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Sample records for mach-zehnder interferometer modulators

  1. A versatile all-optical modulator based on nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Villeneuve, A.; Stegeman, G.I.; Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    A device based on a Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NMI) which exploits cross-phase modulation of two co-propagating modes in bimodal branches has been described in this paper. The advantage of this device is that it becomes polarisation independent while keeping phase insensitive by using

  2. A Study of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Modulator Applicable to an Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Aoyagi, Seiji; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Fukuyama, Masataka; Yokoyama, Shin

    2011-04-01

    A novel Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-type optical modulator based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is developed in this study. In this optical modulator, one of two branched waveguides in the MZI has a floating beam structure (air-bridge type). Additionally, a cantilever supporting a proof mass intersects with the floating optical waveguide. When an inertial force due to acceleration is applied to the proof mass, the floating waveguide is expanded and the output of the MZI is modulated. Therefore, this optical modulator will be applicable to an accelerometer in the future. To decrease optical loss at the intersectional point between the floating waveguide and the cantilever in the MZI, the multi-mode interference (MMI) waveguide is serially connected with the floating waveguide and the cantilever crosses to the MMI waveguide. An optimization of the MMI waveguide and an estimation of deflection of the floating waveguide due to applying force are carried out by using optical and mechanical simulation, respectively. The proposed optical modulator is fabricated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of the top layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, which is made of crystal Si. The floating waveguide in the modulator is formed by removal of its underlying buried oxide (BOX) layer of SOI. As a result of evaluation, we have succeeded in changing the output of the MZI by applying a force to the cantilever. However, the modulation is smaller than the expected value. Improvement of the modulation and detection of the inertial force due to the applied acceleration are future tasks.

  3. Effect of Radiation on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Silicon Modulator for HL-LHC data Transmission Applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Nasr-Storey, Sarah Seif; Baudot, Charles; Detraz, Stephane; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Olantera, Lauri; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Sigaud, Christophe; Soos, Csaba; Troska, Jan; Vasey, Francois; Vivien, Laurent; Zeiler, Marcel; Ziebell, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    High-speed Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulators were irradiated with neutrons and X-rays in two separate radiation tests. The devices were exposed to a total fluence of 1.2 x 10$^{15}$ neutrons/cm$^2$ and a total ionizing dose of 1.3 MGy; levels comparable to the worst radiation levels for a tracking detector after 10 years of operation at the High- Luminosity LHC. Our measurements indicate that the devices performance does not significantly degrade after exposure to nonionizing radiation and begins to be affected by ionizing radiation after a dose of a few hundred kGy; the phase-shift for an applied reverse bias of 1 V is 10% of its pre-irradiated value after 600 kGy of received ionizing dose.

  4. Fiber Bragg grating interrogation using wavelength modulated tunable distributed feedback lasers and a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Jha, Chandan Kumar

    2017-04-20

    This paper demonstrates a technique of high-resolution interrogation of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with flat-topped reflection spectra centered on 1649.55 nm and 1530.182 nm with narrow line width tunable semiconductor lasers emitting at 1651.93 nm and 1531.52 nm, respectively. The spectral shift of the reflection spectrum in response to temperature and strain is accurately measured with a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer that has a free spectral range of 0.0523 GHz and a broadband photodetector. Laser wavelength modulation and harmonic detection techniques are used to transform the gentle edges of the flat-topped FBG into prominent leading and trailing peaks that are up to five times narrower than the FBG spectrum. Either of these peaks can be used to accurately measure spectral shifts of the FBG reflection spectrum with a resolution down to a value of 0.47 pm. A digital signal processing board is used to measure the temperature-induced spectral shifts over the range of 30°C-80°C and strain-induced spectral shifts from 0  μϵ to 12,000  μϵ. The shift is linear in both cases with a temperature sensitivity of 12.8 pm/°C and strain sensitivity of 0.12  pm/μϵ. The distinctive feature of this technique is that it does not use an optical spectrum analyzer at any stage of its design or operation. It can be readily extended to all types of tunable diode lasers and is ideally suited for compact field instruments and for biomedical applications in stroke rehabilitation monitoring.

  5. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  6. Germanium on silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, A.; Muneeb, M.; Shimura, Y.; Campenhout, van J.; Loo, van de R.; Roelkens, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Ge-on-Si waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating in the 5.2 - 5.4 µm wavelength range. 3dB/cm waveguide losses and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 20dB extinction ratio are presented.

  7. Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.

  8. On-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer for OCT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Akca, Imran B.; Angelou, Nikolaos; Weiss, Nicolas; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene G.

    2018-04-01

    By using integrated optics, it is possible to reduce the size and cost of a bulky optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. One of the OCT components that can be implemented on-chip is the interferometer. In this work, we present the design and characterization of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the wavelength-independent splitters and an on-chip reference arm. The Si3N4 was chosen as the material platform as it can provide low losses while keeping the device size small. The device was characterized by using a home-built swept source OCT system. A sensitivity value of 83 dB, an axial resolution of 15.2 μm (in air) and a depth range of 2.5 mm (in air) were all obtained.

  9. All-optical negabinary adders using Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    In contrast to optoelectronics, all-optical adders are proposed where all-optical signals are used to represent the input numbers and the control signals. In addition, the all-optical adders use the negabinary modified signed-digit number representation (an extension of the negabinary number system) to represent the input digits. Further, the ultra-speed of the designed circuits is achieved due to the use of ultra-fast all-optical switching property of the semiconductor optical amplifier and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI). Furthermore, two-bit per digit binary encoding scheme is employed to represent the trinary values of the negabinary modified signed-digits.

  10. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mičuda, Michal, E-mail: micuda@optics.upol.cz; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav, E-mail: jezek@optics.upol.cz [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  11. Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer inside an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mingjie; Leong, Wuiseng; Chen, Zilong; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Precision measurement with light-pulse grating atom interferometry in free space have been used in the study of fundamental physics and applications in inertial sensing. Recent development of photonic band-gap fibers allows light for traveling in hollow region while preserving its fundamental Gaussian mode. The fibers could provide a very promising platform to transfer cold atoms. Optically guided matter waves inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber can mitigate diffraction limit problem and has the potential to bring research in the field of atomic sensing and precision measurement to the next level of compactness and accuracy. Here, we will show our experimental progress towards an atom interferometer in optical fibers. We designed an atom trapping scheme inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber to create an optical guided matter waves system, and studied the coherence properties of Rubidium atoms in this optical guided system. We also demonstrate a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in the optical waveguide. This interferometer is promising for precision measurements and designs of mobile atomic sensors.

  12. Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Zhou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10 made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20–1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30–350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3–5 fold by fabricating an inline micro–trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N2 is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI–type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.

  13. All-silicon thermal independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    A novel all-silicon thermal independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of two multimode waveguide arms having equal lengths and widths but transmitting different modes is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The interferometer has a temperature sensitivity smaller than 8pm/°C in a wa...

  14. Simulation of acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    of half the SAW wavelength the light at the output waveguide will interfere constructively and destructively in a periodic way and the MZI can hence be used as an optical switch. To understand and improve the interaction of the elastic field from the SAW with the optical field in the waveguides......The acousto-optical modulation of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer affected by a surface acoustic wave, is simulated by the finite element method. It is discussed how the modulation can be improved based on a parameter study of the geometry. Summary A new way to control and modulate light...... introduced by the SAW the changes in refractive indices are obtained from Pockels constants. This model is then coupled to an optical model where the time independent wave equation is solved as an eigenvalue problem giving the effective refractive index of the lowest modes in the waveguide arms. Numerical...

  15. Classical and quantum non-linear optical applications using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod, Andru

    Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators are widely employed in a variety of applications, such as optical communications, optical imaging, metrology and encryption. In this dissertation, we explore two non-linear MZ applications; one classified as classical and one as quantum, in which the Mach Zehnder interferometer is used. In the first application, a classical non-linear application, we introduce and study a new electro-optic highly linear (e.g., >130 dB) modulator configuration. This modulator makes use of a phase modulator (PM) in one arm of the MZ interferometer (MZI) and a ring resonator (RR) located on the other arm. The modulator performance is obtained through the control of a combination of internal and external parameters. These parameters include the RR-coupling ratio (internal parameter); the RF power split ratio and the RF phase bias (external parameters). Results show the unique and superior features, such as high linearity (SFDR˜133 dB), modulation bandwidth extension (as much as 70%) over the previously proposed and demonstrated Resonator-Assisted Mach Zehnder (RAMZ) design. Furthermore the proposed electro-optic modulator of this dissertation also provides an inherent SFDR compensation capability, even in cases where a significant waveguide optical loss exists. This design also shows potential for increased flexibility, practicality and ease of use. In the second application, a quantum non-linear application, we experimentally demonstrate quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT) using a type II non-linear crystal (periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) or PPKTP). There have been several publications discussing the merits and disadvantages of QOCT compared to OCT and other imaging techniques. First, we discuss the issues and solutions for increasing the efficiency of the quantum entangled photons. Second, we use a free space QOCT experiment to generate a high flux of these quantum entangled photons in two orthogonal polarizations, by

  16. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-11-01

    A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a second-order elliptic response. By simultaneously measuring the different optical powers produced by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation at the outputs of the photonic integrated circuit, an amplitude comparison function that depends on the input tone frequency is obtained. Using this technique, a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz (5-15 GHz) with a root mean square value of frequency error lower than 200 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, simulations showing the impact of a residual optical carrier on system performance are also provided.

  17. On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…

  18. Design of an Optical OR Gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kuldeep; Kumar, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    The optical switching phenomenon enhances the speed of optical communication systems. It is widely used in the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). In this work, an optical OR gate is proposed using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The detailed derivation of mathematical expression have been shown. The analysis is carried out by simulating the proposed device with MATLAB and Beam propagation method.

  19. Investigation of Mach-Zehnder interferometer properties based on PLC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Mei-zhen; Zhang, Jia-shun; An, Jun-ming; Wang, Yue; Wang, Liang-liang; Li, Jian-guang; Wu, Yuan-da; Yin, Xiao-jie; Hu, Xiong-wei

    2018-05-01

    We report investigations of three types of silica-based thermo-optic modulating Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). They are widely used in optical communication and quantum photonics. Three types of MZIs are fabricated. The waveguide structure and fabrication process are paid special attention. The power consumption is less than 250 mW for all MZIs. The polarization dependent loss (PDL) at the same attenuation using the upper heater is less than that using the lower heater for the three types of MZIs. In addition, it is found that the PDL at the same attenuation increases gradually for π, 2π and 0 phase differences. The measured response time of the three types of MZIs is less than 1.8 ms.

  20. Refractometric sensor based on all-fiber coaxial Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for ethanol detection in fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, L; Osorio, Jonas H; Hayashi, Juliano G; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2011-01-01

    A refractometric sensor based on mechanically induced interferometers formed with long period gratings is reported. It is also shown two different setups based on a Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application to measure ethanol concentration in gasoline.

  1. The three-grating Mach-Zehnder optical interferometer: a tutorial approach using particle optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miffre, A; Delhuille, R; Viaris Lesegno, B de; Buechner, M; Rizzo, C; Vigue, J

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a tutorial set-up based on an optical three-grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer. As this apparatus is very similar in its principle to the Mach-Zehnder interferometers used with matter waves (neutrons, atoms and molecules), it can be used to familiarize students with particle optics, and in our explanations, we use the complementary points of view of wave optics and particle optics. Finally, we have used this interferometer to measure the index of refraction of BK7 glass for red light at 633 nm, with a technique equivalent to the one used to measure the index of refraction of solid matter for thermal neutrons. The dimensions of this interferometer and its cost make it very interesting for laboratory courses and the experiment described here can be reproduced by students

  2. Electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators caused by a shared ground path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the majority of electrical crosstalk between integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators can be caused by a shared ground path and demonstrate that in its absence crosstalk and related transmission penalty is greatly reduced.

  3. Optical Coupling Structures of Fiber-Optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Using CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI can be used to test changes in the refractive index of sucrose solutions at different concentrations. However, the popularity of this measurement tool is limited by its substantial size and portability. Therefore, the MZI was integrated with a small fiber-optic waveguide component to develop an interferometer with fiber-optic characteristics, specifically a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FO-MZI. Optical fiber must be processed to fabricate two optical coupling structures. The two optical coupling structures are a duplicate of the beam splitter, an optical component of the interferometer. Therefore, when the sensor length and the two optical coupling structures vary, the time or path for optical transmission in the sensor changes, thereby influencing the back-end interference signals. The researchers successfully developed an asymmetrical FO-MZI with sensing abilities. The spacing value between the troughs of the sensor length and interference signal exhibited an inverse relationship. In addition, image analysis was employed to examine the size-matching relationship between various sensor lengths and the coupling and decoupling structure. Furthermore, the spectral wavelength shift results measured using a refractive index sensor indicate that FO-MZIs with a sensor length of 38 mm exhibited excellent sensitivity, measuring 59.7 nm/RIU.

  4. Temperature effects of Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a liquid crystal-filled fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Su, Hsien-Pin; Tseng, Yu-Pei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate all fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on cascading a short section of liquid crystal (LC)-filled hollow-optic fiber (HOF) between two single mode fibers by using automatically splicing technique. The transmission spectra...... of the proposed MZI with different LC-infiltrated length were measured and the temperature-induced wavelength shifts of the interference fringes were recorded. Both blue shift and red shift were observed, depending the temperature range. Based on our experimental results, interference fringe was observed...

  5. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  6. A Concept of Multi-Mode High Spectral Resolution Lidar Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design of a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL using a laser that oscillates in a multi-longitudinal mode. Rayleigh and Mie scattering components are separated using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI with the same free spectral range (FSR as the transmitted laser. The transmitted laser light is measured as a reference signal with the same MZI. By scanning the MZI periodically with a scanning range equal to the mode spacing, we can identify the maximum Mie and the maximum Rayleigh signals using the reference signal. The cross talk due to the spectral width of each laser mode can also be estimated.

  7. Femtosecond laser writing of a flat-top interleaver via cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason C; Li, Chengbo; Herman, Peter R; Qian, Li

    2012-07-30

    A flat-top interleaver consisting of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) was fabricated in bulk glass by femtosecond laser direct writing. Spectral contrast ratios of greater than 15 dB were demonstrated over a 30 nm bandwidth for 3 nm channel spacing. The observed spectral response agreed well with a standard transfer matrix model generated from responses of individual optical components, demonstrating the possibility for multi-component optical design as well as sufficient process accuracy and fabrication consistency for femtosecond laser writing of advanced optical circuits in three dimensions.

  8. Fiber optic sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer for securing entrance areas of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Martinek, Radek; Mec, Pavel; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Authors of this article focused on the utilization of fiber optic sensors based on interferometric measurements for securing entrance areas of buildings such as windows and doors. We described the implementation of the fiber-optic interferometer (type Mach-Zehnder) into the window frame or door, sensor sensitivity, analysis of the background noise and methods of signal evaluation. The advantage of presented solution is the use of standard telecommunication fiber standard G.652.D, high sensitivity, immunity of sensor to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and passivity of the sensor regarding power supply. Authors implemented the Graphical User Interface (GUI) which offers the possibility of remote monitoring presented sensing solution.

  9. Software-aided discussion about classical picture of Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, C. J. H.; Ostermann, F.; Lima, N. W.; Netto, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    The Mach-Zehnder interferometer has played an important role both in quantum and classical physics research over the years. In physics education, it has been used as a didactic tool for quantum physics teaching, allowing fundamental concepts, such as particle-wave duality, to be addressed from the very beginning. For a student to understand the novelties of the quantum scenario, it is first worth introducing the classical picture. In this paper, we introduce a new version of the software developed by our research group to deepen the discussion on the classical picture of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We present its equivalence with the double slit experiment and we derive the mathematical expressions relating to the interference pattern. We also explore the concept of visibility (which is very important for understanding wave-particle complementarity in quantum physics) to help students become familiar with this experiment and to enhance their knowledge of its counterintuitive aspects. We use the software articulated by the mathematical formalism and phenomenological features. We also present excerpts of the discursive interactions of students using the software in didactic situations.

  10. Single Mode SU8 Polymer Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bio-Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Kundu, Sushanta; Makkar, Roshan; Chalapathi, Krishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    This paper explains the influence of different parameters to the sensitivity of an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for real time detection of biomolecules. The sensing principle is based on the interaction of evanescence field with the biomolecules that get immobilized on sensing arm. The sensitivity has been calculated by varying the sensing window length, wavelength and concentration of bio-analyte. The maximum attainable sensitivity for the preferred design is the order of 10-8 RIU at 840 nm wavelength with a sensing window length of 1cm. All the simulation work has been carried out with Opti-BPMCAD for the optimization of MZI device parameters. The SU8 polymers are used as a core and clad material to fabricate the waveguide. The refractive index of cladding layer is optimized by varying the curing temperature for a fixed time period and the achieved index difference between core and clad is Δn = 0.0151. The fabricated MZI device has been characterized with LASER beam profiler at 840 nm wavelength. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the different parameter to the sensitivity of a single mode optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for bio-sensing application.

  11. Polymer/silica hybrid waveguide temperature sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Donghai; Wang, Xibin; Sun, Shiqi; Jiang, Minghui; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Fei; Wu, Yuanda; Zhang, Daming

    2018-04-01

    A highly sensitive waveguide temperature sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer was designed and experimentally demonstrated. The interferometer is based on the polymer/silica hybrid waveguide structure, and Norland Optical Adhesive 73 (NOA 73) was employed as the waveguide core to enhance the temperature sensitivity. The influence of the different length differences between the two interferometer arms on the sensitivity of the sensor was systemically studied. It is shown that the maximum temperature sensitivity of -431 pm °C-1 can be obtained in the range of 25 °C-75 °C, while the length difference is 92 μm. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity contributions from different core materials were also investigated experimentally. It is shown that the waveguide material and microstructure of the device have significant influences on the sensitivity of the waveguide temperature sensor.

  12. High spectral resolution lidar based on quad mach zehnder interferometer for aerosols and wind measurements on board space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Jean-François; Bruneau, Didier; Pelon, Jacques; Van Haecke, Mathilde; Blouzon, Frédéric; Montmessin, Franck; Chepfer, Hélène

    2018-04-01

    We present the measurement principle and the optical design of a Quad Mach Zehnder (QMZ) interferometer as HSRL technique, allowing simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and wind velocity. Key features of this concept is to operate with a multimodal laser and do not require any frequency stabilization. These features are relevant especially for space applications for which high technical readiness level is required.

  13. One-state vector formalism for the evolution of a quantum state through nested Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Javůrek, D.; Lemr, K.; Soubusta, Jan; Svozilík, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2015), "012103-1"-"012103-4" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : one-state vector * quantum state * Mach-Zehnder interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014

  14. Sub-shot-noise phase sensitivity with a Bose-Einstein condensate Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezze, L.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L.A.; Berman, G.P.; Bishop, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), with their coherence properties, have attracted wide interest for their possible application to ultraprecise interferometry and ultraweak force sensors. Since condensates, unlike photons, are interacting, they may permit the realization of specific quantum states needed as input of an interferometer to approach the Heisenberg limit, the supposed lower bound to precision phase measurements. To this end, we study the sensitivity to external weak perturbations of a representative matter-wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer whose input are two Bose-Einstein condensates created by splitting a single condensate in two parts. The interferometric phase sensitivity depends on the specific quantum state created with the two condensates, and, therefore, on the time scale of the splitting process. We identify three different regimes, characterized by a phase sensitivity Δθ scaling with the total number of condensate particles N as (i) the standard quantum limit Δθ∼1/N 1/2 (ii) the sub shot-noise Δθ∼1/N 3/4 , and the (iii) the Heisenberg limit Δθ∼1/N. However, in a realistic dynamical BEC splitting, the 1/N limit requires a long adiabaticity time scale, which is hardly reachable experimentally. On the other hand, the sub-shot-noise sensitivity Δθ∼1/N 3/4 can be reached in a realistic experimental setting. We also show that the 1/N 3/4 scaling is a rigorous upper bound in the limit N→∞, while keeping constant all different parameters of the bosonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  15. A Novel Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Eccentric-Core Fiber Design for Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiao; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Pengfei; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-13

    A novel Mach-Zehnder interferometer using eccentric-core fiber (ECF) design for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed and demonstrated. Instead of the commercial single-mode fiber (SMF), the ECF is used as one interference arm of the implementation. Because of the offset location of the eccentric core, it is sensitive to directional bending and the optical path difference (OPD) of two interference arms can be adjusted with high precision. The birefringence of ECF is calculated and experimentally measured, which demonstrates the polarization sensitivity of the ECF proposed in the paper is similar to that of SMF. Such a structure can replace the reference optical delay line to form an all-fiber passive device. A mirror is used as a sample for analyzing the ECF bending responses of the system. Besides, four pieces of overlapping glass slides as sample are experimentally measured as well.

  16. Double-pass Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Zhi Qiang; Chan, Chi Chiu; Hong, Jesmond; Png, Shermaine; Eddie, Khay Ming Tan; Tan, Terence Aik Huang

    2014-04-01

    A biocompatible fiber-optic pH sensor based on a unique double-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. pH responsive poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel coating on the fiber swells/deswells in response to local pH, leading to refractive index changes that manifest as shifting of interference dips in the optical spectrum. The pH sensor is tested in spiked phosphate buffer saline and demonstrates high sensitivity of 1.71  nm/pH, pH 0.004 limit of detection with good responsiveness, repeatability, and stability. The proposed sensor has been successfully applied in monitoring the media pH in cell culture experiments to investigate the relationship between pH and cancer cell growth.

  17. Up-taper-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature and strain simultaneous measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zexin; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Chao; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Jing; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-04-20

    A novel all-fiber sensing configuration for simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain based on the up-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with an in-line embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This configuration consists of two up-tapers fabricated by an excessive fusion splicing method and a short segment of inscribed FBG. Due to the different responses of the up-taper MZI and the FBG to the uniform variation of temperature and strain, the simultaneous measurement for these two variables could be achieved by real-time monitoring the transmission spectrum. For 0.01 nm wavelength resolution, a resolution of 0.311°C in temperature can be achieved, and the average strain resolution is 10.07 με.

  18. Improving the Sensitivity of Humidity Sensor Based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Coated with a Methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI with the single-mode fiber (SMF coated with methylcellulose (MC is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MZI consists of two waist enlarged structures. Such an all-fiber MZI incorporates an intermodal interference between the core mode and cladding modes. The MC is coated on the surface of the SMF. External humidity changes the refractive index of MC, causing the intensity changes of the interference pattern. The proposed sensor is linearly responsive to refractive humidity (RH within the range from 45% to 85% RH, with sensitivity of 0.094 dB/%RH. Moreover the insensitivity of the fiber to the temperature makes this structure more suitable for practical measurement.

  19. Optical fiber temperature sensor based on dumbbell-shaped Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianchang; Feng, Guoying; Liang, Jingchuan; Zhang, Shulin

    2018-01-01

    A dumbbell-shaped and core-disconnected microstructure all-fiber temperature sensor based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is designed and implemented. To the best of our knowledge, the MZI with this configuration was produced and applied to sense temperature for the first time. It demonstrated that this all-fiber interferometer incorporates intermodal interference between the LP01 mode and a high-order cladding mode of LP07. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the linearity of the spectral shift due to the temperature change is ˜0.999 and the sensitivity at 25°C to 400°C is ˜26.03 pm/°C and at -25°C to 20°C is ˜23.87 pm/°C. The reproducibility error of this all-fiber temperature sensor at 25°C to 400°C is innovative micro-nano all-fiber sensors.

  20. High spectral resolution lidar based on quad mach zehnder interferometer for aerosols and wind measurements on board space missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the measurement principle and the optical design of a Quad Mach Zehnder (QMZ interferometer as HSRL technique, allowing simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and wind velocity. Key features of this concept is to operate with a multimodal laser and do not require any frequency stabilization. These features are relevant especially for space applications for which high technical readiness level is required.

  1. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n e and the electron temperature T e profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO 2 laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n e and T e were, respectively, about 2 x 10 24 m -3 and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n e at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  2. Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Photonic Sensor of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Hirose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been developing a photonic sensor system to measure the electric near-field distribution at a distance shorter than one wavelength from the aperture of an antenna. The photonic sensor is a type of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and consists of an array antenna of 2.4 mm height and 2 mm width on a LiNbO3 substrate (0.5 mm thickness, 8 mm length, and 3 mm width supported by a glass pipe. The photonic sensor can be considered to be a receiving infinitesimal dipole antenna that is a tiny metallic part printed on a small dielectric plate at microwave frequency. Those physical and electrical features make the photonic sensor attractive when used as a probe for near-field antenna measurements. We have demonstrated that the system can be applied to planar, spherical, and cylindrical near-field antenna measurements without any probe compensation approximately below 10 GHz. We show the theories and the measurements using the photonic sensor in the three near-field antenna measurement methods.

  3. A photothermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring caffeine and proteins in aqueous solutions using external cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristament, Christian; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Montemurro, Milagros; Lendl, Bernhard

    2018-02-01

    One of the advantages of mid-IR spectroscopy in biomedical research lies in its capability to provide direct information on the secondary structure of proteins in their natural, often aqueous, environment. One impediment of direct absorption measurements in the correspondent spectral region is the strong absorbance of the native solvent (H2O). In this regard, the advent of broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) allowed to significantly increasing the optical path length employed in transmission measurements due to their high spectral power densities. Low measured S/N ratios were improved by elaborated data analysis protocols that corrected mechanical flaws in the tuning mechanism of ECQCLs and allow for S/N ratios comparable to research grade FTIR spectrometers. Recent development of new optical set-ups outpacing direct absorption measurements led to further advancements. We present a dedicated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for photothermal measurements in balanced detection mode. In this highly sensitive design, the interferometer is illuminated by a HeNe laser to detect the refractive index change induced by the heat insertion of the EC-QCL. Here, we present photothermal phase shift interferometry measurements of caffeine in ethanol as well as casein in water. Further, the dependency of the signal amplitude on varying modulation frequencies was investigated for different liquids.

  4. Silicon opto-electronic wavelength tracker based on an asymmetric 2x3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech Gómez, José David; Sanchez Fandiño, Javier Antonio; Gargallo Jaquotot, Bernardo Andrés; Baños Lopez, Rocio; Muñoz Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on the experimental demonstration of a Silicon-on-Insulator opto-electronic wavelength tracker for the optical telecommunication C-band. The device consist of a 2x3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) with 10 pm resolution and photo-detectors integrated on the same chip. The MZI is built interconnecting two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers with two waveguides whose length difference is 56 mm. The first MMI has a coupling ratio of 95:05 to com...

  5. Quantum Anatomy of the Classical Interference of n-Photon States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Cruz, N; Velázquez, V; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present the theory for the quantum interference of states with an arbitrary number of photons in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We express the mathematical description of the interference in an algebraic way. We show the interference pattern of an average of a n photons input state corresponds to the classical interference pattern, which tells us the last comes from a quantum interference statistical average. Then, we propose to use this scheme to study the statistical transition from quantum to classical interference. (paper)

  6. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity...... of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  7. Highly sensitive refractive index fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Yan; Chu, Dong-Kai; Dong, Xin-Ran; Zhou, Chu; Li, Hai-Tao; Luo-Zhi; Hu, You-Wang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Cong-Wang; Duan, Ji-An

    2016-03-01

    A High sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in a conventional single-mode optical fiber is proposed, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser transversal-scanning inscription method and chemical etching. A rectangular cavity structure is formed in part of fiber core and cladding interface. The MZI sensor shows excellent refractive index sensitivity and linearity, which exhibits an extremely high RI sensitivity of -17197 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) with the linearity of 0.9996 within the refractive index range of 1.3371-1.3407. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical analysis.

  8. Improved vibration sensor based on a biconical tapered singlemode fiber, using in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonko, R.; Moś, J. E.; Stasiewicz, K. A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2017-05-01

    Optical fiber vibration sensors are an appropriate alternative for piezoelectric devices, which are electromagnetic sensitive to the external conditions. Most of the vibration sensors demonstrated in previous publications resist to different interferometers or Bragg's gratings. Such sensors require a long time of stabilization of an optical signal, because they are vulnerable to undesirable disturbance. In majority, time response of an optical sensor should be instantaneous, therefore we have proposed an in- line vibration sensing passive element based on a tapered fiber. Micrometer sized optical fiber tapers are attractive for many optical areas due to changes process of boundary conditions. Such phenomena allow for a sensitive detection of the modulation phase. Our experiment shows that a singlemode, adiabatic tapered fiber enables detecting an acoustic vibration. In this study, we report on Mach- Zehnder (MZ) interferometer as a vibration sensor which was composed of two 50/50 couplers at 1550 nm. In the reference arm we used a 4 meter singlemode optical fiber (SMF28), while in the arm under test we placed tapered optical fibers attached to a metal plate, put directly on speaker. Researches carried out on different tapered fibers which diameter of a taper waist was in the range from 5 μm to 25 μm, and each taper was characterized by optical losses less than 0,5 dB. The measured phase changes were over a frequency from 100 Hz to 1 kHz and an amplitude in the range from 100 mVpp to 1 Vpp. Although on account of a limited space we have showed only the results for 100 Hz. Nevertheless, experimental results show that this sensing system has a wide frequency response range from a few hertz to one of kilohertz, however for some conditions, a standard optical fiber showed better result.

  9. Self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic: Active and adaptive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.; English, R.E. Jr.; Byrd, J.L.; Salmon, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    We are incorporating a novel self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a large scale laser system as a real time, interactive diagnostic tool for wavefront measurement. The instrument is capable of absolute wavefront measurements accurate to better than λ/10 pv over a wavelength range > 300 nm without readjustment of the optical components. This performance is achieved through the design of both refractive optics and catadioptric collimator to achromatize the Mach-Zehnder reference arm. Other features include polarization insensitivity through the use of low angles of incidence on all beamsplitters as well as an equal path length configuration that allows measurement of either broad-band or closely spaced laser-line sources. Instrument accuracy is periodically monitored in place by means of a thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source that is calibrated off-line with a phase conjugate interferometer. Video interferograms are analyzed using Fourier transform techniques on a computer that includes dedicated array processor. Computer and video networks maintain distributed interferometers under the control of a single analysis computer with multiple user access. 7 refs., 11 figs

  10. Mach-Zehnder interferometer implementation for thermo-optical and Kerr effect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundulis, Arturs; Nitiss, Edgars; Busenbergs, Janis; Rutkis, Martins

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose the Mach-Zehnder interferometric method for third-order nonlinear optical and thermo-optical studies. Both effects manifest themselves as refractive index dependence on the incident light intensity and are widely employed for multiple opto-optical and thermo-optical applications. With the implemented method, we have measured the Kerr and thermo-optical coefficients of chloroform under CW, ns and ps laser irradiance. The application of lasers with different light wavelengths, pulse duration and energy allowed us to distinguish the processes responsible for refractive index changes in the investigated solution. Presented setup was also used for demonstration of opto-optical switching. Results from Mach-Zehnder experiment were compared to Z-scan data obtained in our previous studies. Based on this, a quality comparison of both methods was assessed and advantages and disadvantages of each method were analyzed.

  11. High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Trevor Reed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new experimental data from a lateral PN junction silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. Efficiencies in the 1.4V.cm to 1.9V.cm range are demonstrated for drive voltages between 0V and 6V. High speed operation up to 52Gbit/s is also presented. The performance of the device which has its PN junction positioned in the centre of the waveguide is then compared to previously reported data from a lateral PN junction device with the junction self-aligned to the edge of the waveguide rib. An improvement in modulation efficiency is demonstrated when the junction is positioned in the centre of the waveguide. Finally we propose schemes for achieving high modulation efficiency whilst retaining self-aligned formation of the PN junction.

  12. Third-order linearization for self-beating filtered microwave photonic systems using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual; Alavi, Hossein

    2016-09-05

    We develop, analyze and apply a linearization technique based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator to self-beating microwave photonics systems. The approach enables broadband low-distortion transmission and reception at expense of a moderate electrical power penalty yielding a small optical power penalty (<1 dB).

  13. Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Vaa, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of a 40-Gbit/s OTDM signal using a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier/Mach Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) is demonstrated. While maintaining a penalty of 1.3 dB for the add operation the sensitivity for the demultiplexed ...... signal is -34.4 dBm...

  14. All-optical signal regeneration at 40 Gbit/s using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer based on semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. All-optical signal regeneration and processing are interesting for high bit-rate transmission systems. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a promising device for functionalities like all-optical add/drop and signal regeneration. Wavelength conversion up-to 20 Gbit...... and optimization issues....

  15. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  16. Reply to "Comment on 'One-state vector formalism for the evolution of a quantum state through nested Mach-Zehnder interferometers'"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Javůrek, D.; Lemr, K.; Soubusta, Jan; Svozilík, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), 1-2, č. článku 036104. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : one-state vector * quantum state * Mach-Zehnder interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  17. Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer on the end facet of multicore fiber for refractive index sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanwen; Zhang, Siyao; Feng, Shengfei; Wang, Xinke; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive, real-time seven core optical fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor for liquid refractive index detection is proposed, fabricated and characterized. A trapezoid body with an inverted wedge shape groove in the center is used to design the MZI. The two ends of the trapezoid body play the roles of micro-prisms, and the middle parts of the trapezoid body and the groove play the roles of reference and sensing arms. A series of performance tests were carried out by immersing the sensor in different kinds of solutions to verify the universal applicability of the sensor. The MZI sensor is as small as only 43 μm × 8 μm, and at the same time with sensitivity of 1616 nm/RIU. Nominally, we realized a completely integrated optical sensing system. And, this system actually could be the building block of more powerful integrated chemical sensing chip for health, security and industry application.

  18. Small sensitivity to temperature variations of Si-photonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer using Si and SiN waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Tatsurou; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koji; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrated a small sensitivity to temperature variations of delay-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (DL MZI) on a Si photonics platform. The key technique is to balance a thermo-optic effect in the two arms by using waveguide made of different materials. With silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, the fabricated DL MZI with a free-spectrum range of ~40 GHz showed a wavelength shift of -2.8 pm/K with temperature variations, which is 24 times smaller than that of the conventional Si-waveguide DL MZI. We also demonstrated the decoding of the 40-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying signals to on-off keying signals with various temperatures. The tolerable temperature variation for the acceptable power penalty was significantly improved due to the small wavelength shifts.

  19. A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagasabey, Albert; Michie, Andrew; Canning, John; Holdsworth, John; Fleming, Simon; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Aslund, Mattias L

    2011-01-01

    Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI) with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are w(L) (MZI) = (1.6 ± 0.2) kHz and w(L) (MI) = (1.4 ± 0.1) kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  20. A Comparison of Delayed Self-Heterodyne Interference Measurement of Laser Linewidth Using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fleming

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are wL (MZI = (1.6 ± 0.2 kHz and wL (MI = (1.4 ± 0.1 kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  1. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a...... 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications....

  2. Multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater scheme employing intensity Mach-Zehnder modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jie; Dong Tao; Zhang Bin; Hao Yan; Cao Guixing; Cheng Zijing; Xu Kun; Zhou Yue; Dai Jian

    2017-01-01

    To solve the satellite repeater's flexible and wideband frequency conversion problem,we propose a novel microwave photonic repeater system,which can convert the upload signal's carrier to six different frequencies.The scheme employs one 20 GHz bandwidth dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and two 10 GHz bandwidth MZMs.The basic principle of this scheme is filtering out two optical sidebands after the optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation and combining two sidebands modulated by the input radio frequency (RF) signal.This structure can realize simultaneous multi-band frequency conversion with only one frequency-fixed microwave source and prevent generating harmful interference sidebands by using two corresponding optical filters after optical modulation.In the simulation,one C-band signal of 6 GHz carrier can be successfully converted to 12 GHz (Ku-band),28 GHz,34 GHz,40 GHz,46 GHz (Ka-band) and 52 GHz (V-band),which can be an attractive method to realize multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater.Alternatively,the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LOs) for widely satellite onboard clock distribution when the input RF signal is replaced by the internal clock source.

  3. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  4. Comment on "Particle path through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Hatim

    2018-02-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 94, 032115 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032115], Griffiths questioned—based on an interesting consistent-histories (CH) argument—the counterfactuality, for one of the bit choices, of the protocol of Salih et al. for communicating without sending physical particles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170502 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170502]. Here, we first show that for the Mach-Zehnder version used to explain our protocol, contrary to Griffiths's claim, no family of consistent histories exists where any history has the photon traveling through the communication channel, thus rendering the question of whether the photon was in the communication channel meaningless from a CH viewpoint. We then show that for the actual Michelson-type protocol, there is a consistent-histories family for each cycle that includes histories where the photon travels through the communication channel. We show that the probability of finding the photon in the communication channel at any time is zero—proving complete counterfactuality.

  5. Synchronization of femtosecond laser pulses and RF signal by using a Sagnac loop Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Hajima, Ryoichi

    2008-11-01

    For future advanced energy recovery linac to generate femtosecond X-ray pulses, precise synchronization between sub-systems is highly desired. Typical synchronization methods based on direct photo detection are limited by detector nonlinearities, which lead to amplitude-to-phase conversion and introduce excess timing jitter. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an optical-electronic mixed phase lock loop to synchronize the RF signal and laser pulses. In this synchronism setup, a Sagnac-loop Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been used to suppress the excess noise of direct photo detection. This scheme transfers the timing information into a intensity imbalance between the two output beams of the interferometer. As experimental demonstration, the single side-band phase noise of RF signal from the VCO is locked to the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser in the spectrum covering the range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. This synchronization scheme greatly reduces the phase noise and timing jitter of the RF signal. (author)

  6. Speckle-free and halo-free low coherent Mach-Zehnder quantitative-phase-imaging module as a replacement of objective lens in conventional inverted microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Yamada, Hidenao; Matsui, Hisayuki; Yasuhiko, Osamu; Ueda, Yukio

    2018-02-01

    We developed a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer module to be used as a replacement of the objective lens in a conventional inverted microscope (Nikon, TS100-F) in order to make them quantitative phase microscopes. The module has a 90-degree-flipped U-shape; the dimensions of the module are 160 mm by 120 mm by 40 mm and the weight is 380 grams. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer equipped with the separate reference and sample arms was implemented in this U-shaped housing and the path-length difference between the two arms was manually adjustable. The sample under test was put on the stage of the microscope and a sample light went through it. Both arms had identical achromatic lenses for image formation and the lateral positions of them were also manually adjustable. Therefore, temporally and spatially low coherent illumination was applicable because the users were able to balance precisely the path length of the two arms and to overlap the two wavefronts. In the experiment, spectrally filtered LED light for illumination (wavelength = 633 nm and bandwidth = 3 nm) was input to the interferometer module via a 50 micrometer core optical fiber. We have successfully captured full-field interference images by a camera put on the trinocular tube of the microscope and constructed quantitative phase images of the cultured cells by means of the quarter-wavelength phase shifting algorithm. The resultant quantitative phase images were speckle-free and halo-free due to spectrally and spatially low coherent illumination.

  7. Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Photonics-on-a-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana R; Vicente, Carlos M S; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J O; Tacão, Marta; Costa, João P da; Lima, Mário; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2018-03-12

    The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers. The sensor performance was evaluated using, as an illustrative example, E. coli cell growth in an aqueous medium. The measured sensitivity (2 × 10 -4 RIU) and limit of detection (LOD = 2 × 10 -4 ) are among the best values known for low-refractive index contrast sensors. Furthermore, the di-ureasil hybrid used to produce this biosensor has additional advantages, such as mechanical flexibility, thermal stability, and low insertion losses due to fiber-device refractive index mismatch (~1.49). Therefore, the proposed sensor constitutes a direct, compact, fast, and cost-effective solution for monitoring the concentration of lived-cells.

  8. A highly stable and switchable dual-wavelength laser using coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, A. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-12-01

    The generation and switching of dual-wavelength laser based on compact coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (CM-MZI) is reported. The CM-MZI is constructed by overlapping two portions of a single tapered optical fiber which has a diameter of 9 μm as to create multi-mode interference and also to produce spatial mode beating as to suppress mode competition in the homogeneous gain medium. The system is able to generate a dual-wavelength laser output that can be switched with the aid of the polarization rotation technique. Four dual-wavelength oscillation pairs are obtained from the interference fringe peaks of the CM-MZI comb filter with a switched channel spacing of 1.5 nm, 3.0 nm, and 6.0 nm. The wavelength spacing is stable at different pump powers. The lasing wavelength has a 3-dB linewidth of about 30 pm and peak-to-floor ration of about 55 dB at a pump power of 38 mW.

  9. Fiber optic refractive index and magnetic field sensors based on microhole-induced inline Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Liuchao; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei

    2018-04-01

    A compact microhole-induced fiber optic inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is demonstrated for measurements of refractive index (RI) and magnetic field. Inline MZIs with different etched diameters, different interaction lengths and different sizes of microholes are fabricated and assessed. The optical transmission spectra of the inline MZIs immersed into a series of liquids are characterized and analysed. Experimental results show that liquid RI sensitivity as high as 539.8436 nm RIU-1 in the RI range of 1.3352-1.4113 RIU is achieved and also exhibits good linearity with a correlation coefficient  >93%. An inline MZI is also fabricated to be a magnetic field sensor by using magnetic fluid material. The experimental results show that this magnetic field sensor has a high sensitivity of  -275.6 pm Oe-1. The inline MZI-based fiber optic sensors possess many advantages, such as small size, simple fabrication, high sensitivity and good linearity, which has a wide application potential in chemical, biological and environmental sensing fields.

  10. Stable C-band fiber laser with switchable multi-wavelength output using coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Jasim, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    A compact coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (CM-MZI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for C-band region multi-wavelength tuning and switching in a fiber laser. The CM-MZI is fabricated using a 9 μm single tapered silica optical microfiber fabricated by flame-drawing technique and exploits multi-mode interference to produce spatial mode beating and suppress mode competition of the homogeneous gain medium. The output wavelength spacing is immune to changes in the external environment, but can be changed from 1.5 nm to 1.4 nm by slightly modifying the path-length difference of the CM-MZI. The proposed laser is capable of generating single, dual, triple, quintuple, and sextuple stabilize wavelengths outputs over a range of more than 32 nm using polarization rotation (PR) and macro-bending. The lasers having a 3 dB line-width of less than ∼30 pm and peak-to-floor of about 55 dB at a pump power of 38 mW.

  11. Quantum nonlocality of photon pairs in interference in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trojek, P.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2003), s. 335-349 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : entangled photon pairs * nonlocal interference * Mach-Zehender interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  12. Twin-Core Fiber-Based Mach Zehnder Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Dominik; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Mergo, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present an all-fiber interferometric sensor for the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature. It is composed of a specially fabricated twin-core fiber spliced between two pieces of a single-mode fiber. Due to the refractive index difference between the two cores in a twin-core fiber, a differential interference pattern is produced at the sensor output. The phase response of the interferometer to strain and temperature is measured in the 850–1250 nm spectral range, showing zero sensitivity to strain at 1000 nm. Due to the significant difference in sensitivities to both parameters, our interferometer is suitable for two-parameter sensing. The simultaneous response of the interferometer to strain and temperature was studied using the two-wavelength interrogation method and a novel approach based on the spectral fitting of the differential phase response. As the latter technique uses all the gathered spectral information, it is more reliable and yields the results with better accuracy. PMID:29558386

  13. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  14. Multilayer beam splitter used in a soft X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer at working wavelength of 13.9 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhong; Wang Zhanshan; Wang Hongchang; Wang Fengli; Wu Wenjuan; Zhang Shumin; Qin Shuji; Chen Lingyan

    2006-01-01

    The soft X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer is an important tool in measuring the electron densities of laser-produced plasma near the critical surface. The design, fabrication and characterization of multilayer beam splitters at 13.9 nm for soft X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer are presented in the paper. The design of beam splitter is completed based on the standard of maximizing product of reflectivity and transmission of the beam splitter at 13.9 nm. The beam splitters, which are Mo/Si multi-layer deposited on 10 mm x 10 mm area, 100 nm thickness Si 3 N 4 membranes, are fabricated using the magnetron sputtering. A method based on extended He-Ne laser beam is developed to analyze the figure error of the beam splitters. The data measured by an optical profiler prove that the method based on visible light is effective to analyze the figure of the beam splitters. The rms figure error of a beam splitter reaches 1.757 nm in the center area 3.82 mm x 3.46 mm and satisfies the need of soft X-ray interference experiment. The product of reflectivity and transmission measured by synchrotron radiation is near to 4%. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer at 13.9 nm based on the multilayer beam splitters is used in 13.9 nm soft X-ray laser interference experiment, in which a clear interferograms of C 8 H 8 laser-produced plasma is got. (authors)

  15. Nearly optimal measurement schemes in a noisy Mach-Zehnder interferometer with coherent and squeezed vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, Bryan T.; You, Chenglong; Singh, Robinjeet; Lee, Hwang; Corbitt, Thomas R.; Dowling, Jonathan P. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Mishra, Devendra K. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); V.S. Mehta College of Science, Physics Department, Bharwari, UP (India)

    2017-12-15

    The use of an interferometer to perform an ultra-precise parameter estimation under noisy conditions is a challenging task. Here we discuss nearly optimal measurement schemes for a well known, sensitive input state, squeezed vacuum and coherent light. We find that a single mode intensity measurement, while the simplest and able to beat the shot-noise limit, is outperformed by other measurement schemes in the low-power regime. However, at high powers, intensity measurement is only outperformed by a small factor. Specifically, we confirm, that an optimal measurement choice under lossless conditions is the parity measurement. In addition, we also discuss the performance of several other common measurement schemes when considering photon loss, detector efficiency, phase drift, and thermal photon noise. We conclude that, with noise considerations, homodyne remains near optimal in both the low and high power regimes. Surprisingly, some of the remaining investigated measurement schemes, including the previous optimal parity measurement, do not remain even near optimal when noise is introduced. (orig.)

  16. Dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator-based reconfigurable and transparent spectral conversion for dense wavelength division multiplexing transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingzhi; Qian, Chen; Cao, Bingyao; Zhang, Qianwu; Song, Yingxiong; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    A digital signal process enabled dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM)-based spectral converter is proposed and extensively investigated to realize dynamically reconfigurable and high transparent spectral conversion. As another important innovation point of the paper, to optimize the converter performance, the optimum operation conditions of the proposed converter are deduced, statistically simulated, and experimentally verified. The optimum conditions supported-converter performances are verified by detail numerical simulations and experiments in intensity-modulation and direct-detection-based network in terms of frequency detuning range-dependent conversion efficiency, strict operation transparency for user signal characteristics, impact of parasitic components on the conversion performance, as well as the converted component waveform are almost nondistortion. It is also found that the converter has the high robustness to the input signal power, optical signal-to-noise ratio variations, extinction ratio, and driving signal frequency.

  17. W-band OFDM photonic vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator and precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple radio-over-fiber (RoF) link architecture for millimeter-wave orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and precoding technique. In the transmission system, the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) OFDM signal on each sub-carrier are precoded, to ensure that the OFDM signal after photodetector (PD) can be restored to original OFDM signal. The experimental results show that the bit-error ratios (BERs) of the transmission system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3), which demonstrates that the generation of OFDM vector signal based on our proposed scheme can be employed in our system architecture.

  18. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  19. Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter by employing a polarization beam splitter (PBS)-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer. The proposed comb filter consists of a rotatable polarizer, a fiber PBS, a non-3-dB coupler and a 3-dB coupler. By simply adjusting the polarization state of the input light, the dual-function of channel spacing tunable and wavelength switchable (interleaving) operations can be efficiently obtained. The theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results. A comb filter with both the channel spacing tunable from 0.18 nm to 0.36 nm and the wavelength switchable functions is experimentally demonstrated.

  20. Ultraflat and broadband optical frequency comb generator based on cascaded two dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kun; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Xuan; Tan, Qinggui; Zhu, Zihang

    2018-04-01

    A novel scheme for the generation of ultraflat and broadband optical frequency comb (OFC) is proposed based on cascaded two dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulators (DE-MZM). The first DE-MZM can generate a four-comb-line OFC, then the OFC is injected into the second DE-MZM as a carrier, which can increase the number of comb lines. Our modified scheme finally can generate a broadband OFC with high flatness by simply modifying the electrical power and the bias voltage of the DE-MZM. Theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that a 16-comb-line OFC with a frequency spacing that two times the frequency of the RF signal can be obtained. The power fluctuation of the OFC lines is 0.48 dB and the unwanted-mode suppression ratio (UMSR) can reach 16.5 dB. Additionally, whether the bias drift of the DE-MZMs has little influence on the power fluctuation is also analyzed. These results demonstrate the robustness of our scheme and verify its good accuracy and high stability with perfect flatness.

  1. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  2. Photonic Mach-Zehnder modulators driven by surface acoustic waves in AlGaAs technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Poveda, A.; Gargallo, B.; Artundo, I.; Doménech, J. D.; Muñoz, P.; Hey, R.; Biermann, K.; Tahraoui, A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.; de Lima, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, photonic devices driven by surface acoustic waves and operating in the GHz frequency range are presented. The devices were designed and fabricated in (Al,Ga)As technology. In contrast to previously realized modulators, where part of the light transmission is lost due to destructive interference, in the present devices light only switches paths, avoiding losses. One of the devices presents two output channels with 180°-dephasing synchronization. Odd multiples of the fundamental driving frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A second and more complex photonic integrated device, based on the acoustic modulation of tunable Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, is also proposed.

  3. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  4. Detection of Ultrasonic Stress Waves in Structures Using 3D Shaped Optic Fiber Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chengming; Zhou, Wensong; Xie, Yawen

    2018-04-16

    This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base. The deformation of the optical fiber is produced by the displacement field of guided waves in the hollow cylinder. The sensor was first analyzed using the finite element method, which demonstrated its basic sensing capacity, and the simulation signals have the same characteristics in the frequency domain as the excitation signal. Subsequently, the primary investigations were conducted via a series of experiments. The sensor was used to detect guided wave signals excited by a piezoelectric wafer in an aluminum plate, and subsequently it was tested on a reinforced concrete beam, which produced acoustic emission signals via impact loading and crack extension when it was loaded to failure. The signals obtained from a piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor were used for comparison, and the results indicated that the proposed 3D fiber optic sensor can detect ultrasonic signals in the specific frequency response range.

  5. Si-nanowire-based multistage delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical MUX/DeMUX fabricated by an ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300 mm SOI wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2014-07-01

    We report good phase controllability and high production yield in Si-nanowire-based multistage delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometer-type optical multiplexers/demultiplexers (MUX/DeMUX) fabricated by an ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300 mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Three kinds of devices fabricated in this work exhibit clear 1×4 Ch wavelength filtering operations for various optical frequency spacing. These results are promising for their applications in high-density wavelength division multiplexing-based optical interconnects.

  6. Reconfigurable and ultra-sensitive in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the fusion of microfiber and microfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shecheng [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Chonglei [Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-02-23

    A reconfigurable Mach-Zenhnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microfluidic cavity (MFC) constructed by embedding a microfiber between two segments of single-mode fibers with pre-designed lateral offset has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MFC serves as an interference arm with an eccentric annular cross section and allows convenient sample (gas or liquids) replacement procedure. The microfiber works as the other interference arm that provides the proposed device with ease of reconstruction and also enhances the force sensitivity. The re-configurability and the ultra-wide tuning sensitivity range are demonstrated by immersing the MZI constructed with a 484 μm-long-MFC and a microfiber 44 μm in diameter in different droplets. Ultrahigh sensitivities of 34.65 nm/°C (∼88 380 nm/RIU) and −493.7 nm/N (∼−590 pm/με) are experimentally achieved using a droplet with a refractive index of ∼1.44.

  7. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm2. It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT. PMID:24761288

  8. Reconfigurable and ultra-sensitive in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the fusion of microfiber and microfluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shecheng; Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Chonglei

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable Mach-Zenhnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microfluidic cavity (MFC) constructed by embedding a microfiber between two segments of single-mode fibers with pre-designed lateral offset has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MFC serves as an interference arm with an eccentric annular cross section and allows convenient sample (gas or liquids) replacement procedure. The microfiber works as the other interference arm that provides the proposed device with ease of reconstruction and also enhances the force sensitivity. The re-configurability and the ultra-wide tuning sensitivity range are demonstrated by immersing the MZI constructed with a 484 μm-long-MFC and a microfiber 44 μm in diameter in different droplets. Ultrahigh sensitivities of 34.65 nm/°C (∼88 380 nm/RIU) and −493.7 nm/N (∼−590 pm/με) are experimentally achieved using a droplet with a refractive index of ∼1.44

  9. Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Eva [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bruck, Roman [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Hainberger, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.hainberger@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Laemmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@univie.ac.at [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We realize a biosensing platform for polyimide evanescent photonic wave sensors. {yields} We show that the surface functionalization via silanisation and biotinylation followed by streptavidin immobilization do not destroy or damage the thin polyimide film. {yields} A highly dense streptavidin layer enables the immobilisation of biotinylated ligands such as biotinylated ssDNA for the selective measurement of DNA hybridization. - Abstract: The process of surface functionalization involving silanization, biotinylation and streptavidin bonding as platform for biospecific ligand immobilization was optimized for thin film polyimide spin-coated silicon wafers, of which the polyimide film serves as a wave guiding layer in evanescent wave photonic biosensors. This type of optical sensors make great demands on the materials involved as well as on the layer properties, such as the optical quality, the layer thickness and the surface roughness. In this work we realized the binding of a 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on an oxygen plasma activated polyimide surface followed by subsequent derivatization of the reactive thiol groups with maleimide-PEG{sub 2}-biotin and immobilization of streptavidin. The progress of the functionalization was monitored by using different fluorescence labels for optimization of the chemical derivatization steps. Further, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized for the characterization of the modified surface. These established analytical methods allowed to derive information like chemical composition of the surface, surface coverage with immobilized streptavidin, as well as parameters of the surface roughness. The proposed functionalization protocol furnished a surface density of 144 fmol mm{sup -2} streptavidin with good reproducibility (13.9% RSD, n = 10) and without inflicted damage to the surface. This surface modification was applied to polyimide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  10. Nonlinear intermodulation distortion suppression in coherent analog fiber optic link using electro-optic polymeric dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ku; Liu, Wei; Pei, Qibing; Dalton, Larry R; Fetterman, Harold R

    2011-04-11

    A linearized dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) based on electro-optic (EO) polymer was both fabricated, and experimentally used to suppress the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) in a coherent analog fiber optic link. This optical transmitter design was based on a new EO chromophore called B10, which was synthesized for applications dealing with the fiber-optic communication systems. The chromophore was mixed with amorphous polycarbonate (APC) to form the waveguide's core material. The DPMZM was configured with two MZMs, of different lengths in parallel, with unbalanced input and output couplers and a phase shifter in one arm. In this configuration each of the MZMs carried a different optical power, and imposed a different depth of optical modulation. When the two optical beams from the MZMs were combined to generate the transmitted signal it was possible to set the IMD3 produced by each modulator to be equal in amplitude but 180° out of phase from the other. Therefore, the resulting IMD3 of the DPMZM transmitter was effectively canceled out during two-tone experiments. A reduction of the IMD3 below the noise floor was observed while leaving fifth-order distortion (IMD5) as the dominant IMD product. This configuration has the capability of broadband operation and shot-noise limited operation simultaneously. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  12. Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change

  13. Transient Response in Monolithic Mach-Zehnder Optical Modulator Using (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Film Sputtered at Low Temperature on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Nagata, Kazuma; Tanushi, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Shin

    2007-04-01

    We have fabricated Mach-Zhender interferometers (MZIs) using the (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) film sputter-deposited at 450 °C, which is a critical temperature for the process after metallization. An optical modulation of about 10% is achieved when 200 V is applied (electric field in BST is 1.2× 104 V/cm). However, the response time of optical modulation to step function voltage is slow (1.0-6.3 s). We propose a model for the slow transient behavior based on movable ions and a long dielectric relaxation time for the BST film, and good qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental results.

  14. Design of Optical I/Q Modulator Using Dual-drive Mach-Zehnder Modulators in Coherent Optical-OFDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Monika; Kedia, Deepak

    2018-04-01

    A CO-OFDM system combines the advantages of both coherent detection and OFDM modulation for future high speed fiber transmission. In this paper, we propose an I/Q modulation technique using dual-drive MZMs for high rate 10 Gb/s CO-OFDM system. The proposed modulator provides 10.63 dBm improved optical spectra compared to a single dual-drive MZM. The simulation results in terms of BER and Q factor are quite satisfactory upto a transmission reach of 3,000 km and that to without making use of any dispersion compensation. A BER of about 8.03×10-10 and 15.06 dB Q factor have been achieved at -10.43 dBm received optical power.

  15. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM. Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF. ABSTRACT In this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  16. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  17. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurments of diffuse light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a

  18. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurements of diffuse light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a

  19. Large current MOSFET on photonic silicon-on-insulator wafers and its monolithic integration with a thermo-optic 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, G W; Matsukawa, T; Chiba, T; Tadokoro, H; Yanagihara, M; Ohno, M; Kawashima, H; Kuwatsuka, H; Igarashi, Y; Masahara, M; Ishikawa, H

    2013-03-25

    n-channel body-tied partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated for large current applications on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with photonics-oriented specifications. The MOSFET can drive an electrical current as large as 20 mA. We monolithically integrated this MOSFET with a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch having thermo-optic phase shifters. The static and dynamic performances of the integrated device are experimentally evaluated.

  20. Mach-Zehnder Fiber-Optic Links for Reaction History Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E. Kirk; Herrmann, H.W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the details of the analog fiber-optic data link that will be used in the chamber-mounted Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. The system is based on Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators integrated into the diagnostic, with the source lasers and bias control electronics located remotely to protect the active electronics. A complete recording system for a single GRH channel comprises two MZ modulators, with the fiber signals split onto four channels on a single digitizer. By carefully selecting the attenuation, the photoreceiver, and the digitizer settings, the dynamic range achievable is greater than 1000:1 at the full system bandwidth of greater than 10 GHz. The system is designed to minimize electrical reflections and mitigate the effects of transient radiation darkening on the fibers.

  1. Comments on X. Yin, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and T. Wang, `Studies in an optical millimeter-wave generation scheme via two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators', Journal of Modern Optics, 58(8), 2011, pp. 665-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J.

    2015-04-01

    Yin et al. have described an innovative filter-less optical millimeter-wave generation scheme for octotupling of a 10 GHz RF oscillator, or sedecimtupling of a 5 GHz RF oscillator using two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs). The great merit of their design is the suppression of all harmonics except those of order ? (octotupling) or all harmonics except those of order ? (sedecimtupling), where ? is an integer. A demerit of their scheme is the requirement to set a precise RF signal modulation index in order to suppress the zeroth order optical carrier. The purpose of this comment is to show that, in the case of the octotupling function, all harmonics may be suppressed except those of order ?, where ? is an odd integer, by the simple addition of an optical ? phase shift between the two DP-MZMs and an adjustment of the RF drive phases. Since the carrier is suppressed in the modified architecture, the octotupling circuit is thereby released of the strict requirement to set the drive level to a precise value without any significant increase in circuit complexity.

  2. Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential Particle-wave duality has enabled the construction of interferometers for massive particles such as electrons, neutrons, atoms or molecules. Implementing atom interferometry has required the development of analogues to the optical beam-splitters, phase shifters or recombiners to enable the coherent, i.e. phase-preserving manipulation of quantum superpositions. While initially demonstrating the wave nature of particles, atom interferometers have evolved into some of the most advanced devices for precision measurement, both for technological applications and tests of the fundamental laws of nature. Bose- Einstein condensates (BEC) of ultracold atoms are particular matter waves: they exhibit a collective many-body wave function and macroscopic coherence properties. As such, they have often been considered as an analogue to optical laser elds and it is natural to wonder whether BECs can provide to atom interferometry a similar boost as the laser brought to optical interferometry. One fundamental dierence between atomic BECs and lasers elds is the presence of atomic interactions, yielding an intrinsic non-linearity. On one hand, interactions can lead to eects destroying the phase coherence and limiting the interrogation time of trapped BEC interferometers. On the other hand, they can be used to generate nonclassical (e.g. squeezed) states to improve the sensitivity of interferometric measurements beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). In this thesis, we present the realization of a full Mach-Zehnder interferometric sequence with trapped, interacting BECs con ned on an atom chip. Our interferometer relies on the coherent manipulation of a BEC in a magnetic double-well potential. For this purpose, we developed a novel type of matter-wave recombiner, an element which so far was missing in BEC atom optics. We have been able to exploit interactions to generate a squeezed

  3. Modulated Source Interferometry with Combined Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved interferometer is produced by modifying a conventional interferometer to include amplitude and/or frequency modulation of a coherent light source at radio or higher frequencies. The phase of the modulation signal can be detected in an interfering beam from an interferometer and can be used to determine the actual optical phase of the beam. As such, this improvement can be adapted to virtually any two-beam interferometer, including: Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers. The use of an amplitude modulated coherent tight source results in an interferometer that combines the wide range advantages of coherent interferometry with the precise distance measurement advantages of white light interferometry.

  4. Experimental study on thermal characteristics of positive leader discharges using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7 m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500 K to 3000 K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500 K

  5. Experimental study on thermal characteristics of positive leader discharges using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X., E-mail: zhouxuan12@mails.thu.edu.cn; Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7 m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500 K to 3000 K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500 K.

  6. Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    In optical Doppler measurements, the path length of the light is unknown. To facilitate quantitative measurements, we develop a phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with separate fibers for illumination and detection. With this setup, path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering measurements

  7. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  8. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  9. Simultaneous generation of 40, 80 and 120 GHz optical millimeter-wave from one Mach-Zehnder modulator and demonstration of millimeter-wave transmission and down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Qin, Chaoyi

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate multi-frequency QPSK millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation enabled by MZM-based optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation and in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulation. We numerically simulate the generation of 40-, 80- and 120-GHz vector signal. Here, the three different signals carry the same QPSK modulation information. We also experimentally realize 11Gbaud/s QPSK vector signal transmission over 20 km fiber, and the generation of the vector signals at 40-GHz, 80-GHz and 120-GHz. The experimental results show that the bit-error-rate (BER) for all the three different signals can reach the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3. The advantage of the proposed system is that provide high-speed, high-bandwidth and high-capacity seamless access of TDM and wireless network. These features indicate the important application prospect in wireless access networks for WiMax, Wi-Fi and 5G/LTE.

  10. The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Schipper, E.F.; Brugman, A.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan; Dominguez, C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the realization of a symmetric integrated channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder sensor which uses the evanescent field to detect small refractive-index changes (¿nmin ¿ 1 × 10¿4) near the guiding-layer surface. This guiding layer consists of ridge structures with a height of 3 nm and a width of

  11. A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones CientIficas, Apartado 21874, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); BolIvar, Nelson [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Berche, Bertrand [Statistical Physics Group, P2M, Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy Universite, BP70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2010-03-24

    A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.

  12. A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto; BolIvar, Nelson; Berche, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.

  13. A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto; Bolívar, Nelson; Berche, Bertrand

    2010-03-01

    A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.

  14. Integrable high order UWB pulse photonic generator based on cross phase modulation in a SOA-MZI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel, Miguel A; Capmany, José

    2013-09-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a potentially integrable optical scheme to generate high order UWB pulses. The technique is based on exploiting the cross phase modulation generated in an InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, and is also adaptable to different pulse modulation formats through an optical processing unit which allows to control of the amplitude, polarity and time delay of the generated taps.

  15. Modeling and design of a spiral-shaped Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensor for refractive index sensing of watery solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, M.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Dijkstra, Mindert; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The modeling and design of a spiral-shaped Mach-Zehnder Interferometric sensor (sMZI sensor) for refractive index sensing of watery solutions is presented. The goal of the running project is to realise a multi-sensing array by placing multiple sMZIs in series to form a sensing branch, and to place

  16. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Kale, S. N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Girinagar, Pune 411 025, Maharashtra (India); Choubey, Ravi Kant [Department of Applied Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201 313 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  17. Reply to "Comment on `Particle path through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer' "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2018-02-01

    While much of the technical analysis in the preceding Comment is correct, in the end it confirms the conclusion reached in my previous work [Phys. Rev. A 94, 032115 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032115]: A consistent histories analysis provides no support for the claim of counterfactual quantum communication put forward by Salih et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170502 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170502].

  18. Improving the acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material, and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by time-harmonic wave equations for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using stress-optical relations and the change...

  19. In-fiber torsion sensor based on dual polarized Mach-Zehnder interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Hao; Sieg, Jonathan; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Li-Yu; Wang, Biao; Yan, Tie-Yi

    2014-12-29

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber torsion sensor based on dual polarized Mach-Zehnder interference (DPMZI). Unlike the conventional fiber sensor, the proposed sensor is composed of a sensor part and a demodulator. The demodulator is made by a bared single mode fiber (SMF) loop, and the sensor part is a segment of a coated SMF placed before the loop. A mathematical model is proposed based on DPMZI mechanism and from the model when the sensor part is twisted, the E-field rotational angle will bring a quasi-linear impact on the resonance dip wavelength in their matched detecting range. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to verify the theoretical prediction. From the experimental data, a sensitivity of -0.3703, -1.00962, and -0.59881 nm•m/rad is achieved with the determining range of 12.0936, 7.6959, and 10.4444 rad/m respectively. The sensor which is composed only of the SMF has the advantages of low insertion loss (~-2dB), healthy structure, low manufacture cost, and easy assembly and application.

  20. Plasmonic interferometers: From physics to biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xie

    Optical interferometry has a long history and wide range of applications. In recent years, plasmonic interferometer arouses great interest due to its compact size and enhanced light-matter interaction. They have demonstrated attractive applications in biomolecule sensing, optical modulation/switching, and material characterization, etc. In this work, we first propose a practical far-field method to extract the intrinsic phase dispersion, revealing important phase information during interactions among free-space light, nanostructure, and SPs. The proposed approach is confirmed by both simulation and experiment. Then we design novel plasmonic interferometer structure for sensitive optical sensing applications. To overcome two major limitations suffered by previously reported double-slit plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PMZI), two new schemes are proposed and investigated. (1) A PMZI based on end-fire coupling improves the SP coupling efficiency and enhance the interference contrast more than 50 times. (2) In another design, a multi-layered metal-insulator-metal PMZI releases the requirement for single-slit illumination, which enables sensitive, high-throughput sensing applications based on intensity modulation. We develop a sensitive, low-cost and high-throughput biosensing platform based on intensity modulation using ring-hole plasmonic interferometers. This biosensor is then integrated with cell-phone-based microscope, which is promising to develop a portable sensor for point-of-care diagnostics, epidemic disease control and food safety monitoring.

  1. Experimental study of a laminar premixed LFG/air flame in a slot burner using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafian Ashrafi Zabihollah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the influence of Reynolds number and equivalence ratio on flame temperature field and thermal flame height of laminar premixed LFG fuel. Mach-Zehnder interferometry technique is used to obtain an insight to the overall temperature field. The slot burner with large aspect ratio (L/W, length of L=60 mm and width of W=6 mm was used to eliminate the three- dimensional effect of temperature field. Two kinds of mixed fuels, LFG70 (70%CH4- 30%CO2 on volume basis and LFG50 (50%CH4- 50%CO2 were used to investigate flame characteristics under the test conditions of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 600 and 0.7 ≤ φ ≤ 1.3. The present measurement reveals that the variation of maximum flame temperature with increment of Reynolds number is mainly due to heat transfer effects and is negligible. On the other hand, the equivalence ratio and fuel composition have a noticeable effect on flame temperature. In addition, the results show that the LFG flames compared to the CH4 ones have a lower flame temperature. With increment of CO2 volume fraction at lean combustion, thermal flame height is augmented while at stoichiometric and rich combustion, its value reduced. Thermal flame height augments linearly by Reynolds number increase, while its increment at rich mixture is higher and the effect of Reynolds number at lean mixtures is insignificant. For validation of experimental results from Mach-Zehnder Interferometry, K-type thermocouples are used at peripherally low and moderate isotherm lines.

  2. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  3. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  4. Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Boschung, B.; Tango, W.J.; Davis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer

  5. Numerical Analysis of an All-optical Logic XOR gate based on an active MZ interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Fjelde, T.

    2002-01-01

    are investigated numerically for a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based XOR gate. For bit-rates up to 40 Gb/s, the synchronization tolerance of a MZI XOR gate is determined by the pulse width for RZ format. For the NRZ format, the tolerance decreases as the rise/fall-time approaches the timeslot. The gate...

  6. Feasibility of evanescent wave interferometer immunosensors for pesticide detection: chemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechuga, L.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    A waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) immunosensor has been developed which can detect, in a direct way, a minimum average layer growth thickness of the analyte of 2×10−3 nm (bound mass, I′=1×10−4 δ cm−2). The design and fabrication of the sensor and the experimental set-up are aimed at

  7. Measuring evolution of a photon in an interferometer with spectrally resolved modes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bula, M.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Javůrek, D.; Lemr, K.; Michálek, Václav; Soubusta, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 052106. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Mach-Zehnder interferometer * spectrally resolved modes * photon Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  8. Noise cancellation properties of displacement noise free interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the practical feasibility of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free laser interferometer (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The noise cancellation efficiency was evaluated by comparing the displacement noise spectrum of the MZIs and the DFI, demonstrating up to 50 dB of noise cancellation. In addition, the possible extension of DFI as QND device is explored.

  9. Fidelity of quantum interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahder, Thomas B.; Lopata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    For a generic interferometer, the conditional probability density distribution p(φ|m), for the phase φ given measurement outcome m will generally have multiple peaks. Therefore, the phase sensitivity of an interferometer cannot be adequately characterized by the standard deviation, such as Δφ∼1/√(N) (the standard limit), or Δφ∼1/N (the Heisenberg limit). We propose an alternative measure of phase sensitivity--the fidelity of an interferometer--defined as the Shannon mutual information between the phase shift φ and the measurement outcomes m. As an example application of interferometer fidelity, we consider a generic optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, used as a sensor of a classical field. For the case where there exists no a priori information on the phase shift, we find the surprising result that maximally entangled state input leads to a lower fidelity than Fock state input, for the same photon number

  10. Quasi-quadrature interferometer for plasma density radial profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A cw Mach Zehnder multichannel interferometer has been developed to measure time-dependent fractional fringe shifts with an accuracy of one-fortieth fringe. The design is quasi-quadrature in that known phase shifts, introduced in the reference beam, are time multiplexed with the normal reference beam. This technique requires only one detector per interferometer channel as compared to two detectors for most quadrature designs. The quadrature information makes the sense of density changes unambiguous, it automatically calibrates the instrument during the plasma event, and it makes fringe shift measurements virtually independent of fringe contrast fluctuations caused by plasma refractive and/or absorptive effects. The interferometer optical design is novel in that the electro-optic crystal used to introduce the 90 0 phase shifts is located in the common 2-mm-diam HeNe entrance beam to the interferometer, by exploiting polarization techniques, rather than in the expanded 1--2-cm reference beam itself. This arrangement greatly reduces the size, cost, and high-voltage requirements for the phase modulating crystal

  11. Frequency-modulated laser ranging sensor with closed-loop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian M.; Böttger, Gunnar; Janeczka, Christian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Advances in autonomous driving and robotics are creating high demand for inexpensive and mass-producible distance sensors. A laser ranging system (Lidar), based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) method is built in this work. The benefits of an FMCW Lidar system are the low-cost components and the performance in comparison to conventional time-of-flight Lidar systems. The basic system consists of a DFB laser diode (λ= 1308 nm) and an asymmetric fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fixed delay line in one arm. Linear tuning of the laser optical frequency via injection current modulation creates a beat signal at the interferometer output. The frequency of the beat signal is proportional to the optical path difference in the interferometer. Since the laser frequency-to-current response is non-linear, a closed-loop feed-back system is designed to improve the tuning linearity, and consequently the measurement resolution. For fast active control, an embedded system with FPGA is used, resulting in a nearly linear frequency tuning, realizing a narrow peak in the Fourier spectrum of the beat signal. For free-space measurements, a setup with two distinct interferometers is built. The fully fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder reference interferometer is part of the feed-back loop system, while the other - a Michelson interferometer - has a free-space arm with collimator lens and reflective target. A resolution of 2:0 mm for a 560 mm distance is achieved. The results for varying target distances show high consistency and a linear relation to the measured beat-frequency.

  12. Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Folkert; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Shank, Steven M; Vlasov, Yurii A; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2013-05-20

    We present 1-to-8 wavelength (de-)multiplexer devices based on a binary tree of cascaded Mach-Zehnder-like lattice filters, and manufactured using a 90 nm CMOS-integrated silicon photonics technology. We demonstrate that these devices combine a flat pass-band over more than 50% of the channel spacing with low insertion loss of less than 1.6 dB, and have a small device size of approximately 500 × 400 µm. This makes this type of filters well suited for application as WDM (de-)multiplexer in silicon photonics transceivers for optical data communication in large scale computer systems.

  13. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-03-26

    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  14. Down-conversion IM-DD RF photonic link utilizing MQW MZ modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longtao; Jin, Shilei; Li, Yifei

    2016-04-18

    We present the first down-conversion intensity modulated-direct detection (IM-DD) RF photonic link that achieves frequency down-conversion using the nonlinear optical phase modulation inside a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator. The nonlinear phase modulation is very sensitive and it can enable high RF-to-IF conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the link linearity is enhanced by canceling the nonlinear distortions from the nonlinear phase modulation and the MZ interferometer. Proof-of-concept measurement was performed. The down-conversion IM-DD link demonstrated 28dB improvement in distortion levels over that of a conventional IM-DD link using a LiNbO3 MZ modulator.

  15. Optical filtering in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Capmany, J

    2013-12-16

    This work presents a theoretical investigation on the performance of directly modulated/detected (DM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OOFDM) systems subject to optical filtering. The impact of both linear and nonlinear distortion effects are taken into account to calculate the effective signal-to-noise ratio of each subcarrier. These results are then employed to optimize the design parameters of two simple optical filtering structures: a Mach Zehnder interferometer and a uniform fiber Bragg grating, leading to a significant optical power budget improvement given by 3.3 and 3dB, respectively. These can be further increased to 5.5 and 4.2dB respectively when balanced detection configurations are employed. We find as well that this improvement is highly dependent on the clipping ratio.

  16. 10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong C; Sakai, Yuya; Shinkawa, Mizuki; Ishikura, Norihiro; Baba, Toshihiko

    2011-07-04

    We report the first experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s modulation in a photonic crystal silicon optical modulator. The device consists of a 200 μm-long SiO2-clad photonic crystal waveguide, with an embedded p-n junction, incorporated into an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The device is integrated on a SOI chip and fabricated by CMOS-compatible processes. With the bias voltage set at 0 V, we measure a V(π)L pseudo-random bit sequence signal. An open eye pattern is observed at bitrates of 10 Gb/s and 2 Gb/s, with and without pre-emphasis of the drive signal, respectively.

  17. Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication of the multilayer beam splitters with large area for soft X-ray laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Zhang Zhong; Wang Fengli; Wu Wenjuan; Wang Hongchang; Qin Shuji; Chen Lingyan

    2004-01-01

    The soft X-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer is an important tool to measure the electron densities of a laser-produced plasma near the critical surface. The design of a multilayer beam splitter at 13.9 nm for soft X-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer is completed based on the standard of maximizing product of reflectivity and transmission of the beam splitter. The beam splitters which is Mo/Si multilayers on 10 mm x 10 mm area Si 3 N 4 membrane are fabricated using the magnetron sputtering. The figure error of the beam splitter has reached the deep nanometer magnitude by using optical profiler and the product of reflectivity and transmission measured by synchrotron radiation is up to to 4%. (authors)

  19. Development of an electro-optic super modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusack, B; Shaddock, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Optical phase modulators and amplitude modulators are commonplace in modern laser laboratories. In this talk, we present the development of a device that produces both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM), with a selectable phase relation between the two, on a single free-space Gaussian beam. We term this device a 'super modulator. The device is a version of the Mach-Zehnder modulator, where a beam is split, then separately phase modulated and recombined. Previous work has concentrated on one specific operating point, where the relative modulation phases and the interferometer phase are set to generate single sideband modulation, equivalent to an equal amount of AM and PM in quadrature. Here we are interested in the entire parameter space of amplitude modulation strength, phase modulation strength, and the phase relation between the two. The need for such a super modulator has arisen in the context of control systems for gravitational wave detection interferometers. Typical locking systems are based on the Pound-Drever-Hall method of locking which uses phase modulation. In principle, a super modulator could be used in a PDH configuration, when the locking point of the device will be tunable according to the quantity of AM injected (along with the obligatory PM) into the device

  20. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...

  1. A Novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, Arne; Diemeer, Mart; Rousseau, A.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an electrooptic polymer microring resonator adjacent to one of its branches is realized in a polymer layer stack. The microresonator is defined by reactive ion etching in the nonlinear PMMA-DR1 polymer and waveguide definition is done without etching, by using a

  2. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  3. Polydyne displacement interferometer using frequency-modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, Masoud; Smith, Stuart T.

    2018-05-01

    A radio-frequency Frequency-Modulated (FM) signal is used to diffract a He-Ne laser beam through an Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM). Due to the modulation of the FM signal, the measured spectra of the diffracted beams comprise a series of phase-synchronized harmonics that have exact integer frequency separation. The first diffraction side-beam emerging from the AOM is selected by a slit to be used in a polydyne displacement interferometer in a Michelson interferometer topology. The displacement measurement is derived from the phase measurement of selected modulation harmonic pairs. Individual harmonic frequency amplitudes are measured using discrete Fourier transform applied to the signal from a single photodetector. Phase signals are derived from the changes in the amplitudes of different harmonic pairs (typically odd-even pairs) with the phase being extracted using a standard quadrature method. In this study, two different modulation frequencies of 5 and 10 kHz are used at different modulation depths. The measured displacements by different harmonic pairs are compared with a commercial heterodyne interferometer being used as a reference for these studies. Measurements obtained from five different harmonic pairs when the moving mirror of the interferometer is scanned over ranges up to 10 μm all show differences of less than 50 nm from the reference interferometer measurements. A drift test was also used to evaluate the differences between the polydyne interferometer and reference measurements that had different optical path lengths of approximately 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. The drift test results indicate that about half of the differences can be attributed to temperature, pressure, and humidity variations. Other influences include Abbe and thermal expansion effects. Rough magnitude estimates using simple models for these two effects can account for remaining observed deviations.

  4. Experimental demonstration of deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Schwarze, Thomas S; Mehmet, Moritz; Heinzel, Gerhard; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2016-01-25

    Experiments for space and ground-based gravitational wave detectors often require a large dynamic range interferometric position readout of test masses with 1 pm/√Hz precision over long time scales. Heterodyne interferometer schemes that achieve such precisions are available, but they require complex optical set-ups, limiting their scalability for multiple channels. This article presents the first experimental results on deep frequency modulation interferometry, a new technique that combines sinusoidal laser frequency modulation in unequal arm length interferometers with a non-linear fit algorithm. We have tested the technique in a Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer topology, respectively, demonstrated continuous phase tracking of a moving mirror and achieved a performance equivalent to a displacement sensitivity of 250 pm/Hz at 1 mHz between the phase measurements of two photodetectors monitoring the same optical signal. By performing time series fitting of the extracted interference signals, we measured that the linearity of the laser frequency modulation is on the order of 2% for the laser source used.

  5. Ultrasensitive Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Temperature Sensor Based on Liquid-Filled D-Shaped Fiber Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A liquid-filled D-shaped fiber (DF cavity serving as an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated for temperature sensing with ultrahigh sensitivity. The miniature MZI is constructed by splicing a segment of DF between two single-mode fibers (SMFs to form a microcavity (MC for filling and replacement of various refractive index (RI liquids. By adjusting the effective RI difference between the DF and MC (the two interference arms, experimental and calculated results indicate that the interference spectra show different degrees of temperature dependence. As the effective RI of the liquid-filled MC approaches that of the DF, temperature sensitivity up to −84.72 nm/°C with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9953 has been experimentally achieved for a device with the MC length of 456 μm, filled with liquid RI of 1.482. Apart from ultrahigh sensitivity, the proposed MCMZI device possesses additional advantages of its miniature size and simple configuration; these features make it promising and competitive in various temperature sensing applications, such as consumer electronics, biological treatments, and medical diagnosis.

  6. Ultrasensitive Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Temperature Sensor Based on Liquid-Filled D-Shaped Fiber Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Gao, Shecheng; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhenshi; Xiong, Songsong; Wan, Lei; Huang, Xincheng; Huang, Bingsen; Feng, Yuanhua; He, Miao; Liu, Weiping; Chen, Zhe; Li, Zhaohui

    2018-04-17

    A liquid-filled D-shaped fiber (DF) cavity serving as an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated for temperature sensing with ultrahigh sensitivity. The miniature MZI is constructed by splicing a segment of DF between two single-mode fibers (SMFs) to form a microcavity (MC) for filling and replacement of various refractive index (RI) liquids. By adjusting the effective RI difference between the DF and MC (the two interference arms), experimental and calculated results indicate that the interference spectra show different degrees of temperature dependence. As the effective RI of the liquid-filled MC approaches that of the DF, temperature sensitivity up to −84.72 nm/°C with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9953 has been experimentally achieved for a device with the MC length of 456 μm, filled with liquid RI of 1.482. Apart from ultrahigh sensitivity, the proposed MCMZI device possesses additional advantages of its miniature size and simple configuration; these features make it promising and competitive in various temperature sensing applications, such as consumer electronics, biological treatments, and medical diagnosis.

  7. Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, J.; Meijer, F. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

  8. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  9. A Novel Dynamic Wavelength Cross-connect Based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Optical ad/drop Multiplexer and Optical Space Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai

    1999-01-01

    We have proposed a novel dynamic WXC based on MZI-OADM. The advantages of this dynamic WXC are very low differential insertion loss, using less exchanging units than reported structures, and the ability to be integrated. In experiment, the three channels from the path with maximum OADMs in a 2×2 ......×2 dynamic WXC capable of exchanging five wavelengths show negligible power penalty at BER of 10-9. The above advantages make this kind of dynamic WXC very promising for future WDM networks...

  10. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add/Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gbit/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens, Alvaro A.; Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    2000-01-01

    We report a novel method for simultaneous add-drop multiplexing in OTDM systems which includes regenerative capabilities and perfect clearing of the drop channel time slot. The principle has been demonstrated at 40 Gb/s showing an excellent performance.......We report a novel method for simultaneous add-drop multiplexing in OTDM systems which includes regenerative capabilities and perfect clearing of the drop channel time slot. The principle has been demonstrated at 40 Gb/s showing an excellent performance....

  11. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  12. Reversely modulated optical single sideband scheme and its application in a 60-GHz full duplex ROF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Yu, J.J.; Chen, L.; Shu, Q.L.

    2012-01-01

    The reversely modulated optical single sideband scheme (IM-OSSB) based on a parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (P-MZM) is proposed. In this P-MZM, one sub-MZM is employed for data modulation and the other is used for optical millimeter wave (mm-wave) generation. Due to the individual modulation, this

  13. Modulation depth of Michelson interferometer with Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välikylä, Tuomas; Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2011-12-20

    Mirror misalignment or the tilt angle of the Michelson interferometer can be estimated from the modulation depth measured with collimated monochromatic light. The intensity of the light beam is usually assumed to be uniform, but, for example, with gas lasers it generally has a Gaussian distribution, which makes the modulation depth less sensitive to the tilt angle. With this assumption, the tilt angle may be underestimated by about 50%. We have derived a mathematical model for modulation depth with a circular aperture and Gaussian beam. The model reduces the error of the tilt angle estimate to below 1%. The results of the model have been verified experimentally.

  14. Phase-modulation interferometer for ICF-target characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Characterization requirements for high gain laser fusion targets are severe. We are required to detect defects on the surfaces of opaque and transparent shells with an amplitude resolution of +- 5 nm and a spatial resolution of 1 to 10 μm. To achieve this we have developed a laser-illuminated phase-modulation interferometer. This instrument is based on a photoelastic polarization modulation technique which allows one to convert phase information into an intensity modulation which can be easily and sensitively measured using ac signal processing techniques. This interferometer has detected path length changes as small as 1 nm and the required spatial resolution is assured by using a microscope objective to focus the probe laser beam down to a small (approx. 1 μm) spot on the surface of a microballoon. The interferometer will soon be coupled to an LSI-11 controlled 4π sphere manipulator which will allow us to automatically inspect the entire surface area of a target sphere

  15. Simultaneous measurement of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients with a single arm double interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenegueti, Jose Francisco Miras; Andrade, Acacio A; Pilla, Viviane; Zilio, Sergio Carlos

    2017-01-09

    A low-cost single arm double interferometer was developed for the concurrent measurement of linear thermal expansion (α) and thermo-optic (dn/dT) coefficients of transparent samples with plane and parallel surfaces. Owing to its common-path optical arrangement, the device is compact and stable, and allows the simultaneous measurement of interferences arising from a low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon and from a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer. The method was demonstrated with measurements of solid (silica, BK7, SF6) and liquid (water, ethanol and acetone) samples.

  16. Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junfeng; Fang, Q; Tao, S H; Liow, T Y; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2008-09-29

    We designed and fabricated silicon-on-insulator based Michelson interferometer (MI) thermo-optical switches with deep etched trenches for heat-isolation. Switch power was reduced approximately 20% for the switch with deep etched trenches, and the MI saved approximately 50% power than that of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. 10.6 mW switch power, approximately 42 micros switch time for the MI with deep trenches, 13.14 mW switch power and approximately 34 micros switch time for the MI without deep trenches were achieved.

  17. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  18. Noise sources in the LTP heterodyne interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, V; Bogenstahl, J; Braxmaier, C; Danzmann, K; GarcIa, A; Guzman, F; Heinzel, G; Hough, J; Jennrich, O; Killow, C; Robertson, D; Sodnik, Z; Steier, F; Ward, H

    2006-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package uses a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the relative motion of the test masses with picometer accuracy. This paper discusses two classes of noise sources that were identified and investigated during the prototype experiments. Most troublesome are electrically induced sidebands on the light, which give rise to nonlinearities in the interferometer output. Even worse, if the differential pathlength between two optical fibres fluctuates, a noise term of milliradian amplitude appears and completely spoils the performance. We discuss the origin and mitigation of this process. Dissimilar beam shapes of the interfering beams produce another type of noise in conjunction with beam jitter and spatially inhomogeneous photodetectors. To study and minimize this effect, we have built a real-time high-resolution phasefront imaging system that will be used for the production of the flight model

  19. The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ChunMin; Zhu, HuaChun; Zhao, Baochang

    2011-05-09

    A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter's track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, P. J.; Gerber, R. A.; Gerardo, J. B.

    1982-09-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2×1015 cm-2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift.

  1. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach--Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2 x 10 15 cm -2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift

  2. Characterization and Performance Comparison of Low-Voltage, High-Speed, Push-Pull and Traveling-Wave Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    unloaded transmission line is simply the coplanar strip waveguide (CPS), and is designed to have an impedance higher than 50Ω, as the capacitive load...microwave loss operation, with a junction capacitance of 0.41 fF at 0 V bias. From a macroscopic point of view, the push-pull design uses two electrodes...by ±5°. The chip mount is designed to hold a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) between two copper plates, and a temperature sensor in the top plate, above

  3. Analytic models of spectral responses of fiber-grating-based interferometers on FMC theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangkai; Wei, Lai; Pan, Yingjun; Liu, Shengping; Shi, Xiaohui

    2012-02-13

    In this paper the analytic models (AMs) of the spectral responses of fiber-grating-based interferometers are derived from the Fourier mode coupling (FMC) theory proposed recently. The interferometers include Fabry-Perot cavity, Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers, which are constructed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings and long-period fiber gratings, and also by Gaussian-apodized ones. The calculated spectra based on the analytic models are achieved, and compared with the measured cases and those on the transfer matrix (TM) method. The calculations and comparisons have confirmed that the AM-based spectrum is in excellent agreement with the TM-based one and the measured case, of which the efficiency is improved up to ~2990 times that of the TM method for non-uniform-grating-based in-fiber interferometers.

  4. A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires remote diagnostics of plasma density. Laser interferometry can be used to determine the line-integrated density of the plasma. A multi-chord heterodyne fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is being assembled and integrated into the experiment. The advantage of the fiber coupling is that many different view chords can be easily obtained by simply moving transmit and receive fiber couplers. Several such fiber sets will be implemented to provide a time history of line-averaged density for several chords at once. The multiple chord data can then be Abel inverted to provide radially resolved spatial profiles of density. We describe the design and execution of this multiple fiber interferometer.

  5. Direct UV written Michelson interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Geng, Yan; Zsigri, Beata

    2005-01-01

    An integrated Michelson delay interferometer structure making use of waveguide gratings as reflective elements is proposed and fabricated by direct ultraviolet writing. Successful return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion...

  6. Radio over fiber transceiver employing phase modulation of an optical broadband source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-10-11

    This paper proposes a low-cost RoF transceiver for multichannel SCM/WDM signal distribution suitable for future broadband access networks. The transceiver is based on the phase modulation of an optical broadband source centered at third transmission window. Prior to phase modulation the optical broadband source output signal is launched into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, as key device enabling radio signals propagation over the optical link. Furthermore, an optical CWDM is employed to create a multichannel scenario by performing the spectral slicing of the modulated optical signal into a number of channels each one conveying the information from the central office to different base stations. The operation range is up to 20 GHz with a modulation bandwidth around of 500 MHz. Experimental results of the transmission of SCM QPSK and 64-QAM data through 20 Km of SMF exhibit good EVM results in the operative range determined by the phase-to-intensity conversion process. The proposed approach shows a great suitability for WDM networks based on RoF signal transport and also represents a cost-effective solution for passive optical networks.

  7. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  8. Microwave photonic filters with negative coefficients based on phase inversion in an electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Pastor, Daniel; Martinez, Alfonso; Ortega, Beatriz; Sales, Salvador

    2003-08-15

    We report on a novel technical approach to the implementation of photonic rf filters that is based on the pi phase inversion that a rf modulating signal suffers in an electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulator, which depends on whether the positive or the negative linear slope of the signal's modulation transfer function is employed. Experimental evidence is provided of the implementation of filters with negative coefficients that shows excellent agreement with results predicted by the theory.

  9. Generation of Optical Vortex Arrays Using Single-Element Reversed-Wavefront Folding Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical vortex arrays have been generated using simple, novel, and stable reversed-wavefront folding interferometer. Two new interferometric configurations were used for generating a variety of optical vortex lattices. In the first interferometric configuration one cube beam splitter (CBS was used in one arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for splitting and combining the collimated beam, and one mirror of another arm is replaced by second CBS. At the output of interferometer, three-beam interference gives rise to optical vortex arrays. In second interferometric configuration, a divergent wavefront was made incident on a single CBS which splits and combines wavefronts leading to the generation of vortex arrays due to four-beam interference. It was found that the orientation and structure of the optical vortices can be stably controlled by means of changing the rotation angle of CBS.

  10. Iodine-frequency-stabilized laser diode and displacement-measuring interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Quang Anh; Vu, Thanh Tung; Higuchi, Masato; Wei, Dong; Aketagawa, Masato

    2018-06-01

    We propose a sinusoidal phase modulation method to achieve both the frequency stabilization of an external-cavity laser diode (ECLD) to an 127I2 saturated absorption transition near 633 nm and displacement measurement using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. First, the frequency of the ECLD is stabilized to the b 21 hyperfine component of the P(33) 6-3 transition of 127I2 by combining sinusoidal phase modulation by an electro-optic modulator and frequency modulation spectroscopy by chopping the pump beam using an acousto-optic modulator. Even though a small modulation index of m  =  3.768 rad is utilized, a relative frequency stability of 10‑11 order is obtained over a sampling time of 400 s. Secondly, the frequency-stabilized ECLD is applied as a light source to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. From the two consecutive modulation harmonics (second and third orders) involved in the interferometer signal, the displacement of the moving mirror is determined for four optical path differences (L 0  =  100, 200, 500, and 1000 mm). The measured modulation indexes for the four optical path differences coincide with the designated value (3.768 rad) within 0.5%. Compared with the sinusoidal frequency modulation Michelson interferometer (Vu et al 2016 Meas. Sci. Technol. 27 105201) which was demonstrated by some of the same authors of this paper, the phase modulation Mach–Zhender interferometer could fix the modulation index to a constant value for the four optical path differences. In this report, we discuss the measurement principle, experimental system, and results.

  11. Ultrafast and Doppler-free femtosecondoptical ranging based on dispersivefrequency-modulated interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Chunxi

    2010-03-01

    An ultrafast and Doppler-free optical ranging system based on dispersive frequency-modulated interferometry is demonstrated. The principle is similar to the conventional frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometry where the range information is derived from the beat frequency between the object signal and the reference signal. However, a passive and static frequency scanning is performed based on the chromatic dispersion of a transform-limited femtosecond pulse in the time domain. We point out that the unbalanced dispersion introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer can be optimized to eliminate the frequency chirp in the temporal interferograms pertaining to the third order dispersion of the all-fiber system, if the dynamic range being considered is small. Some negative factors, such as the polarization instability of the femtosecond pulse, the power fluctuation of the optical signal and the nonuniform gain spectrum of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier lead to an obvious envelope deformation of the temporal interferograms from the Gaussian shape. Thus a new data processing method is proposed to guarantee the range resolution. In the experiment, the vibration of a speaker is measured. A range resolution of 1.59 microm is achieved with an exposure time of 394 fs at a sampling rate of 48.6 MHz.

  12. High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Cai, H; DeRose, C T; Davids, P; Pomerene, A; Starbuck, A L; Trotter, D C; Camacho, R; Urayama, J; Lentine, A

    2017-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate ultrahigh extinction ratio (>65 dB) amplitude modulators (AMs) that can be electrically tuned to operate across a broad spectral range of 160 nm from 1480 - 1640 nm and 95 nm from 1280 - 1375 nm. Our on-chip AMs employ one extra coupler compared with conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), thus form a cascaded MZI (CMZI) structure. Either directional or adiabatic couplers are used to compose the CMZI AMs and experimental comparisons are made between these two different structures. We investigate the performance of CMZI AMs under extreme conditions such as using 95:5 split ratio couplers and unbalanced waveguide losses. Electro-optic phase shifters are also integrated in the CMZI AMs for high-speed operation. Finally, we investigate the output optical phase when the amplitude is modulated, which provides us valuable information when both amplitude and phase are to be controlled. Our demonstration not only paves the road to applications such as quantum information processing that requires high extinction ratio AMs but also significantly alleviates the tight fabrication tolerance needed for large-scale integrated photonics.

  13. Interferometer for electron density measurement in exploding wire plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Jigyasa; Jaiswar, Ashutosh; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has been developed for measuring electron density profile in pulsed plasmas. MZI is to be used for characterizing exploding wire plasmas for correlating electron density dynamics with x-rays emission. Experiments have been carried out for probing electron density in pulsed plasmas produced in our laboratory like in spark gap and exploding wire plasmas. These are microsecond phenomenon. Changes in electron density have been registered in interferograms with the help of a streak camera for specific time window. Temporal electron density profiles have been calculated by analyzing temporal fringe shifts in interferograms. This report deals with details of MZI developed in our laboratory along with its theory. Basic introductory details have also been provided for exploding wire plasmas to be probed. Some demonstrative results of electron density measurements in pulsed plasmas of spark gap and single exploding wires have been described. (author)

  14. Dual-function photonic integrated circuit for frequency octo-tupling or single-side-band modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-06-01

    A dual-function photonic integrated circuit for microwave photonic applications is proposed. The circuit consists of four linear electro-optic phase modulators connected optically in parallel within a generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The photonic circuit is arranged to have two separate output ports. A first port provides frequency up-conversion of a microwave signal from the electrical to the optical domain; equivalently single-side-band modulation. A second port provides tunable millimeter wave carriers by frequency octo-tupling of an appropriate amplitude RF carrier. The circuit exploits the intrinsic relative phases between the ports of multi-mode interference couplers to provide substantially all the static optical phases needed. The operation of the proposed dual-function photonic integrated circuit is verified by computer simulations. The performance of the frequency octo-tupling and up-conversion functions is analyzed in terms of the electrical signal to harmonic distortion ratio and the optical single side band to unwanted harmonics ratio, respectively.

  15. Active cancellation of residual amplitude modulation in a frequency-modulation based Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Wang, Yicheng; Pratt, Jon R

    2016-03-01

    Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) is one of the most common noise sources known to degrade the sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy. RAM can arise as a result of the temperature dependent birefringence of the modulator crystal, which causes the orientation of the crystal's optical axis to shift with respect to the polarization of the incident light with temperature. In the fiber-based optical interferometer used on the National Institute of Standards and Technology calculable capacitor, RAM degrades the measured laser frequency stability and correlates with the environmental temperature fluctuations. We have demonstrated a simple approach that cancels out excessive RAM due to polarization mismatch between the light and the optical axis of the crystal. The approach allows us to measure the frequency noise of a heterodyne beat between two lasers individually locked to different resonant modes of a cavity with an accuracy better than 0.5 ppm, which meets the requirement to further determine the longitudinal mode number of the cavity length. Also, this approach has substantially mitigated the temperature dependency of the measurements of the cavity length and consequently the capacitance.

  16. Compact temperature-insensitive modulator based on a silicon microring assistant Mach—Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jian; Feng Xue; Zhang Deng-Ke; Huang Yi-Dong

    2012-01-01

    On the silicon-on-insulator platform, an ultra compact temperature-insensitive modulator based on a cascaded microring assistant Mach—Zehnder interferometer is proposed and demonstrated with numerical simulation. According to the calculated results, the tolerated variation of ambient temperature can be as high as 134 °C while the footprint of such a silicon modulator is only 340 μm 2 . (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  18. Atom interferometry with lithium atoms: theoretical analysis and design of an interferometer, applications; Interferometrie atomique avec l'atome de lithium: analyse theorique et construction d'un interferometre, applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, C

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to studies which prepared the construction of an atom Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In such an interferometer, the propagating waves are spatially separated, and the internal state of the atom is not modified. The beam-splitters are diffraction gratings, consisting of standing optical waves near-resonant with an atomic transition. We use the Bloch functions to define the atom wave inside the standing wave grating and thus explain the diffraction process in different cases. We developed a nearly all-analytical model for the propagation of an atom wave inside a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The contrast of the signal is studied for many cases: phase or amplitude gratings, effects of extra paths, effects of the main mismatches, monochromatic or lightly polychromatic sources. Finally, we discuss three interferometric measurements we think very interesting. The first, the index of refraction of gas for atomic waves, is studied in detail, with numerical simulations. The other measures we propose deal with the electrical properties of lithium. We discuss the ultimate limit for the measure of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atomic interferometry. Then, we discuss how one could measure the possible charge of the lithium atom. We conclude that an optically cooled and collimated atom beam would improve precision. (author)

  19. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Nulling Testbed II: Closed-loop Path Length Metrology And Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, B. J.; Barry, R. K.; Danchi, W. C.; Hyde, T. T.; Lee, K. Y.; Martino, A. J.; Zuray, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for an imaging and nulling interferometer in the near to mid-infrared spectral region (3-8 microns), and will be a scientific and technological pathfinder for upcoming missions including TPF-I/DARWIN, SPECS, and SPIRIT. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have constructed a symmetric Mach-Zehnder nulling testbed to demonstrate techniques and algorithms that can be used to establish and maintain the 10(exp 4) null depth that will be required for such a mission. Among the challenges inherent in such a system is the ability to acquire and track the null fringe to the desired depth for timescales on the order of hours in a laboratory environment. In addition, it is desirable to achieve this stability without using conventional dithering techniques. We describe recent testbed metrology and control system developments necessary to achieve these goals and present our preliminary results.

  20. Measurement of the thickness of the lens with the use of all fiber low-coherence interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwik, Michalina; Stepień, Karol; Lipiński, Stanisław; Budnicki, Dawid; Napierała, Marek; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present experimental results of measurements of the lens thickness carried out using all fiber low coherence interferometer. A new interferometric device for measuring the thickness of the lens using optical fibers has been developed in response to market demand. It ensures fast, non-contact and accurate measurement. This work focuses above all on the conducting tests to determine the repeatability of the measurement and to verify the ability of using this method in industrial conditions. The system uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which one of the arms is the reference part and the second arm containing the test element is the measurement part. The measurement rate and the easiness of placement of the test lens in the system give the possibility to automate the measurement process. We present the measurement results, which show that the use of low-coherence interferometry allows achieving high measurement accuracy and meeting other industrial needs.

  1. A real time 155 GHz millimeter wave interferometer module for electron density measurement in large plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettemann, P.W.; Waidmann, G.

    1982-09-01

    A homodyne, real time 155 GHz interferometer channel is described which is one module of a multichannel system for use on TEXTOR tokamak. A standing sine wave is generated in a phase bridge by transmitting a frequency modulated millimeter wave down two unequal interferometer branches. The presence of plasma produces a phase slip of the sine wave with respect to a reference signal. The phase shift is linear proportional to plasma density for expected TEXTOR plasmas. Long plasma paths give multiradian phase shifts which are recorded by a digital fringe counting system. The accuracy of phase measurement is ΔPHI = 2π/16. Phase changes of 7π/8 are accepted per modulation period. The microwave in the measurement branch of the interferometer is transmitted using a quasioptical technique. Components and technical details are described. The interferometer was tested in a simulation set-up and in two different plasma experiments. Experimental results are presented. (orig.)

  2. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  3. High-order UWB pulses scheme to generate multilevel modulation formats based on incoherent optical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2013-11-18

    We present a high-order UWB pulses generator based on a microwave photonic filter which provides a set of positive and negative samples by using the slicing of an incoherent optical source and the phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. The simple scalability and high reconfigurability of the system permit a better accomplishment of the FCC requirements. Moreover, the proposed scheme permits an easy adaptation to pulse amplitude modulation, bi phase modulation, pulse shape modulation and pulse position modulation. The flexibility of the scheme for being adaptable to multilevel modulation formats permits to increase the transmission bit rate by using hybrid modulation formats.

  4. Refractive index and temperature-sensing characteristics of a cladding-etched thin core fiber interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiying; Dong, Xinran; Chu, Dongkai; Hu, Youwang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Duan, Ji-An

    2018-05-01

    A high refractive index (RI) sensor based on an in-line Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer (MZI) is proposed. The sensor was realized by splicing a 2-cm length of cladding-etched thin core fiber (TCF) between two single mode fibers (SMFs). The TCF-structured MZI exhibited good fringe visibility as high as 15 dB in air and the high RI sensitivity attained a value of 1143.89 nm/RIU at a RI of 1.447. The experimental data revealed that the MZI has high RI sensitivity after HF etching realizing 2599.66 nm/RIU. Studies were performed on the temperature characteristics of the device. It is anticipated that this high RI sensor will be deployed in new and diverse applications in the chemical and biological fields.

  5. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  6. Application of Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy coupled with three-wavelength two-beam interferometry to the in situ direct observation of the growth process of a crystal in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Katsuo

    1988-01-01

    Direct visualization of three dimensional transfer process of both heat and mass around a growing crystal and mono-molecular growth layers on the surface is possible in situ by means of high resolution Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy coupled with three wavelength two beam Mach-Zehnder interferometry. This in situ observation is very suitable for the verification of the growth mechanism of a crystal in a solution or a melt in microgravity.

  7. Self-alignment of a compact large-area atomic Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, G; Berg, P; Schubert, C; Abend, S; Gilowski, M; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the realization of a compact atomic Mach-Zehnder-type Sagnac interferometer of 13.7 cm length, which covers an area of 19 mm 2 previously reported only for large thermal beam interferometers. According to Sagnac's formula, which holds for both light and atoms, the sensitivity for rotation rates increases linearly with the area enclosed by the interferometer. The use of cold atoms instead of thermal atoms enables miniaturization of Sagnac interferometers without sacrificing large areas. In comparison with thermal beams, slow atoms offer better matching of the initial beam velocity and the velocity with which the matter waves separate. In our case, the area is spanned by a cold atomic beam of 2.79 m s -1 , which is split, deflected and combined by driving a Raman transition between the two hyperfine ground states of 87 Rb in three spatially separated light zones. The use of cold atoms requires a precise angular alignment and high wave front quality of the three independent light zones over the cloud envelope. We present a procedure for mutually aligning the beam splitters at the microradian level by making use of the atom interferometer itself in different configurations. With this method, we currently achieve a sensitivity of 6.1×10 -7 rad s -1 Hz -1/2 . (paper)

  8. Radiation resistance of electro-optic polymer-based modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Nichter, James E.; Nash, Fazio D.; Haas, Franz; Szep, Attila A.; Michalak, Richard J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Cook, Paul R.; McEwen, Tom A.; McKeon, Brian F.; Payson, Paul M.; Brost, George A.; Pirich, Andrew R.; Castaneda, Carlos; Tsap, Boris; Fetterman, Harold R.

    2005-01-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometric electro-optic polymer modulators composed of highly nonlinear phenyltetraene bridge-type chromophores within an amorphous polycarbonate host matrix were investigated for their resistance to gamma rays and 25.6 MeV protons. No device failures were observed and the majority of irradiated modulators exhibited decreases in half-wave voltage and optical insertion losses compared to nonirradiated control samples undergoing aging processes. Irradiated device responses were attributed to scission, cross-linking, and free volume processes. The data suggests that strongly poled devices are less likely to de-pole under the influence of ionizing radiation

  9. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  10. Optical logic gates based on electro-optic modulation with Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiliang; Zhu, Mengyun; Li, Dongqiang; Zhang, Zhen; Wei, Yizhen; Hu, Miao; Zhou, Xuefang; Tang, Xianghong

    2014-07-20

    In this work, we present a new structure to realize optical logic operation in a Sagnac interferometer with electro-optical modulation. In the scheme, we divide two counterpropagation signals in a Sagnac loop to two different arms with the electro-optical crystal by using two circulators. Lithium niobate materials whose electro-optical coefficient can be as large as 32.2×10(-12)  m/V make up the arms of the waveguides. Using the transfer matrix of the fiber coupler, we analyze the propagation of signals in this system and obtain the transmission characteristic curves and the extinction ratio. The results indicate that this optical switching has a high extinction ratio of about 60 dB and an ultrafast response time of 2.036 ns. In addition, the results reveal that the change of the dephasing between the two input signals and the modification of the modulation voltage added to the electro-optical crystal leads to the change of the extinction ratio. We also conclude that, in cases of the dephasing of two initial input signals Δφ=0, we can obtain the various logical operations, such as the logical operations D=A¯·B, D=A·B¯, C=A+B, and D=A⊕B in ports C and D of the system by adjusting the modulation voltage. When Δφ≠0, we obtain the arithmetic operations D=A+B, C=A⊕B, D=A·B¯, and C=A¯·B in ports C and D. This study is significant for the design of all optical networks by adjusting the modulation voltage.

  11. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested.

  12. Digital holographic amplification of interferograms in the Michelson interferometer using the phase-only LCOS modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekin, Nikolay; Petrov, Nikolay; Pul'kin, Sergey; Shoev, Vladislav; Sevryugin, Alexander; Tursunov, Ibrohim; Venediktov, Dmitrii; Venediktov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The method of amplification of hologram was applied to the so-called Rozhdestvenskiy hooks, that were obtained in the Rozhdestvenskiy interferometer (Michelson interferometer, combined with a grating spectrograph). In such a device the absorption lines reveal themselves as specific "hooks", whose curvature provides the information about the atomic oscillator force. The holographic amplification "smoothes" the hooks and thus makes their analysis much simpler.

  13. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled.

  14. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia 30460-8031 (United States); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Insitute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  15. Optical vector network analyzer based on double-sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Wen; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chengwu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ning Hua; Guo, Jinjin; Xiong, Liangming; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We report an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on double-sideband (DSB) modulation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. The device under test (DUT) is measured twice with different modulation schemes. By post-processing the measurement results, the response of the DUT can be obtained accurately. Since DSB modulation is used in our approach, the measurement range is doubled compared with conventional single-sideband (SSB) modulation-based OVNA. Moreover, the measurement accuracy is improved by eliminating the even-order sidebands. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is that the measurement of a DUT with bandpass response can also be simply realized, which is a big challenge for the SSB-based OVNA. The proposed method is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM. When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm–30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm–6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333–1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution, when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10−5 RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  17. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  18. Atomic interferometry: construction, characterisation and optimisation of an interferometer. Application to precision measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes my research activity in atom interferometry. As an introduction to this domain, we have first described some atom interferometers and their applications. We then describe the atom interferometer we have developed in Toulouse. This is a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer; the atom source is a thermal supersonic lithium beam and atom manipulation is based on laser diffraction in the Bragg regime. This two interferometer arms are spatially separated, with a maximum distance near 100 μm. The interferometer performances are excellent, with a fringe visibility as large as 84.5 % and a high output flux, thus providing a phase sensitivity of 15 mrad √(Hz). We have used this interferometer for several experiments, with a perturbation applied on only one interferometer arm. When the perturbation is an electric field, we thus measure the electric polarizability of lithium, with an uncertainty 3 times smaller than the best previous measurement. When the perturbation is a gas at low density, we measure the complex refraction index of this gas for lithium atomic waves. If the perturbation is a nano-grating, we measure the complex amplitude of the diffraction zeroth order and this amplitude is very sensitive to the van der Waals interaction of the lithium atom with the nano-grating surface. An important part of this manuscript concerns further developments of our activity. We discuss several improvements of the measurement of the electric polarizability of lithium atom and we hope to access to a precision comparable to the one of the best ab initio calculations of this quantity. We plan to detect a new topological phase, predicted by theory in 1993 but never observed. Finally, we are starting the construction of a second generation atom interferometer, with a slow and intense lithium beam. This new source will give a larger signal and a longer interaction time, thus enabling the detection of considerably weaker perturbations: a fascinating possibility

  19. Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform shaping based on cascaded optical modulators of single FBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Li, Peili

    2015-08-10

    A dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation (O-AWG) with amplitude and phase independently controlled in optical modulators of single fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been proposed. This novel scheme consists of several optical modulators. In the optical modulator (O-MOD), a uniform FBG is used to filter spectral component of the input signal. The amplitude is controlled by fiber stretcher (FS) in Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) structure through interference of two MZI arms. The phase is manipulated via the second FS in the optical modulator. This scheme is investigated by simulation. Consequently, optical pulse trains with different waveforms as well as pulse trains with nonuniform pulse intensity, pulse spacing and pulse width within each period are obtained through FSs adjustment to alter the phase shifts of signal in each O-MOD.

  20. Linearity optimizations of analog ring resonator modulators through bias voltage adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2018-03-01

    The linearity of ring resonator modulator (RRM) in microwave photonic links is studied in terms of instantaneous bandwidth, fabrication tolerances, and operational bandwidth. A proposed bias voltage adjustment method is shown to maximize spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) at instantaneous bandwidths required by microwave photonic link (MPL) applications while also mitigating RRM fabrication tolerances effects. The proposed bias voltage adjustment method shows RRM SFDR improvement of ∼5.8 dB versus common Mach-Zehnder modulators at 500 MHz instantaneous bandwidth. Analyzing operational bandwidth effects on SFDR shows RRMs can be promising electro-optic modulators for MPL applications which require high operational frequencies while in a limited bandwidth such as radio-over-fiber 60 GHz wireless network access.

  1. Cascade photonic integrated circuit architecture for electro-optic in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation or frequency conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    A photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing frequency upconversion is proposed. The circuit consists of a 1×2 splitter and 2×1 combiner interconnected by two stages of differentially driven phase modulators having 2×2 multimode interference coupler between the stages. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of the proposed design is improved by 6 dB over the alternative functionally equivalent circuit based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators known in the prior art. A two-tone analysis is presented to study the linearity of the proposed circuit, and a comparison is provided over the alternative. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO(3), silicon, III-V, or hybrid technology.

  2. Robust integration schemes for junction-based modulators in a 200mm CMOS compatible silicon photonic platform (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Bertrand; Abraham, Alexis; Brision, Stéphane; Gindre, Paul; Blampey, Benjamin; Myko, André; Olivier, Segolene; Kopp, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonic is becoming a reality for next generation communication system addressing the increasing needs of HPC (High Performance Computing) systems and datacenters. CMOS compatible photonic platforms are developed in many foundries integrating passive and active devices. The use of existing and qualified microelectronics process guarantees cost efficient and mature photonic technologies. Meanwhile, photonic devices have their own fabrication constraints, not similar to those of cmos devices, which can affect their performances. In this paper, we are addressing the integration of PN junction Mach Zehnder modulator in a 200mm CMOS compatible photonic platform. Implantation based device characteristics are impacted by many process variations among which screening layer thickness, dopant diffusion, implantation mask overlay. CMOS devices are generally quite robust with respect to these processes thanks to dedicated design rules. For photonic devices, the situation is different since, most of the time, doped areas must be carefully located within waveguides and CMOS solutions like self-alignment to the gate cannot be applied. In this work, we present different robust integration solutions for junction-based modulators. A simulation setup has been built in order to optimize of the process conditions. It consist in a Mathlab interface coupling process and device electro-optic simulators in order to run many iterations. Illustrations of modulator characteristic variations with process parameters are done using this simulation setup. Parameters under study are, for instance, X and Y direction lithography shifts, screening oxide and slab thicknesses. A robust process and design approach leading to a pn junction Mach Zehnder modulator insensitive to lithography misalignment is then proposed. Simulation results are compared with experimental datas. Indeed, various modulators have been fabricated with different process conditions and integration schemes. Extensive

  3. Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The Michelson Interferometer is a device used in many applications, but here it was used to measure small differences in distance, in the milli-inch range, specifically for defects in the Orbiter windows. In this paper, the method of using the Michelson Interferometer for measuring small distances is explained as well as the mathematics of the system. The coherence length of several light sources was calculated in order to see just how small a defect could be measured. Since white light is a very broadband source, its coherence length is very short and thus can be used to measure small defects in glass. After finding the front and back reflections from a very thin glass slide with ease and calculating the thickness of it very accurately, it was concluded that this system could find and measure small defects on the Orbiter windows. This report also discusses a failed attempt for another use of this technology as well as describes an area of promise for further analysis. The latter of these areas has applications for finding possible defects in Orbiter windows without moving parts.

  4. High-Speed Chaos in an Optical Feedback System with Flexible Timescales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blakely, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new optoelectronic device with timedelayed feedback that uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as passive nonlinearity and a semiconductor laser as a current-to-optical frequency converter...

  5. Ultra-high vacuum qualification of the prototype module for the 2*3 km arms of the VIRGO interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brisson, V; Lissilour, G; Marin, P; Reboux, A; Bernardini, B; Pasqualetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The prototype for the series production of the 400 modules to be built by CNIM is first briefly described after the surface cleaning and 400 degrees C air firing. The systems for the 160 degrees C bake out, the pumping and measuring bench installed in the CNIM premises are then presented. The results on leak tightness, hydrogen outgassing and residual hydrocarbon contamination are reported and compared to the 20 degrees C VIRGO specifications. An additional test on hydrogen diffusion at 400 degrees C performed at CERN on a stainless-steel sample is reported. Our measurement of the hydrogen outgassing rate is discussed in relation with this test and also with regard to the oxide layer resulting from the air firing. (5 refs).

  6. Special relativity and interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation of gravitational wave detectors is expected to be based on interferometers. Yurke et al. (1986) introduced a class of interferometers characterized by SU(1,1) which can in principle achieve a phase sensitivity approaching 1/N, where N is thte total number of photons entering the interferometer. It is shown here that the SU(1,1) interferometer can serve as an analog computer for Wigner's little group of the Poincare\\'| group.

  7. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  8. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R.; Krishna Mohan, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  9. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  10. A high-speed tunable beam splitter for feed-forward photonic quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Tetik, Nuray; Qarry, Angie; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-11-07

    We realize quantum gates for path qubits with a high-speed, polarization-independent and tunable beam splitter. Two electro-optical modulators act in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as high-speed phase shifters and rapidly tune its splitting ratio. We test its performance with heralded single photons, observing a polarization-independent interference contrast above 95%. The switching time is about 5.6 ns, and a maximal repetition rate is 2.5 MHz. We demonstrate tunable feed-forward operations of a single-qubit gate of path-encoded qubits and a two-qubit gate via measurement-induced interaction between two photons.

  11. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory

  12. Special topics in infrared interferometry. [Michelson interferometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  13. Stable fiber interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlov, G.N.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Ozolin, V.V.; Grigor'yants, V.V.; Chamorovskij, Yu.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of construction the long-base Michelson interferometer for gravitational wave detection is discussed. Possible sources of noise and instability are considered. It is shown that evacuation of fiber interferometer, the winding of its arms on the glass ceramic bases, stabilization of radiation source frequency and seismic isolation of the base allow one to reduce its instability to the level, typical of mirror interferometer with the comparable optical base. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    1999-01-01

    Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  15. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators.

  16. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  17. Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, Lucky; Rupanshi,; Chaubey, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.

  18. Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharan, Lucky, E-mail: luckysharan@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Rupanshi,, E-mail: f2011222@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Chaubey, V. K., E-mail: vkc@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [EEE Department, BITS-Pilani, Rajasthan, 333031 (India)

    2016-03-09

    This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.

  19. Self-calibrating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussmeier, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A self-calibrating interferometer is disclosed which forms therein a pair of Michelson interferometers with one beam length of each Michelson interferometer being controlled by a common phase shifter. The transfer function measured from the phase shifter to either of a pair of detectors is sinusoidal with a full cycle for each half wavelength of phase shifter travel. The phase difference between these two sinusoidal detector outputs represents the optical phase difference between a path of known distance and a path of unknown distance

  20. Receiver sensitivity improvement in spectrally-efficient guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM using an optical IQ modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Peng, Miao; Zhou, Hui; Zheng, Zhiwei; Tang, Xionggui; Maivan, Lap

    2017-12-01

    To further improve receiver sensitivity of spectrally-efficient guard-band direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) with twin single-side-band (SSB) modulation technique, an optical IQ modulator (IQM) is employed to optimize optical carrier-to-signal power ratio (CSPR). The CSPRs for the guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM signal generated by using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) and optical IQM are theoretically analyzed and supported by simulations. The optimal CSPR for the two types of guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM are identified. The simulations exhibit that the error vector magnitude (EVM) performance of the IQM-enabled guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM is improved by more than 4-dB compared to that of the twin-SSB-OFDM enabled by DD-MZM after 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. In addition, more than 3-dB and 10 dB receiver sensitivity improvements in terms of received optical power (ROP) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) are also achieved, respectively.

  1. Fizeau plasma interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique by which the sensitivity of plasma interferometers can be increased. Stabilization and fractional fringe measurement techniques have improved to the point where additional optical sensitivity could be useful

  2. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    2000-01-01

    Long-term research objective: Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  3. Michelson and His Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a brief historical account of Michelson's invention of his interferometer with some subsequent ingenious applications of its capabilities for precise measurement discussed in details, including the experiment on detrmination of the diameters for heavenly bodies. (CC)

  4. Silicon Photonics towards Disaggregation of Resources in Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Moralis-Pegios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate two subsystems based on Silicon Photonics, towards meeting the network requirements imposed by disaggregation of resources in Data Centers. The first one utilizes a 4 × 4 Silicon photonics switching matrix, employing Mach Zehnder Interferometers (MZIs with Electro-Optical phase shifters, directly controlled by a high speed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA board for the successful implementation of a Bloom-Filter (BF-label forwarding scheme. The FPGA is responsible for extracting the BF-label from the incoming optical packets, carrying out the BF-based forwarding function, determining the appropriate switching state and generating the corresponding control signals towards conveying incoming packets to the desired output port of the matrix. The BF-label based packet forwarding scheme allows rapid reconfiguration of the optical switch, while at the same time reduces the memory requirements of the node’s lookup table. Successful operation for 10 Gb/s data packets is reported for a 1 × 4 routing layout. The second subsystem utilizes three integrated spiral waveguides, with record-high 2.6 ns/mm2, delay versus footprint efficiency, along with two Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI wavelength converters, to construct a variable optical buffer and a Time Slot Interchange module. Error-free on-chip variable delay buffering from 6.5 ns up to 17.2 ns and successful timeslot interchanging for 10 Gb/s optical packets are presented.

  5. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  6. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  7. 2-mm microwave interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H.; Mortensen, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    A 2-mm microwave interferometer has been developed, and phase shift measurements have been made on the Baseball II experiment. The interferometer system employs a 140-GHz receiver for double down conversion of the plasma signal to a 60-MHz, IF frequency. The 140-GHz references signal is also down-converted and compared with the plasma signal to provide the desired phase change of the signal passing through the plasma. A feedback voltage from a 60-MHz discriminator to a voltage-controlled oscillator in the receiver provides frequency stability of the 60-MHz IF signals

  8. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  9. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  10. A study of microwave interferometers for electron density measurements in REB-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.C.; Paithankar, A.S.; Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to select a suitable microwave interferometer for electron density measurements in Relativistic Electron Beam (REB)-Plasma Experiments, a study has been carried out of four types of interferometers, viz. simple interferometer, standing-wave interferometer, frequency and phase modulated interferometers. Various direct reading interferometers which give a voltage proportional to the phase shift, are also discussed. Systems have been analysed in terms of time resolution, phase sensitivity, system stability, ease of measurement etc. Theoretical and experimental limitations of various systems have been indicated. Summary of the various systems is presented in a table to aid the experimentalist to select the most appropriate system for the prevailina experimental conditions. Finally, an attempt has been made to find out the interferometer system best suited for REB-Plasma Experiments. (author)

  11. Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....

  12. Proposal for an Interference Experiment to Test the Applicability of Quantum Theory to Event-Based Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Kristel; Lippert, Thomas; Richter, Marcus; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji; De Raedt, Hans

    We analyze a single-particle Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiment in which the path length of one arm may change (randomly or systematically) according to the value of an external two-valued variable x, for each passage of a particle through the interferometer. Quantum theory predicts an

  13. Experimental implementation of phase locking in a nonlinear interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong; Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Marino, A. M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Based upon two cascade four-wave mixing processes in two identical hot rubidium vapor cells, a nonlinear interferometer has been experimentally realized [Jing et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011); Hudelist et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3049 (2014)]. It has a higher degree of phase sensitivity than a traditional linear interferometer and has many potential applications in quantum metrology. Phase locking of the nonlinear interferometer is needed before it can find its way into applications. In this letter, we investigate the experimental implementation of phase locking of the relative phase between the three beams at different frequencies involved in such a nonlinear interferometer. We have utilized two different methods, namely, beat note locking and coherent modulation locking. We find that coherent modulation locking can achieve much better phase stability than beat note locking in our system. Our results pave the way for real applications of a nonlinear interferometer in precision measurement and quantum manipulation, for example, phase control in phase-sensitive N-wave mixing process, N-port nonlinear interferometer and quantum-enhanced real-time phase tracking.

  14. Direct-reading type microwave interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kiyokata; Fujita, Junji; Ogata, Atsushi; Haba, Kiichiro.

    1977-10-01

    A new microwave interferometer has been developed and applied to the electron density measurement on JIPP T-II plasma device. The interferometer generates an output voltage proportional to the number of fringe shifts and also output pulses which indicate the change of electron density for the convenience of data processing, where the resolution is a quarter of fringe shift. The principle is based on the digitization of fringe shifts utilizing the phase detection of microwave signals with two-level modulation of source frequency. With this system and 70 GHz microwave source, a change of electron density as rapid as about 2 x 10 13 cm -3 in 1 ms has been measured at the tokamak operation of JIPP T-II. (auth.)

  15. Sagnac Interferometer Based Generation of Controllable Cylindrical Vector Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel experimental geometry to generate cylindrical vector beams in a very robust manner. Continuous control of beams’ properties is obtained using an optically addressable spatial light modulator incorporated into a Sagnac interferometer. Forked computer-generated holograms allow introducing different topological charges while orthogonally polarized beams within the interferometer permit encoding the spatial distribution of polarization. We also demonstrate the generation of complex waveforms obtained by combining two orthogonal beams having both radial modulations and azimuthal dislocations.

  16. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  17. Combined shearing interferometer and hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchin, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive wavefront sensor combining attributes of both a Hartmann type of wavefront sensor and an AC shearing interferometer type of wavefront sensor. An incident wavefront, the slope of which is to be detected, is focussed to first and second focal points at which first and second diffraction gratings are positioned to shear and modulate the wavefront, which then diverges therefrom. The diffraction patterns of the first and second gratings are positioned substantially orthogonal to each other to shear the wavefront in two directions to produce two dimensional wavefront slope data for the AC shearing interferometer portion of the wavefront sensor. First and second dividing optical systems are positioned in the two diverging wavefronts to divide the sheared wavefront into an array of subapertures and also to focus the wavefront in each subaperture to a focal point. A quadrant detector is provided for each subaperture to detect the position of the focal point therein, which provides a first indication, in the manner of a Hartmann wavefront sensor, of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture. The total radiation in each subaperture, as modulated by the diffraction grating, is also detected by the quadrant detector which produces a modulated output signal representative thereof, the phase of which relative to modulation by the diffraction grating provides a second indication of the local wavefront slope in each subaperture, in the manner of an AC shearing interferometer wavefront sensor. The data from both types of sensors is then combined by long term averaging thereof to provide an extremely sensitive wavefront sensor

  18. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  19. On the feasibility of self-mixing interferometer sensing for detection of the surface electrocardiographic signal using a customized electro-optic phase modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A Ashrif A; Lim, Yah Leng; Wilson, Stephen J; Fuentes, Miguel; Bertling, Karl; Taimre, Thomas; Rakić, Aleksandar D; Bosch, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Optical sensing offers an attractive option for detection of surface biopotentials in human subjects where electromagnetically noisy environments exist or safety requirements dictate a high degree of galvanic isolation. Such circumstances may be found in modern magnetic resonance imaging systems for example. The low signal amplitude and high source impedance of typical biopotentials have made optical transduction an uncommon sensing approach. We propose a solution consisting of an electro-optic phase modulator as a transducer, coupled to a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and the self-mixing signal detected via a photodiode. This configuration is physically evaluated with respect to synthesized surface electrocardiographic (EKG) signals of varying amplitudes and using differing optical feedback regimes. Optically detected EKG signals using strong optical feedback show the feasibility of this approach and indicate directions for optimization of the electro-optic transducer for improved signal-to-noise ratios. This may provide a new means of biopotential detection suited for environments characterized by harsh electromagnetic interference. (paper)

  20. Development of a suspended-mass RSE interferometer using third harmonic demodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Miyakawa, O; Heinzel, G; Kawamura, S

    2002-01-01

    The most important point of a resonant sideband extraction (RSE) experiment is the signal extraction for control of the interferometer. We proposed a new signal-sensing method for the single modulation scheme. This method uses the third harmonic demodulation (THD) with a particular asymmetry in the interferometer which makes the third-order sidebands vanish at the detecting port. We have successfully locked a suspended-mass RSE interferometer for the first time by the THD method. The transfer function of the interferometer was measured to confirm the RSE effect.

  1. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  2. Development of a suspended-mass RSE interferometer using third harmonic demodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Osamu; Somiya, Kentaro; Heinzel, Gerhard; Kawamura, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    The most important point of a resonant sideband extraction (RSE) experiment is the signal extraction for control of the interferometer. We proposed a new signal-sensing method for the single modulation scheme. This method uses the third harmonic demodulation (THD) with a particular asymmetry in the interferometer which makes the third-order sidebands vanish at the detecting port. We have successfully locked a suspended-mass RSE interferometer for the first time by the THD method. The transfer function of the interferometer was measured to confirm the RSE effect

  3. AMI: Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components. We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In particular, we focus on one of the most popular optical experiments: the Michelson interferometer. In our approach, we target a highly interactive system where students are able to interact in real time with the Augmented Michelson Interferometer (AMI) to observe, test hypotheses and then to enhance their comprehension. Compared to a fully digital simulation, we are investigating an approach that benefits from both physical and virtual elements, and where the students experiment by manipulating 3D-printed physical replicas of optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors). Our objective is twofold. First, we want to ensure that the students will learn with our simulator the same concepts and skills that they learn with traditional methods. Second, we hypothesis that such a system opens new opportunities to teach optics in a way that was not possible before, by manipulating concepts beyond the limits of observable physical phenomena. To reach this goal, we have built a complementary team composed of experts in the field of optics, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, sensors and actuators, and education science.

  4. An absolute distance interferometer with two external cavity diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L; Meiners-Hagen, K; Abou-Zeid, A

    2008-01-01

    An absolute interferometer for length measurements in the range of several metres has been developed. The use of two external cavity diode lasers allows the implementation of a two-step procedure which combines the length measurement with a variable synthetic wavelength and its interpolation with a fixed synthetic wavelength. This synthetic wavelength is obtained at ≈42 µm by a modulation-free stabilization of both lasers to Doppler-reduced rubidium absorption lines. A stable reference interferometer is used as length standard. Different contributions to the total measurement uncertainty are discussed. It is shown that the measurement uncertainty can considerably be reduced by correcting the influence of vibrations on the measurement result and by applying linear regression to the quadrature signals of the absolute interferometer and the reference interferometer. The comparison of the absolute interferometer with a counting interferometer for distances up to 2 m results in a linearity error of 0.4 µm in good agreement with an estimation of the measurement uncertainty

  5. Guided magnonic Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad H; Jeske, Jan; Greentree, Andrew D

    2017-01-30

    Magnonics is an emerging field with potential applications in classical and quantum information processing. Freely propagating magnons in two-dimensional media are subject to dispersion, which limits their effective range and utility as information carriers. We show the design of a confining magnonic waveguide created by two surface current carrying wires placed above a spin-sheet, which can be used as a primitive for reconfigurable magnonic circuitry. We theoretically demonstrate the ability of such guides to counter the transverse dispersion of the magnon in a spin-sheet, thus extending the range of the magnon. A design of a magnonic directional coupler and controllable Michelson interferometer is shown, demonstrating its utility for information processing tasks.

  6. Design and Performance Investigation for the Optical Combinational Networks at High Data Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Devendra Kr.

    2017-05-01

    This article explores performance study for optical combinational designs based on nonlinear characteristics with semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Two configurations for optical half-adder with non-return-to-zero modulation pattern altogether with Mach-Zehnder modulator, interferometer at 50-Gbps data rate have been successfully realized. Accordingly, SUM and CARRY outputs have been concurrently executed and verified for their output waveforms. Numerical simulations for variation of data rate and key design parameters have been effectively executed outcome with optimum performance. Investigations depict overall good performance of the design in terms of the extinction factor. It also inferred that all-optical realization based on SOA is competent scheme, as it circumvents costly optoelectronic translation. This could be well supportive to erect larger complex optical combinational circuits.

  7. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  8. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  9. An active interferometer-stabilization scheme with linear phase control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Krishnamachari, v v; Potma, E O

    2006-01-01

    We report a simple and robust computer-based active interferometer stabilization scheme which does not require modulation of the interfering beams and relies on an error signal which is linearly related to the optical path difference. In this setup, a non-collinearly propagating reference laser...... beam stabilizes the interference output of the laser light propagating collinearly through the interferometer. This stabilization scheme enables adjustable phase control with 20 ms switching times in the range from 0.02π radians to 6π radians at 632.8 nm....

  10. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; wang, Anmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displa...

  11. Michelson Interferometer (MINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew; Carlson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    MINT is a Michelson interferometer designed to measure the thermal emission from the earth at high spectral resolution (2/cm) over a broad spectral range (250-1700/cm, 6-40 mu m) with contiguous 3-pixel wide (12 mrad, 8 km field of view) along-track sampling. MINT is particularly well suited for monitoring cloud properties (cloud cover, effective temperature, optical thickness, ice/water phase, and effective particle size) both day and night, as well as tropospheric water vapor, ozone, and temperature. The key instrument characteristics that make MINT ideally suited for decadal monitoring purposes are: high wavelength to wavelength precision across the full IR spectrum with high spectral resolution; space-proven long-term durability and calibration stability; and small size, low cost, low risk instrument incorporating the latest detector and electronics technology. MINT also incorporates simplicity in design and operation by utilizing passively cooled DTGS detectors and nadir viewing geometry (with target motion compensation). MINT measurement objectives, instrument characteristics, and key advantages are summarized in this paper.

  12. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  13. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment with photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable

  14. All-optical Data Vortex node using an MZI-SOA switch array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H.D.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new structure of a Data Vortex switch node for all-optical routing of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) 10-Gb/s optical packets. The proposed node consists of two Mach-Zehnder interferometers with integrated semiconductor optical amplifier: an optical AND gate...

  15. Ultra-Compact linear chirped microwave signal generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Zhou, Feng; Dong, Jianji

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept to generate linear chirped microwave signal is proposed and experimentally verified. The frequency to time mapping method is used while the Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the photonic crystal waveguide is employed as the key device with its significant advantages of the ultra...

  16. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  17. Fiber-optics implementation of an asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Fiurášek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 12 (2007), 120505/1-120505/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : asymmetric phase-covariant cloner * Mach-Zehnder interferometer * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 6.944, year: 2007

  18. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  19. Pinch density measurements in compact plasma foci of 400J and 50J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser (600 mJ, 532 nm, 8 ns) was implemented to measure the electron density and the dimensions of the pinch column in two sub-kJ compact plasma focus devices operating at hundred joules (PF-400J) and tens of joules (PF-50J).

  20. Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, A. L.; Steenbergen, W.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; de Mul, F. F. M.

    2002-01-01

    A low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer is developed for path length resolved dynamic light scattering in highly turbid media. The path length distribution of multiply scattered photons in Intralipid is changed by the addition of absorbing dyes. Path length distributions obtained for various

  1. Multi-format all-optical processing based on a large-scale, hybridly integrated photonic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougioukos, M; Kouloumentas, Ch; Spyropoulou, M; Giannoulis, G; Kalavrouziotis, D; Maziotis, A; Bakopoulos, P; Harmon, R; Rogers, D; Harrison, J; Poustie, A; Maxwell, G; Avramopoulos, H

    2011-06-06

    We investigate through numerical studies and experiments the performance of a large scale, silica-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit for multi-format regeneration and wavelength-conversion. The circuit encompasses a monolithically integrated array of four SOAs inside two parallel Mach-Zehnder structures, four delay interferometers and a large number of silica waveguides and couplers. Exploiting phase-incoherent techniques, the circuit is capable of processing OOK signals at variable bit rates, DPSK signals at 22 or 44 Gb/s and DQPSK signals at 44 Gbaud. Simulation studies reveal the wavelength-conversion potential of the circuit with enhanced regenerative capabilities for OOK and DPSK modulation formats and acceptable quality degradation for DQPSK format. Regeneration of 22 Gb/s OOK signals with amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and DPSK data signals degraded with amplitude, phase and ASE noise is experimentally validated demonstrating a power penalty improvement up to 1.5 dB.

  2. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized......This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... investigated. Comparisons are made with the numerical and experimental results, and they validate the obtained response of the acoustic and photonic components of the device. Finally, a new design for an optical frequency shifter is proposed, posing several advantages over existing devices in terms of size...

  3. Microscopic optical path length difference and polarization measurement system for cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.

  4. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-09-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displaying Kerr nonlinearity. We obtain the analytical equations and numerically calculate the precision with parameters within the reach of current technology, proving that the precision of temperature can be greatly enhanced by using a nonlinear medium. Our results show that one can create an accurate thermometer by measuring the photons in the Michelson interferometer, with no need to directly measure the population of thermalized sample.

  5. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  6. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S

    2006-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  7. Liquid-helium-cooled Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augason, G. C.; Young, N.

    1972-01-01

    Interferometer serves as a rocket-flight spectrometer for examination of the far infrared emission spectra of astronomical objects. The double beam interferometer is readily adapted to make spectral scans and for use as a detector of discrete line emissions.

  8. Integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on poled hollow twin-core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Bo, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Fengjun; Yuan, Libo

    2011-07-01

    We propose an integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on a poled hollow twin-core fiber. The Michelson interferometer can be used as an electro-optic modulator by thermal poling one core of the twin-core fiber and introducing second-order nonlinearity in the fiber. The proposed fiber Michelson interferometer is experimentally demonstrated under driving voltages at the frequency range of 149 to 1000 Hz. The half-wave voltage of the poled fiber is 135 V, and the effective second-order nonlinear coefficient χ² is 1.23 pm/V.

  9. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  10. Laser interferometer array for Big Dee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    A twelve channel interferometer array is planned for obtaining electron density profiles on Big Dee. Three of the channels are vertical; the remainder are radial or diagonal in an azimuthal plane. Each channel consists of coaxial CO/sub 2/ and HeNe laser beams. The reference beam is formed by splitting off half of the laser power at each wavelength by using acousto-optic modulators which introduce a 40 MHz frequency shift in the reference beam. In the radial channels the probe beam passes through a barium fluoride window to a plane metal mirror on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel. The reflected beam passes back out of the vacuum vessel, through the same window, to a beam splitter where the probe beam and the reference beam are again combined

  11. Experiments on the Porch Swing Bearing of Michelson Interferometer for Low Resolution FTIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Välikylä; Jyrki Kauppinen

    2013-01-01

    Porch swing bearing for the linear motion of the mirror in Michelson interferometer for mid-infrared low resolution Fourier transform spectrometer was studied experimentally using the modulation depth of the collimated laser beam. The mirror tilting was measured to be lower than 5 μrad over 3 mm mirror travel using two different bearings assemblies. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances of the bearing type were proved to be loose enough not to limit the interferometer application. These ...

  12. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  13. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  14. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  15. A differential Michelson interferometer with orthogonal single frequency laser for nanometer displacement measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A novel differential Michelson laser interferometer is proposed to eliminate the influence of environmental fluctuations for nanometer displacement measurement. This differential interferometer consists of two homodyne interferometers in which two orthogonal single frequency beams share common reference arm and partial measurement arm. By modulating the displacement of the common reference arm with a piezoelectric transducer, the common-mode displacement drift resulting from the environmental disturbances can be well suppressed and the measured displacement as differential-mode displacement signal is achieved. In addition, a phase difference compensation method is proposed for accurately determining the phase difference between interference signals by correcting the time interval according to the average speed in one cycle of interference signal. The nanometer displacement measurement experiments were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed interferometer and show that precision displacement measurement with standard deviation less than 1 nm has been achieved. (paper)

  16. Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying

    2017-10-01

    By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.

  17. Crosstalk Cancellation for a Simultaneous Phase Shifting Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of minimizing fringe print-through in a phase-shifting interferometer, includes the steps of: (a) determining multiple transfer functions of pixels in the phase-shifting interferometer; (b) computing a crosstalk term for each transfer function; and (c) displaying, to a user, a phase-difference map using the crosstalk terms computed in step (b). Determining a transfer function in step (a) includes measuring intensities of a reference beam and a test beam at the pixels, and measuring an optical path difference between the reference beam and the test beam at the pixels. Computing crosstalk terms in step (b) includes computing an N-dimensional vector, where N corresponds to the number of transfer functions, and the N-dimensional vector is obtained by minimizing a variance of a modulation function in phase shifted images.

  18. Optical configurations for the Virgo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hello, P.

    1993-01-01

    We present, in this paper, the potential optical configurations for the VIRGO interferometer, as well as for other similar antennas (LIGO...), and the implications for its sensitivity for the detection of gravitational waves (GW's). The dual recycling arrangement may particularly relax the severe optical specifications required in a power recycling interferometer. Finally, a new idea to improve the symmetry of the interferometer is presented. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs

  19. Handheld ESPI-speckle interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Hansen, René

    2003-01-01

    . The interferometer presented here is a compact version of the set-up, Which is capable of measuring displacements of small objects, having either a specularly reflecting-or a diffusely scattering surface. The small optical set-up together with the use of the popular USB-communication for acquiring the images...... and controlling the phase of the reference wave constitutes a compact "handheld" instrument and eliminates the need for installing extra hardware, such as frame grabber and Digital to Analog converter, in the host computer....

  20. Step index fibre using laser interferometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-04

    Mar 4, 2014 ... We propose the following model to describe the cladded fibre placed inside a liquid wedge interferometer. For simplicity, we assume square interferometer plates of dimensions 2a,. 2b and refractive index μL. The fibre radius is rf and the core radius is rc with skin and core indices μs, μc respectively. Hence ...

  1. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  2. A Michelson interferometer for ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.; Steinhauser, K.A.; Berger, L.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a neutron Michelson Interferometer installed within a focussing 'gravity diffractometer' for ultracold neutrons. In this arrangement the expected interference pattern depends only on the well-defined vertical component of neutron wavevector. Possible applications of such an interferometer are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  4. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  5. Analysis of second order harmonic distortion due to transmitter non-linearity and chromatic and modal dispersion of optical OFDM SSB modulated signals in SMF-MMF fiber links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-01-01

    Single mode fibers (SMF) are typically used in Wide Area Networks (WAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) and also find applications in Radio over Fiber (RoF) architectures supporting data transmission in Fiber to the Home (FTTH), Remote Antenna Units (RAUs), in-building networks etc. Multi-mode fibers (MMFs) with low cost, ease of installation and low maintenance are predominantly (85-90%) deployed in-building networks providing data access in local area networks (LANs). The transmission of millimeter wave signals through the SMF in WAN and MAN, along with the reuse of MMF in-building networks will not levy fiber reinstallation cost. The transmission of the millimeter waves experiences signal impairments due to the transmitter non-linearity and modal dispersion of the MMF. The MMF exhibiting large modal dispersion limits the bandwidth-length product of the fiber. The second and higher-order harmonics present in the optical signal fall within the system bandwidth. This causes degradation in the received signal and an unwanted radiation of power at the RAU. The power of these harmonics is proportional to the non-linearity of the transmitter and the modal dispersion of the MMF and should be maintained below the standard values as per the international norms. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for Second-order Harmonic Distortion (HD2) generated due to non-linearity of the transmitter and chromatic-modal dispersion of the SMF-MMF optic link. This is also verified using a software simulation. The model consists of a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) that generates two m-QAM OFDM Single Sideband (SSB) signals based on phase shift of the hybrid coupler (90° and 120°). Our results show that the SSB signal with 120° hybrid coupler has suppresses the higher-order harmonics and makes the system more robust against the HD2 in the SMF-MMF optic link.

  6. Three dimensional phase imaging using a scanning optical fiber interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walford, J.N.; Nugent, K.A.; Roberts, A.; Scholten, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative method for measuring phase in three dimensions using a scanning optical fiber interferometer is described. By exploiting phase modulation in the reference arm, this technique is insensitive to large variations in the intensity of the field being studied, and is therefore highly suitable for measurement of phase within spatially confined optical beams. It uses only a single detector, and is not reliant on lock-in electronics. The technique is applied to the measurement of the near field of a cleaved optical fiber and shown to produce results in good agreement with theory. (authors)

  7. Measurement of periodically varying ECE spectra using a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Talvard, M.

    1987-01-01

    In some tokamak experiments the ECE spectrum is periodically varying. If the modulation frequency is small enough (less than 10 Hz) the plasma can be considered as quasi-stationary during the typical scan time of most of the Michelson interferometers. It is possible to measure simply ECE spectra at different times of the oscillation. We present here a technique which allows to measure smaller fluctuations at larger frequencies. However the analysis requires a large number of periods of oscillation at constant frequency and a scanning mirror moving at constant velocity

  8. The LTP interferometer and phasemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, G; Wand, V; GarcIa, A; Jennrich, O; Braxmaier, C; Robertson, D; Middleton, K; Hoyland, D; Ruediger, A; Schilling, R; Johann, U; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP), to be launched by ESA in 2006/2007, is a technology demonstration mission in preparation for the LISA space-borne gravitational wave detector. A central part of the LTP is the optical metrology package (heterodyne interferometer with phasemeter) which monitors the distance between two test masses with a noise level of 10 pm Hz -1/2 between 3 mHz and 30 mHz. It has a dynamic range of >100 μm without any actuators for the pathlength. In addition to the longitudinal measurements, it provides alignment measurements with an expected noise level of -1/2 . While the basic design has been described previously by Heinzel et al (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 S153-61), this paper gives new details on the laser stabilization, the phasemeter and recent prototype results

  9. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  10. Pneumatic probe with laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements to upgrade the accuracy of Rotacon probes by a complete redesign of probe to include a Michelson interferometer to replace the existing long-range capacity transducer are described. This has resulted in a compact and interchangeable probe cartridge with a 3 μin. resolution and accuracy; the cartridge can be installed and replaced in the Rotacon gauge with the minimum of realignment, which should reduce our dependence on operator skill. In addition, the stylus contact force can be reduced to 750 mg for the contacting types, but an alternative feature, which we are still developing, will use a gas jet cushion in place of the stylus to provide a noncontacting version of the same basic probe cartridge. This device is very sensitive to external vibration effects because it is virtually frictionless

  11. Dispersion cancellation in a triple Laue interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The concept of dispersion cancellation has been established in light optics to improve the resolution of interferometric measurements on dispersive media. Odd order dispersion cancellation allows to measure phase shifts without defocusing the interferometer due to wave packet displacements, while even order dispersion cancellation allows to measure time lags without losing resolution due to wave packet spreading. We report that either type of dispersion cancellation can be realized very easily in a triple Laue interferometer. Such interferometers are Mach–Zehnder interferometers based on Bragg diffraction, and are commonly used for neutrons and x-rays. Although the first x-ray interferometer was built nearly five decades ago, the feature of dispersion cancellation hasn't been recognized so far because the concept was hardly known in the neutron and x-ray community. However, it explains right away the surprising decoupling of phase shift and spatial displacement that we have discovered recently in neutron interferometry (Lemmel and Wagh 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 033626). Furthermore, this article might inspire the light optics community to consider whether a triple Laue interferometer for laser light would be useful and feasible. We explain how dispersion cancellation works in neutron interferometry, and we describe the setup rigorously by solving the Schrödinger equation and by calculating the path integral. We point out, that the latter has to be evaluated with special care since in our setup the beam trajectory moves with respect to the crystal lattice of the interferometer. (paper)

  12. Study on talbot pattern for grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Oh, Oh Sung; Lee, Seung Wook [Dept. of School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Yul [Neutron Instrument Division, Korea Atomic Energy Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    One of properties which X-ray and Neutron can be applied nondestructive test is penetration into the object with interaction leads to decrease in intensity. X-ray interaction with the matter caused by electrons, Neutron caused by atoms. They share applications in nondestructive test area because of their similarities of interaction mechanism. Grating interferometer is the one of applications produces phase contrast image and dark field image. It is defined by Talbot interferometer and Talbot-Lau interferometer according to Talbot effect and Talbot-Lau effect respectively. Talbot interferometer works with coherence beam like X-ray, and Talbot-Lau has an effect with incoherence beam like Neutron. It is important to expect the interference in grating interferometer compared normal nondestructive system. In this paper, simulation works are conducted according to Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer in case of X-ray and Neutron. Variation of interference intensity with X-ray and Neutron based on wave theory is constructed and calculate elements consist the system. Additionally, Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer is simulated in different kinds of conditions.

  13. Comparative Sensitivities of Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Thorpe, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. Whether this potential advantage outweighs the additional complexity associated with including atom interferometers will require further study.

  14. Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Monolithic Interferometer Design and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, John M.; Englert, Christoph R.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Zastera, Vaz; Bach, Bernhard W.; Mende, Stephen B.

    2017-10-01

    The design and laboratory tests of the interferometers for the Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument which measures thermospheric wind and temperature for the NASA-sponsored Ionospheric Connection (ICON) Explorer mission are described. The monolithic interferometers use the Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) Spectroscopy technique for wind measurements and a multi-element photometer approach to measure thermospheric temperatures. The DASH technique and overall optical design of the MIGHTI instrument are described in an overview followed by details on the design, element fabrication, assembly, laboratory tests and thermal control of the interferometers that are the heart of MIGHTI.

  15. Double-grating interferometer with a one-to-one correspondence with a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yande; Sasaki, Osami; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2003-10-01

    We describe a double-grating interferometer that has a one-to-one correspondence with a Michelson interferometer. The half spatial periods of the gratings are equivalent to the wavelengths of the interferometer. The widths of the interference fringes can be changed easily. The intensity distribution of the interference pattern is independent of the wavelength of the light source used. The surface profile of an object can be measured because two interference beams can coincide precisely on the image plane of the object. The measuring range is much larger than that of a Michelson interferometer.

  16. Direct reading fast microwave interferometer for EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1984-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive 4-mm direct reading fast (rise time approx. 100 μs) microwave interferometer is described. The system is particularly useful for density measurements on the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) during pulsed operation

  17. Turbulence-Free Double-slit Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas A.; Shih, Yanhua

    2018-02-01

    Optical turbulence can be detrimental for optical observations. For instance, atmospheric turbulence may reduce the visibility or completely blur out the interference produced by an interferometer in open air. However, a simple two-photon interference theory based on Einstein's granularity picture of light makes a turbulence-free interferometer possible; i.e., any refraction index, length, or phase variations along the optical paths of the interferometer do not have any effect on its interference. Applying this mechanism, the reported experiment demonstrates a two-photon double-slit interference that is insensitive to atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence-free mechanism and especially the turbulence-free interferometer would be helpful in optical observations that require high sensitivity and stability such as for gravitational-wave detection.

  18. Improved double-pass michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interferometer design separates beams by offsetting centerlines of cat's-eye retroreflectors vertically rather than horizontally. Since beam splitter is insensitive to minimum-thickness condition in this geometry, relatively-low-cost, optically flat plate can be used.

  19. Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Joseph M; Peters, Nicholas A; Pooser, Raphael C

    2016-12-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing-conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  20. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the ene...

  1. Frequency locking of a field-widened Michelson interferometer based on optimal multi-harmonics heterodyning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Zhou, Yudi; Yang, Yongying; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yupeng; Shen, Yibing; Liu, Chong; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming

    2016-09-01

    A general resonant frequency locking scheme for a field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI), which is intended as a spectral discriminator in a high-spectral-resolution lidar, is proposed based on optimal multi-harmonics heterodyning. By transferring the energy of a reference laser to multi-harmonics of different orders generated by optimal electro-optic phase modulation, the heterodyne signal of these multi-harmonics through the FWMI can reveal the resonant frequency drift of the interferometer very sensitively within a large frequency range. This approach can overcome the locking difficulty induced by the low finesse of the FWMI, thus contributing to excellent locking accuracy and lock acquisition range without any constraint on the interferometer itself. The theoretical and experimental results are presented to verify the performance of this scheme.

  2. Control phase shift of spin-wave by spin-polarized current and its application in logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yulong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new ways to control the phase shift of propagating spin waves by applying a local spin-polarized current on ferromagnetic stripe. Micromagnetic simulation showed that a phase shift of about π can be obtained by designing appropriate width and number of pinned magnetic layers. The ways can be adopted in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer structure to fulfill logic NOT gates based on spin waves. - Highlights: • Spin-wave phase shift can be controlled by a local spin-polarized current. • Spin-wave phase shift increased with the increasing of current density. • Spin-wave phase shift can reach about 0.3π at a particular current density. • The ways can be used in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer to fulfill logic gates

  3. Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...... in effective refractive index introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer arms by the stresses from the surface acoustic wave is calculated. It is shown that the effective refractive index of the fundamental optical mode increases at a surface acoustic wave crest and decreases at a trough. The height...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by the time-harmonic wave equation for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using the stress-optical relation and the change...

  4. Non-interferometric determination of optical anisotropy in highly-oriented fibres using transport intensity equation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkar, T. Z. N.; El-Farahaty, K. A.; El-Bakary, M. A.; Raslan, M. I.; Omar, E. Z.; Hamza, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The optical setup of the transport intensity equation (TIE) technique is developed to be valid for measuring the optical properties of the highly-oriented anisotropic fibres. This development is based on the microstructure models of the highly-oriented anisotropic fibres and the principle of anisotropy. We provide the setup of TIE technique with polarizer which is controlled via stepper motor. This developed technique is used to investigate the refractive indices in the parallel and perpendicular polarization directions of light for the highly-oriented poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres and hence its birefringence. The obtained results through the developed TIE technique for PET fibre are compared with that determined experimentally using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer under the same conditions. The comparison shows a good agreement between the obtained results from the developed technique and that obtained from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique.

  5. Comparison of Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers as Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.

  6. ALISEO on MIOSat: an imaging interferometer for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, A.; Castagnoli, F.; Castellini, G.; Guzzi, D.; Marcoionni, P.; Pippi, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) decided to perform an low cost Earth observation mission based on a new mini satellite named MIOsat which will carry various technological payloads. Among them an imaging interferometer designed and now ready to be assembled and tested by our Institute. The instrument, named ALISEO (Aerospace Leap-frog Imaging Stationary interferometer for Earth Observation), operates in the common-path Sagnac configuration, and it does not utilize any moving part to scan the phase delays between the two interfering beams. The sensor acquires target images modulated by a pattern of autocorrelation functions of the energy coming from each scene pixel, and the resulting fringe pattern remains spatially fixed with respect to the instrument's field-of-view. The complete interferogram of each target location is retrieved by introducing a relative source-observer motion, which allows any image pixels to be observed under different viewing-angles and experience discrete path differences. The paper describes the main characteristics of the imaging interferometer as well as the overall optical configuration and the electronics layout. Moreover some theoretical issues concerning sampling theory in "common path" imaging interferometry are investigated. The experimental activity performed in laboratory is presented and its outcomes are analysed. Particularly, a set of measurements has been carried out using both standard (certificate) reflectance tiles and natural samples of different volcanic rocks. An algorithm for raw data pre-processing aimed at retrieving the at-sensor radiance spectrum is introduced and its performance is addressed by taking into account various issues such as dark signal subtraction, spectral instrument response compensation, effects of vignetting, and Fourier backtransform. Finally, examples of retrieved absolute reflectance of several samples are sketched at different wavelengths.

  7. Perfect crystal interferometer and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yuji [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-08-01

    The interferometry with angstrom scale wavelength has developed steadily, and various types of interferometers have been investigated. Among them, LLL interferometers are widely used. The first neutron interferometry was achieved in 1962 by Maier-Leibnitz et al. A new type of neutron interferometers was constructed with a perfect crystal, and experimentally performed in 1974 by Rauch et al. The precise measurements with LLL neutron interferometers were performed on scattering length, gravitational effect, coherence, Fizeau effects, spin superposition, complementarity, and post-selection effects. Since the early stage of quantum physics, the double-slit experiment has served as the example of the epistemologically strange features of quantum phenomena, and its course of study is described. The time-delayed interferometry with nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation and phase transfer in time-delayed interferometry with nuclear resonant scattering were experimented, and are briefly reported. A geometric phase factor was derived for a split beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolution. The geometric phase was observed with a two-loop neutron interferometer. All the experimental results showed complete agreement with the theoretical treatment. (K.I.)

  8. Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Xu, Nan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-10

    This paper presents a simple spatial phase shift shearography based on the Michelson interferometer. The Michelson interferometer based shearographic system has been widely utilized in industry as a practical nondestructive test tool. In the system, the Michelson interferometer is used as a shearing device to generate a shearing distance by tilting a small angle in one of the two mirrors. In fact, tilting the mirror in the Michelson interferometer also generates spatial frequency shift. Based on this feature, we introduce a simple Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography. The Fourier transform (FT) method is applied to separate the spectrum on the spatial frequency domain. The phase change due to the loading can be evaluated using a properly selected windowed inverse-FT. This system can generate a phase map of shearography by using only a single image. The effects of shearing angle, spatial resolution of couple charge device camera, and filter methods are discussed in detail. The theory and the experimental results are presented.

  9. Integrated polarization beam splitter with relaxed fabrication tolerances

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Galacho, D.; Halir, R.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Zhang, R.; Runge, P.; Janiak, K.; Bach, H-G; Steffan, A. G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.

    2013-01-01

    Polarization handling is a key requirement for the next generation of photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Integrated polarization beam splitters (PBS) are central elements for polarization management, but their use in PICs is hindered by poor fabrication tolerances. In this work we present a fully passive, highly fabrication tolerant polarization beam splitter, based on an asymmetrical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a Si/SiO2 Periodic Layer Structure (PLS) on top of one of its arms. ...

  10. Adiabatic radio-frequency potentials for the coherent manipulation of matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Adiabatic dressed state potentials are created when magnetic substates of trapped atoms are coupled by a radio-frequency field. We discuss their theoretical foundations and point out fundamental advantages over potentials purely based on static fields. The enhanced flexibility enables one...... to implement numerous configurations, including double wells, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers which even allows for internal state-dependent atom manipulation. These can be realized using simple and highly integrated wire geometries on atom chips....

  11. An engineering two-mode field NOON state in cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, Farhan; Rameez-ul-Islam [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-14

    We generate highly non-classical entangled two-mode field states of the type (|n{sub X},0{sub Y}>+-|0{sub X},n{sub Y}>)/sq root2 by utilizing an atomic analogue of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where quantized fields in the high-Q cavities act as beam splitters and mirrors. We discuss that the probability for the production of the desired states may approach a value close to unity under presently available experimental conditions.

  12. Achieving resonance in the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, A; Martynov, D; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R X; Arai, K; Brooks, A F; Ballmer, S; Barsotti, L; Evans, M; Fritschel, P; DeRosa, R T; Effler, A; Dwyer, S; Gray, C; Izumi, K; Frolov, V V; Guido, C J; Heintze, M; Gustafson, R; Hoak, D

    2014-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are complex instruments comprised of a Michelson interferometer enhanced by multiple coupled cavities. Active feedback control is required to operate these instruments and keep the cavities locked on resonance. The optical response is highly nonlinear until a good operating point is reached. The linear operating range is between 0.01% and 1% of a fringe for each degree of freedom. The resonance lock has to be achieved in all five degrees of freedom simultaneously, making the acquisition difficult. Furthermore, the cavity linewidth seen by the laser is only ∼1 Hz, which is four orders of magnitude smaller than the linewidth of the free running laser. The arm length stabilization system is a new technique used for arm cavity locking in Advanced LIGO. Together with a modulation technique utilizing third harmonics to lock the central Michelson interferometer, the Advanced LIGO detector has been successfully locked and brought to an operating point where detecting gravitational-waves becomes feasible. (paper)

  13. Advanced Gouy phase high harmonics interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustary, M. H.; Laban, D. E.; Wood, J. B. O.; Palmer, A. J.; Holdsworth, J.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Sang, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    We describe an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometric technique that can resolve ∼100 zeptoseconds (10‑21 s) delay between high harmonic emissions from two successive sources separated spatially along the laser propagation in a single Gaussian beam focus. Several improvements on our earlier work have been implemented in the advanced interferometer. In this paper, we report on the design, characterization and optimization of the advanced Gouy phase interferometer. Temporal coherence for both atomic argon and molecular hydrogen gases has been observed for several harmonic orders. It has been shown that phase shift of XUV pulses mainly originates from the emission time delay due to the Gouy phase in the laser focus and the observed interference is independent of the generating medium. This interferometer can be a useful tool for measuring the relative phase shift between any two gas species and for studying ultrafast dynamics of their electronic and nuclear motion.

  14. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  15. Quantum Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein W. A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent conductance of ballistic mesoscopic interferometer is investigated. The quantum interferometer is in the form of ring, in which a quantum dot is embedded in one arm. This quantum dot is connected to one lead via tunnel barrier. Both Aharonov- Casher and Aharonov-Bohm e ects are studied. Our results confirm the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and quantum interference e ects in such confined quantum systems. This investigation is valuable for spintronics application, for example, quantum information processing.

  16. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  17. Superconducting on-chip microwave interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Edwin P.; Fischer, Michael; Schneider, Christian; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the realm of all-microwave quantum computation, information is encoded in itinerant microwave photons propagating along transmission lines. In such a system unitary operations are implemented by linear elements such as beam splitters or interferometers. However, for two-qubit operations non-linear gates, e.g., c-phase gates are required. In this work, we investigate superconducting interferometers as a building block of a c-phase gate. We experimentally characterize their scattering properties and compare them to simulation results. Finally, we discuss our progress towards the realization of a c-phase gate.

  18. Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco

    2008-12-22

    A Michelson interferometer based on an optical set-up allowing multiple reflection between two plane mirrors performs the multiplication of the optical path by a factor N, proportionally increasing the resolution of the measurement. A multiplication factor of almost two orders of magnitude has been demonstrated with a simple set-up. The technique can be applied to any interferometric measurement where the classical interferometer limits due to fringe nonlinearities and quantum noise are an issue. Applications in precision engineering, vibration analysis, nanometrology, and spectroscopy are foreseen.

  19. Two-wavelength HeNe laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granneman, E.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an interferometer set-up in which two wavelengths are used simultaneously. This enables one to determine separately the phase shifts caused by changes in plasma density and by mechanical vibrations of the interferometer structure

  20. Wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer. [measuring atmospheric emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The optical system, stepping control, phase and modulation depth, array detector, and directions sensor are described for a specialized type of Michelson interferometer which works at sufficiently high resolution to measure the line widths and Doppler shifts of naturally occurring atmospheric emissions. With its imaging capability, the instrument can potentially supply this data independently for each element of the 100 x 100 detector array. The experiment seeks: (1) to obtain vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures as functions of latitude by observing near the limb; (2) to acquire exploratory wind and temperature data on smaller scale structures in airglow irregularities and in auroral forms; and (3) to collaborate with other Spacelab experiments, such as barium cloud releases, in providing wind and temperature data.

  1. Stable mounting of beamsplitters for an interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, van A.A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) system for satellite GAIA (2012–2018) will measure variation on the angle between the lines-of-sight between two telescopes with 2.5 prad uncertainty. It is a laser-interferometer system consisting of two optical benches with a number of mirrors and beamsplitters.

  2. Smart photogalvanic running-grating interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Edwards, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Photogalvanic effect produces actuation of periodic motion of macroscopic LiNbO3 crystal. This effect was applied to the development of an all-optical moving-grating interferometer usable for optical trapping and transport of algae chlorella microorganisms diluted in water with a concentration of...

  3. LTP interferometer-noise sources and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, David; Killow, Christian; Ward, Harry; Hough, Jim; Heinzel, Gerhard; Garcia, Antonio; Wand, Vinzenz; Johann, Ulrich; Braxmaier, Claus

    2005-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) uses laser interferometry to measure the changes in relative displacement between two inertial test masses. The goals of the mission require a displacement measuring precision of 10 pm Hz -1/2 at frequencies in the 3-30 mHz band. We report on progress with a prototype LTP interferometer optical bench in which fused silica mirrors and beamsplitters are fixed to a ZERODUR (registered) substrate using hydroxide catalysis bonding to form a rigid interferometer. The couplings to displacement noise of this interferometer of two expected noise sources-laser frequency noise and ambient temperature fluctuations-have been investigated, and an additional, unexpected, noise source has been identified. The additional noise is due to small amounts of signal at the heterodyne frequency arriving at the photodiode preamplifiers with a phase that quasistatically changes with respect to the optical signal. The phase shift is caused by differential changes in the external optical paths the beams travel before they reach the rigid interferometer. Two different external path length stabilization systems have been demonstrated and these allowed the performance of the overall system to meet the LTP displacement noise requirement

  4. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  5. Thermoluminescence spectra measured with a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer was redesigned to prove its capabilities in the measurement of short-lived, low-intensity thermoluminescence spectra. Interferograms are collected during heating up the thermoluminescent probe in a heater plate. A personal computer controls the data acquisition and processes the Fourier transform. As the results show, even a comparatively simple and limited setup leads to relevant and reproducible spectra. (author)

  6. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraner, Paolo, E-mail: pmaraner@unibz.it

    2014-11-15

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations.

  7. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations

  8. Laser frequency stabilization using a transfer interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shira; Sawaoka, Hiromitsu; Bhatt, Nishant; Potnis, Shreyas; Vutha, Amar C.

    2018-03-01

    We present a laser frequency stabilization system that uses a transfer interferometer to stabilize slave lasers to a reference laser. Our implementation uses off-the-shelf optical components along with microcontroller-based digital feedback, and offers a simple, flexible, and robust way to stabilize multiple laser frequencies to better than 1 MHz.

  9. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 22(5), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resoluti...

  10. The KAERI laser facility with temporal laser beam shaping for application's user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Ki; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Young Won; Ko, Kwanghoon; Lim, Changhwan; Seo, Young Seok

    2008-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI)has been developed a high energy Nd:Glass laser facility(KLF)for fast ignition research and high energy physics applications at early 2008. Now, we are researching the temporal laser beam shaping for application's user. The temporal laser beam shaping has been applied to a number of industrial applications. The KLF beam shaping system with fiber based consists of two electro optic modulator with DC bias using a Mach Zehnder interferometer, an arbitrary electronic waveform generator, a continuous wavelength fiber laser source, a fiber based pulse amplification system and DC bias source to generate temporally shaped pulses with a high extinction ratio and high resolution. RF signal waveform user defined by an arbitrary electronic waveform generator is only connected to one electro optic modulator. DC bias source with auto feed back or manual controller is connected both two electro optic modulators. Emitting laser light from a continuous wavelength fiber laser source is modulated to meet a user defined laser pulse with a high extinction ratio by two electro optic modulators. Experimental results are shown in Fig.1. Figure 1(a)shows two programmed waveforms with the signal width 10ns in an arbitrary electronic waveform generator. Figure 1(b)shows output laser pulses with sub mJ energy from amplification results of the KLF beam shaping system which can control the pulse width ranges from 400ps to sub us

  11. A generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer for straightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chienming

    2008-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. However, an interferometer with a displacement measurement accuracy of less than 1 nm is required in nanometrology and in fundamental scientific research. To meet this requirement, a generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer, based on three construction principles has been developed for straightness measurements. These three construction principles have resulted in an interferometer with a highly stable design with reduced periodic nonlinearity. Verifications by a straightness interferometer have demonstrated that the periodic nonlinearity was less than 40 pm. The results also demonstrate that the interferometer design is capable of subnanometer accuracy and is useful in nanometrology

  12. Control sideband generation for dual-recycled laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, B W; Miyakawa, O; Kawamura, S; Weinstein, A J; Ward, R; Vass, S; Strain, K A

    2006-01-01

    We present a discussion of the problems associated with generation of multiple control sidebands for length sensing and control of dual-recycled, cavity-enhanced Michelson interferometers and the motivation behind more complicated sideband generation methods. We focus on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a topological solution to the problem and present results from tests carried out at the Caltech 40 m prototype gravitational wave detector. The consequences for sensing and control for advanced interferometry are discussed, as are the implications for future interferometers such as Advanced LIGO

  13. Bias voltage dependence of a flux-sensitive Al/GaAs/Al (SNS) interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1999-01-01

    bias voltage the fabricated interferometers typically exhibit 3% sinusoidal modulation of the conductance as a function of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the loop. The conductance modulation is caused by resonant Andreev states in the normal GaAs region of the device. With increasing bias...... voltage of the order of a few microvolts the device is driven out of resonance and the conductance oscillations are extinguished. However, at higher bias voltage corresponding to the superconducting energy gap of Al (178 mu V) the conductance oscillations reappear but with reduced amplitude...

  14. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  15. Parametric instability in GEO 600 interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurkovsky, A.G.; Vyatchanin, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present analysis of undesirable effect of parametric instability in signal recycled GEO 600 interferometer. The basis for this effect is provided by excitation of additional (Stokes) optical mode, having frequency ω 1 , and mirror elastic mode, having frequency ω m , when the optical energy stored in the main FP cavity mode, having frequency ω 0 , exceeds a certain threshold and detuning Δ=ω 0 -ω 1 -ω m is small. We discuss the potential of observing parametric instability and its precursors in GEO 600 interferometer. This approach provides the best option to get familiar with this phenomenon, to develop experimental methods to depress it and to test the effectiveness of these methods in situ

  16. First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer: current stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.

    2017-10-01

    Solar radio astronomy is a fast developing research field in Colombia. Here, we present the scientific goals, specifications and current state of the First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer consisting of two log-periodic antennas covering a frequency bandwidth op to 800 MHz. We describe the importance and benefits of its development to the radioastronomy in Latin America and its impact on the scientific community and general public.

  17. Progress in gravitational wave detection: Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    A gravitational wave (GW) is a physical entity of space-time derived from Einstein's theory of general relativity. Challenging projects to observe gravitational waves are being conducted throughout the world. A Japanese project involving a 300 m baseline laser interferometer, TAMA, achieved 1000 hr of continuous observation with the best sensitivity in the world during the summer of 2001. After achieving promising results, the realization of LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope) will become possible in the near future

  18. Fine art of computing nulling interferometer maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault, F.

    2008-07-01

    Spaceborne nulling interferometers are often characterized by means of their nulling ratio, which is defined as the deepest possible extinction of one target star supposed to harbor an extra-solar system. Herein is shown that another parameter, which is the transmitting efficiency of nearby bright fringes, is also of prime importance. More generally, "nulling maps" formed by the whole destructive and constructive fringe pattern projected on-sky, are found to be very sensitive on the design of some subsystems constituting the interferometer. In particular, we consider Spatial Filtering (SF) and Achromatic Phase Shifter (APS) devices, both required achieving planet detection and characterization. Consequences of the SF choice (pinhole or single-mode optical fiber) and APS properties (with or without induced pupil-flip) are discussed, for both monochromatic and polychromatic cases. Examples of numerical simulations are provided for single Bracewell interferometer, Angel cross and X-array configurations, demonstrating noticeable differences in the aspect of resulting nulling maps. It is concluded that both FS and APS designs exhibit variable capacities for serendipitous planet discovery.

  19. Dispersion interferometer for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drachev, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.I.; Bagryansky, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A common feature in interferometry is the presence of two independent optical channels. Since wave phase in a medium depends on the geometrical path, polarization and radiation frequency, respectively, one can distinguish three types of interferometric schemes when the channels are geometrically separated, or separation occurs in polarizations or radiation frequencies. We have developed a measurement scheme based on a dispersion interferometer (DI) for plasma diagnostics in the experiments on controlled fusion. DI optical channels have the same geometrical path and are separated in radiation frequency. Use of a common optical path causes the main advantage of the DI technique - low sensitivity to vibrations of optical elements. The use of the DI technique for diagnostics of a laser spark in air and of arc discharges has shown its essential advantages as compared to classical interferometers. Interest in the DI technique from the viewpoint of its application in controlled fusion devices is determined also generated by the possibility of developing a compact multichannel interferometer not requiring a vibration isolation structure. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs

  20. Compact super-wideband optical antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen C.; Forber, Richard; Bui, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    We present progress on advanced optical antennas, which are compact, small size-weight-power units capable to receive super wideband radiated RF signals from 30 MHz to over 3 GHz. Based on electro-optical modulation of fiber-coupled guided wave light, these dielectric E-field sensors exhibit dipole-like azimuthal omni directionality, and combine small size (channels, and high EO sensing materials. The antenna system photonic link consists of a 1550 nm PM fiber-pigtailed laser, a specialized optical modulator antenna in channel waveguide format, a wideband photoreceiver, and optical phase stabilizing components. The optical modulator antenna design employs a dielectric (no electrode) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) arranged so that sensing RF bandwidth is not limited by optical transit time effects, and MZI phase drift is bias stabilized. For a prototype optical antenna system that is < 100 in3, < 10 W, < 5 lbs, we present test data on sensitivity (< 20 mV/m-Hz1/2), RF bandwidth, and antenna directionality, and show good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  1. Calibration of atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Si-Bin; Li, Run-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a method for calibrating atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope. The atom trajectories are monitored by modulating and delaying the Raman transition, and they are precisely calibrated by controlling the laser orientation and the bias magnetic field. To improve the immunity to the gravity effect and the common phase noise, the symmetry and the overlap of two large-area atomic interference loops are optimized by calibrating the atomic trajectories and by aligning the Raman-laser orientations. The dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope is applied in the measurement of the Earth's rotation. The sensitivity is 1.2 ×10-6 rad s -1 Hz-1/2, and the long-term stability is 6.2 ×10-8 rad/s at 2000 s.

  2. [A new method of anti-jamming ability improvement for Michelson Interferometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-Jun; Lian, Su-Jie; Shi, Jia; Guo, Ya-Fei; Wang, Gao

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve anti-jamming capability of Michelson interferometer system, replace the traditional structure of the moving mirror scanning was replaced, an interference system based on electro-optic modulation of crystal refractive index was designed to achieve optical path scanning. The system modulated voltage signal on the variable refractive crystal, to generate cyclical changes, changed the refractive index to control optical path difference in the original optical path system. Using electronic scanning to replace of mechanical scanning, improved the system's noise immunity was improved. In the electro-optic modulation process, computed the maximum optical path difference of the system was computed, and analyzed of the crystal thickness and crystal diffraction efficiency of the modulation process were analyzed. The simulation experiment shows that, with the modulation voltage range increasing, the available range of the optical path is also increased, and the system spectrum resolving power will also increase accordingly. Meanwhile, in the modulation process set the modulation range was set to make the energy of diffraction energy losses less than 10% of the total energy, so as to ensure a better signal to noise ratio. Experimental results show that, as the modulation voltage changes, interference fringes occurred continuously moved. When the voltage is further increased, the nonlinear error appears. After non-linear error correction for the system, spectrum resolution reached to 7. 2 cm-1, slightly lower than the original system. But its anti-jamming capability is greatly enhanced, as in the absence of experimental platform for seismic conditions, conventional interferometer relative error is more than 20%, while the relative error of the system is less than 5%, in line with the design requirements. It was proved that the anti-jamming capability of the system was enhanced greatly, when the static electro-optical modulation was used.

  3. Wave–particle duality in a Raman atom interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ai-Ai; Yang Jun; Yan Shu-Hua; Hu Qing-Qing; Luo Yu-Kun; Zhu Shi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the wave–particle duality based on a Raman atom interferometer, via the interaction between the atom and Raman laser, which is similar to the optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The wave and which-way information are stored in the atomic internal states. For the φ − π − π/2 type of atom interferometer, we find that the visibility (V) and predictability (P) still satisfy the duality relation, P 2 + V 2 ≤ 1. (paper)

  4. Vibrometer based on a self-mixing effect interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Lopez, Luis; Gonzalez-Penna, R.; Martinez-Celorio, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    We outline the basic principles of the self-mixing effect and present the design and construction of an interferometer based on this phenomenon. It differs from the previously reported in the literature by the use of two photodetectors, located at different arms of the interferometer. This feature allows widening the arsenal of strategies for the digital processing of the signal. The interferometer is used as vibrometer for the characterization of professional loudspeakers. Experimental results are presented as an illustration. (Author)

  5. Gravitational Wave Detection with Single-Laser Atom Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A new design for a broadband detector of gravitational radiation relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser are used for operating the two atom interferometers. The innovation here involves the fact that the atoms in the atom interferometers are not only considered as perfect test masses, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable, and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser.

  6. Analysis of a four-mirror-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thüring, André; Lück, Harald; Danzmann, Karsten

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a four-mirror-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer. The intention of this interferometer topology is the reduction of thermal lensing and the impact of the interferometers contrast although transmissive optics are used with high circulating powers. The analytical expressions describing the light fields and the frequency response are derived. Although the parameter space has 11 dimensions, a detailed analysis of the resonance feature gives boundary conditions allowing systematic parameter studies.

  7. A nanofabricated, monolithic, path-separated electron interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Akshay; Kim, Chung-Soo; Hobbs, Richard; Dyck, Dirk van; Berggren, Karl K.

    2017-01-01

    Progress in nanofabrication technology has enabled the development of numerous electron optic elements for enhancing image contrast and manipulating electron wave functions. Here, we describe a modular, self-aligned, amplitude-division electron interferometer in a conventional transmission electron microscope. The interferometer consists of two 45-nm-thick silicon layers separated by 20??m. This interferometer is fabricated from a single-crystal silicon cantilever on a transmission electron m...

  8. CAMEX-3 ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER (AERI) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to make atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals. AERI provides absolutely calibrated...

  9. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Aizin, Gregory

    2016-03-29

    An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  10. A double-pass interferometer for measurement of dimensional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Dongmei; Lawton, K M; Miller, J A

    2008-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer was developed for measuring dimensional changes of materials in a nanoscale absolute interferometric dilatometer. This interferometer realized the double-ended measurement of a sample using a single-detection double-pass interference system. The nearly balanced design, in which the measurement beam and the reference beam have equal optical path lengths except for the path difference caused by the sample itself, makes this interferometer have high stability, which is verified by the measurement of a quasi-zero-length sample. The preliminary experiments and uncertainty analysis show that this interferometer should be able to measure dimensional changes with characteristic uncertainty at the nanometer level

  11. Interferometers as probes of Planckian quantum geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    2012-03-01

    A theory of position of massive bodies is proposed that results in an observable quantum behavior of geometry at the Planck scale, tP. Departures from classical world lines in flat spacetime are described by Planckian noncommuting operators for position in different directions, as defined by interactions with null waves. The resulting evolution of position wave functions in two dimensions displays a new kind of directionally coherent quantum noise of transverse position. The amplitude of the effect in physical units is predicted with no parameters, by equating the number of degrees of freedom of position wave functions on a 2D space-like surface with the entropy density of a black hole event horizon of the same area. In a region of size L, the effect resembles spatially and directionally coherent random transverse shear deformations on time scale ≈L/c with typical amplitude ≈ctPL. This quantum-geometrical “holographic noise” in position is not describable as fluctuations of a quantized metric, or as any kind of fluctuation, dispersion or propagation effect in quantum fields. In a Michelson interferometer the effect appears as noise that resembles a random Planckian walk of the beam splitter for durations up to the light-crossing time. Signal spectra and correlation functions in interferometers are derived, and predicted to be comparable with the sensitivities of current and planned experiments. It is proposed that nearly colocated Michelson interferometers of laboratory scale, cross-correlated at high frequency, can test the Planckian noise prediction with current technology.

  12. Atomic interferometers in an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelle, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the ForCa-G project, for Casimir force and short range Gravitation, lies into the measurement of short range forces between atoms and a mirror using atomic interferometry techniques. Particularly, the Casimir-Polder force and the pursuit of short range gravitational tests in the frame of potential deviations of Newton's law are aimed. This experiment is based on the trapping of neutral atoms in a 1D vertical optical lattice, where the energy eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian describing this system is the so-called Wannier-Stark ladder of discrete energy states localized in each lattice well. This work constitutes a demonstration of principle of this project with atoms set far from the mirror. Each energy state is thus separated from the one of the adjacent well by the potential energy increment between those two wells, called the Bloch frequency ν B . Then, atomic interferometers are realized in the lattice using Raman or microwave pulses where the trapped atomic wave functions are placed, and then recombined, in a superposition of states between different energy states localized either in the same well, either in adjacent wells. This work presents the study of different kinds of atomic interferometers in this optical lattice, characterized in terms of sensibility and systematic effects on the Bloch frequency measurement. One of the studied interferometers accessed to a sensitivity on the Bloch frequency of σ δ ν B /ν B =9.0x10 -6 at 1∼s in relative, which integrates until σ δ ν B /ν B =1. 10 -7 in 2800∼s. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art measurement of the gravity acceleration g for a trapped atomic gravimeter. (author)

  13. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  14. Virgo an interferometer for gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaquieti, R.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational waves propagating from rapidly accelerating star masses can be detected by means of interfer- ometric techniques. The Virgo detector is a Michelson interferometer, with two 3 km long Fabry-Perot cavities, that is going to be built in the countryside of Pisa (Italy). Principles of interferometric gravitational wave detection, and the main noise sources in the Virgo apparatus are treated. The Virgo optical scheme and its main components are also described. Finally, an overview on the status of works at the Virgo site is presented

  15. A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2015-09-01

    A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.

  16. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  17. Study of the OCDMA Transmission Characteristics in FSO-FTTH at Various Distances, Outdoor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldouri, Muthana Y.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to apply the field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and Optical Switch technology as an encoder and decoder for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) Free Space Optic Fiber to the Home (FSO-FTTH) transmitter and receiver system design. The encoder and decoder module will be using FPGA as a code generator, optical switch using as encode and decode of optical source. This module was tested by using the Modified Double Weight (MDW) code, which is selected as an excellent candidate because it had shown superior performance were by the total noise is reduced. It is also easy to construct and can reduce the number of filters required at a receiver by a newly proposed detection scheme known as AND Subtraction technique. MDW code is presented here to support Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) access network in Point-To-Multi-Point (P2MP) application. The conversion used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) wavelength converter. The performances are characterized through BER and bit rate (BR), also, the received power at a variety of bit rates.

  18. A stellar interferometer on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Irene

    The work I present in this document has been divided into two main parts, the first one related to the IOTA project and the second one related to the study on the lunar interferometer, and an introduction section. Each section can be read independently from the other, however they are presented following the logical order in which the research work has been developed. As a guide for the reader here I describe the content of each chapter, which represents the original contribution (except when it is specifically declared) to the research accomplished. This section consists in the Introduction itself, with a presentation of the motivations for this research work, and in the chapter Interferometry from the Earth and from the Moon. The first part of this chapter shows the performances which are expected to be reached by ground-based interferometers (Colavita, 1992) by using adaptive optics systems (Beckers, 1993). The evaluation is made separately for the case of high resolution imaging and for high accuracy astrometric measurements. The most optimistic results expected for ground-based instruments determine the level of the performance that has to be required from a space interferometer (both an orbiting and a lunar instrument). In the second part of the chapter I specifically deal with the case of a lunar interferometer, which allows to put together the advantages o ered by a ground-based instrument (very long baseline, a stable platform) and those offered by the space environment (absence of atmospheric turbulence, long integration times, and wavelength range of observation from the ultraviolet to the far infrared). In order to evaluate the limits of the lunar interferometer, I need to consider three subjects with which I did not explicitly dealt for the study on IOTA: the maximum length of the baseline (Tango and Twiss, 1974), the maximum integration time, and the performances obtainable at the minimum temperature of operation (Ridgway, 1990). The chapter ends with

  19. Adaptive DFT-Based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Pedretti, Ettore; Bregman, Jesse; Mah, Robert W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2005-12-01

    An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) Observatory at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs) for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on offline data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms), using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse. One example of such an application might be to the field of thin-film measurement by ellipsometry, using a broadband light source and a Fourier-transform spectrometer to detect the resulting fringe patterns.

  20. Adaptive DFT-Based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley A. Traub

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA Observatory at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier-transform (DFT calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on offline data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately 2.0 milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms, using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse. One example of such an application might be to the field of thin-film measurement by ellipsometry, using a broadband light source and a Fourier-transform spectrometer to detect the resulting fringe patterns.

  1. Feedback stabilized tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Mikio; Shirasu, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    A new system for measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium, in which two plane-type Fabry-Perot interferometers (tandem FP) are connected in series. The parallelism between the two FPs is achieved automatically by a feedback control mechanism based on laser interference fringe monitoring. The structure of the tandem FP, feedback control system, automatic parallelism adjustment mechanism and wavelength synchronization mechanism are described in detail. For experiments, a hollow cathode discharge tube of a pulse discharge type is employed. Measurements are made to determine the effects of pulse width on the 238 U peak height of 502.7 nm line, recorder traces of 235 U and 238 U lines, half width for 238 U component of the 502.7 nm line, SN ratio, reproducibility of the 235 U/ 238 U peak height ratio and 235 U/ 238 U intensity ratio. Considerations are made on the spectral line width, contrast, transmission factor, and stability of automatic parallelism control and wavelength synchronization. Results obtained indicates that a single-type interferometer would serve adequately for measuring the 235 U/ 238 U ratio if the automatic parallelism control developed here is used. The ultimate object of the tandem system is to make measurement of 236 U. Satisfactory results have not obtained as yet, but most likely the present system would make it possible if a light source of a higher intensity and advanced photometric techniques are developed. (Nogami, K.)

  2. A prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Bretz, N.L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer, which is intended to test critical elements of a design for a tangential array interferometer on C-Mod 6 . The prototype uses a pulsed, 35 mJ, 10 Hz multimode, Nd:YAG laser, LiB 3 O 5 doublers, a fan beam created by a cylindrical lens, four retroreflector elements, and a CCD camera as a detector. The prototype also uses a polarization scheme in which the interference information is eventually carried by two second harmonic beams with crossed polarization. These are vector summed and differenced, and separated, by a Wollaston prism, to give two spots on the CCD. There is a pair of these spots for each retroreflector used. The phase information is directly available as the ratio of the difference to sum the intensities of the two spots. We have tested a single channel configuration of this prototype, varying the phase by changing the pressure in an air cell, and we have obtained a 5:1 light to dark ratio, and a clear sinusoidal variation of the ratio as a function of pressure change. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. An X-ray BBB Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Materlik, Gerhard; Nishino, Yoshinori; Rostomyan, Armen; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina

    2004-09-01

    A new X-ray Michelson interferometer based on the BBB interferometer of Bonse and Hart and designed for X-rays of wavelength approximately 1 A was described in a previous paper. Here, a further test carried out at the SPring-8 1 km beamline BL29XUL is reported. One of the BBB's mirrors was displaced by a piezo to introduce the required path-length difference. The resulting variation of intensity with piezo voltage as measured by an avalanche photodiode could be ascribed to the phase variation resulting from the path-length change, with a small additional contribution from the change of the position of the lattice planes of the front mirror relative to the rest of the crystal. This 'Michelson fringe' interpretation is supported by the observed steady movement across the output beam of the interference fringes produced by a refractive wedge when the piezo voltage was ramped. The front-mirror displacement required for one complete fringe at the given wavelength is only 0.675 A; therefore, a quiet environment is vital for operating this device, as previous experiments have shown.

  4. Michelson interferometer based interleaver design using classic IIR filter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hao; Tang, Shasha

    2013-12-16

    An elegant method to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver using a classic infinite impulse response (IIR) filter such as Butterworth, Chebyshev, and elliptic filters as a starting point are presented. The proposed design method allows engineers to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver from specifications seamlessly. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design method.

  5. Michelson interferometer with diffractively-coupled arm resonators in second-order Littrow configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzger, Michael; Wimmer, Maximilian H; Khalaidovski, Alexander; Friedrich, Daniel; Kroker, Stefanie; Brückner, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-11-05

    Michelson-type laser-interferometric gravitational-wave (GW) observatories employ very high light powers as well as transmissively-coupled Fabry-Perot arm resonators in order to realize high measurement sensitivities. Due to the absorption in the transmissive optics, high powers lead to thermal lensing and hence to thermal distortions of the laser beam profile, which sets a limit on the maximal light power employable in GW observatories. Here, we propose and realize a Michelson-type laser interferometer with arm resonators whose coupling components are all-reflective second-order Littrow gratings. In principle such gratings allow high finesse values of the resonators but avoid bulk transmission of the laser light and thus the corresponding thermal beam distortion. The gratings used have three diffraction orders, which leads to the creation of a second signal port. We theoretically analyze the signal response of the proposed topology and show that it is equivalent to a conventional Michelson-type interferometer. In our proof-of-principle experiment we generated phase-modulation signals inside the arm resonators and detected them simultaneously at the two signal ports. The sum signal was shown to be equivalent to a single-output-port Michelson interferometer with transmissively-coupled arm cavities, taking into account optical loss. The proposed and demonstrated topology is a possible approach for future all-reflective GW observatory designs.

  6. 102(ℎ/2π)k Large Area Atom Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Kovachy, Tim; Chien, Hui-Chun; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate atom interferometers utilizing a novel beam splitter based on sequential multiphoton Bragg diffractions. With this sequential Bragg large momentum transfer (SB-LMT) beam splitter, we achieve high contrast atom interferometers with momentum splittings of up to 102 photon recoil momenta (102(ℎ/2π)k). To our knowledge, this is the highest momentum splitting achieved in any atom interferometer, advancing the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate strong noise correlation between two simultaneous SB-LMT interferometers, which alleviates the need for ultralow noise lasers and ultrastable inertial environments in some future applications. Our method is intrinsically scalable and can be used to dramatically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers in a wide range of applications, including inertial sensing, measuring the fine structure constant, and detecting gravitational waves.

  7. Multiloop atom interferometer measurements of chameleon dark energy in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Chameleon field is one of the promising candidates of dark energy scalar fields. As in all viable candidate field theories, a screening mechanism is implemented to be consistent with all existing tests of general relativity. The screening effect in the chameleon theory manifests its influence limited only to the thin outer layer of a bulk object, thus producing extra forces orders of magnitude weaker than that of the gravitational force of the bulk. For pointlike particles such as atoms, the depth of screening is larger than the size of the particle, such that the screening mechanism is ineffective and the chameleon force is fully expressed on the atomic test particles. Extra force measurements using atom interferometry are thus much more sensitive than bulk mass based measurements, and indeed have placed the most stringent constraints on the parameters characterizing chameleon field. In this paper, we present a conceptual measurement approach for chameleon force detection using atom interferometry in microgravity, in which multiloop atom interferometers exploit specially designed periodic modulation of chameleon fields. We show that major systematics of the dark energy force measurements, i.e., effects of gravitational forces and their gradients, can be suppressed below all hypothetical chameleon signals in the parameter space of interest.

  8. Electronically Tuned Local Oscillators for the NOEMA Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiocco, Francois; Garnier, Olivier; Maier, Doris; Navarrini, Alessandro; Serres, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    We present an overview of the electronically tuned local oscillator (LO) system developed at the Institut de RadioAstronomie millimetrique (IRAM) for the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) receivers of the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array interferometer (NOEMA). We modified the frequency bands and extended the bandwidths of the LO designs developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project to cover the four NOEMA LO frequency ranges 82-108.3 GHz (Band 1), 138.6-171.3 GHz (Band 2), 207.7-264.4 GHz (Band 3), and 283-365 GHz (Band 4). The NOEMA LO system employs commercially available MMICs and GaAs millimeter MMICs from NRAO which are micro-assembled into active multiplied chain (AMC) and power amplifier (PA) modules. We discuss the problem of the LO spurious harmonics and of the LO signal directly multiplied by the SIS mixers that add extra noise and lead to detections of unwanted spectral lines from higher order sidebands. A waveguide filter in the LO path is used to reduce the higher order harmonics level of the LO at the output of the final frequency multiplier, thus mitigating the undesired effects and improving the system noise temperature.

  9. A 60-GHz interferometer with a local oscillator integrated antenna array for divertor simulation experiments on GAMMA 10/PDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohagura, J., E-mail: kohagura@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, M.; Shima, Y.; Nojiri, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wang, X. [Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ito, N. [National Institute of Technology, Ube College, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In conventional multichannel/imaging microwave diagnostics of interferometry, reflectometry, and electron cyclotron emission measurements, a local oscillator (LO) signal is commonly supplied to a receiver array via irradiation using LO optics. In this work, we present a 60-GHz interferometer with a new eight-channel receiver array, called a local oscillator integrated antenna array (LIA). An outstanding feature of LIA is that it incorporates a frequency quadrupler integrated circuit for LO supply to each channel. This enables simple and uniform LO supply to the receiver array using only a 15-GHz LO source and a coaxial cable transmission line instead of using an expensive 60-GHz source, LO optics, and a waveguide transmission line. The new interferometer system is first applied to measure electron line-averaged density inside the divertor simulation experimental module (D-module) on GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror device.

  10. Analysis on optical heterodyne frequency error of full-field heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenxi; Wu, Zhou; Lv, Xiaoyu; Kong, Xinxin; Guo, Xiaoli

    2017-06-01

    The full-field heterodyne interferometric measurement technology is beginning better applied by employing low frequency heterodyne acousto-optical modulators instead of complex electro-mechanical scanning devices. The optical element surface could be directly acquired by synchronously detecting the received signal phases of each pixel, because standard matrix detector as CCD and CMOS cameras could be used in heterodyne interferometer. Instead of the traditional four-step phase shifting phase calculating, Fourier spectral analysis method is used for phase extracting which brings lower sensitivity to sources of uncertainty and higher measurement accuracy. In this paper, two types of full-field heterodyne interferometer are described whose advantages and disadvantages are also specified. Heterodyne interferometer has to combine two different frequency beams to produce interference, which brings a variety of optical heterodyne frequency errors. Frequency mixing error and beat frequency error are two different kinds of inescapable heterodyne frequency errors. In this paper, the effects of frequency mixing error to surface measurement are derived. The relationship between the phase extraction accuracy and the errors are calculated. :: The tolerance of the extinction ratio of polarization splitting prism and the signal-to-noise ratio of stray light is given. The error of phase extraction by Fourier analysis that caused by beat frequency shifting is derived and calculated. We also propose an improved phase extraction method based on spectrum correction. An amplitude ratio spectrum correction algorithm with using Hanning window is used to correct the heterodyne signal phase extraction. The simulation results show that this method can effectively suppress the degradation of phase extracting caused by beat frequency error and reduce the measurement uncertainty of full-field heterodyne interferometer.

  11. Interference Imaging of Refractive Index Distribution in Thin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Turek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three versions of interference imaging of refractive index distribution in thin samples suggested in this contribution. These are based on imaging of interference field created by waves reflected from the front and the back sample surface or imaging of interference field of Michelson or Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the sample put in one of the interferometers arm. The work discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and presents the results of imaging of refrective index distribution in photorefractive record of a quasi-harmonic optical field in thin LiNbO3 crystal sample.

  12. Measurement of the Jones matrix of liquid crystal displays using a common path interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál

    2011-01-01

    We propose a robust interferometric method to measure the Jones matrix of polarization components, especially liquid crystal displays. Phase values are measured by a simple common path interferometer containing a birefringent crystal as beam splitter and a polarizer as beam combiner. This solution eliminates the sensitivity of traditional interferometric techniques to vibration, temperature variation or wavefront distortion. The proposed phase measurement method is applicable to the measurement of both spatially homogeneous and binary modulated states, thus the modulation transfer function and inter-pixel interference can also be studied. We demonstrate this technique by the measurement of a liquid crystal on silicon display. The resulting Jones matrix, as a function of displayed gray level, can be efficiently embedded in any numeric model of an optical system containing the analyzed spatial light modulator

  13. The experimental plan of displacement- and frequency-noise free laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokeyama, K; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Nishizawa, A; Chen, Y; Pai, A; Somiya, K; Ward, R; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    We present the partial demonstration of displacement- and laser-noise free interferometer (DFI) and the next experimental plan to examine the complete configuration. A part of the full implementation of DFI has been demonstrated to confirm the cancellation of beamsplitter displacements. The displacements were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude. The aim of the next experiment is to operate the system and to confirm the cancellation of all displacement noises, while the gravitational wave (GW) signals survive. The optical displacements will be simulated by electro-optic modulators (EOM). To simulate the GW contribution to laser lights, we will use multiple EOMs

  14. NAOMI: a low-order adaptive optics system for the VLT interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric Yves J.; Alonso, Jaime; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Andolfato, Luigi; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke-Strobele, Françoise; Donaldson, Rob; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Dupuy, Christophe; Egner, Sebastian E.; Huber, Stefan; Hubin, Norbert; Kirchbauer, Jean-Paul; Le Louarn, Miska; Lilley, Paul; Jolley, Paul; Martis, Alessandro; Paufique, Jérôme; Pasquini, Luca; Quentin, Jutta; Ridings, Robert; Reyes, Javier; Shchkaturov, Pavel; Suarez, Marcos; Phan Duc, Thanh; Valdes, Guillermo; Woillez, Julien; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Rochat, Sylvain; Vérinaud, Christophe; Moulin, Thibaut; Delboulbé, Alain; Michaud, Laurence; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Roux, Alain; Maurel, Didier; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The New Adaptive Optics Module for Interferometry (NAOMI) will be developed for and installed at the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) at ESO Paranal. The goal of the project is to equip all four ATs with a low-order Shack- Hartmann adaptive optics system operating in the visible. By improving the wavefront quality delivered by the ATs for guide stars brighter than R = 13 mag, NAOMI will make the existing interferometer performance less dependent on the seeing conditions. Fed with higher and more stable Strehl, the fringe tracker(s) will achieve the fringe stability necessary to reach the full performance of the second-generation instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE.

  15. Active feedback regulation of a Michelson interferometer to achieve zero-background absorption measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Guan, Zuguang; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-01-20

    An active phase-controlling scheme based on a proportional-integral-derivative-controlled piezoelectric transducer is presented with the purpose of stabilizing a quasi-zero-background absorption spectrometer. A fiber-based balanced Michelson interferometer is used, and absorption due to a gas sample in one of its arms results in an increased light signal to a detector, which otherwise, thanks to destructive interference, experiences a very low light level. With the presented approach, the sensitivity of already potent absorption measurement techniques, e.g., based on modulation, could be improved even further.

  16. Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Chelkowski, Simon; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2005-11-18

    We report on the experimental combination of three advanced interferometer techniques for gravitational wave detection, namely, power recycling, detuned signal recycling, and squeezed field injection. For the first time, we experimentally prove the compatibility of especially the latter two. To achieve a broadband nonclassical sensitivity improvement, we applied a filter cavity for compensation of quadrature rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved by up to 2.8 dB beyond the coherent state's shot noise. The complete setup was stably locked for arbitrary times and characterized by injected single-sideband modulation fields.

  17. 2×2 polymeric electro-optic MZI switch using multimode interference couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. P.; Liao, J. K.; Tang, X. G.; Lu, R. G.; Liu, Y. Z.

    2009-11-01

    We present the design of a 2×2 photonic switch operating at 1.55-μm wavelength using electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguides. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is used to implement the proposed switch in which two identical 2×2 multimode interference (MMI) couplers are connected by two identical parallel single mode waveguides (two MZI arms). These two single-mode waveguides with electrodes allow modulating the phase difference between the two MZI arms based on the EO effect. In the proposed switch, the EO polymer, IPC-E/polysulfone, is used for the core layer of optical waveguides. UV15 and NOA61 are employed for the lower and upper cladding layers, respectively. The singlemode waveguide structure and 2×2 MMI coupler have been designed and analyzed for the EO switch. Device performance has been simulated using the beam propagation method. It is found that the switch performance is most sensitive to the MMI width and less sensitive to the MMI length. Optimized structure has been obtained for the 2×2 polymeric EO switch, which has a crosstalk level better than -25 dB and insertion loss lower than -1.8 dB. This performance makes the switch a potential candidate for practical use in photonic systems.

  18. Quantum dots for lasers, amplifiers and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimberg, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    For InAs-GaAs based quantum dot lasers emitting at 1300 nm, digital modulation showing an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb s -1 at room temperature is demonstrated, at 10 Gb s -1 the bit error rate is below 10 -12 at -2 dB m receiver power. Cut-off frequencies up to 20 GHz are realised for lasers emitting at 1.1 μm. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate optical pulses with repetition frequencies between 5 and 50 GHz, with a minimum Fourier limited pulse length of 3 ps. The uncorrelated jitter is below 1 ps. We use here deeply etched narrow ridge waveguide structures which show excellent performance similar to shallow mesa structures, but a circular far field at a ridge width of 1 μm, improving coupling efficiency into fibres. No beam filamentation of the fundamental mode, low a-factors and strongly reduced sensitivity to optical feedback are observed. QD lasers are thus superior to QW lasers for any system or network. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD SOAs) demonstrate gain recovery times of 120-140 fs, 4-7 times faster than bulk/QW SOAs, and a net gain larger than 0.4 dB/(mm*QD-layer) providing us with novel types of booster amplifiers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. These breakthroughs became possible due to systematic development of self-organized growth technologies

  19. All-optical switching based on optical fibre long period gratings modified bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korposh, S.; James, S.; Partridge, M.; Sichka, M.; Tatam, R.

    2018-05-01

    All-optical switching using an optical fibre long-period gating (LPG) modified with bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is demonstrated. The switching process is based on the photo-induced RI change of bR, which in turn changes the phase matching conditions of the mode coupling by the LPG, leading to modulation of the propagating light. The effect was studied with an LPG immersed into a bR solution and with LPGs coated with the bR films, deposited onto the LPGs using the layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly (LbL) method. The dependence of the all-optical switching efficiency upon the concentration of the bR solution and on the grating period of the LPG was also studied. In addition, an in-fibre Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) composed of a cascaded LPG pair separated by 30 mm and modified with bR was used to enhance the wavelength range of all-optical switching. The switching wavelength is determined by the grating period of the LPG. Switching efficiencies of 16% and 35% were observed when an LPG and an MZI were immersed into bR solutions, respectively. The switching time for devices coated with bR-films was within 1 s, 10 times faster than that observed for devices immersed into bR solution.

  20. VINCI: the VLT Interferometer commissioning instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Pierre; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Glindemann, Andreas; Hofmann, Reiner

    2000-07-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is a complex system, made of a large number of separated elements. To prepare an early successful operation, it will require a period of extensive testing and verification to ensure that the many devices involved work properly together, and can produce meaningful data. This paper describes the concept chosen for the VLTI commissioning instrument, LEONARDO da VINCI, and details its functionalities. It is a fiber based two-way beam combiner, associated with an artificial star and an alignment verification unit. The technical commissioning of the VLTI is foreseen as a stepwise process: fringes will first be obtained with the commissioning instrument in an autonomous mode (no other parts of the VLTI involved); then the VLTI telescopes and optical trains will be tested in autocollimation; finally fringes will be observed on the sky.

  1. Distributed acoustic sensing with Michelson interferometer demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chen; Shang, Ying; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wenan; Peng, Gangding; Wang, Hongzhong

    2017-09-01

    The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has been extensively studied and widely used. A distributed acoustic sensing system based on the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation was designed and tested. The system could directly obtain the phase, amplitude, frequency response, and location information of sound wave at the same time and measurement at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously. Experiments showed that the system successfully measured the acoustic signals with a phase-pressure sensitivity about-148 dB (re rad/μPa) and frequency response ripple less than 1.5 dB. The further field experiment showed that the system could measure signals at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously.

  2. Quantum contextuality in neutron interferometer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Baron, Matthias; Badurek, Gerald; Rauch, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Non-local correlations between sufficiently separated subsystems have been extensively discussed. Such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables. A more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As the first example, we report a neutron interferometer experiment, where the spin and the path degrees of freedom are used to exhibit the clear violation of a Bell-like inequality. Other aspects of the quantum contextuality is presented, e.g., a flavor of Kochen-Specker-like contradiction in neutron optical experiments, in addition to the quantum state tomography of the Bell-states which are used in the experiments

  3. FIR interferometer and scattering measurements of ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Fockedey, Y.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Bennett, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A 15-channel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer system has been constructed to measure the electron densities on the ATF plasmas. The system consists of a pair of cw 214-μm difluoromethane (CH 2 F 2 ) lasers, optically pumped by separate CO 2 lasers. The large number of channels is achieved by the use of reflective beam expansion optics to create a beam of 2 cm /times/ 45 cm. After passing through the plasma discharge, the elongated beam produced by the cylindrical mirrors is dissected by an array of 15 off-axis paraboloid reflectors, each of which illuminates a single Schottky-diode detector. The use of the beam expanding optics system reduces the number of optical elements required for the interferometer to approximately 2-3 per channel. The FIR laser beams are transported from the laser room to the experimental area by 25 mm i.d. dielectric waveguides purged with dry nitrogen. The system can also be operated at a wavelength of 119-μm by changing the gas in FIR laser cavities to methanol for high density experiments. Details of the system are described. A study is underway to determine the optimum design of a FIR scattering system for the ATF. This scattering system will be used to investigate density fluctuations with scale lengths from 0.1 cm to the plasma radius. The laser for this scattering system may be operated at wavelengths of 447, 307, 214, 184, and 119 μm with power levels of 100 to 500 mW. A summary of the study is presented. 6 refs., 1 fig

  4. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  5. Michelson-type Radio Interferometer for University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Jin; Barrett, J. W.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, M.; Shafto, G.; Slechta, J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of interferometry in astronomy, the lack of educational interferometers is an obstacle to training the futue generation of astronomers. Students need hands-on experiments to fully understand the basic concepts of interferometry. Professional interferometers are often too complicated for education, and it is difficult to guarantee access for classes in a university course. We have built a simple and affordable radio interferometer for education and used it for an undergraduate and graduate laboratory project. This interferometer's design is based on the Michelson & Peace's stellar optical interferometer, but operates at a radio wavelength using a commercial broadcast satellite dish and receiver. Two side mirrors are surfaced with kitchen aluminum foil and slide on a ladder, providing baseline coverage. This interferometer can resolve and measure the diameter of the Sun, a nice daytime experiment which can be carried out even under a marginal weather (i.e., partial cloud coverage). Commercial broadcast satellites provide convenient point sources. By comparing the Sun and satellites, students can learn how an interferometer works and resolves structures in the sky.

  6. Two-Particle Four-Mode Interferometer for Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussarrat, Pierre; Perrier, Maxime; Imanaliev, Almazbek; Lopes, Raphael; Aspect, Alain; Cheneau, Marc; Boiron, Denis; Westbrook, Christoph I.

    2017-10-01

    We present a free-space interferometer to observe two-particle interference of a pair of atoms with entangled momenta. The source of atom pairs is a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a dynamical instability, and the interferometer is realized using Bragg diffraction on optical lattices, in the spirit of our recent Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment. We report on an observation ruling out the possibility of a purely mixed state at the input of the interferometer. We explain how our current setup can be extended to enable a test of a Bell inequality on momentum observables.

  7. A combined scanning tunnelling microscope and x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Koenders, Ludger; Weimann, Thomas

    2001-10-01

    A monolithic x-ray interferometer made from silicon and a scanning tunnelling microscope have been combined and used to calibrate grating structures with periodicities of 100 nm or less. The x-ray interferometer is used as a translation stage which moves in discrete steps of 0.192 nm, the lattice spacing of the silicon (220) planes. Hence, movements are traceable to the definition of the metre and the nonlinearity associated with the optical interferometers used to measure displacement in more conventional metrological scanning probe microscopes (MSPMs) removed.

  8. Development of holographic interferometer for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Sung Hoon; Shin, Jang Soo; Cho, Jai Wan; Kim, Duk Hyeon; Hong, Suck Kyoung; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Heon Jun; Park, Chang Jin

    1993-02-01

    This project sets the goal at development of holographic interferometer. In this interferometer, fringe localization and imaging of object are considered. And collimated beam and wedge are used for the high-speed recording and formation of carrier fringes, respectively. With this real-time holographic interferometer, not only experiments were conducted on natural convection and flame jet, but also on high speed flow phenomena such as shock wave propagation. Visualization of high-speed flow is recorded in high-speed camera with framing rate ∼ 35000f/s. And to analyze axis symmetric phase object, analysis program was developed. (Author)

  9. Using the Talbot_Lau_interferometer_parameters Spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Talbot-Lau interferometers allow incoherent X-ray sources to be used for phase contrast imaging. A spreadsheet for exploring the parameter space of Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometers has been assembled. This spreadsheet allows the user to examine the consequences of choosing phase grating pitch, source energy, and source location on the overall geometry of a Talbot or Talbot-Lau X-ray interferometer. For the X-ray energies required to penetrate scanned luggage the spacing between gratings is large enough that the mechanical tolerances for amplitude grating positioning are unlikely to be met.

  10. EIT Based Gas Detector Design by Using Michelson Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasian, K.; Rostami, A.; Abdollahi, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is one of the interesting phenomena of light-matter interaction which modifies matter properties for propagation of light. In other words, we can change the absorption and refractive index (RI) in neighborhood of the resonant frequency using EIT. In this paper, we have doped 3-level quantum dots in one of the Michelson Interferometer's mirror and used EIT to change its RI. So, a controllable phase difference between lights in two arms of interferometer is created. Long response time is the main drawback of Michelson interferometer based sensor, which is resolved by this technique.

  11. A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Kui, Mu; Chun-Min, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A static polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds is presented, based on two Savart plates with their optical axes perpendicular to each other. The principle and characteristics of the interferometer are described. The interferometer with a wide field of view can offer a stable benchmark optical path difference over a specified spectral region of 0.55–0.63 μm because there are no quarter wave plates. Since the instrument employs a straight line common-path configuration but without moving parts and slits, it is very compact, simple, inherently robust and has high throughput. The paper is limited to a theoretical analysis. (general)

  12. Multi-Aperture Digital Coherent Combining for Free-Space Optical Communication Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    emulated by a cascade of fiber beam splitters . Fig. 4(a) depicts the transmitter, which consisted of two cascaded Mach- Zehnder modulators (MZMs) that...Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2006). 5. D. O. Caplan, "Laser communication transmitter and receiver design ," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. 4(4-5), 225...and A. E. Willner, eds. (Elsevier, 2013). 7. S. B. Alexander, Optical Communication Receiver Design (SPIE, 1997). 8. D. M. Boroson, "A survey of

  13. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry–Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry–Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed. (paper)

  14. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry-Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed.

  15. Herriott Cell Augmentation of a Quadrature Heterodyne Interferometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A quadrature heterodyne interferometer is augmented with a Herriott Cell multi-pass reflector to increase instrument resolution and enable a separation of the phase shift due to neutral density from room vibrations...

  16. Slow-Light-Enhanced Spectral Interferometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposoe a research program aimed at developing spectral interferometers with dramatically enhanced performance. A key aspect of our approach is to place a highly...

  17. A Michelson interferometer for X-rays and thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, A.

    1992-01-01

    The introduced interferometer consists of an LLL interferometer and a phase-displacing Bragg groove component. A part of the radiation path between the Lane mirrors in the Bragg grooves is replaced by a radiation path, whose wave number vector has a slightly different direction compared to the Lane case by the refraction correction. If the angles of incidence in the two grooves are different, then a difference in path is produced between the beams producing interference. This is the first X-ray interferometer which works like an optical Michelson interferometer. As there are no basic limits to resolution by absorption or dispersion, for example, it opens up the possibility of carrying out Fourier spectroscopy in the A wavelength range. (orig.) [de

  18. Performance evaluation of a thermal Doppler Michelson interferometer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Reza; Dobbie, Steven; Scott, Alan; Shepherd, Gordon; Gault, William; Brown, Stephen

    2005-11-20

    The thermal Doppler Michelson interferometer is the primary element of a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument called SWIFT (Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies). SWIFT is intended to measure stratospheric wind velocities in the altitude range of 15-45 km. SWIFT also uses narrowband tandem etalon filters made of germanium to select a line out of the thermal spectrum. The instrument uses the same technique of phase-stepping interferometry employed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. A thermal emission line of ozone near 9 microm is used to detect the Doppler shift due to winds. A test bed was set up for this instrument that included the Michelson interferometer and the etalon filters. For the test bed work, we investigate the behavior of individual components and their combination and report the results.

  19. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  20. Effects of stray lights on Faraday rotation measurement for polarimeter-interferometer system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Ding, W X; Chen, J; Brower, D L; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Li, W M; Yao, Y; Zeng, L; Jie, Y X

    2018-01-01

    A double-pass radially view 11 chords polarimeter-interferometer system has been operated on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak and provides important current profile information for plasma control. Stray light originating from spurious reflections along the optical path (unwanted reflections from various optical components/mounts and transmissive optical elements such as windows, waveplates, and lens as well as the detectors) and also direct feedback from the retro-reflector used to realize the double-pass configuration can both contribute to contamination of the Faraday rotation measurement accuracy. Modulation of the Faraday rotation signal due to the interference from multiple reflections is observable when the interferometer phase (plasma density) varies with time. Direct reflection from the detector itself can be suppressed by employing an optical isolator consisting of a λ/4-waveplate and polarizer positioned in front of the mixer. A Faraday angle oscillation during the density ramping up (or down) can be reduced from 5°-10° to 1°-2° by eliminating reflections from the detector. Residual modulation arising from misalignment and stray light from other sources must be minimized to achieve accurate measurements of Faraday rotation.

  1. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  2. Comment on "Rovibrational quantum interferometers and gravitational waves"

    OpenAIRE

    Khriplovich, I. B.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Sushkov, A. O.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Wicht, L\\"ammerzahl, Lorek, and Dittus [Phys. Rev. {\\bf A 78}, 013610 (2008)] come to the conclusion that a molecular rotational-vibrational quantum interferometer may possess the sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves. We do not agree with their results and demonstrate here that the true sensitivity of such interferometer is many orders of magnitude worse than that claimed in the mentioned paper. In the present comment we estimate the expected energy shifts an...

  3. Design of an optical spatial interferometer with transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi, Atefeh; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply transformation optics to design an optical spatial interferometer. The transformation equations are described and two-dimensional finite element simulations are presented to numerically confirm the functionality of the device. It is shown that a small change in the refractive index can alter the interference pattern and hence can be detected. The design of the interferometer could expand transformation optics’ applications and make way for introduction of new structures with unique electromagnetic or optical functionalities. (paper)

  4. Two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odate, Satoru; Wang Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We have observed two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated two-photon quantum interference patterns, which show the transition from nonsubwavelength interference fringes to the general subwavelength interference. At the same time, a photon bunching effect was also shown by a postselection. The |1, 1> state with a single photon in a mode corresponding to each arm of the interferometer was exclusively postselected by using path difference between two arms

  5. Potentiality of an orbiting interferometer for space-time experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi Strini, A.M.; Strini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that by putting a Michelson interferometer aboard a spacecraft orbiting around the earth, very substantial progress could be made in space-time experiments. It is estimated that in measurements of e.g. some anisotropy of the light velocity, a spacecraft-borne interferometer of quite small size (0.1 m arm-length) would reach a sensitivity greater by a factor of approximately 10 8 than the best achievements to date of ground-based devices. (author)

  6. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-20

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10(-6)/°C near 550 nm, which corresponds to ∼800 m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Contribution to the theory of atom interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, Ch.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the study of atom interferometers. It consists of theoretical developments and more practical parts (modeling). As regards modeling, this work explains how to obtain a general analytical expression of the fringes signal, which particularly accounts for the simultaneous action of all the inertial and gravitational fields whose representative potential is at most quadratic in position and momentum (rotations, accelerations, gradients of acceleration, gravitational waves...), as well as the dispersive structuring due to atomic beam splitters in the presence of such external fields (velocity selection, anomalous dispersion and Borrmann effect). From a theoretical point of view, this thesis develops new tools of atom optics. They deal with the propagation of matter waves in unspecified inertial and gravitational fields (extension of the ABCD formalism using first integral operators), the study of laser beam splitters in the presence of some of these fields (generalized ttt scheme, strong fields ttt modeling, generalized Borrmann effect...), as well as the highlight of symplectic invariants which are very useful for the interpretation and the simplification of the phase shift expression ('homologous paths' and 'four end points theorem'). (author)

  8. The optical design concept of SPICA-SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, Willem; Kruizinga, Bob; Visser, Huib; van den Dool, Teun; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Eggens, Martin; Ferlet, Marc; Swinyard, Bruce; Dohlen, Kjetil; Griffin, Doug; Gonzalez Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Doi, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    The Safari instrument on the Japanese SPICA mission is a zodiacal background limited imaging spectrometer offering a photometric imaging (R ≍ 2), and a low (R = 100) and medium spectral resolution (R = 2000 at 100 μm) spectroscopy mode in three photometric bands covering the 34-210 μm wavelength range. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled arrays of very sensitive TES detectors providing a 2’x2’ instantaneous field of view. The all-reflective optical system of Safari is highly modular and consists of an input optics module containing the entrance shutter, a calibration source and a pair of filter wheels, followed by an interferometer and finally the camera bay optics accommodating the focal-plane arrays. The optical design is largely driven and constrained by volume inviting for a compact three-dimensional arrangement of the interferometer and camera bay optics without compromising the optical performance requirements associated with a diffraction- and background-limited spectroscopic imaging instrument. Central to the optics we present a flexible and compact non-polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer layout, with dual input and output ports, employing a novel FTS scan mechanism based on magnetic bearings and a linear motor. In this paper we discuss the conceptual design of the focal-plane optics and describe how we implement the optical instrument functions, define the photometric bands, deal with straylight control, diffraction and thermal emission in the long-wavelength limit and interface to the large-format FPA arrays at one end and the SPICA telescope assembly at the other end.

  9. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  10. Detecting mode hopping in single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring lasers based on an unbalanced fiber Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingxiang; Hu, Zhengliang; Xu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yongming

    2012-10-20

    A method of detecting mode hopping for single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber ring lasers has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method that is based on an unbalanced Michelson interferometer (MI) utilizing phase generated carrier modulation instantly transforms mode-hopping dynamics into steep phase changes of the interferometer. Multiform mode hops in an SLM erbium-doped fiber ring laser with an 18.6 MHz mode spacing have been detected exactly in real-time domain and discussed in detail. Numerical results show that the MI-based method has a high testing sensitivity for identifying mode hopping, which will play a significant role in evaluating the output stability of SLM fiber lasers.

  11. Michelson interferometer vibrometer using self-correcting synthetic-heterodyne demodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Michael J; Galeti, José Henrique; Kitano, Cláudio

    2015-06-20

    Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity detection in interferometric sensors, as it can provide an output signal that is immune to interferometric drift. With the advent of cost-effective, high-speed real-time signal-processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. In synthetic heterodyne, to obtain the actual dynamic displacement or vibration of the object under test requires knowledge of the interferometer visibility and also the argument of two Bessel functions. In this paper, a method is described for determining the former and setting the Bessel function argument to a set value, which ensures maximum sensitivity. Conventional synthetic-heterodyne demodulation requires the use of two in-phase local oscillators; however, the relative phase of these oscillators relative to the interferometric signal is unknown. It is shown that, by using two additional quadrature local oscillators, a demodulated signal can be obtained that is independent of this phase difference. The experimental interferometer is a Michelson configuration using a visible single-mode laser, whose current is sinusoidally modulated at a frequency of 20 kHz. The detected interferometer output is acquired using a 250 kHz analog-to-digital converter and processed in real time. The system is used to measure the displacement sensitivity frequency response and linearity of a piezoelectric mirror shifter over a range of 500 Hz to 10 kHz. The experimental results show good agreement with two data-obtained independent techniques: the signal coincidence and denominated n-commuted Pernick method.

  12. dc readout experiment at the Caltech 40m prototype interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R L; Adhikari, R; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Bork, R; Fricke, T; Heefner, J; Ivanov, A; Miyakawa, O; Smith, M; Taylor, R; Vass, S; Waldman, S; Weinstein, A; Barron, D; Frolov, V; McKenzie, K; Slagmolen, B

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) operates a 40m prototype interferometer on the Caltech campus. The primary mission of the prototype is to serve as an experimental testbed for upgrades to the LIGO interferometers and for gaining experience with advanced interferometric techniques, including detuned resonant sideband extraction (i.e. signal recycling) and dc readout (optical homodyne detection). The former technique will be employed in Advanced LIGO, and the latter in both Enhanced and Advanced LIGO. Using dc readout for gravitational wave signal extraction has several technical advantages, including reduced laser and oscillator noise couplings as well as reduced shot noise, when compared to the traditional rf readout technique (optical heterodyne detection) currently in use in large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The Caltech 40m laboratory is currently prototyping a dc readout system for a fully suspended interferometric gravitational wave detector. The system includes an optical filter cavity at the interferometer's output port, and the associated controls and optics to ensure that the filter cavity is optimally coupled to the interferometer. We present the results of measurements to characterize noise couplings in rf and dc readout using this system

  13. Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, H. J.; Levin, Yuri; Matsko, Andrey B.; Thorne, Kip S.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2002-01-01

    The LIGO-II gravitational-wave interferometers (ca. 2006-2008) are designed to have sensitivities near the standard quantum limit (SQL) in the vicinity of 100 Hz. This paper describes and analyzes possible designs for subsequent LIGO-III interferometers that can beat the SQL. These designs are identical to a conventional broad band interferometer (without signal recycling), except for new input and/or output optics. Three designs are analyzed: (i) a squeezed-input interferometer (conceived by Unruh based on earlier work of Caves) in which squeezed vacuum with frequency-dependent (FD) squeeze angle is injected into the interferometer's dark port; (ii) a variational-output interferometer (conceived in a different form by Vyatchanin, Matsko and Zubova), in which homodyne detection with FD homodyne phase is performed on the output light; and (iii) a squeezed-variational interferometer with squeezed input and FD-homodyne output. It is shown that the FD squeezed-input light can be produced by sending ordinary squeezed light through two successive Fabry-Pérot filter cavities before injection into the interferometer, and FD-homodyne detection can be achieved by sending the output light through two filter cavities before ordinary homodyne detection. With anticipated technology (power squeeze factor e-2R=0.1 for input squeezed vacuum and net fractional loss of signal power in arm cavities and output optical train ɛ*=0.01) and using an input laser power Io in units of that required to reach the SQL (the planned LIGO-II power, ISQL), the three types of interferometer could beat the amplitude SQL at 100 Hz by the following amounts μ≡(Sh)/(SSQLh) and with the following corresponding increase V=1/μ3 in the volume of the universe that can be searched for a given noncosmological source: Squeezed input-μ~=(e-2R)~=0.3 and V~=1/0.33~=30 using Io/ISQL=1. Variational-output-μ~=ɛ1/4*~=0.3 and V~=30 but only if the optics can handle a ten times larger power: Io/ISQL~=1/(ɛ*)=10

  14. Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.; Levin, Yuri; Thorne, Kip S.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2002-01-01

    The LIGO-II gravitational-wave interferometers (ca. 2006-2008) are designed to have sensitivities near the standard quantum limit (SQL) in the vicinity of 100 Hz. This paper describes and analyzes possible designs for subsequent LIGO-III interferometers that can beat the SQL. These designs are identical to a conventional broad band interferometer (without signal recycling), except for new input and/or output optics. Three designs are analyzed: (i) a squeezed-input interferometer (conceived by Unruh based on earlier work of Caves) in which squeezed vacuum with frequency-dependent (FD) squeeze angle is injected into the interferometer's dark port; (ii) a variational-output interferometer (conceived in a different form by Vyatchanin, Matsko and Zubova), in which homodyne detection with FD homodyne phase is performed on the output light; and (iii) a squeezed-variational interferometer with squeezed input and FD-homodyne output. It is shown that the FD squeezed-input light can be produced by sending ordinary squeezed light through two successive Fabry-Perot filter cavities before injection into the interferometer, and FD-homodyne detection can be achieved by sending the output light through two filter cavities before ordinary homodyne detection. With anticipated technology (power squeeze factor e -2R =0.1 for input squeezed vacuum and net fractional loss of signal power in arm cavities and output optical train ε * =0.01) and using an input laser power I o in units of that required to reach the SQL (the planned LIGO-II power, I SQL ), the three types of interferometer could beat the amplitude SQL at 100 Hz by the following amounts μ≡√(S h )/√(S h SQL ) and with the following corresponding increase V=1/μ 3 in the volume of the universe that can be searched for a given noncosmological source: Squeezed input--μ≅√(e -2R )≅0.3 and V≅1/0.3 3 ≅30 using I o /I SQL =1. Variational-output--μ≅ε * 1/4 ≅0.3 and V≅30 but only if the optics can handle a ten

  15. Digital signal processing for velocity measurements in dynamical material's behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlaminck, Julien; Luc, Jerome; Chanal, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe different configurations of optical fiber interferometers (types Michelson and Mach-Zehnder) used to measure velocities during dynamical material's behaviour studies. We detail the algorithms of processing developed and optimized to improve the performance of these interferometers especially in terms of time and frequency resolutions. Three methods of analysis of interferometric signals were studied. For Michelson interferometers, the time-frequency analysis of signals by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is compared to a time-frequency analysis by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results have shown that the CWT was more suitable than the STFT for signals with low signal-to-noise, and low velocity and high acceleration areas. For Mach- Zehnder interferometers, the measurement is carried out by analyzing the phase shift between three interferometric signals (Triature processing). These three methods of digital signal processing were evaluated, their measurement uncertainties estimated, and their restrictions or operational limitations specified from experimental results performed on a pulsed power machine. (authors)

  16. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Serroukh, Ibrahim; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application. PMID:22164040

  17. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jie; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  18. Phase-Shifting Liquid Crystal Interferometers for Microgravity Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.; Marshall, Keneth L.

    2002-01-01

    The initial focus of this project was to eliminate both of these problems in the Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI). Progress toward that goal will be described, along with the demonstration of a phase shifting Liquid Crystal Shearing Interferometer (LCSI) that was developed as part of this work. The latest LCPDI, other than a lens to focus the light from a test section onto a diffracting microsphere within the interferometer and a collimated laser for illumination, the pink region contained within the glass plates on the rod-mounted platform is the complete interferometer. The total width is approximately 1.5 inches with 0.25 inches on each side for bonding the electrical leads. It is 1 inch high and there are only four diffracting microspheres within the interferometer. As a result, it is very easy to align, achieving the first goal. The liquid crystal electro-optical response time is a function of layer thickness, with thinner devices switching faster due to a reduction in long-range viscoelastic forces between the LC molecules. The LCPDI has a liquid crystal layer thickness of 10 microns, which is controlled by plastic or glass microspheres embedded in epoxy 'pads' at the corners of the device. The diffracting spheres are composed of polystyrene/divinyl benzene polymer with an initial diameter of 15 microns. The spheres deform slightly when the interferometer is assembled to conform to the spacing produced by the microsphere-filled epoxy spacer pads. While the speed of this interferometer has not yet been tested, previous LCPDIs fabricated at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics switched at a rate of approximately 3.3 Hz, a factor of 10 slower than desired. We anticipate better performance when the speed of these interferometers is tested since they are approximately three times thinner. Phase shifting in these devices is a function of the AC voltage level applied to the liquid crystal. As the voltage increases, the dye in the liquid crystal

  19. Multiphoton- and simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Borde atom interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-01-01

    We report on our experiment to measure h/M, the ratio of the Planck constant to the mass of Cs atoms, and thereby the fine-structure constant. The target accuracy is 1 part per billion or better. We focus on two recent milestones: (i) The first realization of atom interferometers based on light-pulse beam splitters that transfer the momentum of up to 12 photon pairs, which increases the useful signal (matter wave phase shift) by a factor of 144 compared to the beam splitters used in the best present atom interferometers. Moreover, they lead to a cancellation of important systematic effects. (ii) The first realization of a simultaneous pair of conjugate Ramsey-Borde interferometers. In these, the relative sign of the inertial term is reversed so that it can be cancelled. Simultaneous operation means that this holds for a time-dependent inertial term (vibrations) too, which promises a substantial improvement in the signal to noise ratio

  20. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N

    2012-06-30

    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  1. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jie, E-mail: shenjie1988@ipp.ac.cn; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported.

  2. CO laser interferometer for REB-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmasov, V.S.; Kruglyakov, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Michelson carbon oxide laser interferometer for measuring plasma density in studies on REB-plasma interaction is described. A detail description of the interferometer and CO laser is presented. For a selection of a single wavelength laser operation the CaF 2 prism is applied. A Ge:Au photoconductor at 77 deg K is applied as the detector. The CO laser radiation at λ 5.34 μm coincides with the detector maximum sensitivity (of the order of 1000 V/W). This increases the interferometer sensitivity about ten times with respect to the He-Ne laser (λ = 3.39 μm) used as the source of light. The typical interferogram and time evolution of plasma density obtained at GOL-M device are presented. (author). 3 figs., 5 refs

  3. The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Conte, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); De Laurentis, Martina, E-mail: martina.delaurentis@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Naticchioni, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Puppo, Paola [INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Ricci, Fulvio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.

  4. 30-lens interferometer for high energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubomirskiy, M., E-mail: lyubomir@esrf.fr; Snigireva, I., E-mail: irina@esrf.fr; Vaughan, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 71, av des Martyrs, F-38043, Grenoble (France); Kohn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Snigirev, A. [Baltic Federal University, 236041, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-27

    We report a hard X-ray multilens interferometer consisting of 30 parallel compound refractive lenses. Under coherent illumination each CRL creates a diffraction limited focal spot - secondary source. An overlapping of coherent beams from these sources resulting in the interference pattern which has a rich longitudinal structure in accordance with the Talbot imaging formalism. The proposed interferometer was experimentally tested at ID11 ESRF beamline for the photon energies 32 keV and 65 keV. The fundamental and fractional Talbot images were recorded with the high resolution CCD camera. An effective source size in the order of 15 µm was determined from the first Talbot image proving that the multilens interferometer can be used as a high resolution beam diagnostic tool.

  5. The Virgo gravitational wave interferometer: status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The first recording of a signal from a binary neutron star system by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers, and the observation of its remnants by telescopes in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, marked the beginning of multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves. This followed the detection of gravitational wave signals by the LIGO interferometers in 2015, which started the detailed study of highly curved space time. These achievements come after decades of work spent understanding how to measure the tiny space time strain (h ~ 10-21) carried by gravitational waves. In the future, detectors will able to extract much more precise information from these events, or record signals from fainter sources, providing a new view of the Universe. After a presentation of the Virgo interferometer, the main results obtained from binary black hole and neutron star detection are reviewed. The focus will then shift on the perspective offered by a further reduction of noise in ground based interf...

  6. CO laser interferometer for REB-plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmasov, V S; Kruglyakov, E P [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The Michelson carbon oxide laser interferometer for measuring plasma density in studies on REB-plasma interaction is described. A detail description of the interferometer and CO laser is presented. For a selection of a single wavelength laser operation the CaF{sub 2} prism is applied. A Ge:Au photoconductor at 77 deg K is applied as the detector. The CO laser radiation at {lambda} 5.34 {mu}m coincides with the detector maximum sensitivity (of the order of 1000 V/W). This increases the interferometer sensitivity about ten times with respect to the He-Ne laser ({lambda} = 3.39 {mu}m) used as the source of light. The typical interferogram and time evolution of plasma density obtained at GOL-M device are presented. (author). 3 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Optimum design of a microwave interferometer for plasma density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.; Eriksson, A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical and practical problems arising in the application of microwave interferometry to density measurements on transient plasmas are discussed. The conditions for unambiquous measurements in a density range as wide as possible are analyzed. It is shown that the initial zero adjustment of the interferometer bridge recommended in many text books is the worst possible choice of initial condition when the aim is high initial sensitivity at low densities. The analytic expressions needed for unambiquous evaluation of any phase shift from a few degrees to several times π (counting of fringes) are derived. The practical design of the interferometer circuit and its inherent error sources due to reflexions and non-ideal component properties are discussed. The results are applied to an interferometer operating at 80 GHz used on a pulsed plasma experiment. The minimum measurable phase shift is 2deg and the range of linear densities that have been measured is = 1 . 10 16 - 3 . 10 18 m -2

  8. Parallel Wavefront Analysis for a 4D Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti R.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a programming interface for automating data collection with a PhaseCam interferometer from 4D Technology, and distributing the image-processing algorithm across a cluster of general-purpose computers. Multiple instances of 4Sight (4D Technology s proprietary software) run on a networked cluster of computers. Each connects to a single server (the controller) and waits for instructions. The controller directs the interferometer to several images, then assigns each image to a different computer for processing. When the image processing is finished, the server directs one of the computers to collate and combine the processed images, saving the resulting measurement in a file on a disk. The available software captures approximately 100 images and analyzes them immediately. This software separates the capture and analysis processes, so that analysis can be done at a different time and faster by running the algorithm in parallel across several processors. The PhaseCam family of interferometers can measure an optical system in milliseconds, but it takes many seconds to process the data so that it is usable. In characterizing an adaptive optics system, like the next generation of astronomical observatories, thousands of measurements are required, and the processing time quickly becomes excessive. A programming interface distributes data processing for a PhaseCam interferometer across a Windows computing cluster. A scriptable controller program coordinates data acquisition from the interferometer, storage on networked hard disks, and parallel processing. Idle time of the interferometer is minimized. This architecture is implemented in Python and JavaScript, and may be altered to fit a customer s needs.

  9. Local readout enhancement for detuned signal-recycling interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, Henning; Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Somiya, Kentaro; Chen Yanbei; Li Chao

    2007-01-01

    High power detuned signal-recycling interferometers currently planned for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (for example Advanced LIGO) are characterized by two resonances in the detection band, an optical resonance and an optomechanical resonance which is upshifted from the suspension pendulum frequency due to the so-called optical-spring effect. The detector's sensitivity is enhanced around these two resonances. However, at frequencies below the optomechanical resonance frequency, the sensitivity of such interferometers is significantly lower than non-optical-spring configurations with comparable circulating power; such a drawback can also compromise high-frequency sensitivity, when an optimization is performed on the overall sensitivity of the interferometer to a class of sources. In this paper, we clarify the reason for such a low sensitivity, and propose a way to fix this problem. Motivated by the optical-bar scheme of Braginsky, Gorodetsky, and Khalili, we propose to add a local readout scheme which measures the motion of the arm-cavity front mirror, which at low frequencies moves together with the arm-cavity end mirror, under the influence of gravitational waves. This scheme improves the low-frequency quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of optical-spring interferometers significantly and can be considered as an incorporation of the optical-bar scheme into currently planned second-generation interferometers. On the other hand it can be regarded as an extension of the optical-bar scheme. Taking compact binary inspiral signals as an example, we illustrate how this scheme can be used to improve the sensitivity of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometer, in various scenarios, using a realistic classical-noise budget. We also discuss how this scheme can be implemented in Advanced LIGO with relative ease

  10. A Milestone for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Less than one month after "First Light" for the fourth 8.2-m YEPUN telescope ( ESO PR 18/00 ), another special moment occurred at ESO's Paranal Observatory. This time, it was the first truly "underground" event, in the 168-metre long Interferometric Tunnel that has been dug beneath the platform at the top of the mountain. As one staff member remarked on this occasion, it was something like "the first scheduled trip of the Paranal metro"! With the successful integration of the first Delay Line on Monday, September 25th, 2000, ESO has accomplished another important step towards the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It will be followed by the integration of the second Delay Line by the end of November and the third is scheduled for February 2001; both are now in their final development phase in Europe. "VLTI First Light" is then expected to take place soon thereafter, by means of two small special telescopes ("siderostats"). The combination of the light beams from two of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes will happen in mid-2001. The VLTI Delay Lines The VLTI Delay Lines form essential parts of this very complicated optical system. They serve to ensure that the light beams from several telescopes arrive in phase at the common interferometric focus. Details about how they function may be found in ESO PR 04/98. In order to achieve the necessary performance, ESO has worked with two Dutch contractors, Fokker Space and TNO-TPD - Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research - Institute of Applied Physics , to arrive at a totally new Delay Line concept. Another Dutch participant in the VLTI project is the Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) , cf. ESO PR 14/00. The installation at Paranal The last twelve months have been very busy for the integration team, with much preparatory work at the VLTI buildings for the final installation of the Delay Line systems. The assembly of the translation mechanisms for the first two Delay Lines in the tunnel started in mid-2000. This included

  11. Characterisation of a resolution enhancing image inversion interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Kai; Sindbert, Simon; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2009-08-31

    Image inversion interferometers have the potential to significantly enhance the lateral resolution and light efficiency of scanning fluorescence microscopes. Self-interference of a point source's coherent point spread function with its inverted copy leads to a reduction in the integrated signal for off-axis sources compared to sources on the inversion axis. This can be used to enhance the resolution in a confocal laser scanning microscope. We present a simple image inversion interferometer relying solely on reflections off planar surfaces. Measurements of the detection point spread function for several types of light sources confirm the predicted performance and suggest its usability for scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  12. A SIMPLE HETERODYNE TEMPORAL SPECKLE-PATTERN INTERFEROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W. O.; Gao, Z.; Lu, J.

    2010-01-01

    A common light path design of heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer based on temporal speckle pattern interferometry is proposed for non-contact, full-field and real-time continuous displacement measurement. Double frequency laser is produced by rotating a half wave plate. An experiment was carried out to measure the dynamic displacement of a cantilever plate for testing the proposed common path heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer. The accuracy of displacement measurement was checked by measuring the motion at the mid-point of the plate with a point displacement sensor.

  13. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  14. Detectability of periodic gravitational waves by initial interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01

    I review three recent theoretical developments in neutron star physics predicting that rotating neutron stars could be very strong emitters of periodic gravitational waves. These imply a small but nonzero chance that ground-based interferometers could detect their first periodic signal in the next few years rather than after advanced upgrades. They also imply that upper limits will become astrophysically interesting before advanced upgrades. I discuss the implications for near-future searches and for the astrophysical payoffs of proposed small upgrades to initial interferometers

  15. A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, L K; Liu, A Q; Soh, Y C; Lim, C S; Lin, C L

    2010-04-21

    This paper presents a novel optofluidic Michelson interferometer based on droplet microfluidics used to create a droplet grating. The droplet grating is formed by a stream of plugs in the microchannel with constant refractive index variation. It has a real-time tunability in the grating period through varying the flow rates of the liquids and index variation via different combinations of liquids. The optofluidic Michelson interferometer is highly sensitive and is suitable for the measurement of biomedical and biochemical buffer solutions. The experimental results show that it has a sensitivity of 66.7 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a detection range of 0.086 RIU.

  16. Near-infrared spectral imaging Michelson interferometer for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of an imaging Michelson interferometer-spectrometer used for near-infrared (0.8 micron to 2.5 microns) spectral imaging are reported. The system employs a rapid scan interferometer modified for stable low resolution (250/cm) performance and a 42 element PbS linear detector array. A microcomputer system is described which provides data acquisition, coadding, and Fourier transformation for near real-time presentation of the spectra of all 42 scene elements. The electronic and mechanical designs are discussed and telescope performance data presented.

  17. Theorem of comparative sensitivity of fibre sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belovolov, M. I.; Paramonov, V. M.; Belovolov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We report an analysis of sensitivity of fibre sensors of physical quantities based on different types of interferometers. We formulate and prove the following theorem: under the time-dependent external physical perturbations at nonzero frequencies (i.e., except the static and low-frequency ones) on the sensitive arms of an interferometer in the form of multiturn elements (coils), there exist such lengths L of the measuring arms of the fibre interferometers at which the sensitivity of sensors based on the Sagnac fibre interferometers can be comparable with the sensitivity of sensors based on Michelson, Mach - Zehnder, or Fabry - Perot fibre interferometers, as well as exceed it under similar other conditions (similar-type perturbations, similar arm lengths and single-mode fibre types). The consequences that follow from the theorem, important for practical implementation of arrays of fibre sensors for measurement purposes and the devices with stable metrological properties, are discussed.

  18. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  19. Diagnostics of gas behind shock waves by refractive optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    In a brief outline of optical methods for measuring neutral gas and plasma parameters, techniques are specifically dealt with based on the interferometric measurement of the refractive index. The investigation is shown of gas density changes in a shock tube using the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. While in a neutral gas the refractive index is determined by gas density, in a plasma the effects of all components, ie., electrons, ions and atoms are additive. The contributions to refraction from the various components may, in view of the different character and frequencies of the components, be resolved by measurement on more than one wavelength. (J.U.)

  20. A blueprint for a simultaneous test of quantum mechanics and general relativity in a space-based quantum optics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallister, Sam [University of Bristol, School of Mathematics, Bristol (United Kingdom); Coop, Simon [The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Barcelona (Spain); Formichella, Valerio [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Gampierakis, Nicolas [University of East Anglia, School of Natural Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Notaro, Virginia [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rome (Italy); Knott, Paul [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Azevedo, Rui [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Buchheim, Nikolaus [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); De Carvalho, Silvio [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Aerospace Engineering Department, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Jaervelae, Emilia [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Kylmaelae (Finland); Aalto University Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Laporte, Matthieu [Universite Paris Diderot, APC (AstroParticule et Cosmologie), Paris (France); Kaikkonen, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto (Finland); Meshksar, Neda [Leibniz University Hanover, Albert Einstein Institute, Hanover (Germany); Nikkanen, Timo [Aalto University Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Radar and Space Technology Research Group, Helsinki (Finland); Yttergren, Madeleine [Chalmers University of Technology, Physics and Astronomy, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper we propose an experiment designed to observe a general-relativistic effect on single photon interference. The experiment consists of a folded Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with the arms distributed between a single Earth orbiter and a ground station. By compensating for other degrees of freedom and the motion of the orbiter, this setup aims to detect the influence of general relativistic time dilation on a spatially superposed single photon. The proposal details a payload to measure the required effect, along with an extensive feasibility analysis given current technological capabilities. (orig.)

  1. Broadband Silicon-On-Insulator directional couplers using a combination of straight and curved waveguide sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George F R; Ong, Jun Rong; Ang, Thomas Y L; Lim, Soon Thor; Png, Ching Eng; Tan, Dawn T H

    2017-08-03

    Broadband Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) directional couplers are designed based on a combination of curved and straight coupled waveguide sections. A design methodology based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) is used to determine the required coupler section lengths, radii, and waveguide cross-sections. A 50/50 power splitter with a measured bandwidth of 88 nm is designed and fabricated, with a device footprint of 20 μm × 3 μm. In addition, a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is fabricated showing an extinction ratio of >16 dB over 100 nm of bandwidth.

  2. Atom-Interferometry Tests of the Isotropy of Post-Newtonian Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven; Chung, Keng-Yeow

    2008-01-01

    We present a test of the local Lorentz invariance of post-Newtonian gravity by monitoring Earth's gravity with a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer that features a resolution of up to 8x10 -9 g/√(Hz), the highest reported thus far. Expressed within the standard model extension (SME) or Nordtvedt's anisotropic universe model, the analysis limits four coefficients describing anisotropic gravity at the ppb level and three others, for the first time, at the 10 ppm level. Using the SME we explicitly demonstrate how the experiment actually compares the isotropy of gravity and electromagnetism

  3. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  4. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  5. Photonic entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check encoders and decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2010-05-01

    I propose encoder and decoder architectures for entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes suitable for all-optical implementation. I show that two basic gates needed for EA quantum error correction, namely, controlled-NOT (CNOT) and Hadamard gates can be implemented based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition, I show that EA quantum LDPC codes from balanced incomplete block designs of unitary index require only one entanglement qubit to be shared between source and destination.

  6. High-dimensional quantum key distribution based on multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    is intrinsically limited to 1 bit/photon. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on space division multiplexing in multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated lightwave circuits. We successfully realized three mutually......-dimensional quantum states, and enables breaking the information efficiency limit of traditional quantum key distribution protocols. In addition, the silicon photonic circuits used in our work integrate variable optical attenuators, highly efficient multicore fiber couplers, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, enabling...

  7. Photonic linear chirped microwave signal generation based on the ultra-compact spectral shaper using the slow light effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Gao, Shengqian; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept to generate a linear chirped microwave signal is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The frequency to time mapping method is employed, where the photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure acts as the spectral shaper thanks to the slow light effect. By o....... The utilization of the slow light effect brings in significant advantages, including the ultra-small footprint of 0.096 mm(2) and simple structure to our scheme, which may be of great importance towards its potential applications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  8. Application of quantum key distribution for mutual identification - experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.; Haderka, O.; Hendrych, M.

    1998-01-01

    A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are 're fuelled' from a shared secret key transferred over a quantum channel. The question of authentication of information sent over a public channel is discussed. An apparatus using two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers has been built, and quantum key distribution and 'quantum identification' have been successfully tested through a single-mode optical fibre at 830 nm, employing low intensity coherent states (below 0,1 photons per pulse). (author)

  9. Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes

  10. Multi-spectral quantitative phase imaging based on filtration of light via ultrasonic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machikhin, A. S.; Polschikova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Pozhar, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    A new digital holographic microscopy scheme for multi-spectral quantitative phase imaging is proposed and implemented. It is based on acousto-optic filtration of wide-band low-coherence light at the entrance of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, recording and digital processing of interferograms. The key requirements for the acousto-optic filter are discussed. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by calculating the phase maps of human red blood cells at multiple wavelengths in the range 770-810 nm. The scheme can be used for the measurement of dispersion of thin films and biological samples.

  11. Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Casamassima, Biagio; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Guided-wave optical biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Advantages related to optical technologies are presented and integrated architectures are investigated in detail. Main classes of bio receptors and the most attractive optical transduction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility to use Mach-Zehnder and Young interferometers, microdisk and microring resonators, surface plasmon resonance, hollow and antiresonant waveguides, and Bragg gratings to realize very sensitive and selective, ultra-compact and fast biosensors is discussed. Finally, CMOS-compatible technologies are proved to be the most attractive for fabrication of guided-wave photonic biosensors.

  12. High sensitivity optical biosensor based on polymer materials and using the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuelos, Paul; Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Thual, Monique; Lemaître, Jonathan; Pirasteh, Parastesh; Hardy, Isabelle; Charrier, Joël

    2017-11-27

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10 -6 RIU.

  13. Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneau, D; Engin, E; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G; Ohira, K; Suzuki, N; Yoshida, H; Iizuka, N; Ezaki, M; Natarajan, C M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Dorenbos, S N; Zwiller, V

    2012-01-01

    Integrated quantum photonic waveguide circuits are a promising approach to realizing future photonic quantum technologies. Here, we present an integrated photonic quantum technology platform utilizing the silicon-on-insulator material system, where quantum interference and the manipulation of quantum states of light are demonstrated in components orders of magnitude smaller than previous implementations. Two-photon quantum interference is presented in a multi-mode interference coupler, and the manipulation of entanglement is demonstrated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, opening the way to an all-silicon photonic quantum technology platform. (paper)

  14. Applications of the lateral shearing interferometer in measurement of synchrotron radiation optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wu-ming; Takacs, P.Z.; Siddons, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    The use of a single plate shearing, or Murty, interferometer for measuring the surface quality of several optical elements is reviewed and several results are given. The principle of the Murty interferometer is also explained

  15. Validation of separated source frequency delivery for a fiber-coupled heterodyne displacement interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of optical fibers presents several advantages with respect to free-space optical transport regarding sourcefrequency delivery to individual heterodyne interferometers. Unfortunately, fiber delivery to individual coaxial heterodyne interferometers leads to an increase of (periodic)

  16. Fourier optical cryptosystem using complex spatial modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, T; Koppa, P

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to enhance the security level of a Fourier optical encryption system. Therefore we propose a Mach–Zehnder interferometer based encryption setup. The input data is organized in a binary array, and it is encoded in the two wave fronts propagated in the arms of the interferometer. Both input wave fronts are independently encrypted by Fourier systems, hence the proposed method has two encryption keys. During decryption, the encrypted wave fronts are propagated through the interferometer setup. The interference pattern of the output shows the reconstructed data in cases where the correct decryption Fourier keys are used. We propose a novel input image modulation method with a user defined phase parameter. We show that the security level of the proposed cryptosystem can be enhanced by an optimally chosen phase parameter. (paper)

  17. Results from a multi aperture Fizeau interferometer ground testbed: demonstrator for a future space-based interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccichet, Nicola; Caillat, Amandine; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Dohlen, Kjetil; Savini, Giorgio; Marcos, Michel

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the European FP7-FISICA (Far Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) program, we developed a miniaturized version of the hyper-telescope to demonstrate multi-aperture interferometry on ground. This setup would be ultimately integrated into a CubeSat platform, therefore providing the first real demonstrator of a multi aperture Fizeau interferometer in space. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the ground testbed and the data processing pipeline implemented to reconstruct the object image from interferometric data. As a scientific application, we measured the Sun diameter by fitting a limb-darkening model to our data. Finally, we present the design of a CubeSat platform carrying this miniature Fizeau interferometer, which could be used to monitor the Sun diameter over a long in-orbit period.

  18. Applications of phase-contrast x-ray imaging to medicine using an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-10-01

    We are investigating possible medical applications of phase- contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer. This paper introduces the strategy of the research project and the present status. The main subject is to broaden the observation area to enable in vivo observation. For this purpose, large X-ray interferometers were developed, and 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns were generated using synchrotron X-rays. An improvement of the spatial resolution is also included in the project, and an X-ray interferometer designed for high-resolution phase-contrast X-ray imaging was fabricated and tested. In parallel with the instrumental developments, various soft tissues are observed by phase- contrast X-ray CT to find correspondence between the generated contrast and our histological knowledge. The observation done so far suggests that cancerous tissues are differentiated from normal tissues and that blood can produce phase contrast. Furthermore, this project includes exploring materials that modulate phase contrast for selective imaging.

  19. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs

  20. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  1. Broadband sensitivity enhancement of detuned dual-recycled Michelson interferometers with EPR entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel D.; Miao, Haixing; Collins, Chris; Mow-Lowry, Conor; Töyrä, Daniel; Freise, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the applicability of the EPR entanglement squeezing scheme for enhancing the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of detuned dual-recycled Michelson interferometers. In particular, this scheme is applied to the GEO600 interferometer. The effect of losses throughout the interferometer, arm length asymmetries, and imperfect separation of the signal and idler beams is considered.

  2. Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zebin; Xu, Guangyao; Ni, Kai; Zhou, Qian; Wu, Guanhao

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact system of synchronization for two fiber-based optical frequency comb lasers. We use a free-running continuous wave laser as an intermediary to obtain the relative noise of two combs and employ an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator (EOM) to achieve active phase feedback for fast synchronization. The EOM bandwidth is 150 kHz and the relative linewidth is suppressed markedly from 300 kHz to sub-hertz values. The relative effective timing jitter of the two pulse trains is also decreased from 680 fs to 25 fs. The proposed method shows promise for developing a high-performance, low-cost, fiber-based dual-comb interferometer for ranging or spectroscopy.

  3. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4719 (2013)24322115]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838

  4. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-03-10

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated.

  5. Interferometric measurement of refractive index modification in a single mode microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Ahsani, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient and cost effective measurement of the refractive index profile in an optical fiber is a significant technical job to design and manufacture in-fiber photonic devices and communication systems. For instance, to design fiber gratings, it is required to estimate the refractive index modulation to be inscribed by the fabrication apparatus such as ultraviolet or infrared lasers. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based quantification of refractive index change written in single mode microfiber by femtosecond laser radiation is presented in this study. The MZI is constructed by splicing a microfiber (core diameter: 3.75 μm, cladding diameter: 40 μm) between standard single mode fibers. To measure the RI inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser, 200 μm length of the core within the MZI was scanned with laser radiation. As the higher index was written within 200 μm length of the core, the transmission spectrum of the interferometer displayed a corresponding red shift. The observed spectral shift was used to calculate the amount of refractive index change inscribed by the femtosecond irradiation. For the MZI length of 3.25 mm, and spectral shift of 0.8 nm, the calculated refractive index was found to be 0.00022. The reported results display excellent agreement between theory and experimental findings. Demonstrated method provides simple yet very effective on-site measurement of index change in optical fibers. Since the MZI can be constructed in diverse fiber types, this technique offers flexibility to quantify index change in various optical fibers.

  6. Last technology and results from the IOTA interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Ettore; Traub, Wesley A.; Monnier, John D.; Schuller, Peter A.; Ragland, Sam; Berger, Jean–Philippe; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Wallace, Gary; Burke, Michael; Lacasse, Marc G.; Thureau, Nathalie D.; Carleton, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    The infrared optical telescope array (IOTA), one of the most productive interferometers in term of science and new technologies was decommissioned in summer 2006. We discuss the testing of a low-resolution spectrograph coupled with the IOTA-3T integrated-optics beam combiner and some of the scientific results obtained from this instrument.

  7. galario: Gpu Accelerated Library for Analyzing Radio Interferometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzari, Marco; Beaujean, Frederik; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-10-01

    The galario library exploits the computing power of modern graphic cards (GPUs) to accelerate the comparison of model predictions to radio interferometer observations. It speeds up the computation of the synthetic visibilities given a model image (or an axisymmetric brightness profile) and their comparison to the observations.

  8. Talbot Carpet Simulation for X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngju; Oh, Ohsung; Jeong, Hanseong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul; Moon, Myungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, Talbot carpet simulator has been developed to visualize the X-ray grating interference patterns in grating interferometer. We have simulated X-ray interference for a variety of simulations and demonstrated a few examples in this summary. Grating interferometer produces interference of X-ray called Talbot pattern with gratings manufactured in micro scale. Talbot pattern is self-images of phase grating which develops interference as beam splitter that is one of gratings consisted of interferometer. As the other gratings, there are source grating makes coherence and analyze grating is used to analyze interference onto detector. Talbot carpet has been studied as the beam behavior which is distinguished with common X-ray imaging systems. It is helpful to understand grating interferometer and possible to expect beams' oscillation for designing theoretically. We confirm pattern has periodicity produced by interference after pi and pi/2 phase grating and changes in the perpendicular direction to entrance face according to phase objects.

  9. Virgo: a laser interferometer to detect gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Accadia, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; van der Voet, H.; Mul, F.A.; Rabeling, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a complete description of Virgo, the French-Italian gravitational wave detector. The detector, built at Cascina, near Pisa (Italy), is a very large Michelson interferometer, with 3 km-long arms. In this paper, following a presentation of the physics requirements, leading to the

  10. Off-Diagonal Geometric Phase in a Neutron Interferometer Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Loidl, R.; Baron, M.; Badurek, G.; Rauch, H.

    2001-01-01

    Off-diagonal geometric phases acquired by an evolution of a 1/2 -spin system have been observed by means of a polarized neutron interferometer. We have successfully measured the off-diagonal phase for noncyclic evolutions even when the diagonal geometric phase is undefined. Our data confirm theoretical predictions and the results illustrate the significance of the off-diagonal phase

  11. Quantitative Phase Determination by Using a Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Juan A.; Molina, Pablo F.; D'Angelo, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer is one of the best established tools for quantitative interferometric measurements. It has been, and is still successfully used, not only for scientific purposes, but it is also introduced in undergraduate courses for qualitative demonstrations as well as for quantitative determination of several properties such as…

  12. Measurement of Refractive Index Using a Michelson Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a novel and simple method of measuring the refractive index of transparent plates using a Michelson interferometer. Since it is necessary to use a computer program when determining the refractive index, undergraduates could be given the opportunity of writing their own programs. (Author/JN)

  13. Correlation functions formed by a femtosecond pulse interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, M.; Bhattacharya, N.; Urbach, H.P.; Van den berg, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a stabilized femtosecond frequency comb can be applied as a tool for distance measurement. The scheme is based on optical interference between individual pulses in a Michelson type interferometer. The cross-correlation functions between individual pulses with a

  14. Modelling of Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sagnac Ultrasound Interferometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonic waves are used extensively in nondestructive testing both for characterization of material properties, in this paper, we describe a fiber optic sensor suitable for detection of ultrasonic waves. This sensor is based on an extrinsic fiber optic sagnac interferometer. The proposed sensor model can act as a conventional ...

  15. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is ...

  16. Comparison of the performance of the next generation of optical interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco; Yacoot, Andrew; Balling, Petr; Bancone, Nicola; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Çelik, Mehmet; Flügge, Jens; Hamid, Ramiz; Köchert, Paul; Kren, Petr; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Lassila, Antti; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Şahin, Ersoy; Seppä, Jeremias; Tedaldi, Matthew; Weichert, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Six European National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) have joined forces within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE to develop the next generation of optical interferometers having a target uncertainty of 10 pm. These are needed for NMIs to provide improved traceable dimensional metrology that can be disseminated to the wider nanotechnology community, thereby supporting the growth in nanotechnology. Several approaches were followed in order to develop the interferometers. This paper briefly describes the different interferometers developed by the various partners and presents the results of a comparison of performance of the optical interferometers using an x-ray interferometer to generate traceable reference displacements.

  17. Thermal stability control system of photo-elastic interferometer in the PEM-FTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. J.; Jing, N.; Li, K. W.; Wang, Z. B.

    2018-01-01

    A drifting model for the resonant frequency and retardation amplitude of a photo-elastic modulator (PEM) in the photo-elastic modulated Fourier transform spectrometer (PEM-FTs) is presented. A multi-parameter broadband-matching driving control method is proposed to improve the thermal stability of the PEM interferometer. The automatically frequency-modulated technology of the driving signal based on digital phase-locked technology is used to track the PEM's changing resonant frequency. Simultaneously the maximum optical-path-difference of a laser's interferogram is measured to adjust the amplitude of the PEM's driving signal so that the spectral resolution is stable. In the experiment, the multi-parameter broadband-matching control method is applied to the driving control system of the PEM-FTs. Control of resonant frequency and retardation amplitude stabilizes the maximum optical-path-difference to approximately 236 μm and results in a spectral resolution of 42 cm-1. This corresponds to a relative error smaller than 2.16% (4.28 standard deviation). The experiment shows that the method can effectively stabilize the spectral resolution of the PEM-FTs.

  18. Transceivers and receivers for quantum key distribution and methods pertaining thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher; Sarovar, Mohan; Soh, Daniel B.S.; Lentine, Anthony; Davids, Paul; Camacho, Ryan

    2018-02-27

    Various technologies for performing continuous-variable (CV) and discrete-variable (DV) quantum key distribution (QKD) with integrated electro-optical circuits are described herein. An integrated DV-QKD system uses Mach-Zehnder modulators to modulate a polarization of photons at a transmitter and select a photon polarization measurement basis at a receiver. An integrated CV-QKD system uses wavelength division multiplexing to send and receive amplitude-modulated and phase-modulated optical signals with a local oscillator signal while maintaining phase coherence between the modulated signals and the local oscillator signal.

  19. Compact all-fiber interferometer system for shock acceleration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Pi, Shaohua; Hong, Guangwei; Zhao, Dong; Jia, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Acceleration measurement plays an important role in a variety of fields in science and engineering. In particular, the accurate, continuous and non-contact recording of the shock acceleration profiles of the free target surfaces is considered as a critical technique in shock physics. Various kinds of optical interferometers have been developed to monitor the motion of the surfaces of shocked targets since the 1960s, for instance, the velocity interferometer system for any reflector, the fiber optic accelerometer, the photonic Doppler velocimetry system and the displacement interferometer. However, most of such systems rely on the coherent quasi-monochromatic illumination and discrete optic elements, which are costly in setting-up and maintenance. In 1996, L. Levin et al reported an interferometric fiber-optic Doppler velocimeter with high-dynamic range, in which fiber-coupled components were used to replace the discrete optic elements. However, the fringe visibility of the Levin's system is low because of the coupled components, which greatly limits the reliability and accuracy in the shock measurement. In this paper, a compact all-fiber interferometer system for measuring the shock acceleration is developed and tested. The advantage of the system is that not only removes the non-interfering light and enhances the fringe visibility, but also reduces polarization induced signal fading and the polarization induced phase shift. Moreover, it also does not require a source of long coherence length. The system bases entirely on single-mode fiber optics and mainly consists of a polarization beam splitter, a faraday rotator, a depolarizer and a 3×3 single-mode fiber coupler which work at 1310 nm wavelength. The optical systems of the interferometer are described and the experimental results compared with a shock acceleration calibration system with a pneumatic exciter (PneuShockTM Model 9525C by The Modal Shop) are reported. In the shock acceleration test, the

  20. Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2009-07-20

    Coherence properties of the photon pair generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser are studied with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Each photon of the pair enters a different input port of the interferometer and the biphoton coherence properties are studied with a two-photon detector placed at one output port. When the photon pair simultaneously enters the interferometer, periodic recurrence of the biphoton de Broglie wave packet is observed, closely resembling the coherence properties of the pump diode laser. With non-zero delays between the photons at the input ports, biphoton interference exhibits the same periodic recurrence but the wave packet shapes are shown to be dependent on both the input delay as well as the interferometer delay. These properties could be useful for building engineered entangled photon sources based on diode laser-pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  1. Superconducting Quantum Interferometers for Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Faley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We review stationary and mobile systems that are used for the nondestructive evaluation of room temperature objects and are based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs. The systems are optimized for samples whose dimensions are between 10 micrometers and several meters. Stray magnetic fields from small samples (10 µm–10 cm are studied using a SQUID microscope equipped with a magnetic flux antenna, which is fed through the walls of liquid nitrogen cryostat and a hole in the SQUID’s pick-up loop and returned sidewards from the SQUID back to the sample. The SQUID microscope does not disturb the magnetization of the sample during image recording due to the decoupling of the magnetic flux antenna from the modulation and feedback coil. For larger samples, we use a hand-held mobile liquid nitrogen minicryostat with a first order planar gradiometric SQUID sensor. Low-Tc DC SQUID systems that are designed for NDE measurements of bio-objects are able to operate with sufficient resolution in a magnetically unshielded environment. High-Tc DC SQUID magnetometers that are operated in a magnetic shield demonstrate a magnetic field resolution of ~4 fT/√Hz at 77 K. This sensitivity is improved to ~2 fT/√Hz at 77 K by using a soft magnetic flux antenna.

  2. Report on the set-up of a holographic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.

    1977-10-01

    Holographic interferometry is well suited for visualizing temperature, density, pressure and concentration fields in transparent fluids. The holographic real-time interferometer allows a continuous observation of stationary and instationary flow processes. After the explanation of the measuring technique, the problems arising during the interferometer set-up as well as the necessary adjusting operations are described. For heat transfer problems new possibilities for the application of holographic interferometry are revealed. Convection in boxes, temperature fields around heated or cooled bodies, concentration and diffusion processes in two phase-flows, mixtures and solutions as well as melting and freezing processes may be investigated. On the basis of particular examples some applications are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Quantum light in coupled interferometers for quantum gravity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Genovese, M

    2013-05-24

    In recent years quantum correlations have received a lot of attention as a key ingredient in advanced quantum metrology protocols. In this Letter we show that they provide even larger advantages when considering multiple-interferometer setups. In particular, we demonstrate that the use of quantum correlated light beams in coupled interferometers leads to substantial advantages with respect to classical light, up to a noise-free scenario for the ideal lossless case. On the one hand, our results prompt the possibility of testing quantum gravity in experimental configurations affordable in current quantum optics laboratories and strongly improve the precision in "larger size experiments" such as the Fermilab holometer; on the other hand, they pave the way for future applications to high precision measurements and quantum metrology.

  4. Femto-second synchronisation with a waveguide interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, A. C.; Smith, S. J.; Woolley, B. J.; Grudiev, A.

    2018-03-01

    CERN's compact linear collider CLIC requires crab cavities on opposing linacs to rotate bunches of particles into alignment at the interaction point (IP). These cavities are located approximately 25 metres either side of the IP. The luminosity target requires synchronisation of their RF phases to better than 5 fs r.m.s. This is to be achieved by powering both cavities from one high power RF source, splitting the power and delivering it along two waveguide paths that are controlled to be identical in length to within a micrometre. The waveguide will be operated as an interferometer. A high power phase shifter for adjusting path lengths has been successfully developed and operated in an interferometer. The synchronisation target has been achieved in a low power prototype system.

  5. Development of measurement system for gauge block interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomkokard, S.; Jinuntuya, N.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a measurement system for collecting and analyzing the fringe pattern images from a gauge block interferometer. The system was based on Raspberry Pi which is an open source system with python programming and opencv image manipulation library. The images were recorded by the Raspberry Pi camera with five-megapixel capacity. The noise of images was suppressed for the best result in analyses. The low noise images were processed to find the edge of fringe patterns using the contour technique for the phase shift analyses. We tested our system with the phase shift patterns between a gauge block and a reference plate. The phase shift patterns were measured by a Twyman-Green type of interferometer using the He-Ne laser with the temperature controlled at 20.0 °C. The results of the measurement will be presented and discussed.

  6. Beating quantum limits in interferometers with quantum locking of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, Antoine; Courty, Jean-Michel; Pinard, Michel; Lebars, Julien

    2004-01-01

    The sensitivity in interferometric measurements such as those made by gravitational-wave detectors is ultimately limited by the quantum noise of light. We discuss the use of feedback mechanisms to reduce the quantum effects of radiation pressure. Recent experiments have shown that it is possible to reduce the thermal motion of a mirror by cold damping. The mirror motion is measured with an optomechanical sensor based on a high-finesse cavity, and reduced by a feedback loop. We show that this technique can be extended to lock the mirror at the quantum level. In gravitational-wave interferometers with Fabry-Perot cavities in each arm, it is even possible to use a single feedback mechanism to lock one cavity mirror on the other. This quantum locking greatly improves the sensitivity of the interferometric measurement. It is furthermore insensitive to imperfections such as losses in the interferometer

  7. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  8. Measurement of Local Gravity via a Cold Atom Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lin; Xiong Zong-Yuan; Yang Wei; Tang Biao; Peng Wen-Cui; Wang Yi-Bo; Xu Peng; Wang Jin; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a precision measurement of local gravity acceleration g in Wuhan by a compact cold atom interferometer. The atom interferometer is in vertical Mach—Zehnder configuration realized using a π/2 - π - π/2 Raman pulse sequence. Cold atoms were prepared in a magneto-optical trap, launched upward to form an atom fountain, and then coherently manipulated to interfere by stimulated Raman transition. Population signal vs Raman laser phase was recorded as interference fringes, and the local gravity was deduced from the interference signal. We have obtained a resolution of 7 × 10 −9 g after an integration time of 236s under the best vibrational environment conditions. The absolute g value was derived from the chirp rate with a difference of 1.5 × 10 −7 g compared to the gravity reference value. The tidal phenomenon was observed by continuously monitoring the local gravity over 123 h. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  10. The Michelson interferometer-how to detect invisible interference patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verovnik, Ivo; Likar, Andrej

    2004-01-01

    In a Michelson interferometer, the contrast of the interference pattern fades away due to incoherence of light when the mirrors are not in equidistant positions. We propose an experiment where the distance between the interference fringes can be determined, even when the difference in length of the interferometer arms is far beyond the coherence length of the light, i.e. when the interference pattern disappears completely for the naked eye. We used a semiconductor laser with two photodiodes as sensors, which enabled us to follow the fluctuations of the light intensity on the screen. The distance between invisible interference fringes was determined from periodic changes of the summed fluctuating signal, obtained by changing the distance between the two sensors

  11. Parametric Instability in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L; Grass, S; Zhao, C; Degallaix, J; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    High frequency parametric instabilities in optical cavities are radiation pressure induced interactions between test mass mechanical modes and cavity optical modes. The parametric gain depends on the cavity power and the quality factor of the test mass internal modes (usually in ultrasonic frequency range), as well as the overlap integral for the mechanical and optical modes. In advanced laser interferometers which require high optical power and very low acoustic loss test masses, parametric instabilities could prevent interferometer operation if not suppressed. Here we review the problem of parametric instabilities in advanced detector configurations for different combinations of sapphire and fused silica test masses, and compare three methods for control or suppression of parametric instabilities-thermal tuning, surface damping and active feedback

  12. First 2.2 micrometer results from the iota interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, H. M.; Benson, J. A.; Carlton, N. P.; Coldwell, C.; Lacasse, M. G.; Nisenson, P.; Panasyuk, A.; Papaliolios, C.; Pearlman, R. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first infrared fringe visibility measurements made with the Infrared Optical Telescope Array on Mt. Hopkins. Effective temperatures are derived for RX Boo, RS Cnc, and Beta Peg. RX Boo is the coolest small-amplitude variable giant star to have an effective temperature determination. We compare the size of its photosphere at infrared wavelengths with the sizes of its SiO and H20 radio emission regions. We also discuss initial performance parameters for the interferometer.

  13. NEuclid: a long-range tilt-immune homodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, M. J.; Speake, C. C.

    2017-11-01

    The new Easy to Use Compact Laser Interferometric Device (nEUCLID) is a polarisation-based homodyne interferometer with substantially unequal arms that is tolerant to target mirror tilt. The design has no active components, uses standard optical components of 25 mm diameter, has a working distance of 706 mm and a reference arm-length of 21 mm. nEUCLID optics have a footprint of 210 x 190 x 180 mm, and has a tolerance to target mirror tilt of +/- 0.5 degrees, made possible by a novel new retro-reflector design [1]. nEUCLID was built to a set of specifications laid down by Airbus Defence and Space, who required a lowmass, low-power device to measure displacement with nanometre accuracy for space applications. At the University of Birmingham we have previously built a smaller, more compact tilt-insensitive homodyne interferometer - the EUCLID [2, 3, 4] - which has a working distance of 6 mm, a working range of +/- 3 mm, and a tilt range of +/- 1° [2]. We created a new optical design to allow a much larger working distance to be achieved (as discussed in Section II) and used this in a new interferometer - the nEUCLID. Section II describes the interferometer in detail; how nEUCLID is tilt insensitive, and the optical configuration. Section III states the design specifications from Airbus Defence and Space and the components used in the final design. The output interference pattern from nEUCLID, and how it has been corrected with a meniscus lens, is also discussed. In Section IV we discuss the results demonstrating the tilt immunity range, and the sensitivity of the device. Section V describes several potential applications of nEUCLID, and Section VI draws together our conclusions.

  14. Fundamental limits of radio interferometers: calibration and source parameter estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We use information theory to derive fundamental limits on the capacity to calibrate next-generation radio interferometers, and measure parameters of point sources for instrument calibration, point source subtraction, and data deconvolution. We demonstrate the implications of these fundamental limits, with particular reference to estimation of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization power spectrum with next-generation low-frequency instruments (e.g., the Murchison Widefield Array -- MWA, Precision Arra...

  15. Optical analysis and alignment applications using the infrared Smartt interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Bolen, P.D.; Liberman, I.; Seery, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using the infrared Smartt interferometer for optical analysis and alignment of infrared laser systems has been discussed previously. In this paper, optical analysis of the Gigawatt Test Facility at Los Alamos, as well as a deformable mirror manufactured by Rocketdyne, are discussed as examples of the technique. The possibility of optically characterizing, as well as aligning, pulsed high energy laser systems like Helios and Antares is discussed in some detail

  16. Phase correction for a Michelson interferometer with misaligned mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorvitch, D.

    1975-01-01

    The phase correction for a Michelson interferometer with misaligned mirrors in converging light is shown to give rise to a quadratic phase shift. In general, the calculation of a spectrum from the measured interferogram needs phase correction. Phase corrections have been well worked out for the cases of a linear phase shift and a phase that is slowly varying. The standard procedures for correcting calculated spectra need to be modified, however, to remove any phase errors resulting from misaligned mirrors.

  17. Infrared spectra of lunar soils. [using a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured data obtained by Michelson interferometer spectrometer were stored in a computer file and smoothed by being passed forward and backward through a digital four-pole low pass filter. Infrared spectra of the 10 lunar samples are presented in the format of brightness temperature versus frequency. The mol % of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite and ferromagnetic silicate in each sample is presented in tables. The reflectance spectra of ilmenite and enstatite are shown in graphs.

  18. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wei, Tao; Han, Qun; Wang, Hanzheng; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai

    2012-11-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer was fabricated by micromachining a step structure at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The step structure splits the fiber core into two reflection paths and produces an interference signal. A fringe visibility of 18 dB was achieved. Temperature sensing up to 1000°C was demonstrated using the fabricated assembly-free device.

  19. Analysis of a quantum nondemolition speed-meter interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a speed meter interferometer that accomplishes this--a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show [in accord with the speed being a quantum nondemolition observable] that in principle the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filter cavities at the interferometer's input or output. However, in practice, to reach or beat the SQL, this specific speed meter requires exorbitantly high input light power. The physical reason for this is explored, along with other issues such as constraints on performance due to optical dissipation. This analysis forms a foundation for ongoing attempts to develop a more practical variant of an interferometric speed meter and to combine the speed meter concept with other ideas to yield a promising LIGO-III/EURO interferometer design that entails low laser power

  20. Intensity profiles behind a five-stage neutron interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kischko, U.

    1983-01-01

    By means of the quantitative photography intensity profiles behind a five-stage ideal-crystal neutron interferometer at the thermal channel H25 of the high-flux reactor at the institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble/France were dermined and compared with theoretical profiles. Contravily to X-rays by neutrons the hole Borrmann range is excited. This leads in the interference picture to superposition of several wave field components. It was shown that the spherical wave theory, as it was developed by W. Bauspiess, U. Bonse, and W. Graeff for the absorption-free neutron interferometer, describes well quantitatively the experimental intensity profiles. Expecially for the t-2t-t geometry the theoretically predicted focusing was confirmed. For the H-beam the intensity profile is symmetric and spatially limited; the O-beam is asymetric with intensities decreasing slowly up to the boundary. Geometrical differences within single stages lead to unique changes in the intensity profile. The pigtail pattern leading in the past to some puzzle guessing could be explained by the influence of geometrical defocusings on the phase shift. Important conclusions for the geometrical tolerances, which have to be regarded in the construction of neutron interferometers, could be obtained. (orig.) [de