,传感器干涉谱的极小值点对应的波长向长波方向漂移,在1.333~1.356的折射率变化范围内,极小值点对应的波长的漂移量和折射率的变化具有较好的线性关系,对应的灵敏度约为4086 nm/refractive-index.该传感器制作简单、结构紧凑,在生物和化学测量中具有较好的应用前景.

  9. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Jader da Silva; Ostermann,Fernanda; Prado,Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência- Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação d...

  10. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto,Jader da; Ostermann,Fernanda; Prado,Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação de...

  11. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto,Jader da; Ostermann, Fernanda; Prado, Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação de...

  12. Transmission of Duobinary Signal in Optical 40 GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio-Over-Fiber Systems Utilizing Dual-Arm LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder Modulator for Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, for the first time transmission of 2.5 Gb/s duobinary signal is investigated for the downlink direction in 40 GHz optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion, utilizing a dual-arm LiNb{O}_3 Mach-Zehnder modulator based on different modulation schemes, namely double- and single-sideband (DSB and SSB) and optical carrier suppression (OCS). The up-converted optical millimeter-wave employing OCS modulation scheme indicates the highest back-to-back received optical power and the smallest power penalty after long propagation in the single-mode fiber, in comparison to DSB and SSB. Directly modulated laser in association with OCS modulation scheme has been used to generate duobinary optical millimeter-wave signal in order to minimize the cost and complexity of the system.

  13. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, En-Ming; Dong, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Xin-Liang

    2011-05-01

    A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter was proposed and demonstrated, which can be applied in microwave generation. By incorporating a high extinction ratio (ER) dual-pass MZI into an erbium-doped fiber ring cavity, SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be achieved even using a MZI with relatively little free spectrum range (FSR), and by beating the two wavelengths at a photodetector, a 9.76 GHz microwave signal with a 3-dB bandwidth of less than 10 kHz is obtained. Moreover, by direct linking the two outputs of the MZI, the high ER dual-pass MZI is easily reconfigured as a half FSR dual-pass MZI. Using this structure, switchable SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be conveniently realized.

  14. Simultaneous Precision Gravimetry and Magnetic Gradiometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A High Precision, Quantum Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, K S; Everitt, P J; McDonald, G D; Manju, P; Wigley, P B; Sooriyabandara, M A; Kuhn, C C N; Debs, J E; Close, J D; Robins, N P

    2016-09-23

    A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A 5×10^{6}  atom F=1 spinor condensate of ^{87}Rb is released into free fall for up to 750 ms and probed with a T=130  ms Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states |m_{f}=1,0,-1⟩, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with a 1000 run precision of Δg/g=1.45×10^{-9} and the magnetic field gradient to a precision of 120  pT/m.

  15. Optimal calculations for the transmission field of Mach-Zehnder channel waveguide switches%Mach-Zehnder条形光波导开关传输光场的优化计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超燕; 任一涛; 孟荣; 杨贵荣

    2011-01-01

    结合有效折射率法和有限差分光束传播法,实现对三维光波导结构计算的降维处理,运用二维有效折射率--有限差分光束传播方法(EI-FD-BPM)计算Mach-Zehnder光波导开关的传输光场;通过比较不同的光波导结构,优化得到具有较高输出能量的条形光波导光开关及其最佳的结构设计参数(横截面尺寸,器件结构及其尺寸等).表明用二维EI-FD-BPM方法代替三维有限差分光束传播(FD-BPM)方法进行光波导器件设计计算是简便可行的,能有效地减少计算量,节约计算时间,2个方法彼此间的结果差异(对小尺寸光波导结构)在1.5%以内,该方法可在具有较高的计算精度条件下为光波导器件的制备设计提供理论依据.%Calculations for three - dimensional optical waveguides are successfully simplified into two - dimensional ones by combining the effective index method (EIM) with the finite difference beam propagation method ( FD - BPM) , and the optical transmission field of Mach - Zehnder switches is calculated and analyzed by two - dimensional effective index - finite difference beam propagation method (EI - FD - BPM). The structure parameters (e. g. the cross section of channel waveguide, the switch structure and its size) of Mach - Zehnder waveguide switches are optimized and a waveguide switch with higher transmission efficiency is achieved. It is demonstrated that the use of a two - dimensional EI - FD - BPM is feasible and easier instead of a three - dimensional FD - BPM, which the result difference from the two methods for the small waveguide structure is within 1.5% ,and the calculations are reduced greatly, thus save time effectively. The approach provides theoretical guide for the designing and fabricating optical waveguide device at a high accuracy.

  16. Quantum Interferometric Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kapale, K T; Lee, H; Kok, P; Dowling, J P; Kapale, Kishore T.; Didomenico, Leo D.; Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum entanglement has the potential to revolutionize the entire field of interferometric sensing by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum-entangled particle interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like $1/\\sqrt{N}$, where $N$ is the number of particles passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of $\\sqrt{N}$ to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. This effect can translate into a tremendous s...

  17. Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampini, Mario A.; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Quantum metrology is the state-of-the-art measurement technology. It uses quantum resources to enhance the sensitivity of phase estimation over that achievable by classical physics. While single parameter estimation theory has been widely investigated, much less is known about the simultaneous estimation of multiple phases, which finds key applications in imaging and sensing. In this manuscript we provide conditions of useful particle (qudit) entanglement for multiphase estimation and adapt them to multiarm Mach-Zehnder interferometry. We theoretically discuss benchmark multimode Fock states containing useful qudit entanglement and overcoming the sensitivity of separable qudit states in three and four arm Mach-Zehnder-like interferometers - currently within the reach of integrated photonics technology.

  18. Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udd, Eric

    1996-04-01

    By placing fiber optic gratings in a Sagnac loop a distributed strain sensor may be formed by using the light reflected from the fiber gratings as sources for balanced Michelson and Mach- Zehnder interferometers. In this manner the resulting fiber optic sensor is capable of measuring integrated strain over lengths determined by the fiber grating position, point strain and temperature at the fiber grating locations and localizing and measuring the position of a time varying signal such as an acoustic wave.

  19. Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T

    2001-09-15

    We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.

  20. 多路集成有机聚合物光子学射频移相器%Multiple Output Photonic RF Phase Shifter using a novel polymer nested Mach- Zehnder modulators configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志浩

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new integrated photonic RF phase shifters in the optically controlled phased array radar system and analyses the characteristics and the operation of the device . This device involves a nested Mach - Zehnder modulator and realizes the phase control of each unit by itself; low loss; high stability of the optical output intensity. Measurements of these devices show that multioutputs are independent and have highly linear RF phases over 360° with negligible RF power fluctuation ( below 3 dB ) at the modulation frequency.%本文简要介绍一种新型的集成光子学射频移相器,并对移相器的工作原理及特点进行分析。该新型移相器能够实现对每一阵元的相移量进行独立的调控、相移线性度大、插入损耗小、相移精度和幅度稳定度高等优点。结果表明,输出的射频信号的功率波动小于3dB,得到360°连续线性相移。

  1. Characterization of optical quantum circuits using resonant phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Poot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that important information about linear optical circuits can be obtained through the phase shift induced by integrated optical resonators. As a proof of principle, the phase of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is determined. Then the method is applied to a complex optical circuit designed for linear optical quantum computation. In this controlled-NOT gate with qubit initialization and tomography stages, the relative phases are determined as well as the coupling ratios of its directional couplers.

  2. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of LiNbO3-Based Integrated Optical Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer%铌酸锂基集成光波导马赫-曾德尔干涉仪的设计、制备及其特性的初步测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方; 刘瑞鹏; 祁志美

    2011-01-01

    设计了具有推挽调制电极和消逝场敏感窗口的铌酸锂(LiNbO3)基集成光波导马赫-曾德尔干涉仪(MZI).利用标准微光机电系统(MOEMS)加工工艺结合高温钛内扩散法制备出三维单模LiNbO3光波导MZI阵列芯片,并对芯片进行了端面抛光,实现了光纤一波导端面输入和输出耦合,并初步调查了干涉仪芯片的相位调制特性,结果表明,在633 nm波长下其半波调制电压为5.61 V,干涉条纹对比度为0.62.当干涉仪芯片被用于生化探测时-这种电光调制功能可用于调节干涉仪芯片的初始相位差和识别其相位差的变化方向.%LiNbO3-based integrated optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with push-pull electrodes and evanescent field sensing window is developed. By using standard micro-opto-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) technique and titanium-indiffusion method, LiNbO3 monomode channel waveguide MZI array with modulating electrodes is fabricated. The near-field profile of the guided mode is detected after launching light into the LiNbO3 waveguide by fiber end-fire coupling. The phase-modulating property of the LiNbO3 MZI is investigated. The experimental results show that the phase modulation of the MZI is fully reversible and its half-wave voltage Vπ is 5.61 V, and fringe contrast is 0.62. The phase-modulating capability allows the initial phase of the MZI device to be a quadrature point to make the device work in the linear-response region for biochemical sensor.

  3. Developing an Interactive Tutorial on a Quantum Eraser

    CERN Document Server

    Marshman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a quantum eraser for students in upperlevel quantum mechanics. The QuILT exposes students to contemporary topics in quantum mechanics and uses a guided approach to learning. It adapts existing visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about quantum phenomena and strives to help them develop the ability to apply quantum principles in physical situations. The quantum eraser apparatus in the gedanken (thought) experiments and simulations that students learn from in the QuILT uses a MachZehnder Interferometer with single photons. We also discuss findings from a preliminary in-class evaluation.

  4. A Complete Mathematical Model to Study the Characteristics of an Arbitrary Geometry LiNbO3 Structure for a High-Speed Mach-Zehnder Modulator for RADAR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Reena

    2017-06-01

    In graded index fiber, some degree of ellipticity is found. So it is important to study the effect which is little bit different from circularity. With the help of a new method illustrated in this paper, the core fields in case of non-circular profile can be written in a more simple way. The convenient feature of this method is that mode patterns can be found by simple analysis of algebraic equations. Ray path propagations in graded non-circular fibers were already studied by researchers. However, we provide the analysis of mode field using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. In our analysis, the core fields of step index fibers are considered assuming the elliptical core-cladding interface followed by the limiting cases with focus approaches to infinity and focus approaches to zero. Finally, modes for parabolic profile with circular refractive index are discussed with the concept of bounded and leaky modes. The convenient feature of this method is that mode patterns can be analytically studied. In this paper, the main focus is also on the experimental characteristic of optical communication link and of their components. We give an introduction to optical fiber systems and various phenomena related to it. The phenomena of attenuation and dispersion are discussed elaborately and details are provided through experimental observation and verification. All the details about various topics mentioned above are concluded and verified through experiments. This type of an arbitrary optical waveguide structure has a vast application in microwave engineering where the high-speed Mach-Zehnder modulator is going to deployed.

  5. Quantum reality theory and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Allday, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    PrefaceIntroductionAuthorPart I Our First Quantum Object: Light Some Opening Thoughts A Little Light Reading Lasers and Video Cameras Photons An Interference Experiment with Photons Interference as a Wave Effect Mach-Zehnder with Photons Delayed Choice Summary Endnotes Interlude 1: Another Interference Experiment Particles Electrons The Electron Gun The Stern-Gerlach Experiment Turning Things Round Things Get More Puzzling So, Where Did It Go? What Does It All Mean? Some Indications with Other Particles The Long and the Short of It Summary Endnotes Quantum States Where Are We Now? Describing C

  6. Enhanced resolution of long-period grating bend sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Lars; Gao, S; Cook, K

    2013-01-01

    We present an optical fiber bend sensor with enhanced resolution based on the principle of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in transmission. The sensor is based on two identical Long-Period Gratings separated by approximately 100 mm in a D-shaped single-mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a narr...... resonance bandwidth compared to a typical resonance from a Long-Period Grating. The sensor was recoated with low refractive index polyimide and embedded on a fiber-glass base plate before it was characterized as a bending sensor....

  7. 基于绝缘体上硅的一种改进的Mach-Zehnder声光调制器∗%An improved Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic mo dulator on a silicon-on-insulator platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晨; 余辉; 叶乔波; 卫欢; 江晓清

    2016-01-01

    The interdigital transducer (IDT) of the traditional Mach-Zehnder (MZ) acousto-optic modulator on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is located outside its two arms. The crest and trough of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) are used to modulate the two arms of the MZ interferometer so as to achieve a high modulation efficiency. Therefore, the distance between the two arms must be odd multiples of half acoustic wavelength. However, since the substrate is usually not uniform, the wavelength of the SAW changes as it transmits through the surface of the device. As a result, the exact distance between the two arms is difficult to choose. On the other hand, the SAW losses a portion of energy after passing through the first arm of the MZ interferometer, so the modulation of the second arm becomes much weaker. To solve these problems, we propose a new structure where its IDT is situated in the middle of the two arms of the MZ interferometer. With this scheme, the two arms of the MZ interferometer are located exactly at the crest and the trough of the SAW, while they are modulated with equal strength. In this paper, we first use the finite element method to simulate the acoustic frequency and the surface displacement of the excited SAW. Then we deduce the refractive index variations of all layers according to their acousto-optic effects. After that, we analyze the influences of different factors on the acousto-optic modulation efficiency, including the type and size of waveguide, the thickness of zinc oxide (ZnO) layer, and the area it covers, the number of electrodes, etc. These parameters are accordingly optimized to enhance the modulation efficiency. Modeling result based on COMSOL Multiphysics indicates that when the width of the strip waveguide is 6 µm, the ZnO layer covers only the area under the IDT and has a thickness of 2.2 µm, and the number of the electrodes is 50, the effective refractive index variation of the waveguide reaches 4.08 × 10−4 provided that

  8. 一种改进的2×2 SOI Mach-Zehnder热光开关%An Improvement on 2×2 Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermo-Optical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨笛; 余金中; 陈少武

    2008-01-01

    本文设计并制作了基于强限制多模干涉耦合器的2×2 SOI马赫-曾德热光开关.这种光开关采用了深刻蚀结构的多模干涉耦合器和输入/输出波导,较大地提高了干涉耦合器的性能并减少了连接耦合损耗.同时,在调制臂区域采用浅刻蚀结构,保持其单模调制状态.深刻蚀多模干涉耦合器具有优越的特性,在实验中测得不均衡度只有0.03 dB,插入损耗-0.6 dB.基于这种耦合器的新型热光开关,其插入损耗为-6.8 dB,其中包括光纤-波导耦合损耗-4.3 dB,开关时间为6.8 μs.%An improved 2×2 silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermo-optical switch is designed and fabricated, which is based on strongly guided multimode interference couplers and single-mode phase-shifting arms. The multimode interference couplers and input/output waveguides are deeply etched to improve coupler performances and coupler-waveguide coupling efficiencies. However, shallow etching is used in the phase-shifting arms to guarantee single-mode property. The strongly guided coupler presents an attractive uniformity about 0.03 dB and a low propagation loss of -0.6 dB. The 2×2 switch shows an insertion loss as low as -6.8 dB, where the fiber-waveguide coupling loss of -4.3 dB is included, and the response-time is measured as short as 6.8 μs, which are much better than our previous results.

  9. Quantum Computations with Transverse Modes of an Optical Field Propagating in Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符建; 唐少芳

    2003-01-01

    A fully optical method to perform quantum computation with transverse modes of the optical field propagating in waveguide is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed C-NOT gate has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than some optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technology and can be constructed by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer having semiconductor optical amplifiers with very large refractive nonlinearity in its arms.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao; CHEN Fu-Shen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive im-pulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The max-imal detectable electric field range (-75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation.

  11. Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, A; Xu, D-X; Janz, S; Waldron, P; Mischki, T; Lopinski, G; Delâge, A; Lapointe, J; Cheben, P; Lamontagne, B; Schmid, J H

    2008-03-15

    We demonstrate a new silicon photonic wire waveguide evanescent field (PWEF) sensor that exploits the strong evanescent field of the transverse magnetic mode of this high-index-contrast, submicrometer-dimension waveguide. High sensitivity is achieved by using a 2 mm long double-spiral waveguide structure that fits within a compact circular area of 150 microm diameter, facilitating compatibility with commercial spotting apparatus and the fabrication of densely spaced sensor arrays. By incorporating the PWEF sensor element into a balanced waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer circuit, a minimum detectable mass of approximately 10 fg of streptavidin protein is demonstrated with near temperature-independent response.

  12. Graphene quantum interference photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Voss, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI) photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector), low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  13. Integrated optical electric field sensor with telescopic dipole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Sun; Fushen Chen; Yongjun Yang

    2008-01-01

    An integrated optical electric field sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the telescopic dipole is designed and fabricated, and its electrodes are segmented and connected with a telescopic dipole.The measured results show that when the frequency response is from 10kHz to 6GHz with the antenna length of 55mm, the minimum detectable electric field of 20mV/m can be obtained, and the linear dynamics range can reach 90dB at 250MHz.

  14. Security of practical phase-coding quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hong-Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu; Bao, Wan-Su; Guo, Guang-Can

    2009-01-01

    Security proof of practical quantum key distribution (QKD) has attracted a lot of attentions in recent years. Most of real-life QKD implementations are based on phase-coding BB84 protocol, which usually uses Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (UMZI) as the information coder and decoder. However, the long arm and short arm of UMZI will introduce different loss in practical experimental realizations, the state emitted by Alice's side is nolonger standard BB84 states. In this paper, we will give a security analysis in this situation. Counterintuitively, active compensation for this different loss will only lower the secret key bit rate.

  15. Event-based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H

    2010-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a unified description of multiple-beam fringes of a plane parallel plate, single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, photon tunneling, quantum erasers, two-beam interference, double-slit, and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments.

  16. Cold atom quantum sensors for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-07-01

    Quantum sensors based on cold atoms offer the opportunity to perform highly accurate measurements of physical phenomena related to time, gravity and rotation. The deployment of such technologies in the microgravity environment of space may enable further enhancement of their performance, whilst permitting the detection of these physical phenomena over much larger scales than is possible with a ground-based instrument. In this talk, I will present an overview of the activities of the UK National Quantum Hub in Sensors and Metrology in developing cold atoms technology for space. Our activities are focused in two main areas: optical clocks and atom interferometers. I will also discuss our contributions to recent initiatives including STE-QUEST and AI-GOAT, the ESA/NASA initiative aiming at an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in space.

  17. Fiber optic liquid refractive index sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    In this present work we report fabrication of fiber optic liquid refractive index (RI) measurement sensor based on Michelson Interferometer method. This sensor was assembled by using graded index multimode (MM) fiber with core diameter 50 µm and the cladding of fiber was removed by simple chemical method. To perform this experiment a 2×2 3dB coupler is used. The fiber ends are then immersed in solvent and solution to provide reference and refractive index measurements, respectively. This method was successfully used to measure refractive index of Sodium Chloride (NaCl)-Water solution at different concentrations. The fringe contrast sensitivity of device is 92.90 dB/RIU measured in the RI range from 1.34 to 1.42 which is better than Mach-Zehnder Interferometer sensor [1] and Fabry perot based sensor [2]. The fabrication of sensor is simple, low cost and highly sensitive.

  18. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Eoin; Meany, Thomas; Flother, Frederick F; Lee, James P; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Bennet, Anthony J; Shields, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to an SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single photon nature of the emission was veri?ed by an on-chip Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  19. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, X X; Hou, P -Y; Chang, X -Y; Zu, C; Duan, L -M

    2015-01-01

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography.

  1. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X X; Ma, J-J; Hou, P-Y; Chang, X-Y; Zu, C; Duan, L-M

    2015-07-22

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography.

  2. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. X.; Ma, J.-J.; Hou, P.-Y.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography. PMID:26197928

  3. Delayed-choice test of quantum complementarity with interfering single photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Vincent; Wu, E; Grosshans, Frédéric; Treussart, François; Grangier, Philippe; Aspect, Alain; Roch, Jean-François

    2008-06-06

    We report an experimental test of quantum complementarity with single-photon pulses sent into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an output beam splitter of adjustable reflection coefficient R. In addition, the experiment is realized in Wheeler's delayed-choice regime. Each randomly set value of R allows us to observe interference with visibility V and to obtain incomplete which-path information characterized by the distinguishability parameter D. Measured values of V and D are found to fulfill the complementarity relation V2+D2 < or =1.

  4. Heisenberg-limited quantum sensing and metrology with superpositions of twin-Fock states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the prospects of performing Heisenberg-limited quantum sensing and metrology using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with input states that are superpositions of twin-Fock states and where photon number parity measurements are made on one of the output beams of the interferometer. This study is motivated by the experimental challenge of producing twin-Fock states on opposite sides of a beam splitter. We focus on the use of the so-called pair coherent states for this purpose and discuss a possible mechanism for generating them. We also discuss the prospect of using other superstitions of twin-Fock states, for the purpose of interferometry.

  5. Exciton coherence in clean single InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots emitting in infra-red measured by Fourier spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakura, H; Kumano, H; Suemune, I [Research Institute for Electron Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Motohisa, J; Kobayashi, Y; Kouwen, M van; Tomioka, K; Fukui, T [Graduate School of Information Science Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Akopian, N; Zwiller, V, E-mail: hirotaka@eng.hokudai.ac.j [Quantum Transport, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delf University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We report optical properties of InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots and single-photon Fourier spectroscopy of an exciton in a single InAsP quantum dot embedded in an InP nanowire. The coherent length of the time-averaged emission originating from the single InAsP QD was measured by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer inserted in the photoluminescence path. Effects of fluctuations in surrounding excess charges trapped in the InP nanowire were investigated by excitation power and energy dependencies.

  6. Exciton coherence in clean single InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots emitting in infra-red measured by Fourier spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We report optical properties of InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots and single-photon Fourier spectroscopy of an exciton in a single InAsP quantum dot embedded in an InP nanowire. The coherent length of the time-averaged emission originating from the single InAsP QD was measured by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer inserted in the photoluminescence path. Effects of fluctuations in surrounding excess charges trapped in the InP nanowire were investigated by excitation power and energy dependencies.

  7. Comments on X. Yin, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and T. Wang, `Studies in an optical millimeter-wave generation scheme via two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators', Journal of Modern Optics, 58(8), 2011, pp. 665-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J.

    2015-04-01

    Yin et al. have described an innovative filter-less optical millimeter-wave generation scheme for octotupling of a 10 GHz RF oscillator, or sedecimtupling of a 5 GHz RF oscillator using two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs). The great merit of their design is the suppression of all harmonics except those of order ? (octotupling) or all harmonics except those of order ? (sedecimtupling), where ? is an integer. A demerit of their scheme is the requirement to set a precise RF signal modulation index in order to suppress the zeroth order optical carrier. The purpose of this comment is to show that, in the case of the octotupling function, all harmonics may be suppressed except those of order ?, where ? is an odd integer, by the simple addition of an optical ? phase shift between the two DP-MZMs and an adjustment of the RF drive phases. Since the carrier is suppressed in the modified architecture, the octotupling circuit is thereby released of the strict requirement to set the drive level to a precise value without any significant increase in circuit complexity.

  8. Integrated optical waveguide sensor for lighting impulse electric field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahong; Chen, Fushen; Sun, Bao; Chen, Kaixin

    2014-09-01

    A Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) based integrated optical E-field sensor with an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a tapered antenna has been designed and fabricated for the measurement of the pulsed electric field. The minimum detectable E-field of the sensor was 10 kV/m. The sensor showed a good linear characteristic while the input E-fields varied from 10 kV/m to 370 kV/m. Furthermore, the maximum detectable E-field of the sensor, which could be calculated from the sensor input/output characteristic, was approximately equal to 1000 kV/m. All these results suggest that such sensor can be used for the measurement of the lighting impulse electric field.

  9. Modeling of high-quality factor XNOR gate using quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers at 1 Tb/s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotd, Amer, E-mail: amer_22003@yahoo.com, E-mail: kotb@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, (Egypt)

    2015-06-15

    The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor (Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ∼1 Tb/s. (author)

  10. Inertial quantum sensors using light and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B; Bouyer, P

    2016-01-01

    The past few decades have seen dramatic progress in our ability to manipulate and coherently control matter-waves. Although the duality between particles and waves has been well tested since de Broglie introduced the matter-wave analog of the optical wavelength in 1924, manipulating atoms with a level of coherence that enables one to use these properties for precision measurements has only become possible with our ability to produce atomic samples exhibiting temperatures of only a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero. Since the initial experiments a few decades ago, the field of atom optics has developed in many ways, with both fundamental and applied significance. The exquisite control of matter waves offers the prospect of a new generation of force sensors exhibiting unprecedented sensitivity and accuracy, for applications from navigation and geophysics to tests of general relativity. Thanks to the latest developments in this field, the first commercial products using this quantum technology are n...

  11. Quantum networks with chiral light--matter interaction in waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoodian, Sahand; Sørensen, Anders S

    2016-01-01

    We design and analyze a simple on-chip photonic circuit that can form a universal building block of a quantum network. The circuit consists of a single-photon source, and two quantum emitters positioned in two arms of an on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of waveguides with chiral light--matter interfaces. The efficient chiral light--matter interaction allows the emitters to act as photon sources to herald internode entanglement, and to perform high-fidelity intranode two-qubit gates within a single chip without any need for reconfiguration. We show that by connecting multiple circuits of this kind into a quantum network, it is possible to perform universal quantum computation with heralded two-qubit gate fidelities ${\\cal F} \\sim 0.998$ achievable in state-of-the-art quantum dot systems.

  12. Quantum Networks with Chiral-Light-Matter Interaction in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Sahand; Lodahl, Peter; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scalable architecture for a quantum network based on a simple on-chip photonic circuit that performs loss-tolerant two-qubit measurements. The circuit consists of two quantum emitters positioned in the arms of an on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of waveguides with chiral-light-matter interfaces. The efficient chiral-light-matter interaction allows the emitters to perform high-fidelity intranode two-qubit parity measurements within a single chip and to emit photons to generate internode entanglement, without any need for reconfiguration. We show that, by connecting multiple circuits of this kind into a quantum network, it is possible to perform universal quantum computation with heralded two-qubit gate fidelities F ˜0.998 achievable in state-of-the-art quantum dot systems.

  13. Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-05-01

    We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.

  14. Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

  15. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-02-24

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated.

  16. Mobile quantum gravity sensor with unprecedented stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leykauf, Bastian; Freier, Christian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-04-01

    The gravimetric atom interferometer GAIN is based on interfering ensembles of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms in a fountain setup, using stimulated Raman transitions. GAIN's rugged design allows for transports to sites of geodetic and geophysical interest while maintaining a high accuracy compatible with the best classical instruments. We compared our instrument's performance with falling corner-cube and superconducting gravimeters in two measurement campaigns at geodetic observatories in Wettzell, Germany and Onsala, Sweden. Our instrument's long-term stability of 0.5 nm/s2 is the best value for absolute gravimeters reported to date [1]. Our measured gravity value agrees with other state-of-the-art gravimeters on the 10-9 level in g, demonstrating effective control over systematics including wavefront distortions of the Raman beams [2]. By using the juggling technique [3], we are able to perform gravity measurements on two atomic clouds simultaneously. Advantages include the suppression of common mode phase noise, enabling differential phase shift extraction without the need for vibration isolation. We will present the results of our first gravity gradient measurements. [1] Freier, Hauth, Schkolnik, Leykauf, Schilling, Wziontek, Scherneck, Müller and Peters (2016). Mobile quantum gravity sensor with unprecedented stability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 8th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology 2015, 723, 12050. [2] Schkolnik, Leykauf, Hauth, Freier and Peters (2015). The effect of wavefront aberrations in atom interferometry. Applied Physics B, 120(2), 311 - 316. [3] Legere and Gibble (1998). Quantum Scattering in a Juggling Atomic Fountain. Physical Review Letters, 81(1), 5780 - 5783.

  17. A fiber micro-vibration sensor based on single-mode fiber ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglai Zhen; Renzhu Liu; Benli Yu; Jing Zhang; Baogang Han

    2009-01-01

    A new micro-vibration sensor based on single-mode fiber ring laser is put forward. The Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) detection technique is presented for interrogating laser frequency shift due to the measurand (piezoelectric transducer (PZT) is used to simulate the micro-vibration) induced laser cavity strain from both single- and multi-mode lasers. In the experiment, compared with multi-mode laser sensors, the single-mode laser sensor is proved to be a sensor with high resolution. When the PZT is driven by the analog signal (0.03 rad near 2 kHz), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of output signal from the single-mode laser sensor is close to 55 dB and the sensitivity of the sensor is about 5 x 10-5 rad/Hz1/2.

  18. Inertial quantum sensors using light and matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B.; Bertoldi, A.; Bouyer, P.

    2016-05-01

    The past few decades have seen dramatic progress in our ability to manipulate and coherently control matter-waves. Although the duality between particles and waves has been well tested since de Broglie introduced the matter-wave analog of the optical wavelength in 1924, manipulating atoms with a level of coherence that enables one to use these properties for precision measurements has only become possible with our ability to produce atomic samples exhibiting temperatures of only a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero. Since the initial experiments a few decades ago, the field of atom optics has developed in many ways, with both fundamental and applied significance. The exquisite control of matter waves offers the prospect of a new generation of force sensors exhibiting unprecedented sensitivity and accuracy, for applications from navigation and geophysics to tests of general relativity. Thanks to the latest developments in this field, the first commercial products using this quantum technology are now available. In the future, our ability to create large coherent ensembles of atoms will allow us an even more precise control of the matter-wave and the ability to create highly entangled states for non-classical atom interferometry.

  19. Mobile quantum gravity sensor with unprecedented stability

    CERN Document Server

    Freier, Christian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Leykauf, Bastian; Schilling, Manuel; Wziontek, Hartmut; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Müller, Jürgen; Peters, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Changes of surface gravity on Earth are of great interest in geodesy, earth sciences and natural resource exploration. They are indicative of Earth system's mass redistributions and vertical surface motion, and are usually measured with falling corner-cube- and superconducting gravimeters (FCCG and SCG). Here we report on absolute gravity measurements with a mobile quantum gravimeter based on atom interferometry. The measurements were conducted in Germany and Sweden over periods of several days with simultaneous SCG and FCCG comparisons. They show the best-reported performance of mobile atomic gravimeters to date with an accuracy of $\\mathrm{39\\,nm/s^2}$ and long-term stability of $\\mathrm{0.5\\,nm/s^2}$ short-term noise of $96\\,\\mathrm{nm/s^2/\\sqrt{Hz}}$. These measurements highlight the unique properties of atomic sensors. The achieved level of performance in a transportable instrument enables new applications in geodesy and related fields, such as continuous absolute gravity monitoring with a single instrum...

  20. Semiconductor Quantum Dots in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Chaniotakis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots are nanometre-scale semiconductor crystals with unique optical properties that are advantageous for the development of novel chemical sensors and biosensors. The surface chemistry of luminescent quantum dots has encouraged the development of multiple probes based on linked recognition molecules such as peptides, nucleic acids or small-molecule ligands. This review overviews the design of sensitive and selective nanoprobes, ranging from the type of target molecules to the optical transduction scheme. Representative examples of quantum dot-based optical sensors from this fast-moving field have been selected and are discussed towards the most promising directions for future research.

  1. Sensitive acoustic vibration sensor using single-mode fiber tapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Xiaozhen; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-05-01

    Optical fiber sensors are a good alternative to piezoelectric devices in electromagnetic sensitive environments. In this study, we reported a fiber acoustic sensor based on single-mode fiber (SMF) tapers. The fiber taper is used as the sensing arm in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Benefiting from their micrometer dimensions, fiber tapers have shown higher sensitivities to the acoustic vibrations than SMFs. Under the same conditions, the thinnest fiber taper in this report, with a diameter of 1.7 µm, shows a 20 dB improvement in the signal to noise ratio as compared to that of an SMF. This acoustic vibration sensor can detect the acoustic waves over the frequencies of 30 Hz-40 kHz, which is limited by the acoustic wave generator in experiments. We also discussed the phase changes of fiber tapers with different diameters under acoustic vibrations.

  2. Mode engineering for realistic quantum-enhanced interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachura, Michał; Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-04-29

    Quantum metrology overcomes standard precision limits by exploiting collective quantum superpositions of physical systems used for sensing, with the prominent example of non-classical multiphoton states improving interferometric techniques. Practical quantum-enhanced interferometry is, however, vulnerable to imperfections such as partial distinguishability of interfering photons. Here we introduce a method where appropriate design of the modal structure of input photons can alleviate deleterious effects caused by another, experimentally inaccessible degree of freedom. This result is accompanied by a laboratory demonstration that a suitable choice of spatial modes combined with position-resolved coincidence detection restores entanglement-enhanced precision in the full operating range of a realistic two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, specifically around a point which otherwise does not even attain the shot-noise limit due to the presence of residual distinguishing information in the spectral degree of freedom. Our method highlights the potential of engineering multimode physical systems in metrologic applications.

  3. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-08-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security.

  4. Quantum Sensors: Improved Optical Measurement via Specialized Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical measurement strategies in many areas are approaching their maximum resolution and sensitivity levels, but these levels often still fall far short of the ultimate limits allowed by the laws of physics. To go further, strategies must be adopted that take into account the quantum nature of the probe particles and that optimize their quantum states for the desired application. Here, we review some of these approaches, in which quantum entanglement, the orbital angular momentum of single photons, and quantum interferometry are used to produce optical measurements beyond the classical limit.

  5. Fiber optic stress-independent helical torsion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luís A; Grenier, Jason R; Aitchison, J Stewart; Herman, Peter R

    2015-02-15

    Femtosecond laser-fabricated waveguides have been formed into helical paths throughout the cladding of single-mode optical fibers to demonstrate a strain-independent fiber torsion sensor. A comparison between a Bragg grating sensor and a Mach-Zehnder based on helical waveguides (HWs) showed a much weaker twist sensitivity of 1.5 pm/(rad/m) for the grating in contrast with a value of 261 pm/(rad/m) for the interferometer. The HW geometry provided an unambiguous determination of the rotational direction of the twist while facilitating a convenient and efficient means for optical coupling into the single-mode core of the fiber. The flexible three-dimensional writing by the femtosecond laser fabrication method enabled the direct inscription of compact and robust optical cladding devices without the need for combining or splicing multiple-fiber segments.

  6. Chronology of Fabry-Perot Interferometer Fiber-Optic Sensors and Their Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibul Islam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

  7. Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rajibul; Ali, Muhammad Mahmood; Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-04-24

    Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

  8. Semiconductor Quantum Dots in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Chaniotakis; Frasco, Manuela F.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are nanometre-scale semiconductor crystals with unique optical properties that are advantageous for the development of novel chemical sensors and biosensors. The surface chemistry of luminescent quantum dots has encouraged the development of multiple probes based on linked recognition molecules such as peptides, nucleic acids or small-molecule ligands. This review overviews the design of sensitive and selective nanoprobes, ranging from the type of target molecules to the optical ...

  9. Topology control based on quantum genetic algorithm in sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lijuan; GUO Jian; LU Kai; WANG Ruchuan

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays,two trends appear in the application of sensor networks in which both multi-service and quality of service (QoS)are supported.In terms of the goal of low energy consumption and high connectivity,the control on topology is crucial.The algorithm of topology control based on quantum genetic algorithm in sensor networks is proposed.An advantage of the quantum genetic algorithm over the conventional genetic algorithm is demonstrated in simulation experiments.The goals of high connectivity and low consumption of energy are reached.

  10. Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-05-01

    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in arterial pulse monitoring using optical fiber sensors. In this paper, we introduce a novel device based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual.

  11. Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Notte, Mario; Troia, Benedetto; Muciaccia, Tommaso; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2014-03-10

    Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10(-8) RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator.

  12. Recent Advances in Gas and Chemical Detection by Vernier Effect-Based Photonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Notte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10−8 RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator.

  13. Principle of Quantum Key Distribution on an Optical Fiber Based on Time Shifts of TB Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorin, A. S.; Makhorin, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of the physical realization of a quantum key distribution scheme in an optical-fiber communication channel based on time coding of two- and three-level single-photon quantum states is demonstrated. It is proposed to employ shifts of TB qubits (time-bin qubits) as protected code combinations, transmitted over a quantum channel, and for registering individual photons - the corresponding qutrits prepared in unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The possibility of enhancing the level of protection of the code combinations as a result of taking into account information about qubit basis states and their statistics is indicated. A computer model of the time coding of TB qubits based on the BB84 protocol is developed, and results of calculations confirming the realizability of the indicated principle are presented.

  14. Towards a manufacturing ecosystem for integrated photonic sensors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory-scale demonstrations of optical biosensing employing structures compatible with CMOS fabrication, including waveguides, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, ring resonators, and photonic crystals, have provided ample validation of the promise of these technologies. However, to date there are relatively few examples of integrated photonic biosensors in the commercial sphere. The lack of successful translation from the laboratory to the marketplace is due in part to a lack of robust manufacturing processes for integrated photonics overall. This talk will describe efforts within the American Institute for Manufacturing Photonics (AIM Photonics), a public-private consortium funded by the Department of Defense, State governments, Universities, and Corporate partners to accelerate manufacturing of integrated photonic sensors.

  15. Quantum entanglement distribution using a magnetic field sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffry, Marcus; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sensors based on crystal defects, especially nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in nanodiamond, can achieve detection of single magnetic moments. Here we show that this exquisite control can be utilized to entangle remote electronic spins for applications in quantum computing; the mobile sensor provides a `flying' qubit while the act of sensing the local field constitutes a two-qubit projective measurement. Thus the tip mediates entanglement between an array of well-separated (and thus well controlled) qubits. Our calculations establish that such a device would be remarkably robust against realistic issues such as dephasing and multimodal vibrations in the sensor tip. We also provide calculations establishing the feasibility of performing a demonstrator experiment with a fixed sensor in the immediate future.

  16. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  17. Fiber curvature sensor based on spherical-shape structures and long-period grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mengling; Gong, Huaping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Dong, Xinyong

    2016-11-01

    A novel curvature sensor based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is demonstrated. It consists of two spherical-shape structures and a long-period grating (LPG) in between. The experimental results show that the shift of the dip wavelength is almost linearly proportional to the change of curvature, and the curvature sensitivity are -22.144 nm/m-1 in the measurement range of 5.33-6.93 m-1, -28.225 nm/m-1 in the range of 6.93-8.43 m- and -15.68 nm/m-1 in the range of 8.43-9.43 m-1, respectively. And the maximum curvature error caused by temperature is only -0.003 m-1/°C. The sensor exhibits the advantages of all-fiber structure, high mechanical strength, high curvature sensitivity and large measurement scales.

  18. Robust signals from a quantum-based magnetic compass sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A quantum-based magnetic compass sensor, mediated through radical pair reactions, has been suggested to underlie the sensory ability of migrating birds to receive directional information from the geomagnetic field. Here we extend the currently available models by considering the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  19. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V.; Traina, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach--Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Express 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced χ2 of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced χ2 of greater than 20.

  20. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V; Traina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Expr. 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of greater than 20.

  1. Quantum Interference between a Single-Photon Fock State and a Coherent State

    CERN Document Server

    Windhager, Armin; Pacher, Christoph; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  2. Quantum interference between a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, A.; Suda, M.; Pacher, C.; Peev, M.; Poppe, A.

    2011-04-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  3. Probing the kinetics of quantum dot-based proteolytic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián A; Malonoski, Anthony P; Susumu, Kimihiro; Hofele, Romina V; Oh, Eunkeu; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-09-01

    As an enzyme superfamily, proteases are rivaled only by kinases in terms of their abundance within the human genome. Two ratiometric quantum dot (QD) Förster resonance energy transfer-based sensors designed to monitor the activity of the proteolytic enzymes collagenase and elastase are investigated here. Given the unique material constraints of these sensing constructs, assays are realized utilizing excess enzyme and fixed substrate in progress curve format to yield enzyme specificity or k cat/K m ratios. The range of k cat/Km values derived is 0.5-1.1 mM(-1) s(-1) for the collagenase sensor and 3.7-4.2 mM(-1) s(-1) for the elastase sensor. Of greater interest is the observation that the elastase sensor can be well represented by the Michaelis-Menten model while the collagenase sensor cannot. The latter demonstrates increased specificity at higher peptide substrate/QD loading values and an apparent QD-caused reversible inhibition as the reaction progresses. Understanding the detailed kinetic mechanisms that underpin these types of sensors will be important especially for their further quantitative utilization.

  4. Experimental analysis of the quantum complementarity principle

    CERN Document Server

    Auccaise, R; Filgueiras, J G; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Céleri, L C

    2012-01-01

    One of the milestones of quantum mechanics is Bohr's complementarity principle. It states that a single quantum can exhibit a particle-like \\emph{or} a wave-like behaviour, but never both at the same time. These are mutually exclusive and complementary aspects of the quantum system. This means that we need distinct experimental arrangements in order to measure the particle or the wave nature of a physical system. One of the most known representations of this principle is the single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer. When the interferometer is closed an interference pattern is observed (wave aspect of the quantum) while if it is open, the quantum behaves like a particle. Here, using a molecular quantum information processor and employing nuclear magnetic resonant (NMR) techniques, we analyze the quantum version of this principle by means of an interferometer that is in a quantum superposition of being closed and open, and confirm that we can indeed measure both aspects of the system with the same experimental...

  5. A Model of Magneto-mechano-optical Transfer in Fibre-optic Magnetic Sensors with Magnetostrictive Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-yan; SI Yong-min

    2004-01-01

    Fibre-optic magnetic sensors with magnetostrictive films are used as all-fibre Mach-Zehnder interferometer to detect the optical phase shift, which is caused by the magnetostriction-induced strains transferred from the msgnetostrictive film to the fibre. A theoretical model based on the plane strain approximation and uniform axial strain is developed to determine the magneto-mechano-optical transfer relations in this kind of sensors. The expression for the model is presented as well as relation of the phase shift in the fibre to the magnetic and elastic properties of the magnetostrictive film coated on the fibre. And from the model, the thickness of the film has significant influence on the phase shift.

  6. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Devin H; de Almeida, Marcelo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this "detection loophole" by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented $\\sim$62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  7. Single-ion microwave near-field quantum sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahnschaffe, M.; Hahn, H.; Zarantonello, G.; Dubielzig, T.; Grondkowski, S.; Bautista-Salvador, A.; Kohnen, M.; Ospelkaus, C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop an intuitive model of 2D microwave near-fields in the unusual regime of centimeter waves localized to tens of microns. Close to an intensity minimum, a simple effective description emerges with five parameters that characterize the strength and spatial orientation of the zero and first order terms of the near-field, as well as the field polarization. Such a field configuration is realized in a microfabricated planar structure with an integrated microwave conductor operating near 1 GHz. We use a single 9 Be+ ion as a high-resolution quantum sensor to measure the field distribution through energy shifts in its hyperfine structure. We find agreement with simulations at the sub-micron and few-degree level. Our findings give a clear and general picture of the basic properties of oscillatory 2D near-fields with applications in quantum information processing, neutral atom trapping and manipulation, chip-scale atomic clocks, and integrated microwave circuits.

  8. Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Amri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS. It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed.

  9. Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed. PMID:27367698

  10. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  11. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jianwei; Jiang, Pisu; Bonneau, Damien; Engin, Erman; Silverstone, Joshua W; Lermer, Matthias; Beetz, Johannes; Kamp, Martin; Hofling, Sven; Tanner, Michael G; Natarajan, Chandra M; Hadfield, Robert H; Dorenbos, Sander N; Zwiller, Val; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Thompson, Mark G

    2014-01-01

    Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This w...

  12. High-dimensional quantum key distribution based on multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld; Cai, Xinlun; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2017-06-01

    Quantum key distribution provides an efficient means to exchange information in an unconditionally secure way. Historically, quantum key distribution protocols have been based on binary signal formats, such as two polarization states, and the transmitted information efficiency of the quantum key is intrinsically limited to 1 bit/photon. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on space division multiplexing in multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated lightwave circuits. We successfully realized three mutually unbiased bases in a four-dimensional Hilbert space, and achieved low and stable quantum bit error rate well below both the coherent attack and individual attack limits. Compared to previous demonstrations, the use of a multicore fiber in our protocol provides a much more efficient way to create high-dimensional quantum states, and enables breaking the information efficiency limit of traditional quantum key distribution protocols. In addition, the silicon photonic circuits used in our work integrate variable optical attenuators, highly efficient multicore fiber couplers, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, enabling manipulating high-dimensional quantum states in a compact and stable manner. Our demonstration paves the way to utilize state-of-the-art multicore fibers for noise tolerance high-dimensional quantum key distribution, and boost silicon photonics for high information efficiency quantum communications.

  13. Analysis of Trace Gas Mixtures Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-07-01

    We measure and analyze mixtures of trace gases at ppb-ppm levels using an external cavity quantum cascade laser sensor with a 1-second response time. Accurate spectral fits are obtained in the presence of overlapping spectra.

  14. Coherent Quantum-Noise Cancellation for Optomechanical Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2010-01-01

    Using a flowchart representation of quantum optomechanical dynamics, we design coherent quantum-noise-cancellation schemes that can eliminate the back-action noise induced by radiation pressure at all frequencies and thus overcome the standard quantum limit of force sensing. The proposed schemes can be regarded as novel examples of coherent feedforward quantum control.

  15. Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors for Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Baoquan; Bai, Qing; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-07-26

    Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors receive extensive investigation and play a significant role in the sensor panorama. Optical parameters such as light intensity, phase, polarization state, or light frequency will change when external vibration is applied on the sensing fiber. In this paper, various technologies of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing are reviewed, from interferometric sensing technology, such as Sagnac, Mach-Zehnder, and Michelson, to backscattering-based sensing technology, such as phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer, polarization-optical time domain reflectometer, optical frequency domain reflectometer, as well as some combinations of interferometric and backscattering-based techniques. Their operation principles are presented and recent research efforts are also included. Finally, the applications of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are summarized, which mainly include structural health monitoring and perimeter security, etc. Overall, distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors possess the advantages of large-scale monitoring, good concealment, excellent flexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, and thus show considerable potential for a variety of practical applications.

  16. On the number of entangled qubits in quantum wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Amit Kumar; Balakrishnan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can take the advantages by utilizing the security schemes based on the concepts of quantum computation and cryptography. However, quantum wireless sensor networks (QWSNs) are shown to have many practical constraints. One of the constraints is the number of entangled qubits which is very high in the quantum security scheme proposed by [Nagy et al., Nat. Comput. 9 (2010) 819]. In this work, we propose a modification of the security scheme introduced by Nagy et al. and hence the reduction in the number of entangled qubits is shown. Further, the modified scheme can overcome some of the constraints in the QWSNs.

  17. Laboratory feasibility study of a composite embedded fiber optic sensor for measurement of structural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, C. M.; Wang, Tom D.; Melton, Robert G.; Jenson, David W.; Koharchik, Mike

    1988-02-01

    The feasibility is assessed of using fiber optic strain sensors embedded in a composite material to measure the magnitude and frequency of structural vibrations for control of flexible elements. This study demonstrates the ability to embed fiber optic strain sensors in a composite material, determines the performance of these sensors, identifies active control system architectures that are matched to the fiber optic system measurands to damp vibrations of large space structures, and estimates the stability achievable by these methods. A detailed laboratory study was performed using a wide band closed-loop-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer to conduct transverse vibration measurements on sub-scale composite elements with embedded fiber sensors. The interferometer detects vibrations by measuring the strain transferred by the composite to the embedded optical fiber. The strain sensor demonstrated the ability to track the vibrations of a cantilever beam over a frequency bandwidth ranging from approximately 5 Hz to almost 1000 Hz. The sensor was unable to detect dc strains because of thermal drift and laser power fluctuations. These factors produced a drift in the dc signal level, which was indistinguishable from static strain measurements. Beyond 1000 Hz, the composite element was unable to follow the drive mechanism. The noise equivalent strain was epsilon is approximately 10 to the minus 10th power.

  18. Beating the Classical Limits of Information Transmission using a Quantum Decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Akib; Huang, Zixin; Chapman, Rob; Tomamichel, Marco; Flammia, Steve; Peruzzo, Alberto

    Reliable transmission of information over a noisy channel is a fundamental challenge in communication theory. The emergence of quantum technologies has created a new class of strategies that allow for message recovery greater than purely classical methods. Despite this, for minimal uses of the channel, finding such schemes remains a challenge. We investigate the amplitude damping channel which describes physical systems that suffer energy loss such as in cavity quantum electrodynamics or spin chain excitations. We derive and experimentally demonstrate the fundamental limit for message recovery possible with only classical methods. We then propose a quantum decoder and experimentally demonstrate message recovery past this classical limit. We use polarisation-encoded photonic qubits. The post-amplitude damping states are generated by an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer and entanglement is accomplished with a linear optical probabilistic controlled z gate. Our quantum decoder uses a single entangling gate at the receiver where other similar schemes rely on both the sender and the receiver having quantum devices. Our results present an advance in discovering the quantum capabilities of finite resource communications, with specific regard to the amplitude damping channel.

  19. Quantum Weak Values and Logic: An Uneasy Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt E. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum mechanical weak values of projection operators have been used to answer which-way questions, e. g. to trace which arms in a multiple Mach-Zehnder setup a particle may have traversed from a given initial to a prescribed final state. I show that this procedure might lead to logical inconsistencies in the sense that different methods used to answer composite questions, like "Has the particle traversed the way X or the way Y?", may result in different answers depending on which methods are used to find the answer. I illustrate the problem by considering some examples: the "quantum pigeonhole" framework of Aharonov et al., the three-box problem, and Hardy's paradox. To prepare the ground for my main conclusion on the incompatibility in certain cases of weak values and logic, I study the corresponding situation for strong/projective measurements. In this case, no logical inconsistencies occur provided one is always careful in specifying exactly to which ensemble or sample space one refers. My results cast doubts on the utility of quantum weak values in treating cases like the examples mentioned.

  20. Absorbers in the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Marchildon, Louis

    2013-03-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, following the time-symmetric formulation of electrodynamics, uses retarded and advanced solutions of the Schrödinger equation and its complex conjugate to understand quantum phenomena by means of transactions. A transaction occurs between an emitter and a specific absorber when the emitter has received advanced waves from all possible absorbers. Advanced causation always raises the specter of paradoxes, and it must be addressed carefully. In particular, different devices involving contingent absorbers or various types of interaction-free measurements have been proposed as threatening the original version of the transactional interpretation. These proposals will be analyzed by examining in each case the configuration of absorbers and, in the special case of the so-called quantum liar experiment, by carefully following the development of retarded and advanced waves through the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We will show that there is no need to resort to the hierarchy of transactions that some have proposed, and will argue that the transactional interpretation is consistent with the block-universe picture of time.

  1. Optical fiber temperature sensor utilizing alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, optical fiber temperature sensors have been prepared by using alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots as sensing media. The surface of the optical fiber was silanized to enhance covalent bond between quantum dots and optical fiber. The quantum dots were bonded to the surface of optical fiber and further encapsulated via sol-gel coating using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in ethyl alcohol in acidic condition. Quantum dots with green, yellow, and red fluorescence were used. The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) intensity from quantum dots on ambient temperature has been studied. Linear relation between the fluorescent intensity and temperature was obtained from alloyed quantum dots immobilized on the surface of optical fiber. The PL intensity, sensitivity, and thermal stability were increased by the silica encapsulation.

  2. Investigation of a Nanophotonic Sensor with Electrode Modified by Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Sushko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on optical sensors, namely nanophotonic ones intended for liquid media contained polynuclear aromatics assay. Developed by us nanophotonic sensor includes optically transparent working electrode modified by quantum-dimensional structures such as spherical semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Monomolecular layer of QDs is plotted onto the electrode by Langmuir-Blodgett technology. Particular attention is paid to the processes of assay in nanophotonic sensor. As an analyte we used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH such as benzo[a]pyrene (BP, which is known for its carcinogenic properties. The developed nanophotonic sensor can be used in ecology for organic carcinogens detection in water objects of environment as well as for biomedical, physical chemical assays and some others.

  3. Circular dichroism sensor based on cadmium sulfide quantum dots for chiral identification and detection of penicillamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamdee, Kessarin [Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Puangmali, Theerapong [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Tuntulani, Thawatchai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Ngeontae, Wittaya, E-mail: wittayange@kku.ac.th [Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand)

    2015-10-22

    A new chemical sensor based on the measuring of circular dichroism signal (CD) was fabricated from cysteamine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs). The chiral-thiol molecules, D-penicillamine (DPA) and L-penicillamine (LPA), were used to evaluate potentials of this sensor. Basically, DPA and LPA provide very low CD signals. However, the CD signals of DPA and LPA can be enhanced in the presence of Cys-CdS QDs. The CD spectra of DPA and LPA exhibited a mirror image profile. Parameters affecting the determination of DPA and LPA were thoroughly investigated in details. Under the optimized condition, the CD signals of DPA and LPA displayed a linear relationship with the concentrations of both enantiomers, ranging from 1 to 35 μM. Detection limits of this sensor were 0.49 and 0.74 μM for DPA and LPA, respectively. To demonstrate a potential application of this sensor, the proposed sensor was used to determine DPA and LPA in real urine samples. It was confirmed that the proposed detection technique was reliable and could be utilized in a broad range of applications. - Highlights: • This paper demonstrates a new CD sensor based on cadmium sulfide quantum dots. • Achiral quantum dots are used for the detection and chiral identification of thiol-chiral containing compounds. • The sensor show highest selectivity towards penicillamine. • The detection limits of the sensor less than 1 μM. • The sensor can potentially be used in physiological urine samples.

  4. Low coherence technique to interrogate optical sensors based on selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber for temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Zhongze; Wang, Zeming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber sensing system based on low coherence interferometry (LCI) is proposed and demonstrated to interrogate sensors comprised of selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber (SFDC-PCF). The sensor used here is made by selectively filling about 1/3 area of air holes in the cladding of photonic crystal fiber with distilled water. So the dual-core in the sensor has different effective refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between two lights transmitting in the fiber. The phase delay of the sensor can be compensated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a scanning optical tunable delay line in one arm of the interferometer, namely temporal interrogation. By tracking the value of phase delay, the change of the measurand can be detected. Temperature measurement is carried out to testify the system performance. An average sensitivity of 0.9 μm/°C is achieved within the temperature range of 29-92 °C. This work provides a new thinking for fiber sensing technology based on LCI. The proposed all-fiber sensing system, with the merits of cost-effective, stability, and flexibility, can demodulate the SFDC-PCF sensor signals well. Further improvements such as better sensitivity, larger measurement range and multiplexing efficiency can be realized by tailoring the PCF sensor's structure.

  5. Qubit quantum-dot sensors: Noise cancellation by coherent backaction, initial slips, and elliptical precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; DiVincenzo, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the backaction of a sensor quantum dot with strong local Coulomb repulsion on the transient dynamics of a qubit that is probed capacitively. We show that the measurement backaction induced by the noise of electron cotunneling through the sensor is surprisingly mitigated by the recently identified coherent backaction [M. Hell, M. R. Wegewijs, and D. P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 195405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195405] arising from quantum fluctuations. This indicates that a sensor with quantized states may be switched off better than naively expected. This renormalization effect is missing in semiclassical stochastic fluctuator models and typically also in Born-Markov approaches, which try to avoid the calculation of the nonstationary, nonequilibrium state of the qubit plus sensor. Technically, we integrate out the current-carrying electrodes to obtain kinetic equations for the joint, nonequilibrium detector-qubit dynamics. We show that the sensor current response, level renormalization, cotunneling broadening, and leading non-Markovian corrections always appear together and cannot be turned off individually in an experiment or ignored theoretically. We analyze the backaction on the reduced qubit state—capturing the full non-Markovian effects imposed by the sensor quantum dot on the qubit—by applying a Liouville-space decomposition into quasistationary and rapidly decaying modes. Importantly, the sensor cannot be eliminated completely even in the simplest high-temperature, weak-measurement limit since the qubit state experiences an initial slip depending on the initial preparation of qubit plus sensor quantum dot. The slip persists over many qubit cycles, i.e., also on the time scale of the qubit decoherence induced by the backaction. A quantum-dot sensor can thus not be modeled as usual as a "black box" without accounting for its dynamical variables; it is part of the quantum circuit. We furthermore find that the Bloch vector

  6. Effect of coating on the strain transfer of optical fiber sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber strain sensors with light weight, small dimensions and immunity to electromagnetic interference are widely used in structural health monitoring devices. As a sensor, it is expected that the strains between the optical fiber and host structure are the same. However, due to the shear deformation of the protective coating, the optical fiber strain is different from that of host structure. To improve the measurement accuracy, the strain measured by the optical fiber needs to be modified to reflect the influence of the coating. In this investigation, a theoretical model of the strain transferred from the host material to the optical fiber is developed to evaluate the interaction between the host material and coating. The theoretical predictions are validated with a numerical analysis using the finite element method. Experimental tests are performed to reveal the differential strains between the optical fiber strain sensor and test specimen. The Mach-Zehnder interferometric type fiber-optic sensor is adopted to measure the strain. Experimental results show that the strain measured at the optical fiber is lower than the true strain in the test specimen. The percentage of strain in the test specimen actually transferred to the optical fiber is dependent on the bonded length of the optical fiber and the protective coating. The general trend of the strain transformation obtained from both experimental tests and theoretical predictions shows that the longer the bonded length and the stiffer the coating the more strain is transferred to the optical fiber.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandon, J.; Hogman, M.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Amsterdam, J. van; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for

  8. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  10. A novel electrochemiluminescence sensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene/CdTe quantum dots composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Aming; Zhang, Shengyi, E-mail: syzhangi@126.com; Mao, Changjie; Song, Jiming; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The composite was prepared by combining CdTe QDs with nitrogen-doped graphene. • The NG/CdTe QDs composite as-prepared was used to construct sensor. • The sensor exhibited high ECL intensity and good ECL stability. • The sensor was used to detect ascorbic acid based on its ECL quenching. - Abstract: A novel sensor was assembled by combining CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The sensor as-assembled with the NG/CdTe QDs composite exhibited high electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity and long-time ECL stability. The ECL mechanism and effect factors on ECL emission of the sensor are discussed. Significantly, the sensor was used in ascorbic acid (AA) detection based on the ECL quenching of AA. The results show that the sensor has a linear response range from 0.04 to 200 μM and the detection limit of 0.015 μM for AA.

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  12. Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.

  13. Fiber optic humidity sensor based on the graphene oxide/PVA composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Shen, Changyu; Lou, Weimin; Shentu, Fengying

    2016-08-01

    Fiber optic humidity sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) coated with graphene oxide (GO)/PVA composite film was investigated. The MZI is constructed of two waist-enlarged tapers. The length between two waist-enlarged tapers is 20 mm. By comparing the experiment results of MZI coated with different GO/PVA composite films, composite film formed by the ratio of 0.3 g PVA mixed with 10 ml GO dispersion shows a better performance of relative humidity sensing. By using the molecular structure model of the composited GO/PVA, the operation mechanism between GO/PVA composite film and water molecules was illustrated. The sensitivity of 0.193 dB/%RH with a linear correlation coefficient of 99.1% and good stability under the relative humidity range of 25-80% was obtained. Temperature effect on the proposed fiber optic humidity sensor was also considered and analyzed. According to the repetitive experimental results, the proposed humidity sensor shows a good repeatability.

  14. Structural Health Monitoring Using Textile Reinforcement Structures with Integrated Optical Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kort Bremer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber-based sensors “embedded” in functionalized carbon structures (FCSs and textile net structures (TNSs based on alkaline-resistant glass are introduced for the purpose of structural health monitoring (SHM of concrete-based structures. The design aims to monitor common SHM parameters such as strain and cracks while at the same time acting as a structural strengthening mechanism. The sensor performances of the two systems are characterized in situ using Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI and optical attenuation measurement techniques, respectively. For this purpose, different FCS samples were subjected to varying elongation using a tensile testing machine by carefully incrementing the applied force, and good correlation between the applied force and measured length change was observed. For crack detection, the functionalized TNSs were embedded into a concrete block which was then exposed to varying load using the three-point flexural test until destruction. Promising results were observed, identifying that the location of the crack can be determined using the conventional optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR technique. The embedded sensors thus evaluated show the value of the dual achievement of the schemes proposed in obtaining strain/crack measurement while being utilized as strengthening agents as well.

  15. Frequency analysis of the new prototype of the security window sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes the use of fiber-optic interferometer as a security sensor, which was built in a prototype of a plastic window. Its primary function is detecting the vibration and acoustic impulses, which affect the transparent glass part of the window prototype. The presented results are focused on the analysis of the frequency characteristic of the created prototype to verify of the sensitivity of the sensor. The knowledge of the frequency characteristic of the proposed window sensor is necessary due to the correct interpretation of the measured data. The interferometer is a Mach-Zehnder type and operates with an optical fibers G.652.D. As a radiation source, we used DFB laser with the wavelength of 1550 nm. The input optical power is 1 mW. Optical signal was detected by PbSe photodetector. The generator of the harmonic signal with fixed amplitude of the signal and digital sound level meter were used to the analysis of the frequency characteristic of the prototype. The analyzed frequency spectrum was in a range of 35 Hz to 8 kHz. The paper showed that this system is suitable for measurements of vibration impulses and acoustic waves in the audible range from 40 Hz up to 3 kHz.

  16. Quantum Sensors at the Intersections of Fundamental Science, Quantum Information Science & Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Falcone, Roger [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Walsworth, Ronald [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Over the last twenty years, there has been a boom in quantum science - i.e., the development and exploitation of quantum systems to enable qualitatively and quantitatively new capabilities, with high-impact applications and fundamental insights that can range across all areas of science and technology.

  17. Quantum Dots Based Rad-Hard Computing and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, A.; Klimeck, G.; Leon, R.; Qiu, Y.; Toomarian, N.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are solid-state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well-conducting region. Thus, they can be viewed as artificial atoms. They therefore represent the ultimate limit of the semiconductor device scaling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Effect of phase noise on quantum correlations in Bose-Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Spehner, D. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Institut Fourier UMR5582, B.P. 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-10-15

    In a two-mode Bose-Josephson junction the dynamics induced by a sudden quench of the tunnel amplitude leads to the periodic formation of entangled states. For instance, squeezed states are formed at short times and macroscopic superpositions of phase states at later times. In atom interferometry, the two modes of the junction play the role of the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer; use of multiparticle entangled states allows the enhancement of phase sensitivity with respect to that obtained from uncorrelated atoms. Decoherence due to the presence of noise degrades quantum correlations between atoms, thus reducing phase sensitivity. We consider decoherence due to stochastic fluctuations of the energies of the two modes of the junction. We analyze its effect on squeezed states and macroscopic superpositions and calculate the squeezing parameter and the quantum Fisher information during the quenched dynamics. The latter quantity measures the amount of quantum correlations useful in interferometry. For moderate noise intensities, we show that it increases on time scales beyond the squeezing regime. This suggests multicomponent superpositions of phase states as interesting candidates for high-precision atom interferometry.

  19. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  20. Determining the Optimal Placement of Sensors on a Concrete Arch Dam Using a Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modal identification has become increasingly important in health monitoring, fault diagnosis, vibration control, and dynamic analysis of engineering structures in recent years. Based on an analysis of traditional optimization algorithms, this paper proposes a novel sensor optimization criterion that combines the effective independence (EFI method with the modal strain energy (MSE method. Considering the complex structure and enormous degrees of freedom (DOFs of modern concrete arch dam, a quantum genetic algorithm (QGA is used to optimize the corresponding sensor network on the upstream surface of a dam. Finally, this study uses a specific concrete arch dam as an example and determines the optimal sensor placement using the proposed method. By comparing the results with the traditional optimization methods, the proposed method is shown to maximize the spatial intersection angle among the modal vectors of sensor network and can effectively resist ambient perturbations, which will make the identified modal parameters more precise.

  1. Experimental validation of superconducting quantum interference device sensors for electromagnetic scattering in geologic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.H. Jr.; Flynn, E.; Ruminer, P. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has supported the collaborative development with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) of two critical components for a hand-held low-field magnetic sensor based on superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensor technology. The two components are a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm for background noise rejection and a small hand-held dewar cooled by a cryocooler. A hand-held sensor has been designed and fabricated for detection of extremely weak magnetic fields in unshielded environments. The sensor is capable of measuring weak magnetic fields in unshielded environments and has multiple applications. We have chosen to pursue battlefield medicine as the highest probability near-term application because of stated needs of several agencies.

  2. Two optically active molybdenum disulfide quantum dots as tetracycline sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Lin, Jintai [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute for Advanced Materials, Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, 510006 (China)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we use the hydrothermal method to develop two luminescent MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) from L-cysteine and glutathione as sulfur precursors. The special blue emissions give rise to an instantaneous determination of tetracycline (TC) through the quenching of its luminescence. The accessibility of the optical materials and recognition mechanism have been extensively studied. This strategy demonstrated that MoS{sub 2} could act as a new platform for anchoring bioactive species or particular functional moieties. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} nanostructures with water solubility have been fabricated. • Blue emission has been achieved. • It displays selective detection to tetracyclines in water.

  3. Dissipatively Stabilized Quantum Sensor Based on Indirect Nuclear-Nuclear Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Plenio, M. B.

    2017-07-01

    We propose to use a dissipatively stabilized nitrogen vacancy (NV) center as a mediator of interaction between two nuclear spins that are protected from decoherence and relaxation of the NV due to the periodical resets of the NV center. Under ambient conditions this scheme achieves highly selective high-fidelity quantum gates between nuclear spins in a quantum register even at large NV-nuclear distances. Importantly, this method allows for the use of nuclear spins as a sensor rather than a memory, while the NV spin acts as an ancillary system for the initialization and readout of the sensor. The immunity to the decoherence and relaxation of the NV center leads to a tunable sharp frequency filter while allowing at the same time the continuous collection of the signal to achieve simultaneously high spectral selectivity and high signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Spectral interferometric sensors for gases and liquids using integrated optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, Jan; Gauglitz, Guenter; Fabricius, Norbert

    1993-04-01

    Investigations for a sensor application with an integrated optical (IO) interferometric arrangement are presented. One of the two waveguide arms of an IO-Mach-Zehnder- interferometer is covered with a thin layer of polysiloxane (superstrate), which is sensitive to hydrocarbons. The dielectric IO-devices are fabricated by IOT. Gases of organic compounds including halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons cause a change of the polysiloxan's refractive index followed by an increase or decrease of the effective refractive index of the covered waveguide arm. The resulting phase shift between the guided light in the measuring and the reference arm depends on the detection wavelength and the concentration of gas. Using an LED as the light source the spectral interferogram becomes observable and so order and phase of the signal can be determined. The aim of this work is the development of a reversibly working, miniaturized sensor with a short response time. The advantages of spectral observation of the interference are discussed. A comparison between measured and calculated spectral interference signals is given.

  5. A long period grating-based chemical sensor insensitive to the influence of interfering parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen W; Korposh, Serhiy; Lee, Seung-Woo; Tatam, Ralph P

    2014-04-07

    An optical fibre chemical sensor that is insensitive to interfering parameters including temperature and surrounding refractive index is described. The sensor is based upon a Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by a pair of identical cascaded long period gratings (LPGs), with the entire device coated with a mesoporous coating of silica nanoparticles. A functional material is infused only into the coating over the section of optical fibre separating the LPGs. The transmission spectrum of the device consists of a channeled spectrum arising from interference of the core and cladding modes within the envelope of the LPG resonance band. Parameters such as temperature, strain and surrounding refractive perturb the entire device, causing the phase of the channeled spectrum and the central wavelength of the envelope shift at the same rate. Exposure of the device to the analyte of interest perturbs only the optical characteristics of the section of fibre into which the functional material was infused, thus influencing only the phase of the channeled spectrum. Measurement of the phase of the channeled spectrum relative to the central wavelength of the envelope allows the monitoring of the concentration of the analyte with no interference from other parameters.

  6. A Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire-based double quantum dot with integrated charge sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yongjie; Churchill, Hugh; Reilly, David

    2007-01-01

    : the predominance of spin-zero nuclei suppresses the hyperfine interaction and chemical synthesis creates a clean and defect-free system with highly controllable properties. Here we present a top gate-defined double quantum dot based on Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires with fully tunable coupling between the dots......Coupled electron spins in semiconductor double quantum dots hold promise as the basis for solid-state qubits. To date, most experiments have used III-V materials, in which coherence is limited by hyperfine interactions. Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires seem ideally suited to overcome this limitation...... and to the leads. We also demonstrate a novel approach to charge sensing in a one-dimensional nanostructure by capacitively coupling the double dot to a single dot on an adjacent nanowire. The double quantum dot and integrated charge sensor serve as an essential building block required to form a solid-state spin...

  7. Ultrasensitive photoacoustic sensor based on quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Gautam, Surya; Kumar, Subodh; Gupta, Saurabh; Srivastava, Hari B.; Thakur, Surya N.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper focuses on development of ultra-sonic detection system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopic technique and processing of signal for detection of very low quantity chemicals, explosive materials, and mixtures of these hazardous molecules. The detection system has been developed for the first time with specially designed one side open photo-acoustic cell having high quality factor. Explosive and Hazardous materials like RDX, DNT, PETN, Gun Powder, TATP (Tri acetone tri-peroxide) and their simulants like Acetone were detected in 7 to 9 μm wavelength band. Lock in amplifier electronic instrument was used for the detection of hazardous chemicals and mixture of explosives in very low quantity. Detection limit of the photoacoustic ultrasonic sensor was also carried out of powder, liquid and adsorbed on surfaces.

  8. New detection method for atrazine pesticides with the optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Bergevoet, A.J.H.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of analytes can be determined within a few minutes using on-line analysis of the immunobinding kinetics in a solid phase immunoassay. This approach has been applied to the detection of atrazine. Atrazine is detected, at concentrations around the European Community limit (0.1 ¿g/l) by

  9. Temperature effects of Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a liquid crystal-filled fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Su, Hsien-Pin; Tseng, Yu-Pei;

    2015-01-01

    with a maximum interferometric contrast over 35dB. The temperature-induced resonant wavelength blue-shifts 70.4 nm for the MZI with an LC length of 9.79 mm and the wavelength temperature sensitivity of -1.55 nm/degrees C is easily achieved as the temperature increases from 25 degrees C to 77 degrees C. (C)2015...

  10. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  11. Nearly optimal measurement schemes in a noisy Mach-Zehnder interferometer with coherent and squeezed vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, Bryan T.; You, Chenglong; Singh, Robinjeet; Lee, Hwang; Corbitt, Thomas R.; Dowling, Jonathan P. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Mishra, Devendra K. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); V.S. Mehta College of Science, Physics Department, Bharwari, UP (India)

    2017-12-15

    The use of an interferometer to perform an ultra-precise parameter estimation under noisy conditions is a challenging task. Here we discuss nearly optimal measurement schemes for a well known, sensitive input state, squeezed vacuum and coherent light. We find that a single mode intensity measurement, while the simplest and able to beat the shot-noise limit, is outperformed by other measurement schemes in the low-power regime. However, at high powers, intensity measurement is only outperformed by a small factor. Specifically, we confirm, that an optimal measurement choice under lossless conditions is the parity measurement. In addition, we also discuss the performance of several other common measurement schemes when considering photon loss, detector efficiency, phase drift, and thermal photon noise. We conclude that, with noise considerations, homodyne remains near optimal in both the low and high power regimes. Surprisingly, some of the remaining investigated measurement schemes, including the previous optimal parity measurement, do not remain even near optimal when noise is introduced. (orig.)

  12. Improving the acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    A method for modeling the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic wave is generated by an interdigital transducer using a linear elastic plane model of a piezoelect......A method for modeling the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic wave is generated by an interdigital transducer using a linear elastic plane model...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material, and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by time-harmonic wave equations for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using stress-optical relations and the change...... bigger if the waveguides are kept single moded. It is furthermore shown that the difference increases more than ten times when the waveguides are buried below the surface, where the mechanical stresses have their maximum, and in the case where two interdigital transducers are used the difference...

  13. Characterization of an Optically Integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for the Detection of Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    nanotechnology for chemical and biochemical analysis. The integration of planar waveguides with these technologies can provide new methods of detection...Project Group 33 on automated biosensors. The work described herein is relevant to NATO Panel 7 in that it presents a novel method of chemical-optical...the analytes possess flu- P502399.PDF [Page: 12 of 62] UNCLASSIFIED 2 orescence labels) or by refractometry . Surface plasmon resonance (Refs. 1 and 2

  14. New detection method for atrazine pesticides with the optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Schipper, E.F.; Bergevoet, A.J.H.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of analytes can be determined within a few minutes using on-line analysis of the immunobinding kinetics in a solid phase immunoassay. This approach has been applied to the detection of atrazine. Atrazine is detected, at concentrations around the European Community limit (0.1 ¿g/l) by

  15. A general quantitative pH sensor developed with dicyandiamide N-doped high quantum yield graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhu Lian; Gao, Ming Xuan; Wang, Ting Ting; Wan, Xiao Yan; Zheng, Lin Ling; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-04-07

    A general quantitative pH sensor for environmental and intracellular applications was developed by the facile hydrothermal preparation of dicyandiamide (DCD) N-doped high quantum yield (QY) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source. The obtained N-doped GQDs have excellent photoluminesence (PL) properties with a relatively high QY of 36.5%, suggesting that N-doped chemistry could promote the QY of carbon nanomaterials. The possible mechanism for the formation of the GQDs involves the CA self-assembling into a nanosheet structure through intermolecular H-bonding at the initial stage of the reaction, and then the pure graphene core with many function groups formed through the dehydration between the carboxyl and hydroxyl of the intermolecules under hydrothermal conditions. These N-doped GQDs have low toxicity, and are photostable and pH-sensitive between 1.81 to 8.96, giving a general pH sensor with a wide range of applications from real water to intracellular contents.

  16. Investigando a aprendizagem de professores de física acerca do fenômeno da interferência quântica Investigating Physics teachers' learning on the quantum interference phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ostermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a evolução conceitual de 14 professores de Ensino Médio que foram estudantes, no 2º semestre de 2005, de uma disciplina sobre Física Quântica (FQ no Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da UFRGS. Foi realizada uma análise de suas respostas acerca da interferência quântica em questionários especialmente desenvolvidos. Este estudo insere-se no âmbito de um projeto sobre Tópicos de Física Moderna e Contemporânea na formação de professores e já tem, como resultados a elaboração de um questionário sobre conceitos de FQ, construção e avaliação de uma unidade didática baseada em experimentos virtuais e o desenvolvimento de um software livre, do tipo "bancada virtual", que simula o fenômeno da interferência quântica em um aparato denominado Interferômetro de Mach Zehnder. A partir das sínteses das questões e da análise das respostas dos alunos, os resultados aqui relatados evidenciam aspectos de uma evolução conceitual em tópicos introdutórios de FQ.An analysis of the conceptual evolution of 14 Physics Teachers attending a 4 credit discipline "Introductory Quantum Physics" from August to December 2005 is presented in this work. They were all regular students in the Professional Masters Degree Program in Instituto de Física (UFRGS. Our analysis focuses on answers to learning questionnaires on the particular phenomenon of quantum interference. This study is part of a current project concerned with the preparation of Physics Teachers in Topics of Modern and Contemporary Physics. The project has so far resulted in the elaboration of learning questionnaires on Quantum Physics, the elaboration and evaluation of a teaching unit based on virtual experiments and the elaboration of a freeware interactive software that simulates the quantum interference in the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. From questions synthesis and student´s answers, outcomes here related show aspects of a conceptual evolution in Quantum

  17. Circular dichroism sensor based on cadmium sulfide quantum dots for chiral identification and detection of penicillamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamdee, Kessarin; Puangmali, Theerapong; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2015-10-22

    A new chemical sensor based on the measuring of circular dichroism signal (CD) was fabricated from cysteamine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs). The chiral-thiol molecules, d-penicillamine (DPA) and l-penicillamine (LPA), were used to evaluate potentials of this sensor. Basically, DPA and LPA provide very low CD signals. However, the CD signals of DPA and LPA can be enhanced in the presence of Cys-CdS QDs. The CD spectra of DPA and LPA exhibited a mirror image profile. Parameters affecting the determination of DPA and LPA were thoroughly investigated in details. Under the optimized condition, the CD signals of DPA and LPA displayed a linear relationship with the concentrations of both enantiomers, ranging from 1 to 35 μM. Detection limits of this sensor were 0.49 and 0.74 μM for DPA and LPA, respectively. To demonstrate a potential application of this sensor, the proposed sensor was used to determine DPA and LPA in real urine samples. It was confirmed that the proposed detection technique was reliable and could be utilized in a broad range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Open-path, quantum cascade laser-based sensor for high resolution atmospheric ammonia measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Miller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact, open-path, quantum cascade laser-based atmospheric ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 μm for high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, ground-based measurements. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is a gas-phase precursor to fine particulate matter, with implications for air quality and climate change. Currently, NH3 sensing challenges have led to a lack of widespread in-situ measurements. Our open-path sensor configuration avoids sampling artifacts associated with NH3 surface adsorption onto inlet tubing and reduced pressure sampling cells, as well as condensed-phase partitioning ambiguities. Multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy allows for selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric-pressure broadened absorption features. An in-line ethylene reference cell provides real-time calibration (±20% accuracy and normalization for instrument drift under rapidly changing field conditions. The sensor has a sensitivity and minimum detection limit of 0.15 ppbv NH3 at 10 Hz, a mass of ~ 5 kg and consumes ~ 50 W of electrical power. In-situ field performance of this open-path NH3 sensor is demonstrated, with 10 Hz time resolution and a large dynamic response for in-situ NH3 measurements. This sensor provides the capabilities for improved in-situ gas phase NH3 sensing relevant for emission source characterization and flux measurements.

  19. A Phonocardiographic-Based Fiber-Optic Sensor and Adaptive Filtering System for Noninvasive Continuous Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Martinek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design, realization, and verification of a novel phonocardiographic- based fiber-optic sensor and adaptive signal processing system for noninvasive continuous fetal heart rate (fHR monitoring. Our proposed system utilizes two Mach-Zehnder interferometeric sensors. Based on the analysis of real measurement data, we developed a simplified dynamic model for the generation and distribution of heart sounds throughout the human body. Building on this signal model, we then designed, implemented, and verified our adaptive signal processing system by implementing two stochastic gradient-based algorithms: the Least Mean Square Algorithm (LMS, and the Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS Algorithm. With this system we were able to extract the fHR information from high quality fetal phonocardiograms (fPCGs, filtered from abdominal maternal phonocardiograms (mPCGs by performing fPCG signal peak detection. Common signal processing methods such as linear filtering, signal subtraction, and others could not be used for this purpose as fPCG and mPCG signals share overlapping frequency spectra. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated by using both qualitative (gynecological studies and quantitative measures such as: Signal-to-Noise Ratio—SNR, Root Mean Square Error—RMSE, Sensitivity—S+, and Positive Predictive Value—PPV.

  20. Development and Application of Integrated Optical Sensors for Intense E-Field Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqing Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI, coupler interferometer (CI and common path interferometer (CPI. The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

  1. Measurement of M²-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao

    2016-11-29

    For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M²-curve is developed. The M²-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M²-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  2. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  3. Silicone rubber-coated highly sensitive optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    A silicone rubber-coated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and applied to temperature measurement. The MZI is fabricated by splicing single mode fiber between a short section of no-core fiber (NCF) and the ultra-abrupt taper region. The sensing length of MZI is coated with liquid silicone rubber to enhance the temperature sensitivity. Here, NCF is used to excite the higher order cladding mode, the ultra-abrupt taper region acts as a optical fiber coupler, and the silicone rubber coating on sensing length is used as solid cladding material instead of liquid. The enhancement of the sensitivity of a device is due to the high refractive index (1.42) and thermo-optic coefficient (-1.4×10-4/°C) of silicone rubber as compared to liquid cladding temperature sensors. The experiment was performed for both coated and uncoated MZI and the results were compared. The MZI exhibits a high temperature sensitivity of 253.75 and 121.26 pm/°C for coated and uncoated sensing probes, respectively, in the temperature range from 30°C to 75°C.

  4. A Sulfur Hexafluoride Sensor Using Quantum Cascade and CO2 Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helion Vargas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m2. This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO2 laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC laser, for the detection of SF6. The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO2 laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  5. Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Deng, Hao; Liu, Ningwu; Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Benli; Li, Jingsong

    2016-12-01

    We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm-1. Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N2O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector. The wide wavelength tunability of ECQCL will allow us to access the fundamental vibrational bands of many chemical agents, which are well-suited for trace explosive, chemical warfare agent, and toxic industrial chemical detection and spectroscopic analysis.

  6. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mario Lugarà

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm-1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters.

  7. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with modulator attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution is more desirable than the active one in some scenarios. It is also affected by the imperfections of the devices. In this paper, the influence of modulator attenuation on the passive decoy-state method is considered. We introduce and analyze the unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, briefly, and combining with the virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation, we characterize the passive decoy-state method using a weak coherent photon source with modulator attenuation. According to the attenuation parameter δ, the pass efficiencies are given. Then, the key generation rate can be acquired. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that modulator attenuation has a nonnegligible influence on the performance of passive-state QKD protocol. Based on the research, the analysis method of virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation are preferred in analyzing passive decoy state protocol, and the passive decoy-state method is better than the active one and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy state under the condition of having the same modulator attenuation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304397).

  8. Simple optical frequency comb generation using a passively mode-locked quantum dot laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiupu; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Zhenxiang; Liu, Taijun

    2017-08-01

    A simple and quasi-tunable optical frequency comb (OFC) generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a C-band passively Fabry-Pérot quantum dot mode-locked laser and a dual-driven LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. A 16-nm bandwidth OFC with 81, 58 and 30 comb lines at frequency interval of 23.3 GHz, 35 GHz and 70 GHz respectively is obtained experimentally. Measured average optical signal to noise ratio of 10-dB bandwidth OFCs is 36.3 dB, 38.5 dB and 40.8 dB at frequency interval of 23.3 GHz, 35 GHz and 70 GHz, respectively. Besides, single-sideband phase noise of the 23.3 GHz and 35 GHz frequency comb is -110 dBc/Hz and -102 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 kHz, respectively. RF linewidth of the 23.3 GHz and 35 GHz OFC is about from 275 Hz to 289 Hz. This is considered a very simple OFC generator with a broadband and seamless spectrum.

  9. Experimental round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Yuan; Dai, Hui; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yu; Guan, Jian-Yu; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-03-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information. Such estimation tends to overrate, leading to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate, which becomes a bottleneck of practical QKD development. This bottleneck is broken through by the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which eliminates the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The key challenge for the implementation of the RRDPS scheme lies in the realization of a variable-delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which requires active and random choice of many delays. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 127 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps with a total loss of 18 dB and an error rate of 8.9%.

  10. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesized zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 coated (Si,TiO2 waveguide sensors, and used OWLS to monitor the relative mass of the film over time. Films lost mass over time, though at different rates due to variation in fluid flow and its physical effect on removal of film material. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was used to deposit CdSe QD coatings on waveguides. Sensors exposed to pH 2 solution lost mass over time in an expected, roughly exponential manner. Sensors at pH 10, in contrast, were stable over time. Results were confirmed with atomic force microscopy imaging. Limiting factors in the use of OWLS in this manner include limitations on the annealing temperature that maybe used to synthesize the oxide film, and limitations on the thickness of the film to be studied. Nevertheless, the technique overcomes a number of difficulties in monitoring the quality of thin films in-situ in liquid environments.

  11. High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duun, Sune; Haahr, Rasmus G.; Hansen, Ole; Birkelund, Karen; Thomsen, Erik V.

    2010-07-01

    The development of annular photodiodes for use in a reflectance pulse oximetry sensor is presented. Wearable and wireless body sensor systems for long-term monitoring require sensors that minimize power consumption. We have fabricated large area 2D ring-shaped silicon photodiodes optimized for minimizing the optical power needed in reflectance pulse oximetry. To simplify packaging, backside photodiodes are made which are compatible with assembly using surface mounting technology without pre-packaging. Quantum efficiencies up to 95% and area-specific noise equivalent powers down to 30 fW Hz-1/2 cm-1 are achieved. The photodiodes are incorporated into a wireless pulse oximetry sensor system embedded in an adhesive patch presented elsewhere as 'The Electronic Patch'. The annular photodiodes are fabricated using two masked diffusions of first boron and subsequently phosphor. The surface is passivated with a layer of silicon nitride also serving as an optical filter. As the final process, after metallization, a hole in the center of the photodiode is etched using deep reactive ion etch.

  12. A comparative study of MOEM pressure sensors using MZI, DC, and racetrack resonator IO structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, A.; Pattnaik, Prasant Kumar; Badrinarayana, T.; Srinivas, T.

    2006-03-01

    In recent years micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors have drawn considerable attention due to their attraction in terms of miniaturization, batch fabrication and ease of integration with the required electronics circuitry. Micro-opto-electro-mechanical (MOEM) devices and systems, based on the principles of integrated optics and micromachining technology on silicon have immense potential for sensor applications. Employing optical techniques have important advantages such as functionality, large bandwidth and higher sensitivity. Pressure sensing is currently the most lucrative market for solid-state micro sensors. Pressure sensing using micromachined structures utilize the changes induced in either the resistive or capacitive properties of the electro-mechanical structure by the impressed pressure. Integrated optical pressure sensors can utilize the changes to the amplitude, phase, refractive index profile, optical path length, or polarization of the lightwave by the external pressure. In this paper we compare the performance characteristics of three types of MOEM pressure sensors based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI), Directional Coupler (DC) and racetrack resonator (RR) integrated optical geometries. The first two configurations measure the pressure changes through a change in optical intensity while the third one measures the same in terms of frequency or wavelength change. The analysis of each sensors has been carried out in terms of mechanical and optical models and their interrelationship through optomechanical coupling. For a typical diaphragm of size 2mm × 1mm × 20 μm, normalized pressure sensitivity of 18.35 μW/mW/kPa, 29.37 μW/mW/kPa and 2.26 pm/kPa in case of MZI, DC and RR devices have been obtained respectively. The noise performance of these devices are also presented.

  13. Novel High-Speed Polarization Source for Decoy-State BB84 Quantum Key Distribution over Free Space and Satellite Links

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhizhong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Higgins, Brendon L; Gigov, Nikolay; MacDonald, Allison; Hübel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To implement the BB84 decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over a lossy ground-satellite quantum uplink requires a source that has high repetition rate of short laser pulses, long term stability, and no phase correlations between pulses. We present a new type of telecom optical polarization and amplitude modulator, based on a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, coupled to a polarization-preserving sum-frequency generation (SFG) optical setup, generating 532 nm photons with modulated polarization and amplitude states. The weak coherent pulses produced by SFG meet the challenging requirements for long range QKD, featuring a high clock rate of 76 MHz, pico-second pulse width, phase randomization, and 98% polarization visibility for all states. Successful QKD has been demonstrated using this apparatus with full system stability up to 160 minutes and channel losses as high 57 dB [Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 84, p.062326]. We present the design and simulation of the hardware through the Muelle...

  14. Graphene quantum dots FRET based sensor for early detection of heart attack in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepika; Kumar, Vanish; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-05-15

    Cardiac immunosensor for early detection of heart attack (myocardial infarction) was developed using amine functionalized graphene quantum dots (afGQDs) conjugated with antibody anti-cardiac Troponin I (anti-cTnI) to detect cardiac marker antigen Troponin I (cTnI) in blood based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between conjugate and graphene (quencher) only in 10 min. The anti-cTnI was covalently conjugated to afGQDs through carbodiimide coupling reaction. The conjugate was characterized by zeta potential UV-vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in the photon count and photoluminescence of GQDs based on interaction of target cTnI with its specific anti-cTnI antibody. The sensor is highly specific and shows negligible response to non-specific antigens. The sensor displayed a linear response to cTnI from 0.001 to 1000 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.192 pg mL(-1).

  15. Simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb generation using an InAs/InP quantum dot laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiupu; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Zhenxiang; Dai, Shixun; Liu, Taijun

    2017-03-15

    A simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb (OFC) generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a Fabry-Perot quantum dot mode-locked laser combined with a dual-driven LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by a low-power radio frequency (RF) signal. It is experimentally demonstrated that the 10-dB seamless bandwidth of the OFC is 8.2 nm (1.02 THz), which has 62 and 40 comb lines for frequency intervals of 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz, respectively. The single-sideband phase noise is as low as -112 and -108  dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz, respectively, for the photodetector-converted 16.56 and 24.84 GHz frequency carriers. Correspondingly, the RF linewidths of the 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz carriers are about 251 Hz-263 Hz, respectively. Using a QD laser, an ultra-low phase noise and quasi-tunable broadband OFC generator is obtained easily.

  16. Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.

    2016-01-01

    We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.

  17. A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-12-22

    The amount of ammonia in exhaled breath has been linked to a variety of adverse medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of accurate, reliable breath sensors has the potential to improve medical care. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating near 1,103.44 cm -1 and a multi-pass cell with an effective path length of 76.45 m. The sensor has a 7 ppbv detection limit and 5 % total uncertainty for breath measurements. The sensor was successfully used to detect ammonia in exhaled breath and compare healthy patients to patients diagnosed with CKD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Study on CdTe Quantum Dots Electrochemiluminescent Sensor Supported by Carbon Nano-tubes With ITO Basal Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixia, Yu; Jilin, Yan; Yifeng, Tu

    2011-05-01

    The water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) was synthesized with modified method. Its quantum yield was characterized for higher than 54%. Therefore a novel sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor was constructed based on the modification of composite of CdTe QDs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chitosan (CHIT) on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. After heat-treatment by infrared radiation, meanwhile with the co-reactant, triethylamine (TEA), the proposed sensor showed excellent anodic ECL efficiency and stability. This ECL sensor responded the dopamine (DA) in a wide linear range from 50 pM to 10 nM with a detection limit of 24 pM due to the quenching effect from DA. The DA contents in practical biological samples of cerebro-spinal fluid were detected with satisfactory recovery of average 95.7%.

  19. One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, J. M.; Chang, K.; Armijo, J.; Cujia, K.; Rosskopf, T.; Maze, J. R.; Degen, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure.

  20. Quantum Gravity Sensor by Curvature Energy: their Encoding and Computational Models*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bulnes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through of the concept of curvature energy encoded in non-harmonic signals due to the effect that characterizes the curvature as a deformation of field in the corresponding resonance space ( and an obstruction to the displacement to the corresponding shape operator is developed and designed a sensor of quantum gravity considering the quantized version of curvature as observable of gravitational field where the space is distorted by the strong interactions between particles, interpreting their observable in this case, as light fields deformations obtained on space-time background. To the application of this measurement we use a hypothetical particle graviton modeled as a magnetic dilaton which must be gauge graviton (gauge boson. Also are obtained several computational models of these photonic measurements, likewise their prototype photonic devices

  1. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanouilidou, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C

    2016-08-01

    High-spatial-resolution magnetic imaging has driven important developments in fields ranging from materials science to biology. However, to uncover finer details approaching the nanoscale with greater sensitivity requires the development of a radically new sensor technology. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for such a sensor on the basis of its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities. It has remained an outstanding challenge to implement the NV centre as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at cryogenic temperatures, however, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. Here, we present NV magnetic imaging down to 6 K with 3 μT Hz(-1/2) field sensitivity, and use the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with critical temperature Tc = 30 K. The expansion of NV-based magnetic imaging to cryogenic temperatures will enable future studies of previously inaccessible nanoscale magnetism in condensed-matter systems.

  2. Relativistic geodesy and gravimetry with quantum sensors - on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Jakob

    2016-07-01

    Quantum metrology and precision optical metrology enable new measurement techniques on the fields of inertial sensors, extremely precise ranging, atomic frequency standards and optical frequency transfer. Their precision level is highly relevant both for fundamental physics and for geodetic applications, including the monitoring of global and regional change processes in the frame of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The Hannover Collaborative Research Center geo-Q focuses on the development of such techniques. We investigate laser interferometry in space - originally developed for gravitational wave astronomy - that can be used for inter-satellite ranging and for optical gravity gradiometry using multiple macroscopic testmasses in order to increase the resolution in satellite gravimetry. Prototypes for these techniques are flown on the LISA pathfinder and GRACE Follow-On missions. Complementarily, sensors based on atom interferometry are promising for accelerometry and gradiometry in terms of sensitivity, versatility and low systematic errors. Optical atomic clocks and optical frequency transfer allow tying gravitational measurements to an atomic reference, which could improve fundamental geodetic reference frames.

  3. Optical protein modulation via quantum dot coupling and use of a hybrid sensor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark; Winder, Eric; Lueking, Donald; Friedrich, Craig; Mallick, Govind; Karna, Shashi

    2010-09-01

    Harnessing the energy transfer interactions between the optical protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) could provide a novel bio-nano electronics substrate with a variety of applications. In the present study, a polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride based I-SAM technique has been utilized to produce bilayers, trilayers and multilayers of alternating monolayers of bR, PDAC and QD's on a conductive ITO substrate. The construction of multilayer systems was directly monitored by measuring the unique A570 nm absorbance of bR, as well as QD fluorescence emission. Both of these parameters displayed a linear relationship to the number of monolayers present on the ITO substrate. The photovoltaic response of bilayers of bR/PDAC was observed over a range of 3 to 12 bilayers and the ability to efficiently create an electrically active multilayered substrate composed of bR and QDs has been demonstrated for the first time. Evaluation of QD fluorescence emission in the multilayer system strongly suggests that FRET coupling is occurring and, since the I-SAM technique provide a means to control the bR/QD separation distance on the nanometer scale, this technique may prove highly valuable for optimizing the distance dependent energy transfer effects for maximum sensitivity to target molecule binding by a biosensor. Finally, preliminary studies on the production of a sensor protein/bR hybrid gene construct are presented. It is proposed that the energy associated with target molecule binding to a hybrid sensor protein would provide a means to directly modulate the electrical output from a sensor protein/bR biosensor platform.

  4. The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions -- Cesena, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garola, Claudio; Rossi, Arcangelo; Sozzo, Sandro

    manipulate them, must they be real? The epistemological role of instruments in nanotechnological research / A. Rebaglia -- Mathematical models and physical reality from classical to quantum physics / A. Rossi -- Complex entanglement and quaternionic separability / G. Scolarici and L. Solombrino -- Mach-Zehnder interferometer and quantitative complementarity / C. Tarsitani and F. Logiurato -- Antonio Gramsci's reflection on quantum mechanics / I. Tassani -- The role of logic and mathematics in the Heisenberg formulation of quantum mechanics / A. Venezia -- Space-time at the Planck scale: the quantum computer view / P. A. Zizzi -- Three-dimensional wave behaviour of light / F. Logiurato ... [et al.].

  5. Si-doped carbon quantum dots: a facile and general preparation strategy, bioimaging application, and multifunctional sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Shan, Xiaoyue; Chai, Lujing; Ma, Juanjuan; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2014-05-14

    Heteroatom doping of carbon quantum dots not only enables great improvement of fluorescence efficiency and tunability of fluorescence emission, but also provides active sites in carbon dots to broaden their application in sensor. Silicon as a biocompatible element offers a promising direction for doping of carbon quantum dots. Si-doped carbon quantum dots (SiCQDs) were synthesized through a facile and effective approach. The as-prepared Si-doped carbon quantum dots possess visible fluorescence with high quantum yield up to 19.2%, owing to fluorescence enhancement effect of introduced silicon atoms into carbon dots. The toxicity test on human Hela cells showed that SiCQDs have lower cellular toxicity than common CQDs, and bioimaging experiments clearly demonstrated their excellent biolabelling ability and outstanding performance in resistance to photobleaching. Strong fluorescence quenching effect of Fe(III) on SiCQDs can be used for its selective detection among general metal ions. Specific electron transfer between SiCQDs and hydrogen peroxide enables SiCQDs as a sensitive fluorescence sensing platform for hydrogen peroxide. The subsequent fluorescence recovery induced by removal of hydrogen peroxide from SiCQDs due to formation of the stable adducts between hydrogen peroxide and melamine was taken advantage of to construct effective sensor for melamine.

  6. Quantum resonance of nanometre-scale metal-ZnO-metal structure and its application in sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk; Rees, Paul [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of the thickness dependence of the potential profile of the metal-ZnO-metal (MZM) structure has been conducted based on Poisson’s equation and Schottky theory. Quantum scattering theory is then used to calculate the transmission probability of an electron passing through the MZM structure. Results show that the quantum resonance (QR) effect becomes pronounced when the thickness of the ZnO film reaches to around 6 nm. Strain induced piezopotentials are considered as biases to the MZM, which significantly changes the QR according to the analysis. This effect can be potentially employed as nanoscale strain sensors.

  7. Topics in quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunjin

    In the thesis, we present a series of investigations for quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems. The first topic of the thesis focuses on the fundamental quantum problems which can be studied with electron transport along with the correlations of detectors to measure physical properties. We theoretically describe a generalized ``which-path'' measurement using a pair of coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers. In the second topic of thesis, we investigate an operational approach to measure the tunneling time based on the Larmor clock. To handle the cases of indirect measurement from the first and second topics, we introduce the contextual values formalism. The form of the contextual values provides direct physical insight into the measurement being performed, providing information about the correlation strength between system and detector, the measurement inefficiency, the proper background removal, and the conditioned average value of the system operator. Additionally, the weak interaction limit of these conditioned averages produces weak values of the system operator and an additional detector dependent disturbance term for both cases. In our treatment of the third topic of the thesis, we propose a three terminal heat engine based on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window to allow electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large amount of power, nearly twice that produced by the heat engine based on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon heat current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon heat current compared to the bulk

  8. A circular dichroism sensor for Ni(2+) and Co(2+) based on L-cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedsana, Wimonsiri; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2015-03-31

    A new circular dichroism sensor for detecting Ni(2+) and Co(2+) was proposed for the first time using chiral chelating quantum dots. The detection principle was based on changing of circular dichroism signals of the chiral quantum dots when forming a chiral complex with Ni(2+) or Co(2+). L-Cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (L-Cyst-CdS QDs) were proposed as a chiral probe. The CD spectrum of L-Cyst-CdS QDs was significantly changed in the presence of Ni(2+) and Co(2+). On the other hand, other studied cations did not alter the original CD spectrum. Moreover, when increasing the concentration of Ni(2+) or Co(2+), the intensity of the CD spectrum linearly increased as a function of concentration and could be useful for the quantitative analysis. The proposed CD sensor showed linear working concentration ranges of 10-60 μM and 4-80 μM with low detection limits of 7.33 μМ and 1.13 μM for the detection of Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. Parameters possibly affected the detection sensitivity such as solution pH and incubation time were studied and optimized. The proposed sensor was applied to detect Ni(2+) and Co(2+) in real water samples, and the results agreed well with the analysis using the standard ICP-OES.

  9. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  10. Carbon quantum dots as fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors for organophosphate pesticides determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Song, Yang; Yan, Xu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Ma, Yongqiang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-03-07

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) obtained from natural organics attract significant attention due to the abundance of carbon sources, varieties of heteroatom doping (such as N, S, P) and good biocompatibility of precursor. In this study, tunable fluorescence emission CQDs originated from chlorophyll were synthesized and characterized. The fluorescence emission can be effectively quenched by gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Thiocholine, which was produced from acetylthiocholine (ATC) by the hydrolysis of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), could cause the aggregation of Au NPs and the corresponding recovery of FRET-quenched fluorescence emission. The catalytic activity of BChE could be irreversibly inhibited by organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), thus, the recovery effect was reduced. By evaluating the fluorescence emission intensity of CQDs, a FRET-based sensing platform for OPs determination was established. Paraoxon was studied as an example of OPs. The sensing platform displayed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the paraoxon concentrations in the range of 0.05-50μgL(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05μgL(-1). Real sample study in tap and river water revealed that this sensing platform was repeatable and accurate. The results indicate that the OP sensor is promising for applications in food safety and environmental monitoring.

  11. Precursory Acoustic Signals Detection in Rockfall Events by Means of Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenato, L.; Marcato, G.; Gruca, G.; Iannuzzi, D.; Palmieri, L.; Galtarossa, A.; Pasuto, A.

    2012-12-01

    Rockfalls represent a major source of hazard in mountain areas: they occur at the apex of a process of stress accumulation in the unstable slope, during which part of the accumulated energy is released in small internal cracks. These cracks and the related acoustic emissions (AE) can, therefore, be used as precursory signals, through which the unstable rock could be monitored. In particular, according to previous scientific literature AE can be monitored in the range 20÷100 kHz. With respect to traditional AE sensors, such as accelerometers and piezoelectric transducers, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) may provide a reliable solution, potentially offering more robustness to electromagnetic interference, smaller form factor, multiplexing ability and increased distance range and higher sensitivity. To explore this possibility, in this work we have experimentally analyzed two interferometric fiber optical sensors for AE detection in rock masses. In particular, the first sensor is made of 100 m of G.657 optical fiber, tightly wound on an aluminum flanged hollow mandrel (inner diameter 30 mm, height 42 mm) that is isolated from the environment with acoustic absorbing material. A 4-cm-long M10 screw, which acts also as the main mean of acoustic coupling between the rock and the sensor, is used to fasten the sensor to the rock. This fiber coil sensor (FCS) is inserted in the sensing arm of a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The second sensor consists in a micro cantilever carved on the top of a cylindrical silica ferrule, with a marked mechanical resonance at about 12.5 kHz (Q-factor of about 400). A standard single mode fiber is housed in the same ferrule and the gap between the cantilever and the fiber end face acts as a vibration-sensitive Fabry-Perot cavity, interrogated with a low-coherence laser, tuned at the quadrature point of the cavity. The sensor is housed in a 2-cm-long M10 bored bolt. Performance have been compared with those from a standard piezo

  12. Magnetic detection of biotin-streptavidin binding using InAs quantum well μ-Hall sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledealat, Khaled; Chen, K.; Mihajlovic, G.; Xiong, P.; Strouse, G.; Chase, P. B.; von Molnár, S.; Field, M.; Sullivan, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic sensors are a key component in any high-sensitivity, rapid-response, and portable platform for magnetic biosensing. InAs quantum well micro-Hall sensors have shown high potential for such a role due to their low noise level and capability to detect single micron- sized or smaller superparamagnetic beads suitable for biosensing^1. Here we present successful selective biotinylation of InAs micro-Hall sensors and directed self-assembly of 350 nm streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads via the biotin-streptavidin interaction. Two Hall crosses with three and two beads produced detection signals with S/N ratio of 21.3 dB and 18.4 dB respectively. In addition, our progress for in situ detection of micron-sized magnetic beads using microfluidic channel will be presented. ^1G. Mihajlovic et al., APL 87, 112502 (2005) This work was supported by NIH NIGMS GM079592.

  13. CdSe quantum dots-poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite sensors for selective chloroform vapor detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S. P.; Bera, S.; Narender, G.; Ray, S. K.

    2012-10-01

    Olive oil capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) of average size ˜6 nm have been grown by a green chemical route synthesis for the fabrication of nanocomposite organic vapor sensing devices. A highly selective, room temperature chloroform vapor sensor has been fabricated using capped CdSe QDs and conducting polymer [poly(3-hexylthiophene)] nanocomposites. The nanocomposite sensor has been tested with the choloroform vapor of concentration varying from 100-1200 ppm at room temperature using different bias voltages. The recovery time of the sensor has been found to be improved on illumination with a monochromatic light of 600 nm, due to the photo-induced enhancement of charge transfer in nanocomposites.

  14. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  15. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  16. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based CO Sensor for Fire Warning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maxion Technologies, Inc. (Maxion) proposes to develop and field test a Carbon Monoxide (CO)-sensor prototype for post fire cleanup and CO detection. The sensor will...

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments FOCUS ON QUANTUM DISSIPATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Milena; Paladino, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    'unconventional' questions were still open on the standard harmonic oscillator and spin baths. This includes both fundamental issues, such as the possibility of estimating the specific heat for a free particle in the presence of dissipation, and the development of methods suitable to dealing with long range correlations at zero temperature and with quantum chaotic environments. We believe that the present focus issue on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments, although certainly not exhaustive, provides an important open-access resource that presents the latest state of the art of research in this field along its different lines. Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments Contents Dephasing by electron-electron interactions in a ballistic Mach-Zehnder interferometer Clemens Neuenhahn and Florian Marquardt Quantum frustration of dissipation by a spin bath D D Bhaktavatsala Rao, Heiner Kohler and Fernando Sols A random matrix theory of decoherence T Gorin, C Pineda, H Kohler and T H Seligman Dissipative dynamics of a biased qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator: analytical results beyond the rotating wave approximation Johannes Hausinger and Milena Grifoni Dissipative dynamics of a two-level system resonantly coupled to a harmonic mode Frederico Brito and Amir O Caldeira Spin correlations in spin blockade Rafael Sánchez, Sigmund Kohler and Gloria Platero Landau-Zener tunnelling in dissipative circuit QED David Zueco, Peter Hänggi and Sigmund Kohler Quantum oscillations in the spin-boson model: reduced visibility from non-Markovian effects and initial entanglement F K Wilhelm Dynamics of dissipative coupled spins: decoherence, relaxation and effects of a spin-boson bath P Nägele, G Campagnano and U Weiss Spin chain model for correlated quantum channels Davide Rossini, Vittorio Giovannetti and Simone Montangero Finite quantum dissipation: the challenge of obtaining specific heat Peter Hänggi, Gert-Ludwig Ingold and Peter Talkner Dynamics of large

  18. Detection of single magnetic bead for biological applications using an InAs quantum-well micro-Hall sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlović, Goran; Xiong, Peng; von Molnár, Stephan; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Hideo; Field, Mark; Sullivan, Gerard J.

    2005-09-01

    Room-temperature detection of a single commercial superparamagnetic bead (1.2μm in diameter) suitable for biological applications has been realized using an InAs quantum-well micro-Hall sensor. The detection was demonstrated using phase-sensitive detection on a single Hall cross as well as in a Hall gradiometry setup. The high signal to noise ratio, obtained in both configurations, promises detection of single nanometer-size particles by further miniaturization of the device to submicron dimensions.

  19. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu2+. Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu2+ in real samples.A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a

  20. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2010-08-02

    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability.

  1. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm(2). It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT.

  2. Detailed experimental investigation of an all-active dual-order mode Mach-Zehnder wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan;

    2000-01-01

    A new all-active DOMO converter has been assessed experimentally at 10 Gbit/s showing almost wavelength-independent performance for signal and CW wavelengths converting the entire EDFA window. Good performance has also been demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s.......A new all-active DOMO converter has been assessed experimentally at 10 Gbit/s showing almost wavelength-independent performance for signal and CW wavelengths converting the entire EDFA window. Good performance has also been demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s....

  3. Reconfigurable and ultra-sensitive in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the fusion of microfiber and microfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shecheng [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Chonglei [Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-02-23

    A reconfigurable Mach-Zenhnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microfluidic cavity (MFC) constructed by embedding a microfiber between two segments of single-mode fibers with pre-designed lateral offset has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MFC serves as an interference arm with an eccentric annular cross section and allows convenient sample (gas or liquids) replacement procedure. The microfiber works as the other interference arm that provides the proposed device with ease of reconstruction and also enhances the force sensitivity. The re-configurability and the ultra-wide tuning sensitivity range are demonstrated by immersing the MZI constructed with a 484 μm-long-MFC and a microfiber 44 μm in diameter in different droplets. Ultrahigh sensitivities of 34.65 nm/°C (∼88 380 nm/RIU) and −493.7 nm/N (∼−590 pm/με) are experimentally achieved using a droplet with a refractive index of ∼1.44.

  4. Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer based Optical Digital Magnitude Comparator and 1's Complement Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The optical switching activity is one of the most essential phenomena in the optical domain. The electro-optic effect-based switching phenomena are applicable to generate some effective combinational and sequential logic circuits. The processing of digital computational technique in the optical domain includes some considerable advantages of optical communication technology, e.g. immunity to electro-magnetic interferences, compact size, signal security, parallel computing and larger bandwidth. The paper describes some efficient technique to implement single bit magnitude comparator and 1's complement calculator using the concepts of electro-optic effect. The proposed techniques are simulated on the MATLAB software. However, the suitability of the techniques is verified using the highly reliable Opti-BPM software. It is interesting to analyze the circuits in order to specify some optimized device parameter in order to optimize some performance affecting parameters, e.g. crosstalk, extinction ratio, signal losses through the curved and straight waveguide sections.

  5. All-optical DAC using counter-propagating optical and electrical pulses in a Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2014-10-20

    A novel method of converting binary-level electrical pulses into multi-level optical pulses using only a conventional traveling-wave optical modulator is presented. The method provides low inter-pulse interference due to the counter-propagating pulses, low amplitude noise, and a timing jitter determined chiefly by the quality of the optical pulse source. The method only requires one electrical drive per modulator and provides low-jitter variable-amplitude optical pulses that are suitable for shaping into a wide variety of modulation formats using a programmable optical filter.

  6. Effectiveness of interactive tutorials in promoting “which-path” information reasoning in advanced quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that introductory physics students often have difficulty using a concept in contexts different from the ones in which they learned it without explicit guidance to help them make the connection between the different contexts. We have been investigating advanced students’ learning of quantum mechanics concepts and have developed interactive tutorials which strive to help students learn these concepts. Two such tutorials, focused on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI and the double-slit experiment (DSE, help students learn how to use the concept of “which-path” information to reason about the presence or absence of interference in these two experiments in different situations. After working on a pretest that asked students to predict interference in the MZI with single photons and polarizers of various orientations placed in one or both paths of the MZI, students worked on the MZI tutorial which, among other things, guided them to reason in terms of which-path information in order to predict interference in similar situations. We investigated the extent to which students were able to use reasoning related to which-path information learned in the MZI tutorial to answer analogous questions on the DSE (before working on the DSE tutorial. After students worked on the DSE pretest they worked on a DSE tutorial in which they learned to use the concept of which-path information to answer questions about interference in the DSE with single particles with mass sent through the two slits and a monochromatic lamp placed between the slits and the screen. We investigated if this additional exposure to the concept of which-path information promoted improved learning and performance on the DSE questions with single photons and polarizers placed after one or both slits. We find evidence that both tutorials promoted which-path information reasoning and helped students use this reasoning appropriately in contexts different from the ones in

  7. Indirect quantum sensors: Improving the sensitivity in characterizing very weakly coupled spins

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Johannes N; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to increase the sensitivity and thus the detection volume of nanoscale single molecule magnetic resonance imaging. The proposal aims to surpass the T1 limited detection of the sensor by taking advantage of a long-lived ancilla nuclear spin to which the sensor is coupled. We show how this nuclear spin takes over the role of the sensor spin, keeping the characteristic time-scales of detection on the same order but with a longer life-time allowing it to detect a larger volume of the sample which is not possible by the sensor alone.

  8. High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, Sune Bro; Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Hansen, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    The development of annular photodiodes for use in a reflectance pulse oximetry sensor is presented. Wearable and wireless body sensor systems for long-term monitoring require sensors that minimize power consumption. We have fabricated large area 2D ring-shaped silicon photodiodes optimized....../2) cm(-1) are achieved. The photodiodes are incorporated into a wireless pulse oximetry sensor system embedded in an adhesive patch presented elsewhere as 'The Electronic Patch'. The annular photodiodes are fabricated using two masked diffusions of first boron and subsequently phosphor. The surface...

  9. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-21

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu(2+) has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu(2+), while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu(2+). Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples.

  10. Fabrication of the optical fiber pH sensor based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Kim, Inyea; Kim, Jongsung

    2014-08-01

    During the past decade, there has been a lot of research on the application of quantum dots (QDs) in photonics and biotechnology. QDs are semiconductor nanocrystals which show many peculiar optical and electrical properties due to their quantum confinement effects. In this work, the correlation of the fluorescence intensity of QDs and the pH under ambient temperature was studied. An optical fiber pH sensor was prepared using CdSe/ZnS carboxyl quantum dots as sensing media. QDs with different sizes and emission colors (green, yellow, and red) were immobilized on the surface of the optical fiber through EDC/sulfo-NHS coupling reaction. The optical fiber was immersed in water, and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of QDs were obtained at ambient temperature under various pH conditions. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of QDs increased linearly with the increase of pH, and among the QDs, the red emitting QDs show the largest change in PL intensity with pH. This shows that QDs can be used as pH sensing media and optical fiber pH probe can be prepared.

  11. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  12. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  13. β-Cyclodextrin coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots for vanillin sensoring in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Gema M; Contento, Ana M; Ríos, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    An optical sensor for vanillin in food samples using CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was developed. This vanillin-sensor is based on the selective host-guest interaction between vanillin and β-cyclodextrin. The procedure for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-CdSe/ZnS (β-CD-CdSe/ZnS-QDs) complex was optimized, and its fluorescent characteristics are reported. It was found that the interaction between vanillin and β-CD-CdSe/ZnS-QDs complex produced the quenching of the original fluorescence of β-CD-CdSe/ZnS-QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The mechanism of the interaction is discussed. The analytical potential of this sensoring system was demonstrated by the determination of vanillin in synthetic and food samples. The method was selective for vanillin, with a limit of detection of 0.99 µg mL(-1), and a reproducibility of 4.1% in terms of relative standard deviation (1.2% under repeatability conditions). Recovery values were in the 90-105% range for food samples.

  14. Synthesis of highly luminescent water stable ZnO quantum dots as photoluminescent sensor for picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kulvinder; Chaudhary, G.R.; Singh, Sukhjinder; Mehta, S.K., E-mail: skmehta@pu.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highly luminescent, water stable (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane capped ZnO quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized using a simple solution route. The synthesized ZnO QDs have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analyzer (PSA), UV–visible (UV–vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The PL studies demonstrate that the particles synthesized are highly luminescent in nature emitting yellow color on exposure to UV radiation. Further, PL emission of ZnO QDs in the presence of picric acid (PA) shows their high sensitivity and selectivity for PA. The superior response of ZnO QDs in the presence of PA makes them very effective PL sensors. The limit of detection comes out to be 2.86 µM. - Highlights: • ZnO QDs act as photoluminiscent sensor for picric acid in aqueous medium. • Sensor shows high selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 2.86 μM. • More the number of nitro groups, more is the quenching in PL emission of ZnO QDs.

  15. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  16. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based CO Sensor for Fire Warning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maxion Technologies and Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) propose to jointly develop a compact, rugged, highly reliable, and autonomous sensor for in-situ monitoring of...

  17. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Sensors for Hypersonic Flows (7275-020) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to design, build, test, and deliver to NASA a THz wavelength absorption sensor for continuous monitoring of atomic oxygen...

  18. A New Fluorescence Sensor for Cerium (III) Ion Using Glycine Dithiocarbamate Capped Manganese Doped ZnS Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem; Tajarrod, Narjes; Masteri-Farahani, Majid; Zadmard, Reza

    2015-11-01

    A new fluorescence sensor for Ce(3+)ions is reported in this paper. This sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of glycine dithiocarbamate (GDTC)-functionalized manganese doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of Ce(3+)ions. The synthesis of ultra-small GDTC-Mn:ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is based on the co-precipitation of nanoparticles in aqueous Solution. The nanoparticles are characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectra, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray power diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy. In the test carried out, it was found that the interaction between Ce(3+)ions and GDTC capped Mn:ZnS QDs quenches the original fluorescence of QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation and the results show the existence of collisional quenching process. A linear relationship was observed between the extent of quenching and the concentration of Ce(3+)in the range of 2.0 × 10(-6) to 3.2 × 10(-5) mol.L(-1), with a detection limit of 2.29 × 10(-7) mol.L(-1). The relative standard deviation of 1.61% was obtained for five replicate measurements. The possible quenching mechanism was also examined by fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectra. The interference of other cations was negligible on the quantitative determination of Ce(3+). This method proved to be simple, sensitive, low cost, and also reliable for practical applications.

  19. An integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    CERN Document Server

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. Here we propose a novel multi-purpose sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and...

  20. B36 borophene as an electronic sensor for formaldehyde: Quantum chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Kootenaei, Amirhossein; Ansari, Goodarz

    2016-08-01

    Pristine carbon nanotubes and graphene show great sensitivity toward several lethal gases but cannot identify some extremely toxic chemicals such as formaldehyde (HCOH). Recent successful synthesis of all-boron graphene-like sheets attracted strong interest in exploring their possible applications. Herein, we inspected the potential application of B36 borophene sheet as a sensor for HCOH detection, using density functional theory computations. Different theoretical levels including B97D and Minnesota 06 functionals with different basis sets were employed. It was predicted that the electrical conductivity of B36 borophene significantly increases at the presence of HCOH molecules, thereby generating an electrical signal. The electrical signal is increased by increasing the number of adsorbed HCOH molecules, indicating that this sensor is sensitive to the concentration (or pressure) of HCOH gas. These results suggest that the pristine borophene may be used in the HCOH chemical sensors.

  1. A Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire-based double quantum dot with integrated charge sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yongjie; Churchill, Hugh; Reilly, David;

    2007-01-01

    Coupled electron spins in semiconductor double quantum dots hold promise as the basis for solid-state qubits. To date, most experiments have used III-V materials, in which coherence is limited by hyperfine interactions. Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires seem ideally suited to overcome this limitati...

  2. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Optical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Environmental Methane in Dunkirk (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih Maamary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A room-temperature continuous-wave (CW quantum cascade laser (QCL-based methane (CH4 sensor operating in the mid-infrared near 8 μm was developed for continuous measurement of CH4 concentrations in ambient air. The well-isolated absorption line (7F2,4 ← 8F1,2 of the ν4 fundamental band of CH4 located at 1255.0004 cm−1 was used for optical measurement of CH4 concentration by direct absorption in a White-type multipass cell with an effective path-length of 175 m. A 1σ (SNR = 1 detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a measurement precision of 1.13%. The developed sensor was deployed in a campaign of measurements of time series CH4 concentration on a site near a suburban traffic road in Dunkirk (France from 9th to 22nd January 2013. An episode of high CH4 concentration of up to ~3 ppm has been observed and analyzed with the help of meteorological parameters combined with back trajectory calculation using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model of NOAA.

  3. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Optical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Environmental Methane in Dunkirk (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Cui, Xiaojuan; Fertein, Eric; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Guinet, Laurence; Chen, Weidong

    2016-02-08

    A room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based methane (CH4) sensor operating in the mid-infrared near 8 μm was developed for continuous measurement of CH4 concentrations in ambient air. The well-isolated absorption line (7F2,4 ← 8F1,2) of the ν4 fundamental band of CH4 located at 1255.0004 cm(-1) was used for optical measurement of CH4 concentration by direct absorption in a White-type multipass cell with an effective path-length of 175 m. A 1σ (SNR = 1) detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a measurement precision of 1.13%. The developed sensor was deployed in a campaign of measurements of time series CH4 concentration on a site near a suburban traffic road in Dunkirk (France) from 9th to 22nd January 2013. An episode of high CH4 concentration of up to ~3 ppm has been observed and analyzed with the help of meteorological parameters combined with back trajectory calculation using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model of NOAA.

  4. A sensitive electrochemical chlorophenols sensor based on nanocomposite of ZnSe quantum dots and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Li, Xiao; Yang, Ran; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-12-04

    In this work, a very sensitive and simple electrochemical sensor for chlorophenols (CPs) based on a nanocomposite of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe-CTAB) through electrostatic self-assembly technology was built for the first time. The composite of ZnSe-CTAB introduced a favorable access for the electron transfer and gave superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of CPs than ZnSe QDs and CTAB alone. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the quantitative determination of the CPs including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Under the optimum conditions, the peak currents of the CPs were proportional to their concentrations in the range from 0.02 to 10.0 μM for 2-CP, 0.006 to 9.0 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.06 to 8.0 for PCP. The detection limits were 0.008 μM for 2-CP, 0.002 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.01 μM for PCP, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CPs in waste water with satisfactory recoveries. This ZnSe-CTAB electrode system provides operational access to design environment-friendly CPs sensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-throughput and rapid fluorescent visualization sensor of urinary citrate by CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shujuan; Gong, Jiajia; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Changqing

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we have presented a novel CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescent sensor for visual and turn-on sensing of citrate in human urine samples. The europium ion (Eu(3+)) can lead to the fluorescence quenching of thioglycollic acid (TGA) modified CdTe QDs due to photoinduced electron transfer accompanied by the change of emission color from yellow to orange. Next, addition of citrate breaks the preformed assembly because citrate can replace the CdTe QDs, based on the fact that the Eu(3+) ion displays higher affinity with citrate than the CdTe QDs. Thus the photoinduced electron transfer is switched off, and the fluorescence emission of CdTe QDs is rapidly (within 5min) recovered, simultaneously, the orange emission color restores to yellow. Such proposed strategy may conveniently discriminate the patient of renal stone from normal person by naked eyes. In addition to visualization detection, the fluorescence responses can be used for well quantifying citrate in the range of 0.67-133μM. So, the present, simple, low-cost and visualized citrate fluorescence sensor has great potential in the applications for earlier screening in clinical detection.

  6. B{sub 36} borophene as an electronic sensor for formaldehyde: Quantum chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi Kootenaei, Amirhossein, E-mail: a.kootenaei@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ansari, Goodarz [Department of Chemistry, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-06

    Pristine carbon nanotubes and graphene show great sensitivity toward several lethal gases but cannot identify some extremely toxic chemicals such as formaldehyde (HCOH). Recent successful synthesis of all-boron graphene-like sheets attracted strong interest in exploring their possible applications. Herein, we inspected the potential application of B{sub 36} borophene sheet as a sensor for HCOH detection, using density functional theory computations. Different theoretical levels including B97D and Minnesota 06 functionals with different basis sets were employed. It was predicted that the electrical conductivity of B{sub 36} borophene significantly increases at the presence of HCOH molecules, thereby generating an electrical signal. The electrical signal is increased by increasing the number of adsorbed HCOH molecules, indicating that this sensor is sensitive to the concentration (or pressure) of HCOH gas. These results suggest that the pristine borophene may be used in the HCOH chemical sensors. - Highlights: • B{sub 36} borophene sheet can be used as a chemical sensor for HCOH detection. • The B{sub 36} is sensitive to the concentration of HCOH. • When the B{sub 36} adsorbs HCOH molecules, it is converted to a p-type semiconductor.

  7. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as sensors for the local refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Antoine; Pillonnet, Anne; Houel, Julien; Dujardin, Christophe; Kulzer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We explore the potential of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) as probes for their immediate dielectric environment, based on the influence of the local refractive index on the fluorescence dynamics of these nanoemitters. We first compare ensembles of quantum dots in homogeneous solutions with single quantum dots dispersed on various dielectric substrates, which allows us to test the viability of a conceptual framework based on a hard-sphere region-of-influence and the Bruggeman effective-medium approach. We find that all our measurements can be integrated into a coherent description, provided that the conceptualized point-dipole emitter is positioned at a distance from the substrate that corresponds to the geometry of the QD. Three theoretical models for the evolution of the fluorescence decay rate as a function of the local refractive index are compared, showing that the classical Lorentz approach (virtual cavity) is the most appropriate for describing the data. Finally, we use the observed sensitivity of the QDs to their environment to estimate the detection limit, expressed as the minimum number of traceable streptavidin molecules, of a potential QD-nanosensor based on fluorescence lifetime.We explore the potential of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) as probes for their immediate dielectric environment, based on the influence of the local refractive index on the fluorescence dynamics of these nanoemitters. We first compare ensembles of quantum dots in homogeneous solutions with single quantum dots dispersed on various dielectric substrates, which allows us to test the viability of a conceptual framework based on a hard-sphere region-of-influence and the Bruggeman effective-medium approach. We find that all our measurements can be integrated into a coherent description, provided that the conceptualized point-dipole emitter is positioned at a distance from the substrate that corresponds to the geometry of the QD. Three theoretical models for the evolution

  8. Optimization of quantum interferometric metrological sensors in the presence of photon loss

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Hwang; Kaplan, Lev; McCracken, Steven B; Min, Changjun; Uskov, Dmitry B; Wildfeuer, Christoph F; Veronis, Georgios; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    We optimize two-mode, entangled, number states of light in the presence of loss in order to maximize the extraction of the available phase information in an interferometer. Our approach optimizes over the entire available input Hilbert space with no constraints, other than fixed total initial photon number. We optimize to maximize the Fisher information, which is equivalent to minimizing the phase uncertainty. We find that in the limit of zero loss the optimal state is the so-called N00N state, for small loss, the optimal state gradually deviates from the N00N state, and in the limit of large loss the optimal state converges to a generalized two-mode coherent state, with a finite total number of photons. The results provide a general protocol for optimizing the performance of a quantum optical interferometer in the presence of photon loss, with applications to quantum imaging, metrology, sensing, and information processing.

  9. Graphene quantum dots: emergent nanolights for bioimaging, sensors, catalysis and photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhua; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2012-04-18

    Similar to the popular older cousins, luminescent carbon dots (C-dots), graphene quantum dots or graphene quantum discs (GQDs) have generated enormous excitement because of their superiority in chemical inertness, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Besides, GQDs, consisting of a single atomic layer of nano-sized graphite, have the excellent performances of graphene, such as high surface area, large diameter and better surface grafting using π-π conjugation and surface groups. Because of the structure of graphene, GQDs have some other special physical properties. Therefore, studies on GQDs in aspects of chemistry, physical, materials, biology and interdisciplinary science have been in full flow in the past decade. In this Feature Article, recent developments in preparation of GQDs are discussed, focusing on the main two approaches (top-down and bottom-down). Emphasis is given to their future and potential development in bioimaging, electrochemical biosensors and catalysis, and specifically in photovoltaic devices that can solve increasingly serious energy problems.

  10. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  11. Graphene Quantum Dots-based Photoluminescent Sensor: A Multifunctional Composite for Pesticide Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Zamora-Gálvez, Alejandro; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-09-16

    Due to their size and difficulty to obtain, cost/effective biological or synthetic receptors (e.g., antibodies or aptamers, respectively), organic toxic compounds (e.g., less than 1 kDa) are generally challenging to detect using simple platforms such as biosensors. This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of a novel multifunctional composite material, magnetic silica beads/graphene quantum dots/molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (mSGP). mSGP is engineered to specifically and effectively capture and signal small molecules due to the synergy among chemical, magnetic, and optical properties combined with molecular imprinting of tributyltin (291 Da), a hazardous compound, selected as a model analyte. Magnetic and selective properties of the mSGP composite can be exploited to capture and preconcentrate the analyte onto its surface, and its photoluminescent graphene quantum dots, which are quenched upon analyte recognition, are used to interrogate the presence of the contaminant. This multifunctional material enables a rapid, simple and sensitive platform for small molecule detection, even in complex mediums such as seawater, without any sample treatment.

  12. Chemically doped fluorescent carbon and graphene quantum dots for bioimaging, sensor, catalytic and photoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Doping fluorescent carbon dots (DFCDs) with heteroatoms have recently become of great interest compared to traditional fluorescent materials because it provides a feasible and new way to tune the intrinsic properties of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to achieve new applications for them in different fields. Since the first report on nitrogen (N) doped GQDs in 2012, more effort is being focused on exploring different procedures for making new types of DFCDs with different heteroatoms. This mini review will summarize recent research progress on DFCDs. It first reviews various doping categories achieved up to now, looking back on the synthesis method and comparing the differences in synthesis approaches between the DFCDs and the undoped ones. Then it focuses on the advances on how the doping affects the optical properties, especially DFCDs doped with N, which have been investigated the most. Finally, different applications of DFCDs involving bio-imaging, sensing, catalysis and photoelectronic devices will be discussed. This review will give new insights into how to use different synthetic methods for tuning the structure of DFCDs, understanding the correlation between the doping and properties, and achieving new applications.

  13. Cysteamine capped CdS quantum dots as a fluorescence sensor for the determination of copper ion exploiting fluorescence enhancement and long-wave spectral shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmee, Chanida; Noipa, Tuanjai; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2016-12-01

    We described a turn-on fluorescence sensor for the determination of Cu2 + ions, utilizing the quantum confinement effect of cadmium sulfide quantum dots capped with cysteamine (Cys-CdS QDs). The fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs was both enhanced and red shifted (from blue-green to yellow) in the presence of Cu2 +. Fluorescence enhancement was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu2 + in the concentration range 2 to 10 μM. Other cations at the same concentration level did not significantly change the intensity and spectral maxima of Cys-CdS QDs, except Ag+. The limit of detection was 1.5 μM. The sensor was applied to the determination of Cu2 + in (spiked) real water samples and gave satisfactory results, with recoveries ranging from 96.7 to 108.2%, and with RSDs ranging from 0.3 to 2.6%.

  14. Fast pixelated sensors for radiation detection and imaging based on quantum confined structures in III/V semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, M.; Biasiol, G.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Plaisier, J. R.; Antonelli, M.

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve the characterisation of the delivered beams in many types of photon sources, innovative beam profilers based on III/V semiconductor materials (InGaAs/InAlAs) have been deeply investigated. Owing to a tunable and direct band gap these devices allow radiation detection in a wide spectral range. In order to increase the sensitivity of the device in radiation detection charge amplification on the sensor level is implemented. This is obtained by exploiting In0.75Ga0.25As/In0.75Al0.25As quantum wells (QW) hosting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) through molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Internal charge-amplification mechanism can be achieved for very low applied voltages, while the high carrier mobility allows the design of very fast photon detectors with sub-nanosecond response times. This technology has been preliminarily exploited to fabricate prototype beam profilers with a strip geometry (with 50-μm-wide strips). Tests were carried out both with conventional X-ray tubes and at the Elettra synchrotron facility. The results testify how these profilers are capable of reconstructing the shape of the beam, as well as estimating the position of the beam centroid with a precision of about 400 nm. Further measurements with different samples of decreasing thickness have shown how this precision could be further improved by an optimised microfabrication. For this reason a new design, based on a membrane-photodetector, is proposed. Results regarding the spatial resolution as function of the sensor thickness will be presented and discussed.

  15. A circular dichroism sensor for Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} based on L-cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedsana, Wimonsiri [Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Tuntulani, Thawatchai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ngeontae, Wittaya, E-mail: wittayange@kku.ac.th [Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Demonstrated a new efficient sensor platform based quantum dots. • Used chiral quantum dots as CD sensor for the detection of heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed CD sensor showed highest selectivity towards Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. • Low detection limits of 7.33 μM and 1.13 μM for Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}, respectively. • Can be used in real water samples comparing with ICP-OES. - Abstract: A new circular dichroism sensor for detecting Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} was proposed for the first time using chiral chelating quantum dots. The detection principle was based on changing of circular dichroism signals of the chiral quantum dots when forming a chiral complex with Ni{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+}. L-Cysteine capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (L-Cyst-CdS QDs) were proposed as a chiral probe. The CD spectrum of L-Cyst-CdS QDs was significantly changed in the presence of Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. On the other hand, other studied cations did not alter the original CD spectrum. Moreover, when increasing the concentration of Ni{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+}, the intensity of the CD spectrum linearly increased as a function of concentration and could be useful for the quantitative analysis. The proposed CD sensor showed linear working concentration ranges of 10–60 μM and 4–80 μM with low detection limits of 7.33 μM and 1.13 μM for the detection of Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}, respectively. Parameters possibly affected the detection sensitivity such as solution pH and incubation time were studied and optimized. The proposed sensor was applied to detect Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} in real water samples, and the results agreed well with the analysis using the standard ICP-OES.

  16. Improving the quantum mechanics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of physics graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily Megan

    Many physics graduate students face the unique challenge of being both students and teachers concurrently. To succeed in these roles, they must develop both physics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. My research focuses on improving both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of first year graduate students. To improve their content knowledge, I have focused on improving graduate students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics covered in upper-level undergraduate courses since our earlier investigations suggest that many graduate students struggle in developing a conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. Learning tools, such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) that I have developed, have been successful in helping graduate students improve their understanding of Dirac notation and single photon behavior in the context of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. In addition, I have been involved in enhancing our semester long course professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs) by including research-based activities. In particular, I have been researching the implications of graduate TAs' reflections on the connections between their grading practices and student learning, i.e., the development of introductory physics students' content knowledge and problem-solving, reasoning, and metacognitive skills. This research involves having graduate students grade sample student solutions to introductory physics problems. Afterward, the graduate TAs discuss with each other the pros and cons of different grading rubrics on student learning and formulate a joint grading rubric to grade the problem. The graduate TAs are individually asked to reformulate a rubric and grade problems using the rubric several months after the group activity to assess the impact of the intervention on graduate TAs. In addition to the intervention focusing on grading sample student solutions, graduate TAs are also asked to answer

  17. Replicating effective pedagogical approaches from introductory physics to improve student learning of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Ryan Thomas

    Upper-level undergraduate students entering a quantum mechanics (QM) course are in many ways similar to students entering an introductory physics course. Numerous studies have investigated the difficulties that novices face in introductory physics as well as the pedagogical approaches that are effective in helping them overcome those difficulties. My research focuses on replicating effective approaches and instructional strategies used in introductory physics courses to help advanced students in an upper-level QM course. I have investigated the use of Just-in-time Teaching (JiTT) and peer discussion involving clicker questions in an upper-level quantum mechanics course. The JiTT approach including peer discussions was effective in helping students overcome their difficulties and improve their understanding of QM concepts. Learning tools, such as a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) based on the Doubleslit Experiment (DSE) which I helped develop, have been successful in helping upper-level undergraduate students improve their understanding of QM. Many students have also demonstrated the ability to transfer knowledge from a QuILT based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer while working on the DSE QuILT. In addition, I have been involved in implementing research-based activities during our semester-long professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs). In one intervention, TAs were asked to grade student solutions to introductory physics problems first using their choice of method, then again using a rubric designed to promote effective problem-solving approaches, then once more at the end of the semester using their choice of method. This intervention found that many TAs have ingrained beliefs about the purposes of grading which include placing the burden of proof on the instructor as well as a belief that grading cannot serve as a formative assessment. I also compared TAs grading practices and considerations when grading student solutions to QM

  18. Monitoring of Enzymatic Proteolysis Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dot-Protein Substrate Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Clapp

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously utilized hybrid semiconductor quantum dot- (QD- peptide substrates for monitoring of enzymatic proteolysis. In this report, we expand on this sensing strategy to further monitor protein-protease interactions. We utilize QDs self-assembled with multiple copies of dye-labeled proteins as substrates for the sensing of protease activity. Detection of proteolysis is based on changes in the rate of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET between the QDs and the proximal dye-labeled proteins following protein digestion by added enzyme. Our study focused on two representative proteolytic enzymes: the cysteine protease papain and the serine protease endoproteinase K. Analysis of the enzymatic digestion allowed us to estimate minimal values for the enzymatic activities of each enzyme used. Mechanisms of enzymatic inhibition were also inferred from the FRET data collected in the presence of inhibitors. Potential applications of this technology include drug discovery assays and in vivo cellular monitoring of enzymatic activity.

  19. Fluorescent sensor for selective determination of copper ion based on N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdHgSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Yu, Xiangyang; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Chunya

    2014-04-15

    Using N-acetyl-L-cysteine as a stabilizer, well water-dispersed, high-quality and stable CdHgSe quantum dots were facilely synthesized via a simple aqueous phase method. The as-prepared N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdHgSe quantum dots were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and FTIR. A fluorescent sensor for selective determination of copper ions was developed using N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdHgSe quantum dots as fluorescent probe. The fluorescence intensity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdHgSe quantum dots decreased when interacted with copper ions due to the formation of coordination complex and aggregates. The method possesses high selectivity and is not influenced by some potential interferences such as Ag(+), Zn(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+). Under the optimal conditions, the change of fluorescence intensity (ΔI) was linearly proportional to the concentration of copper ions in the range of 1.0×10(-9)-4.0×10(-7) mol L(-1), with a detection limit as low as 2.0×10(-10) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The developed method had been successfully employed to determine Cu(2+) in shrimp and South-lake water samples, and the results were verified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fluorescent sensor was demonstrated to be selective, sensitive and simple for copper ion determination, and promise for practical applications.

  20. Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external cavity-quantum cascade laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Lewicki, R.; Griffin, R. J.; Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Tittel, F. K.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. It has many anthropogenic (e.g., agricultural crops and mineral fertilizers) and natural sources (e.g., animals, oceans, and vegetation) in the environment. In certain areas, industrial and motor vehicle activities also can contribute to increases in atmospheric NH3 levels. From a perspective of environmental concern, NH3 is a precursor of particulate matter (PM) because it can lead to production of ammonium salts (e.g., (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) through chemical reactions with sulfuric and nitric acid. As a result, the abundance of NH3 in the atmosphere has a great impact on aerosol nucleation and composition. Despite this, NH3 is not regulated. It is crucial, however, to improve our understanding of the dynamics of NH3 in an industrial and urban area such as Greater Houston where atmospheric NH3 data are limited. In this study, a 10.4 µm external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL)-based sensor was developed and utilized. To monitor atmospheric NH3 at trace gas concentration levels, an amplitude modulated photo-acoustic spectroscopy (AM-PAS) technique was employed. The minimum detection limit obtained from the sensor is ~1.5 ppb for a 5-second data acquisition time. After averaging data over 300 seconds a sub-ppb NH3 concentration level can be achieved. The NH3 sensor has been deployed on the roof of a ~60-meter-high building (North Moody Tower) located on the University of Houston campus since November 2009. Several episodes of high NH3 concentrations were observed. For example, the sensor recorded a significant and lasting increase in NH3 concentrations (~21 ppb) on August 14, 2010, when a major accident occurred during the same time period on the Gulf Freeway (I-45) in Houston only 2 miles from the sampling site. The elevated concentration levels are assumed to be associated with NH3 generation from a chemical fire resulting from the collision involving two 18-wheelers, one carrying fertilizer

  1. A novel electrochemiluminescence sensor for the detection of nitroaniline based on the nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufan; Chen, Xueqian; Xia, Tingting; Ma, Qiang

    2016-11-15

    Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs), as a new class of carbon nanomaterials, have potential application in sensor, fuel cells, optoelectronics field due to their stable photoluminescence (PL) and electrocatalytic activity. Herein, a facile novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal-on method for nitroaniline (NA) sensing based on N-GQDs and chitosan was developed. Chitosan displays high water permeability, hydrophilic property and good adhesion to load the N-GQDs to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. N-GQDs have shown as highly active reagent and catalyst for rapid diazotization reaction of anilines. When NA was added to the electrolyte solution consisting of mineral acid and sodium nitrite, N-GQDs/chitosan modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancement of ECL intensity, which was ascribed to the occurrence of diazotization reaction of NA. Therefore, NA can be detected with high selectivity based on the N-GQDs/chitosan ECL system. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report about the NA detection based on the catalysis and ECL capabilities of N-GQDs. There was a wide linear ECL intensity response ranging from 0.01 to 1μmolL(-1) NA. The practicability of the ECL sensing platform in real water samples has shown the satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Dose X-Ray Sources and High Quantum Efficiency Sensors: The Next Challenge in Dental Digital Imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav R. Mistry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s. The major challenge encountered to decrease the milliamperes (mA level in X-ray imaging systems is the quantum noise phenomena. This investigation evaluated dose exposure and image resolution of a low dose X-ray imaging (LDXI prototype comprising a low mA X-ray source and a novel microlens-based sensor relative to current imaging technologies. Study Design. A LDXI in static (group 1 and dynamic (group 2 modes was compared to medical fluoroscopy (group 3, digital intraoral radiography (group 4, and CBCT scan (group 5 using a dental phantom. Results. The Mann-Whitney test showed no statistical significance (α=0.01 in dose exposure between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 4 and timing exposure (seconds between groups 1 and 5 and 2 and 3. Image resolution test showed group 1 > group 4 > group 2 > group 3 > group 5. Conclusions. The LDXI proved the concept for obtaining a high definition image resolution for static and dynamic radiography at lower or similar dose exposure and smaller pixel size, respectively, when compared to current imaging technologies. Lower mA at the X-ray source and high QE at the detector level principles with microlens could be applied to current imaging technologies to considerably reduce dose exposure without compromising image resolution in the near future.

  3. An electrochemical sensor for warfarin determination based on covalent immobilization of quantum dots onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2015-12-01

    A method is described for the construction of a novel electrochemical warfarin sensor based on covalent immobilization of CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CS) composite film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The CdS-QDs/CS/MWCNTs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor showed optimum anodic stripping response within 90 s at an accumulation potential of 0.75 V. The modified electrode was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a wide linear range of 0.05–80 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.5 nM. The proposed sensor has good storage stability, repeatability and reproducibility and was successfully applied for the determination of warfarin in real samples such as urine, serum and milk. - Highlights: • A new sensitive sensor for warfarin determination was developed. • The sensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of CdS-QDs on the chitosan/MWCNTs/GCE. • The parameters affecting the stripping analysis of warfarin were optimized. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of warfarin in urine, serum and milk.

  4. Physical and chemical sensing using monolithic semiconductor optical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Maisenhoelder, Bernd; Moser, Michael; Riel, Peter; Kunz, Rino E.

    1997-09-01

    We present two monolithically integrated optical sensor systems based on semiconductor photonic integrated circuits. These compact, robust and highly functional transducers perform all necessary optical and electro-optical functions on-chip; extension to multi-sensor arrays is easily envisaged. A monolithic Michelson interferometer for high-resolution displacement measurement and a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractometry are discussed.

  5. A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Qu, Lingbo; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Yuchen; Li, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Cysteamine (CA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) (CA-CdTe QDs) were prepared by the reflux method and utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescent sensor to detect mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+) ). Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching effect of CA-CdTe QDs was linear at Hg(2+) concentrations in the range of 6.0-450 nmol/L. The detection limit was calculated to be 4.0 nmol/L according to the 3σ IUPAC criteria. The influence of 10-fold Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the determination of Hg(2+) was CdTe QDs probe, which was prepared using a one-pot synthetic method. This CA-CdTe QDs sensor system represents a new feasibility to improve the detection performance of a QDs sensor by changing the synthesis method.

  6. Quantum hyper-entanglement and angular spectrum decomposition applied to sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2016-05-01

    Hyper-entanglement with an emphasis on mode type is used to extend a previously developed atmospheric imaging system. Angular spectrum expansions combined with second quantization formalism permits many different mode types to be considered using a common formalism. Fundamental Gaussian, standard Hermite-Gaussian, standard Laguerre- Gaussian, and Bessel modes are developed. Hyper-entanglement refers to entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time and orbital angular momentum. The system functions at optical or infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon propagates in the atmosphere, the ancilla photon is retained within the detector. This results in loss being essentially classical, giving rise to stronger forms of entanglement. A simple atomic physics based model of the scattering target is developed. This model permits the derivation in closed form of the loss coefficient for photons with a given mode type scattering from the target. Signal loss models for propagation, transmission, detection, and scattering are developed and applied. The probability of detection of photonic orbital angular momentum is considered in terms of random media theory. A model of generation and detection efficiencies for the different degrees of freedom is also considered. The implications of loss mechanisms for signal to noise ratio (SNR), and other quantum information theoretic quantities are discussed. Techniques for further enhancing the system's SNR and resolution through adaptive optics are examined. The formalism permits random noise and entangled or nonentangled sources of interference to be modeled.

  7. InAs quantum well μ-Hall sensors for magnetic biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledealat, Khaled; Hira, S.; Chen, K.; Mihajlovic, G.; Xiong, P.; Strouse, G.; Chase, P. B.; von Molnar, S.; Field, M.; Sullivan, G.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic sensing is potentially a sensitive and rapid technique for monitoring DNA-DNA and protein-DNA interactions. Here we present an effort on the noise characterization and selective biofunctionalization of InAs μ-Hall sensors for magnetic detection of DNA hybridization. Room-temperature noise measurements were performed in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 104 kHz. The noise equivalent magnetic moment resolutions were estimated to be ˜10^6 μB/√Hz and ˜10^4 μB/√Hz at 92 Hz and 23 kHz respectively. The active region of the InAs μ-Hall device was covered with sputter-deposited SiO2 and Au pads were patterned on top of some of the Hall crosses. Thiolated ssDNA were assembled on the Au pads and the rest of the device platform was passivated with PEG-silane. Biotinylated and fluorescently-tagged complementary ssDNA were labeled with commercial streptavidin-coated 350 nm superparamagnetic beads, which were found to assemble selectively onto the Au pads through DNA hybridization using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This work was supported by NIH NIGMS GM079592.

  8. Glass substrates crosslinked with tetracycline-imprinted polymeric silicate and CdTe quantum dots as fluorescent sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Mu-Rong [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Lian, E-mail: cjl@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-21

    A fluorescence-based sensor that combines the merits of quantum dots (QDs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was first fabricated on a glass substrate via a sol–gel route. Some of the key performance factors, including silane selection, substrate etching, the reaction times of glass silanization and sol–gel polymerization, and the times and methods used for template stripping and loading, were discussed and determined. After fabricating the sensor on either a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) or a 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPS) modified glass substrate, APS showed a much better performance than MPS as both the capping reagent of QDs and the functional monomer of tetracycline-templated MIPs. The APS-QDs on APS-modified glass had a higher imprinted factor (IF = 5.6), a lower LOD (2.1 μM, 3σ), and a more stable signal (2.8%, n = 10 at 70 μM) than those on the MPS-modified glass (IF = 5.2, LOD = 6.5 μM, stability = 6.2%). Furthermore, the recoveries of tetracycline (70 μM) from BSA (133 μg/mL) and FBS (0.66 ppt) by the APS-modified glass were 98% (RSD = 3.5%, n = 5) and 97% (RSD = 5.7%), respectively. For the MPS-modified glass, recoveries of 95% (RSD = 7.2%) and 89% (RSD = 8.7%) were observed at 67 μg/mL of BSA and 0.33 ppt of FBS, respectively. - Highlights: • QD-MIP composites were first built on a glass substrate through a sol–gel route. • Two silanes were evaluated as both a surface modifier and a functional capping monomer. • Fluorescence enhancement by template on glass was different from quenching in solution.

  9. Evaluating the Reduced Hydrophobic Taste Sensor Response of Dipeptides by Theasinensin A by Using NMR and Quantum Mechanical Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    Full Text Available The current study demonstrated that theasinensin A (TSA had a potential to form the complex with hydrophobic Trp-containing dipeptides, and to reduce their membrane potential by artificial-lipid membrane taste sensor. At a 1:3 molar ratio of the 6 Trp-containing dipeptides together with TSA, we observed a significant chemical shift of the protons of the dipeptides (Δδ to a high magnetic field, when analyzed using 1H-nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The Δδ values were correlated with the hydrophobicity (log P of the dipeptides and significant correlations were obtained (P = 0.022, R2 = 0.77; e.g., Trp-Leu with the highest log P value of 1.623 among the tested dipeptides showed the highest Δδ value of 0.105 ppm for the H7 proton of Trp-Leu, while less chemical shifts were observed in theasinensin B and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy revealed that the diffusion coefficient of 3 mM of Trp-Leu (7.6 × 10-11 m2/s at a pulse field gradient in the range 0.05-0.3 T/m decreased in the presence of 3 mM TSA (6.6 × 10-11 m2/s, suggesting that Trp-Leu forms a complex with TSA. Quantum mechanical calculations and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect-NMR spectroscopy provided configuration information on the geometry of the complex that Trp-Leu formed with TSA (1:1 complex with a ΔG energy of -8.7 kJ/mol. A sensor analysis using artificial-lipid membranes demonstrated that the changes in membrane potential of 1 mM Trp-Leu (21.8 ± 1.3 mV and Leu-Trp (5.3 ± 0.9 mV were significantly (P < 0.001 reduced by 1 mM TSA (Trp-Leu, 13.1 ± 2.4 mV; Leu-Trp, 3.5 ± 0.5 mV; TSA alone, 0.2 ± 0.01 mV, indicating the effective suppression of hydrophobicity of dipeptides by TSA-formed complex.

  10. A circular dichroism sensor for selective detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on the in-situ generation of chiral CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianglam, Pradthana; Kulchat, Sirinan; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an advance in the fabrication of circular dichroism (CD) sensors for detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on chiral CdS quantum dots (QDs) generated by a facile in-situ reaction. The chiral quantum dots are generated in solutions composed of Cd2 +, S2 -, cysteamine (CA) and L-penicillamine (L-PA), with the number of the generated particles limited by either the Cd2 + or S2 - concentration. We show that the magnitude of the CD signal produced by the QDs is linearly related to the initial concentration of Cd2 + and S2 -, with excellent selectivity over other ions. Our sensor functions over concentration ranges of 65-200 μM and 7-125 μM with detection limits of 59.7 and 1.6 μM for Cd2 + and S2 -, respectively. The sensor is applied in real water samples with results comparing favorably with those obtained from ICP-OES (for Cd2 +) and HPLC (for S2 -).

  11. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0×10(-7) - 1.0×10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2×10(-8) mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  12. ZnO Quantum Dot Decorated Zn2SnO4 Nanowire Heterojunction Photodetectors with Drastic Performance Enhancement and Flexible Ultraviolet Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ludong; Gu, Leilei; Lou, Zheng; Fan, Zhiyong; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-03-27

    Here we report the fabrication of high-performance ultraviolet photodetectors based on a heterojunction device structure in which ZnO quantum dots were used to decorate Zn2SnO4 nanowires. Systematic investigations have shown their ultrahigh light-to-dark current ratio (up to 6.8 × 10(4)), specific detectivity (up to 9.0 × 10(17) Jones), photoconductive gain (up to 1.1 × 10(7)), fast response, and excellent stability. Compared with a pristine Zn2SnO4 nanowire, a quantum dot decorated nanowire demonstrated about 10 times higher photocurrent and responsivity. Device physics modeling showed that their high performance originates from the rational energy band engineering, which allows efficient separation of electron-hole pairs at the interfaces between ZnO quantum dots and a Zn2SnO4 nanowire. As a result of band engineering, holes migrate to ZnO quantum dots, which increases electron concentration and lifetime in the nanowire conduction channel, leading to significantly improved photoresponse. The enhancement mechanism found in this work can also be used to guide the design of high-performance photodetectors based on other nanomaterials. Furthermore, flexible ultraviolet photodetectors were fabricated and integrated into a 10 × 10 device array, which constitutes a high-performance flexible ultraviolet image sensor. These intriguing results suggest that the band alignment engineering on nanowires can be rationally achieved using compound semiconductor quantum dots. This can lead to largely improved device performance. Particularly for ZnO quantum dot decorated Zn2SnO4 nanowires, these decorated nanowires may find broad applications in future flexible and wearable electronics.

  13. Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....

  14. Interferometric vibration sensor using phase-generated carrier method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Liu, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tan, Zhongwei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-09-01

    An interferometric fiber-optic vibration sensing system using the phase-generated carrier (PGC) method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing section consists of a Sagnac interferometer combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a length of sensing fiber is shared between the two interferometers. The PGC demodulation scheme is used to demodulate the time-varying phase shifts induced by vibrations. Spatial information can be extracted from the demodulated results. A prototype sensing system with a 628 m long sensing fiber has been tested and a spatial resolution better than 12 m is successfully achieved.

  15. Feasibility of evanescent wave interferometer immunosensors for pesticide detection: chemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechuga, L.M.; Lenferink, A.T.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.

    1995-01-01

    A waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) immunosensor has been developed which can detect, in a direct way, a minimum average layer growth thickness of the analyte of 2×10−3 nm (bound mass, I′=1×10−4 δ cm−2). The design and fabrication of the sensor and the experimental set-up are aimed at decr

  16. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei

    2012-05-25

    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas; Arend, Carsten; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    telecom regime as a result of the small conversion bandwidth and using a high-performance fiber-Bragg-grating solely left the detector dark counts as the only noise source in our setup. Therefore, we could achieve conversion efficiencies of more than 20 %. In order to test the indistinguishability, sequentially emitted photons were fed into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatially as well as temporally overlapped at the output beam splitter. Cross-correlation measurements between both output-ports of the beam splitter exhibit two-photon interference contrasts of more than 40 % prior to and after the down-conversion step. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the process of quantum frequency conversion preserves photon indistinguishability and can be used to establish a versatile source of indistinguishable single photons at the telecom C-Band. Furthermore our scheme allows for converting photons in a wavelength band from 900 nm to 910 nm to the same telecom target wavelength. This enables us to test indistinguishability of frequency-converted photons, originally stemming from different sources with dinstinguishable wavelengths.

  18. Quantum Enhanced Phase Estimation with an Amplified Bell State

    CERN Document Server

    Sahota, Jaspreet

    2013-01-01

    We propose a phase estimation protocol for optical interferometry that employs a probe state (containing on average n photons) obtained by squeezing each mode, separately, of a single photon path entangled Bell state. This scheme involves a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer for which each mode is squeezed after the first beam splitter. Information about the differential phase is extracted using a parity detection and the resulting measurement signal is super-resolving and supersensitive, with a minimum phase uncertainty 2/(n+1). This probe state can be generated with current technologies where n is in the order of many thousands of photons.

  19. Quantum Sensors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    crystal; EDFA : Erbium-doped-fiber amplifier; HWP: half-wave plate; DM: dichroic mirror; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; PZT: piezoelectric transducer...pulse-carving system. The optical pulse train was subsequently amplified with a 5 W Erbium-doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA ) to produce kilowatts peak...efficiency in the up-conversion process, as shown in Figure 24. The SHG performance was mainly limited by the nonlinear effects in the high power EDFA

  20. A blueprint for a simultaneous test of quantum mechanics and general relativity in a space-based quantum optics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pallister, Sam; Formichella, Valerio; Gampierakis, Nicolas; Notaro, Virginia; Knott, Paul; Azevedo, Rui; Buchheim, Nikolaus; de Carvalho, Silvio; Jarvela, Emilia; Laporte, Matthieu; Kaikkonen, Jukka-Pekka; Meshksar, Neda; Nikkanen, Timo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an experiment designed to observe a general-relativistic effect on single photon interference. The experiment consists of a folded Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with the arms distributed between a single Earth orbiter and a ground station. By compensating for other degrees of freedom and the motion of the orbiter, this setup aims to detect the influence of general relativistic time dilation on a spatially superposed single photon. The proposal details a payload to measure the required effect, along with an extensive feasibility analysis given current technological capabilities.

  1. A blueprint for a simultaneous test of quantum mechanics and general relativity in a space-based quantum optics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallister, Sam [University of Bristol, School of Mathematics, Bristol (United Kingdom); Coop, Simon [The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Barcelona (Spain); Formichella, Valerio [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Gampierakis, Nicolas [University of East Anglia, School of Natural Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Notaro, Virginia [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rome (Italy); Knott, Paul [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Azevedo, Rui [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Buchheim, Nikolaus [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); De Carvalho, Silvio [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Aerospace Engineering Department, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Jaervelae, Emilia [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Kylmaelae (Finland); Aalto University Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Laporte, Matthieu [Universite Paris Diderot, APC (AstroParticule et Cosmologie), Paris (France); Kaikkonen, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto (Finland); Meshksar, Neda [Leibniz University Hanover, Albert Einstein Institute, Hanover (Germany); Nikkanen, Timo [Aalto University Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Radar and Space Technology Research Group, Helsinki (Finland); Yttergren, Madeleine [Chalmers University of Technology, Physics and Astronomy, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper we propose an experiment designed to observe a general-relativistic effect on single photon interference. The experiment consists of a folded Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with the arms distributed between a single Earth orbiter and a ground station. By compensating for other degrees of freedom and the motion of the orbiter, this setup aims to detect the influence of general relativistic time dilation on a spatially superposed single photon. The proposal details a payload to measure the required effect, along with an extensive feasibility analysis given current technological capabilities. (orig.)

  2. “Turn-off” fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fu, Haiyan, E-mail: fuhaiyan@mail.scuec.edu.cn [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Tianming, E-mail: tmyang@mail.scuec.edu.cn [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); She, Yuanbin, E-mail: sheyb@zjut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Ni, Chuang [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-04-15

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence “turn-off” sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence “turn-off” model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs. - Highlights: • A new model based on double QDs is established for pesticide residues detection. • The fluorescent data array sensor is coupled with chmometrics methods. • The sensor can be highly sensitive and selective detection in actual samples.

  3. An electrochemical sensor for warfarin determination based on covalent immobilization of quantum dots onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2015-12-01

    A method is described for the construction of a novel electrochemical warfarin sensor based on covalent immobilization of CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CS) composite film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The CdS-QDs/CS/MWCNTs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor showed optimum anodic stripping response within 90s at an accumulation potential of 0.75V. The modified electrode was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a wide linear range of 0.05-80 μM and a detection limit (S/N=3) of 8.5 nM. The proposed sensor has good storage stability, repeatability and reproducibility and was successfully applied for the determination of warfarin in real samples such as urine, serum and milk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for Ag+ using cysteamine capped CdS quantum dots: determination of free Ag+ in silver nanoparticles solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantaw, Thitima; Boonmee, Chanida; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots capped with cysteamine (Cys-CdS QDs) were demonstrated as a selective fluorescence probe for sensing of free trace silver ions. The fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs can be enhanced only in the presence of free Ag(+) and the fluorescence spectrum was slightly red shift from the original spectra. In addition, the fluorescence intensities were linearly increased upon increasing Ag(+) concentration. At the optimized condition for Ag(+) detection, when adding other metal ions to the Cys-CdS QDs solution, fluorescence spectra of Cys-CdS QDs did not change significantly revealing good selectivity of the sensors towards Ag(+). The working linear concentration range was found to be 0.1-1.5 µM with LOD of 68 nM. The proposed sensor was then applied to detect free Ag(+) in the silver nanoparticles solution. The results showed that the proposed sensor can be efficiently used with good accuracy and precision providing the simple method for detection of free Ag(+) in silver nanoparticles of quality control products.

  5. Implementation of a quantum cascade laser-based gas sensor prototype for sub-ppmv H2S measurements in a petrochemical process gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Harald; Pölz, Walter; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a sensitive and selective as well as industrial fit gas sensor prototype based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (2f-WMS) employing an 8-μm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (CW-DFB-QCL) for monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at sub-ppm levels is reported. Regarding the applicability for analytical and industrial process purposes aimed at petrochemical environments, a synthetic methane (CH4) matrix of up to 1000 ppmv together with a varying H2S content was chosen as the model environment for the laboratory-based performance evaluation performed at TU Wien. A noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity (NEAS) for H2S targeting the absorption line at 1247.2 cm(-1) was found to be 8.419 × 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 ppbv H2S could be achieved. The sensor prototype was then deployed for on-site measurements at the petrochemical research hydrogenation platform of the industrial partner OMV AG. In order to meet the company's on-site safety regulations, the H2S sensor platform was installed in an industry rack and equipped with the required safety infrastructure for protected operation in hazardous and explosive environments. The work reports the suitability of the sensor prototype for simultaneous monitoring of H2S and CH4 content in the process streams of a research hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit. Concentration readings were obtained every 15 s and revealed process dynamics not observed previously.

  6. A novel ascorbic acid sensor based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ modulated photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots@SiO2 nanobeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Li, Yang; Lin, Zi-Han; Tang, Guangchao; Su, Xing-Guang

    2013-10-21

    In this paper, CdTe quantum dot (QD)@silica nanobeads were used as modulated photoluminescence (PL) sensors for the sensing of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution for the first time. The sensor was developed based on the different quenching effects of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) on the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@ silica nanobeads. Firstly, the PL intensity of the CdTe QDs was quenched in the presence of Fe(3+). Although both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) could quench the PL intensity of the CdTe QDs, the quenching efficiency were quite different for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). The PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads can be quenched by about 15% after the addition of Fe(3+) (60 μmol L(-1)), while the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads can be quenched about 49% after the addition of Fe(2+) (60 μmol L(-1)). Therefore, the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads decreased significantly when Fe(3+) was reduced to Fe(2+) by ascorbic acid. To confirm the strategy of PL modulation in this sensing system, trace H2O2 was introduced to oxidize Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). As a result, the PL intensity of the CdTe QD@silica nanobeads was partly recovered. The proposed sensor could be used for ascorbic acid sensing in the concentration range of 3.33-400 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 1.25 μmol L(-1) The feasibility of the proposed sensor for ascorbic acid determination in tablet samples was also studied, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  7. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Thermo-Optical Modulator with Fast Response%快速响应SOI马赫曾德热光调制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红振; 余金中; 夏金松; 严清峰; 刘忠立; 房昌水

    2002-01-01

    给出了Y分支MZI热光调制器的模型,实验研制了基于SOI(silicon-on-insulator)的MZI热光调制器,调制器的消光比为-16.5dB,开关的上升时间为10μs,下降时间为20μs,相应的功耗为0.39W.

  8. Characterization and Performance Comparison of Low-Voltage, High-Speed, Push-Pull and Traveling-Wave Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    combination of the PNA internally changing to a mixer with more noise, and the low level of input optical power to the LCA ...loop and not closed-loop motors , so a recursive search algorithm was developed to ensure that the power optimization algorithm accurately and...location where the highest power reading was found. Because of the fact that the motor is open-loop, the position to which the algorithm returns is not

  9. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add/Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gbit/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens, Alvaro A.; Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov;

    2000-01-01

    We report a novel method for simultaneous add-drop multiplexing in OTDM systems which includes regenerative capabilities and perfect clearing of the drop channel time slot. The principle has been demonstrated at 40 Gb/s showing an excellent performance....

  10. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a modified dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a new type tunable comb filter is proposed and demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization controllers, dual-function operation of the channel spacing tunability and the wavelength switching (interleaving) can be readily achieved. Up to 29 stable lasing lines with 0.4 nm spacing and 14 lasing wavelengths with 0.8 nm spacing in 3 dB bandwidth were obtained at room temperature. In addition, the lasing output, including the number of the lasing lines, the lasing evenness and the lasing locations, can also be flexibly adjusted through the wavelength-dependent polarization rotation mechanism.

  11. A Novel Dynamic Wavelength Cross-connect Based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Optical ad/drop Multiplexer and Optical Space Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai

    1999-01-01

    We have proposed a novel dynamic WXC based on MZI-OADM. The advantages of this dynamic WXC are very low differential insertion loss, using less exchanging units than reported structures, and the ability to be integrated. In experiment, the three channels from the path with maximum OADMs in a 2×2 ...

  12. Multiplex electrochemiluminescence DNA sensor for determination of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus based on multicolor quantum dots and Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Linlin; Wang, Xinyan; Ma, Qiang; Lin, Zihan; Chen, Shufan; Li, Yang [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Lu, Lehui [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China); Qu, Hongping [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 (China); Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, a novel multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA sensor has been developed for determination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) based on multicolor CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). The electrochemically synthesized graphene nanosheets (GNs) were selected as conducting bridge to anchor CdTe QDs{sub 551}-capture DNA{sub HBV} and CdTe QDs{sub 607}-capture DNA{sub HCV} on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Then, different concentrations of target DNA{sub HBV} and target DNA{sub HCV} were introduced to hybrid with complementary CdTe QDs-capture DNA. Au NPs-probe DNA{sub HBV} and Au NPs-probe DNA{sub HCV} were modified to the above composite film via hybrid with the unreacted complementary CdTe QDs-capture DNA. Au NPs could quench the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity of CdTe QDs due to the inner filter effect. Therefore, the determination of target DNA{sub HBV} and target DNA{sub HCV} could be achieved by monitoring the ECL DNA sensor based on Au NPs-probe DNA/target DNA/CdTe QDs-capture DNA/GNs/GCE composite film. Under the optimum conditions, the ECL intensity of CdTe QDs{sub 551} and CdTe QDs{sub 607} and the concentration of target DNA{sub HBV} and target DNA{sub HCV} have good linear relationship in the range of 0.0005–0.5 nmol L{sup −1} and 0.001–1.0 nmol L{sup −1} respectively, and the limit of detection were 0.082 pmol L{sup −1} and 0.34 pmol L{sup −1} respectively (S/N = 3). The DNA sensor showed good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and acceptable stability. The proposed DNA sensor has been employed for the determination of target DNA{sub HBV} and target DNA{sub HCV} in human serum samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A novel electrochemiluminescence DNA sensor has been developed for the determination of target DNA{sub HBV} and target DNA{sub HCV}. • The DNA sensor shows good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability. • The ECL provided a

  13. Glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as a room-temperature phosphorescence sensor for the detection of Pb2 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jialing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (GSH-Mn-ZnS QDs) was effectively quenched by the addition of Pb2 +. A simple and sensitive RTP sensor for Pb2 + detection based on the quenching effect was developed. Under the optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for Pb2 + over a concentration range from 1.0 to 100 μg·L- 1, and the detection limit was 0.45 μg·L- 1. The established method has been successfully applied for the determination of Pb2 + in real water samples without complicated sample pretreatment with the recoveries in the range of 95.4%-104.0%.

  14. First detective quantum efficiency measurement of 500 {mu}m silicon hybrid pixel sensor with photon counting readout for X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surre, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. E-mail: Benjamin.surre@u-clermontl.fr; Caria, Mario [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaput, Julien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hassoun, Thierry [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laverroux, Fabien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Sarry, Laurent [Equipe de Recherche en Signal et Imagerie Medicale, EA3295, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-07-01

    We report the performances of a 500 {mu}m pixellated silicon sensor bonded to the photon counting chip Medipix2 [1]. In order to perform an absolute characterization of our detector, we measured both the pre-sampling MTF and NPS with respect to the International standard IEC-62220-1. From those data we have been able to extract the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and hence to assess the suitability of our detector for X-ray medical imaging purpose. Due to poor absorption of the Si at 70 kV the DQE peaked at 0.06 for null frequency. Nevertheless, these results are very promising since thicker Si or more absorbing material such as GaAs will soon be available.

  15. “Turn-off-on” fluorescent sensor for (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin -DNA and G-quadruplex interactions based on ZnCdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Fan, Yao; Gao, Fang; Yang, Tian-ming, E-mail: tmyang@mail.scuec.edu.cn

    2015-08-12

    As a new detection model, the reversible fluorescence “turn-off-on” sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many biochemical materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between anticancer drugs. The previous studies, however, mainly focused on simple-structured oligonucleotides and Calf thymus DNA. G-quadruplex, an important target for anti-cancer drug with special secondary structure, has been stimulating increasing research interests. In this paper, we report a new detection method based on the fluorescence “turn-off-on” model with water-soluble ZnCdSe QDs as the fluorescent probe, to analyze the interactions between anticancer drug (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP) and nucleic acid, especially the G-quadruplex. The fluorescence of QDs can be quenched by TMPyP via photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, while on the other hand, the combination between TMPyP and G-quadruplex releases QDs from their quenchers and thus recovers the fluorescence. Most importantly, the fluorescence “turn-off-on” model has been employed, for the first time, to analyze the impacts of special factors on the interaction between TMPyP and G-quadruplex. The excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in the studies of the interactions between TMPyP and different DNAs (double-stranded DNA, single-stranded G-quadruplex, and different types of G-quadruplexes) in Na{sup +} or K{sup +}-containing buffer. - Highlights: • Reversible fluorescence sensor was firstly used on TMPyP and G-quadruplex study. • SsDNA and various G-quadruplexes were successfully recognized by fluorescence. • The new quantum dot is hypotoxicity and can be extensively applied.

  16. Wireless Sensor Network Localization Algorithms based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于量子遗传算法的WSN定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 时好振

    2013-01-01

    针对无线传感网络由于位置信息等原因造成的定位误差较大、精度不高等问题,在继承DV-Hop定位算法优点的基础上对其进行改进,提出了一种基于量子遗传算法的无线传感器网络节点定位技术.将其应用于DV-Hop算法的第3阶段,对节点的位置进行校正,利用量子遗传算法求解模型的最优解,从而得到未知节点的最优估计位置.改进的DV-Hop定位算法与原算法相比,改进的算法能够改善定位覆盖率低的问题,在锚节点比例较低的情况下有更高的定位精度.%Focused on the problems of wireless sensor networks such as big position error and low precision caused by position information, inherited advantages of DV-Hop localization algorithm, an improved location algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on the quantum genetic algorithm was put forward in the paper. It was applied to the third stage of DV- Hop algorithm, the node's position correction, the quantum genetic algorithm was used to get the optimal solution of the model and the optimal estimation position of the unknown nodes can be gotten. Compared with the original algorithm, improved DV-hop localization algorithm can improve the problem of low position coverage and has higher precision in the low proportion of anchor nodes.

  17. CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence sensor for the determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Fang Sun; Cui Ling Ren; Li Hong Liu; Xing Guo Chen

    2008-01-01

    A novel,rapid and simple CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based technology platform was established for selective and sensitive determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution.It can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of vitamin B6 in pharmaceutical with satisfactory results.

  18. "Turn-off" fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue; Fu, Haiyan; Yang, Tianming; She, Yuanbin; Ni, Chuang

    2016-04-15

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence "turn-off" sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence "turn-off" model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs.

  19. Exploration of CdTe quantum dots as mesoscale pressure sensors via time-resolved shock-compression photoluminescent emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhitao; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Lee, Gyuhyon; Scripka, David A.; Breidenich, Jennifer; Xiao, Pan; Christensen, James; Zhou, Min; Summers, Christopher J.; Dlott, Dana D.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2016-07-01

    The nanometer size of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and their unique optical properties, including size-tunable narrow photoluminescent emission, broad absorption, fast photoluminescence decay, and negligible light scattering, are ideal features for spectrally tagging the shock response of localized regions in highly heterogeneous materials such as particulate media. In this work, the time-resolved laser-excited photoluminescence response of QDs to shock-compression was investigated to explore their utilization as mesoscale sensors for pressure measurements and in situ diagnostics during shock loading experiments. Laser-driven shock-compression experiments with steady-state shock pressures ranging from 2.0 to 13 GPa were performed on nanocomposite films of CdTe QDs dispersed in a soft polyvinyl alcohol polymer matrix and in a hard inorganic sodium silicate glass matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescent emission spectroscopy was used to correlate photoluminescence changes with the history of shock pressure and the dynamics of the matrix material surrounding the QDs. The results revealed pressure-induced blueshifts in emitted wavelength, decreases in photoluminescent emission intensity, reductions in peak width, and matrix-dependent response times. Data obtained for these QD response characteristics serve as indicators for their use as possible time-resolved diagnostics of the dynamic shock-compression response of matrix materials in which such QDs are embedded as in situ sensors.

  20. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  1. Detective quantum efficiency, modulation transfer function and energy resolution comparison between CdTe and silicon sensors bump-bonded to XPAD3S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjoubi, Kadda; Bucaille, Thierry; Hustache, Stéphanie; Bérar, Jean François; Boudet, Nathalie; Clemens, Jean Claude; Delpierre, Pierre; Dinkespiler, Bernard

    2010-07-01

    XPAD3S is a single-photon-counting chip developed in collaboration by SOLEIL Synchrotron, the Institut Louis Néel and the Centre de Physique de Particules de Marseille. The circuit, designed in the 0.25 microm IBM technology, contains 9600 square pixels with 130 microm side giving a total size of 1 cm x 1.5 cm. The main features of each pixel are: single threshold adjustable from 4.5 keV up to 35 keV, 2 ms frame rate, 10(7) photons s(-1) mm(-2) maximum local count rate, and a 12-bit internal counter with overflow allowing a full 27-bit dynamic range to be reached. The XPAD3S was hybridized using the flip-chip technology with both a 500 microm silicon sensor and a 700 microm CdTe sensor with Schottky contacts. Imaging performances of both detectors were evaluated using X-rays from 6 keV up to 35 keV. The detective quantum efficiency at zero line-pairs mm(-1) for a silicon sensor follows the absorption law whereas for CdTe a strong deficit at low photon energy, produced by an inefficient entrance layer, is measured. The modulation transfer function was evaluated and it was shown that both detectors present an ideal modulation transfer function at 26 keV, limited only by the pixel size. The influence of the Cd and Te K-edges of the CdTe sensor was measured and simulated, establishing that fluorescence photons reduce the contrast transfer at the Nyquist frequency from 60% to 40% which remains acceptable. The energy resolution was evaluated at 6% with silicon using 16 keV X-rays, and 8% with CdTe using 35 keV X-rays. A 7 cm x 12 cm XPAD3 imager, built with eight silicon modules (seven circuits per module) tiled together, was successfully used for X-ray diffraction experiments. A first result recently obtained with a new 2 cm x 3 cm CdTe imager is also presented.

  2. Photoluminescence of MoS2 quantum dots quenched by hydrogen peroxide: A fluorescent sensor for hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhixing; Gui, Qingfeng; Shan, Yun; Pan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Lifa

    2016-09-01

    By cutting MoS2 microcrystals to quantum dots (QDs) of sizes below 10 nm, the photoluminescence (PL) at ca. 450 nm can be detected easily due to the quantum confinement effects across the 2D planes. The PL is stable under continuous irradiation of UV light but gradually quenches when treated with an increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Time-resolved PL and Raman spectra imply that H2O2 causes the partial oxidation of MoS2 QDs. First-principles calculations reveal that the MoS2 QDs with oxygen impurity are of indirect bandgap structures showing no notable PL. And absorption spectra verify that the PL of MoS2 QDs quenched by H2O2 is attributed to the oxidation. The integrated PL intensity and H2O2 concentration show an exponential relationship in the range of 2-20 μM, suggesting that MoS2 QDs are potential fluorescent probes for hydrogen peroxide sensing in a physiological environment.

  3. Room-temperature phosphorescence sensor based on manganese doped zinc sulfide quantum dots for detection of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Lin; Dong, Xiang-ting; Yu, Yuan-hua, E-mail: jlyyh2013@126.com

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a simple scheme was proposed to prepare a urea-sensing system, which was composed of water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS phosphorescent QDs and urease. It allows for effective and quantitative detection of urea. The phosphorescence properties of MPA-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs were explored to develop an RTP method for facile, rapid, cost-effective and selective detection of urea. This method does not need any deoxidant or other inducers and detects urea in biological fluids without being interfered from autofluorescence or the scattering light of the matrix. The new RTP sensor for urea detection has a detection limit of 0.014 mM and two linear ranges from 0 to 10 mM and from 10 to 60 mM. The precision for 11 replicate detections of 0.1 mM urea was 4.7%. The recoveries on spiked urine samples are 95–103%. It was successfully applied to the determination of urine without any complicated sample pretreatment. - Highlights: • RTP sensor greatly improves the urea detection ability. • The interferences from autofluorescence and scattering light were avoided. • The developed biosensor does not need any complicated sample pretreatment. • This method can be used to detect the content of urea in body fluid.

  4. Visible light photoelectrochemical sensor for ultrasensitive determination of dopamine based on synergistic effect of graphene quantum dots and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuting; Liu, Qian; Du, Xiaojiao; Qian, Jing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The GQDs–TiO{sub 2} could prevent GQDs assembling and achieve the immobilization of GQDs. • The GQDs–TiO{sub 2} showed synergistic amplification on the PEC in the visible region. • The PEC sensor for sensitive and selective detection of dopamine was constructed. • The sensor showed wide linear response and low detection limit for dopamine detection. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a facile approach for fabricating graphene quantum dots–TiO{sub 2} (GQDs–TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites by a simple physical adsorption method. Compared with pure GQDs and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), the as-prepared GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) signal under visible-light irradiation. The photocurrent of GQDs–TiO{sub 2}/GCE was nearly 30-fold and 12-fold enhancement than that of GQDs/GCE and TiO{sub 2}/GCE, respectively, which was attributed to the synergistic amplification between TiO{sub 2} NPs and GQDs. More interestingly, the photocurrent of GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was selectively sensitized by dopamine (DA), and enhanced with the increasing of DA concentration. Further, a new PEC methodology for ultrasensitive determination of DA was developed, which showed linearly enhanced photocurrent by increasing the DA concentration from 0.02 to 105 μM with a detection limit of 6.7 nM (S/N = 3) under optimized conditions. This strategy opens up a new avenue for the application of GQDs-based nanocomposites in the field of PEC sensing and monitoring.

  5. A colorimetric and fluorometric dual-signal sensor for arginine detection by inhibiting the growth of gold nanoparticles/carbon quantum dots composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Na; Dong, Jiang Xue; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Yu Zhu; Lin, Shu Min; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2017-01-15

    A bidimensional optical sensing platform which combines the advantages of fluorescence and colorimetry has been designed for arginine (Arg) detection. The system was established by monitoring the influence of Arg on the growth of gold nanoparticles/carbon quantum dots (Au/CQDs) composite, and the CQDs synthesized by ethylene glycol were used as the reducing and stabilizing agent in this paper. Considering that Arg is the only amino acid with guanidine group and has the highest isoelectric point (pI) value at 10.76, Arg would carry positive charges at pH 7.4. Consequently, the positively charged guanidine group of Arg could attract AuCl4(-) and CQDs through electrostatic interaction, which inhibited the growth of Au/CQDs composite. Thereby, the color of the system almost did not change and the fluorescence quenching of CQDs was prevented in the presence of Arg. Based on the color change a low detection limit for Arg was 37nM, and a detection limit of 450nM was obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, this dual-signal sensor also revealed excellent selectivity toward Arg over other amino acids. Besides, Arg can be detected in urine samples with satisfactory results, which demonstrate the potential applications for real analysis.

  6. [A trace methane gas sensor using mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser at 7.5 microm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Dang, Jing-Min; Huang, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Yue; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2012-11-01

    Presented is a compact instrument developed for in situ high-stable and sensitive continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results shown for ambient methane (CH4) concentration accurate, real-time and in-situ. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in thermoelectrically cooling (TEC) pulsed Fabry-Perot (FP) quantum cascaded laser (QCL) driving in a pulse mode operating at 7.5 microm ambient temperature to cover a fundamental spectral absorption band near v4 of CH4. A high quality Liquid Nitrogen (LN) cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) mid-infrared (MIR) detector is used along with a total reflection coated gold ellipsoid mirror offering 20 cm single pass optical absorption in an open-path cell to achieve stability of 5.2 x 10(-3) under experimental condition of 200 micromol x mol(-1) measured ambient CH4. The instrument integrated software via time discriminating electronics technology to control QCL provides continuous quantitative trace gas measurements without calibration. The results show that the instrument can be applied to field measurements of gases of environmental concern. Additional, operator could substitute a QCL operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases.

  7. Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dot-PVA hydrogel: a colorimetric sensor for Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Upama; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs)-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hybrid hydrogels were prepared using a simple, facile and cost-effective strategy. GOQDs bearing different surface functional groups were introduced as the cross-linking agent into the PVA matrix thereby resulting in gelation. The four different types of hybrid hydrogels were prepared using graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, ester functionalized graphene oxide and amine functionalized GOQDs as cross-linking agents. It was observed that the hybrid hydrogel prepared with amine functionalized GOQDs was the most stable. The potential applicability of using this solid sensing platform has been subsequently explored in an easy, simple, effective and sensitive method for optical detection of M2+ (Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+) in aqueous media involving colorimetric detection. Amine functionalized GOQDs-PVA hybrid hydrogel when put into the corresponding solution of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ renders brown, orange and blue coloration respectively of the solution detecting the presence of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions in the solution. The minimum detection limit observed was 1 × 10-7 M using UV-visible spectroscopy. Further, the applicability of the sensing material was also tested for a mixture of co-existing ions in solution to demonstrate the practical applicability of the system. Insight into the probable mechanistic pathway involved in the detection process is also being discussed.

  8. Graphene–palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Ge, Shenguang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Mei, E-mail: chm_yanm@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • The nanohybrid ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs was developed by assembling the GQDs on the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} through a photo-Fenton reaction. • The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs exhibited higher peroxidase-like activity and better stability than each individual and HRP. • An electrochemical sensor was fabricated using ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic to detect DNA. • Graphene and Pd nanowires were modified on the glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate. - Abstract: We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene quantum dots (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10{sup −16} to 5 × 10{sup −9} M and low detection limit of 6.2 × 10{sup −17} M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems

  9. Facile and ultrasensitive fluorescence sensor platform for tumor invasive biomaker β-glucuronidase detection and inhibitor evaluation with carbon quantum dots based on inner-filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuaimin; Li, Guoliang; Lv, Zhengxian; Qiu, Nannan; Kong, Weiheng; Gong, Peiwei; Chen, Guang; Xia, Lian; Guo, Xiaoxi; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-15

    Early detection and diagnosis have great practical significances for the effective prevention and treatment of cancer. In this study, we developed a novel, facile and ultra-sensitive fluorescence assay for the determination of tumor invasive biomarker β-glucuronidase (GLU) based on the inner-filter effect (IFE). The nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with green photoluminescence were employed as the fluorophore in IFE, and 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide (PNPG) was used to act as GLU substrate, and GLU catalytic product (p-nitrophenol (PNP)) was capable of acting as the robust absorber in IFE to turn off the fluorescence of N-CQDs due to the complementary overlap between the absorption of PNP and the excitation of N-CQDs. Thus, signal of GLU activity could be recorded by the fluorescence intensity of N-CQDs. Unlike other fluorescence sensing mechanism such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer (PET), IFE has no requirement for electron or energy transfer process or any chemical modification of fluorophore, which makes our assay more flexible and simple. The proposed method exhibited a good linear relationship from 1UL(-1) to 60UL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967) with a low detection limit of 0.3UL(-1). This method was also successfully applied to the analysis of serum samples and the inhibitor screening from natural product. The developed sensor platform was proven to be reliable, facile, sensitive, and selective, making it promising as a candidate for GLU activity detection in clinic tumor diagnose and anti-tumor drug screening.

  10. Bell-inequality violations with single photons entangled in momentum and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadway, B R; Galvez, E J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); De Zela, F [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)], E-mail: egalvez@mail.colgate.edu

    2009-01-14

    We present a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and the Clauser-Horne inequalities using heralded single photons entangled in momentum and polarization modes. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer and polarization optics are used to rotate the spatial and polarization bases, respectively. With this setup we were able to test quantum mechanics with the original formulation of the Clauser-Horne inequality. The results rule out a wide class of realistic non-contextual hidden-variable theories.

  11. Investigating transfer of learning in advanced quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that students often have difficulty transferring their learning from one context to another. We examine upper-level undergraduate and graduate students' facility with questions about the interference pattern in the double-slit experiment (DSE) with single photons and polarizers of various orientations placed in front of one or both slits. Before answering these types of questions, students had worked through a tutorial on the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) in which they learned about interference of single photons when polarizers of various orientations are placed in the two paths of the MZI. After working on the MZI tutorial, students were asked similar questions in the isomorphic context of the DSE. We discuss the extent to which they were able to transfer what they learned in the context of the MZI to analogous problems in the isomorphic context of the DSE.

  12. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  13. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Friis, Nicolai; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory (QFT). QFT properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in QFT including proper times and acce...

  14. Measurement of Frequency Shift Characteristics Based on LiNbO3 Waveguide Electro-Optic Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Meng; Hui-Juan Zhou; Yi Liao; Qiong Yao

    2008-01-01

    High-speed and wide-band LiNbO3 waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator has drawn great attention in the field of optical fiber communi-cation and sensor. This paper reports the research results on the measurement of frequency shift character-istics of Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator. Two measurement methods of frequency shift character-istics for high and low frequency modulations are studied in theory and experiment and demonstrate different results. The realization of a multi-wavelength optical source based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator has been introduced. The technique to reach the maximum intensity for interesting shift frequency, particularly for heterodyne detection of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing, has been given.

  15. Highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on immobilization of bisphosphoramidate-derivative and quantum dots onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of olanzapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Khodayar [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barati, Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a new bisphosphoramidate derivative compound, 1, 4-bis(N-methyl)-benzene-bis(N-phenyl, N-benzoylphosphoramidate) (BMBPBP), was synthesized and used as a mediator for the electrocatalytic oxidation of olanzapine. The electro-oxidation of olanzapine at the surface of the BMBPBP/CdS-quantum dots/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BMBPBP/CdS-QDs/MWCNTs) modified gold electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity toward olanzapine at less positive potential, pronounced current response, and good sensitivity. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) were determined for olanzapine oxidation, using the electrochemical approaches. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared modified electrode were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The hydrodynamic amperometry at rotating modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of olanzapine. Under optimized conditions, the calibration plot was linear in the concentration range of 20 nM to 100 μM and detection limit was found to be 6 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples. - Highlights: • A highly sensitive sensor for OLZ determination was developed. • The sensor constructed based on immobilization of BMBPBP on CdS-QDs/MWCNTs Au electrode • The morphology of the modified electrode was examined by SEM. • The prepared sensor shows stable electrochemical behavior at a wide pH range. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of OLZ in real samples.

  16. Quantum interpolation for high-resolution sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yi-Xiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Bissbort, Ulf; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-02-28

    Recent advances in engineering and control of nanoscale quantum sensors have opened new paradigms in precision metrology. Unfortunately, hardware restrictions often limit the sensor performance. In nanoscale magnetic resonance probes, for instance, finite sampling times greatly limit the achievable sensitivity and spectral resolution. Here we introduce a technique for coherent quantum interpolation that can overcome these problems. Using a quantum sensor associated with the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum interpolation can achieve spectroscopy of classical magnetic fields and individual quantum spins with orders of magnitude finer frequency resolution than conventionally possible. Not only is quantum interpolation an enabling technique to extract structural and chemical information from single biomolecules, but it can be directly applied to other quantum systems for superresolution quantum spectroscopy.

  17. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins.

  18. Integrated Optical Interferometers with Micromachined Diaphragms for Pressure Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBrabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    Optical pressure sensors have been fabricated which use an integrated optical channel waveguide that is part of an interferometer to measure the pressure-induced strain in a micromachined silicon diaphragm. A silicon substrate is etched from the back of the wafer leaving a rectangular diaphragm. On the opposite side of the wafer, ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometers are formed with optical channel waveguides made from a low pressure chemical vapor deposited film of silicon oxynitride. The interferometer's phase is altered by pressure-induced stress in a channel segment positioned over the long edge of the diaphragm. The phase change in the ring resonator is monitored using a link-insensitive swept frequency laser diode, while in the Mach-Zehnder it is determined using a broad band super luminescent diode with subsequent wavelength separation. The ring resonator was found to be highly temperature sensitive, while the Mach-Zehnder, which had a smaller optical path length difference, was proportionally less so. The quasi-TM mode was more sensitive to pressure, in accord with calculations. Waveguide and sensor theory, sensitivity calculations, a fabrication sequence, and experimental results are presented.

  19. Synthesis and application of double quantum dots nanocomposite ratiometric fluorescent sensor for NO%双量子点纳米复合物NO比率荧光探针的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 孙捷; 王晓静; 孙敬勇; 王兵

    2016-01-01

    A double quantum dots nanocomposite of CdSe@ SiO2‐CdTe was synthesized based on the electrostatic adsorption .A Cd‐NO complex was formed by the combination of nitric ox‐ide (NO) with Cd ions on the surface of CdTe quantum dots ,which led to CdTe quantum dots fluorescence quenching , without affecting the fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots .Further‐more ,its utility was carried out to detect NO quantitatively according to the linear relationship between the concentrations of NO (0 1.~2 2. μmol/L) and the relevant I603/I532 values of the ratiometric fluorescent sensor .%通过静电吸附作用,合成了CdSe@ SiO2‐CdTe双量子点的纳米复合物.一氧化氮(NO)与CdTe量子点表面Cd离子结合形成Cd‐NO复合物,引起CdTe量子点荧光猝灭,而不影响CdSe量子点的荧光.当NO浓度在01.~22.μmol/L之间变化时,该探针荧光强度比值 I603/I532符合线性关系(R=-09.954),从而实现对NO的定量检测.

  20. Photo-vibrational spectroscopy of solid and liquid chemicals using laser Doppler vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Lim, Jacob Song Kiat; Liu, Huan; Fu, Yu

    2016-08-22

    Photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy is an established technique for trace detection of chemicals and explosives. However, prior sample preparation is required and the analysis is conducted in a sealed space with a high-sensitivity microphone or a piezo sensor coupled with a lock-in amplifier, limiting the technique to applications in a laboratory environment. Due to the aforementioned requirements, traditionally this technique may not be suitable for defense and security applications where the detection of explosives or hazardous chemicals is required in an open environment at a safe standoff distance. In this study, chemicals in various forms (membrane, powder and liquid) were excited by an intensity-modulated quantum cascade laser (QCL), while a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer was applied to detect the vibration signal resulting from the photocoustic/photothermal effect. The photo-vibrational spectrum obtained by scanning the QCL's wavelength in MIR range, coincides well with the corresponding spectrum obtained using typical FTIR equipment. The experiment demonstrated that the LDV is a capable sensor for applications in photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy, with potential to enable the detection of chemicals in open environment at safe standoff distance.

  1. Enhanced sensing and communication via quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-05-01

    A network based on quantum information has been developed to improve sensing and communications capabilities. Quantum teleportation offers features for communicating information not found in classical procedures. It is fundamental to the quantum network approach. A version of quantum teleportation based on hyper-entanglement is used to bring about these improvements. Recently invented methods of improving sensing and communication via quantum information based on hyper-entanglement are discussed. These techniques offer huge improvements in the SNR, signal to interference ratio, and time-on-target of various sensors including RADAR and LADAR. Hyper-entanglement refers to quantum entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum (OAM), etc. The quantum network makes use of quantum memory located in each node of the network, thus the network forms a quantum repeater. The quantum repeater facilitates the use of quantum teleportation, and superdense coding. Superdense coding refers to the ability to incorporate more than one classical bit into each transmitted qubit. The network of sensors and/or communication devices has an enhanced resistance to interference sources. The repeater has the potential for greatly reducing loss in communications and sensor systems related to the effect of the atmosphere on fragile quantum states. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are discussed that show the utility of the network for improving sensing and communications in the presence of loss and noise. The quantum repeater will reduce overall size, weight, power and cost (SWAPC) of fielded components of systems.

  2. Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Its Application in Coverage Optimization of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network%改进的量子遗传算法及其在WMSN覆盖优化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严英; 郭剑; 孙力娟

    2011-01-01

    Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) was researched in this paper. In QGA, only one optimal chromosome was used to direct the evolution of population, and the algorithm was subject to a local optimal solution. The problem was analyzed in this paper and the approach of using multiple elite chromosomes to guide the evolution was proposed. The generating, maintenance and action of elite chromosomes were discussed and an elite group based quantum genetic algorithm (EQGA) was advanced. And then EQGA was applied to the coverage optimization problem of wireless multimedia sensor network. Comparison tests showed that solutions obtained by EQGA were always better than those got by genetic algorithm and SQGA.%对量子遗传算法进行了研究.量子遗传算法只使用一个最优染色体来指导种群的进化,极易陷入局部最优,本文对此进行了改进,提出使用多个精英染色体来指导整个种群的进化.讨论了精英染色体的产生、维护与作用,并在此基础之上提出了一种基于精英组的量子遗传算法(elite group based quantum genetic algorithm,EQGA).最后,将EQGA应用到无线多媒体传感器网络的覆盖优化问题中.对比测试表明,EQGA求出的解比遗传算法和量子遗传算法求出的解都要好.

  3. 基于PbS量子点和金纳米颗粒的可卡因适体传感器的研究%Preparation of cocaine aptamer sensor based on PbS quantum dots and Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓飞; 张银烽; 李月婷; 司剑飞; 杨云慧

    2011-01-01

    A novel cocaine aptamer sensor for rapid determination of cocaine in human serum has been developed. The PbS quantum dots were prepared by solvothermal reaction. The aptamer sensor was prepared by immobilizing thiolated complementary DNA onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode modified with PbS quantum dots and chitosan film via the strong bound between PbS and -SH group. Au nanoparticles-labeled cocaine aptamer was used as tracer to detect cocaine. When the aptamer sensor was incubated with cocaine,the specify bound occurred between cocaine and its aptamer,resulting in Au nanoparticles-labeled cocaine aptamer dropping off from the electrode. Then,the reduction current of H2O2 catalyzed by Au NPs decreased,which is proportion to the concentration of cocaine. The electrochemical behavior of aptamer sensor was studied. Other experimental conditions such as Ph, incubation time of cocaine aptamer were studied too. The prepared aptamer sensor offered an amperometric response for cocaine ranging from 1. 0 to 100. 0 nmol · Dm-3 with a detection limit of 0. 3 nmol · Dm-3. The result showed that the aptamer sensor displayed rapid response, high sensitivity, good repeatability and long-term stability.%本文采用水热法合成了硫化铅量子点,将其与壳聚糖混合后修饰在玻碳电极上,利用PbS与巯基之间的强烈的键和作用,直接将所合成的带巯基的与可卡因适体互补的DNA固定到电极上,将金纳米颗粒标记在可卡因适体作为示踪物检测可卡因,研制了一种新型的用于快速测定可卡因的适体传感器.该适体传感器与不同浓度的可卡因培育时,可卡因适体与可卡因发生特异性结合,致使可卡因适体从电极上脱离下来.随着可卡因浓度的增加,脱落的金纳米颗粒的量增加,其催化H2 O2的电流减少,实现对可卡因的检测.考察了适体传感器的电化学特性,同时也研究了测试液pH值、培育时间等实验条件对传感器性能的影

  4. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization.

  5. Photonic quantum technologies (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of quantum technology will be profound and far-reaching: secure communication networks for consumers, corporations and government; precision sensors for biomedical technology and environmental monitoring; quantum simulators for the design of new materials, pharmaceuticals and clean energy devices; and ultra-powerful quantum computers for addressing otherwise impossibly large datasets for machine learning and artificial intelligence applications. However, engineering quantum systems and controlling them is an immense technological challenge: they are inherently fragile; and information extracted from a quantum system necessarily disturbs the system itself. Of the various approaches to quantum technologies, photons are particularly appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation at the single qubit level. We have developed an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability. We will described our latest progress in generating, manipulating and interacting single photons in waveguide circuits on silicon chips.

  6. Solving quantum riddles with neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Janoschek, Marc [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Quantum materials exhibit a rich landscape of highly-degenerate quantum states that are widely regarded to hold vast potential for future applications, ranging from power management and transmission, to platforms for quantum computation, to novel versatile sensors and electronics. A key to realizing the promise of future applications is to identify the fundamental energy scales that control the emergence of such quantum states and their properties.

  7. Irradiation route to aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe quantum dots and its function as a copper ion fluorescence sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yeluri Narayana; Datta, Aparna [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Das, Satyendra K. [Radiochemistry Division, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Radiation chemical technique can provide a useful route for synthesis of ZnSe QDs. • Chelating nature of ethylene diamine is exploited for capping nanoparticles. • ZnSe QDs can be a suitable sensitive alternative to toxic cadmium-based system. • Cu(II) ion is probed by QDs in the presence of other physiologically relevant ions. - Abstract: Size-controlled synthesis of stable ZnSe QDs with narrow distribution in aqueous environment through conventional soft chemical method still poses a challenge. The proposed radiation assisted strategy demonstrates aqueous synthesis of stable, monodisperse and luminescent ZnSe QDs capped with chelating ethylene diamine under ambient conditions and at room temperature. Radiation chemical method facilitates in slow and in-situ release of selenium ion from sodium selenosulfate. The concentrations of precursors, such as zinc salt, selenium source, ethylene diamine and absorbed radiation (7–90 kGy) dose were optimized for obtaining good quality particles. Selective quenching of luminescence of as-synthesized quantum dots (QDs) by Cu{sup 2+} ions vis-à-vis other physiologically important cations provide evidence for use of ZnSe quantum dots as alternative to toxic Cd-based quantum dots to probe Cu{sup 2+} ions. The linear relation of ratio of loss in emission intensity as a function of concentration of Cu(II) indicates detection limit in nano-molar range.

  8. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  9. Development of a polymer based fiberoptic magnetostrictive metal detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei Shu; Hooks, Joshua Rosenberg; Wu, Wen Jong; Wang, Wei Chih

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new metal detector using a fiberoptic magnetostriction sensor. The metal sensor uses a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing material. This polymeric magnetostrictive fiberoptic metal sensor is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is based on disruption of the magnetic flux density across the magnetostriction sensor. In this paper, characteristics of the material being sensed and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic polymers will be discussed.

  10. Quantum metrology with two-mode squeezed thermal state: Parity detection and phase sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Mei; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    Based on the Wigner-function method, we investigate the parity detection and phase sensitivity in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with two-mode squeezed thermal state (TMSTS). Using the classical transformation relation of the MZI, we derive the input-output Wigner functions and then obtain the explicit expressions of parity and phase sensitivity. The results from the numerical calculation show that supersensitivity can be reached only if the input TMSTS have a large number photons. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447002), the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province of China (Grant No. GJJ150338), and the Research Foundation for Changzhou Institute of Modern Optoelectronic Technology (Grant No. CZGY15).

  11. Optical resonators and quantum dots: An excursion into quantum optics, quantum information and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Pablo

    Modern communications technology has encouraged an intimate connection between Semiconductor Physics and Optics, and this connection shows best in the combination of electron-confining structures with light-confining structures. Semiconductor quantum dots are systems engineered to trap electrons in a mesoscopic scale (the are composed of ≈ 10000 atoms), resulting in a behavior resembling that of atoms, but much richer. Optical microresonators are engineered to confine light, increasing its intensity and enabling a much stronger interaction with matter. Their combination opens a myriad of new directions, both in fundamental Physics and in possible applications. This dissertation explores both semiconductor quantum dots and microresonators, through experimental work done with semiconductor quantum dots and microsphere resonators spanning the fields of Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Photonics; from quantum algorithms to polarization converters. Quantum Optics leads the way, allowing us to understand how to manipulate and measure quantum dots with light and to elucidate the interactions between them and microresonators. In the Quantum Information area, we present a detailed study of the feasibility of excitons in quantum dots to perform quantum computations, including an experimental demonstration of the single-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm performedin a single semiconductor quantum dot. Our studies in Photonics involve applications of microsphere resonators, which we have learned to fabricate and characterize. We present an elaborate description of the experimental techniques needed to study microspheres, including studies and proof of concept experiments on both ultra-sensitive microsphere sensors and whispering gallery mode polarization converters.

  12. Active standoff detection of CH4 and N2O leaks using hard-target backscattered light using an open-path quantum cascade laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-05-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentrations. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents standoff detection of CH4 and N2O leaks using a quantum cascade laser open-path system that retrieves path-averaged concentrations by collecting the backscattered light from a remote hard target. It is a true standoff system and differs from other open-path systems that are deployed as point samplers or long-path transmission systems that use retroreflectors. The measured absorption spectra are obtained using a thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB quantum cascade laser at ~7.7 µm wavelength range with ~200 ns pulse width. Making fast time resolved observations, the system simultaneously realizes high spectral resolution and range to the target, resulting in path-averaged concentration retrieval. The system performs measurements at high speed ~15 Hz and sufficient range (up to 45 m, ~148 feet) achieving an uncertainty of 3.1 % and normalized sensitivity of 3.3 ppm m Hz-1/2 for N2O and 9.3 % and normalized sensitivity of 30 ppm m Hz-1/2 for CH4 with a 0.31 mW average power QCL. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile or multidirectional search and remote detection of gas leaks.

  13. Response to the comment on "Paradox of photons disconnected trajectories being located by means of `weak measurements' in the nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer" (JETP Letters 105, 152 (2017))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, G. N.

    2017-04-01

    In [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)], a clear and comprehensive analysis of the paradoxical results of experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] was carried out on the basis of the classical wave theory of light, which presupposes the continuity of possible of light paths. It was shown that the paradoxical results of the experiment are due not to the discontinuity of the trajectories of light, as claimed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)], but to the used way of detecting the path of photons. The experiment modification proposed in [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] allows us to eliminate the seeming discontinuity of the light trajectories. In Comment [arXiv:1705.02137 (2017)] to the article such modification is declared unreasonable. This Response to the Comment shows that this statement is not based on clear and logical arguments. Instead, it is only asserted that the proposed modification "violates the faithfulness indication of the trace" of photons. Therefore, the Comment's criticism can not be considered as well-founded. Consequently, the conclusion of [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] that a new concept of disconnected trajectories proposed by the authors of work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] is unnecessary, remains valid.

  14. Simultaneous generation of 40, 80 and 120 GHz optical millimeter-wave from one Mach-Zehnder modulator and demonstration of millimeter-wave transmission and down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Qin, Chaoyi

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate multi-frequency QPSK millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation enabled by MZM-based optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation and in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulation. We numerically simulate the generation of 40-, 80- and 120-GHz vector signal. Here, the three different signals carry the same QPSK modulation information. We also experimentally realize 11Gbaud/s QPSK vector signal transmission over 20 km fiber, and the generation of the vector signals at 40-GHz, 80-GHz and 120-GHz. The experimental results show that the bit-error-rate (BER) for all the three different signals can reach the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3. The advantage of the proposed system is that provide high-speed, high-bandwidth and high-capacity seamless access of TDM and wireless network. These features indicate the important application prospect in wireless access networks for WiMax, Wi-Fi and 5G/LTE.

  15. 量子遗传优化粒子滤波的WSN目标跟踪算法%Wireless Sensor Networks Target Tracking Based on Particle Filtering Optimized by Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董跃钧; 李国伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the diversity of particles degradation, improving wireless sensor network ( WSN) target tracking accuracy, a target tracking method based on particle filter optimized by quantum genetic algorithm is proposed. Quantum genetic algorithm not only increases the diversity of particles to prevent the particle degeneracy phenomenon, and improves the estimation, tracking ability and effectively shortens the calculation time. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is very good, reduced particle degradation on the target tracking accuracy, improves the WSN target tracking accuracy and real-time tracking, the tracking results is satisfactory.%在无线传感器网络(WSN)目标跟踪应用中,传统粒子滤波算法存在多样性退化问题.为提高WSN目标跟踪精度,提出一种基于量子遗传算法优化粒子滤波的WSN目标跟踪方法.量子遗传算法不仅增加粒子多样性,防止粒子退化现象出现,有效缩短了计算时间且改善粒子跟踪能力.测试结果表明,所提出算法很好地减轻了粒子退化对目标跟踪精度影响,提高了WSN目标跟踪精度和跟踪的实时性,跟踪结果令人满意.

  16. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  17. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  18. Development of Ultra-Low Noise, High Performance III-V Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) for Focal Plane Array Staring Image Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    omem . 0o70,88 PUNK t~fq b iet fat tht ccle0l1oM of •.ea •as•fa" o0110 8 Itod =0* " 𔄂•1• 8 ao.. .1. nCfa OW totf for *Wct 811. 481JruftlC0 . Wo l...aperture sizes . Detailed results are depicted in Section 3.4. 1 5. Completed noise characterization on four different types of III-V QWIPs. From the...quantum well dopant density, biaxial strain strength, and structure parameters, the PSL-QWIPs can be used for 8-14 pm long-wavelength large size focal plane

  19. Active stand-off detection of gas leaks using an open-path quantum cascade laser sensor in a backscatter configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2005-05-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the path-averaged concentration of N2O by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks.

  20. Quantum stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Mou-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...