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Sample records for mach-zehnder interferometer configuration

  1. 60dB high-extinction auto-configured Mach--Zehnder interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkes, Callum M; Wang, Jianwei; Santagati, Raffaele; Paesani, Stefano; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Miller, David A B; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2016-01-01

    Imperfections in integrated photonics manufacturing have a detrimental effect on the maximal achievable visibility in interferometric architectures. These limits have profound implications for further photonics technological developments and in particular for quantum photonics technologies. Active optimisation approaches, together with reconfigurable photonics, have been proposed as a solution to overcome this. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-high (>60 dB) extinction ratio in a silicon photonic device consisting of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which additional interferometers function as variable beamsplitters. The imperfections of fabricated beamsplitters are compensated using an automated progressive optimization algorithm with no requirement for pre-calibration. This work shows the possibility of integrating and accurately controlling linear-optical components for large-scale quantum information processing and other applications.

  2. 60 dB high-extinction auto-configured Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, C. M.; Qiang, X.; Wang, J.; Santagati, R.; Paesani, S.; Zhou, X.; Miller, D. A. B.; Marshall, G. D.; Thompson, M. G.; O'Brien, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Imperfections in integrated photonics manufacturing have a detrimental effect on the maximal achievable visibility in interferometric architectures. These limits have profound implications for further photonics technological developments and in particular for quantum photonics technologies. Active optimisation approaches, together with reconfigurable photonics, have been proposed as a solution to overcome this. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-high (>60 dB) extinction ratio in a silicon photonic device consisting of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which additional interferometers function as variable beamsplitters. The imperfections of fabricated beamsplitters are compensated using an automated progressive optimization algorithm with no requirement for pre-calibration. This work shows the possibility of integrating and accurately controlling linear-optical components for large-scale quantum information processing and other applications.

  3. Slow light Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yundong Zhang; Jinfang Wang; Xuenan Zhang; Hao Wu; Yuanxue Cai; Jing Zhang; Ping Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A slow light structure Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer is theoretically demonstrated.The sensitivity of the interferometer is significantly enhanced by the dispersion of the slow light structure.The numerical results show that the sensitivity enhancement factor varies with the coupling coefficient and reaches its maximum under critical coupling conditions.Interferometers have been investigated in relation to their applications in fields such as metrology[1],optical sensing[2],optical communication[3,4],quantum information processing[5],and biomedical engineering[6].A number of schemes have been proposed to improve the performance of interferometers[7],such as using photonic crystal structures to minimize the size of on-chip devices[8],utilizing the dispersive property of semiconductor to enhance the spectral sensitivity of interferometers[9,10],utilizing slow light medium to enhance the resolution of Fourier transform interferometer[11],exploiting fast light medium or slow light structure to increase the rotation sensitivity of a Sagnac interferometer[12,13],enhancing the transmittance of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in the slow light region by gratings[14],and using liquid crystal light valve to derive high sensitivity interferometers[15].%A slow light structure Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer is theoretically demonstrated. The sensitivity of the interferometer is significantly enhanced by the dispersion of the slow light structure. The numerical results show that the sensitivity enhancement factor varies with the coupling coefficient and reaches its maximum under critical coupling conditions.

  4. Integrated all-polymer Mach-Zehnder interferometers without interaction window in asymmetric configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Sherman, Stanislav; Li, Pei; Zappe, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) based on semiconductors or glasses have been widely used as evanescent field sensors for the monitoring of liquid or gas concentrations. In these systems the upper cladding of the sensing arm is removed partially to form an interaction window by means of subtractive fabrication techniques like etching. The use of polymer materials implicates new options and challenges. Polymers are tunable in terms of refractive index and viscosity offering a great flexibility in design and fabrication in a certain range. They enable a cost-efficient and large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing of integrated optics on flexible foils as substrate material. The foils can be pre-patterned for example by hot-embossing. Additive steps such as printing a pattern or dispensing a homogeneous layer of liquid monomer material followed by a UV induced polymerization can be used to define the optical structure. However, when a large scale fabrication is required, the reliable production of small lateral structures and thin layers is challenging. Thus the fabrication according to the classical MZI design including an interaction window is difficult so that new design approaches are required. We present here the design and systematic evaluation of MZI sensors without interaction window based on polymer materials. The phase shift at the recombining Y-splitter of the MZI upon a refractive index change of an analyte, which serves as upper cladding of the entire system, is generated by a geometrical asymmetricity of the MZI. The waveguides in the sensing and the reference arm have different width leading to different effective refractive indices and sensitivities. We consider theoretically the expected interference signal and show results from numerical simulations of the whole system using commercial software. The simulations include the material as well as propagation losses and give an overall optimal system length.

  5. Quantum interference in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, A.; Borghi, M.; Mancinelli, M.; Price, H. M.; Fontana, G.; Pavesi, L.

    2016-08-01

    A re-visitation of the well known free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer is reported here. The coexistence between one-photon and two-photons interference from collinear color entangled photon pairs is investigated. Thisarises from an arbitrarily small unbalance in the arm transmittance. The tuning of such asymmetry is reflected in dramatic changes in the coincidence detection, revealing beatings between one particle and two particle interference patterns. In particular, the role of the losses and of the intrinsic phase imperfectness of the lossy beamsplitter are explored in a single-port excited Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This configuration is especially useful for quantum optics on a chip, where the guiding geometry forces photons to travel in the same spatial mode.

  6. Mach-Zehnder interferometer for movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Doricak, Jan; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Fiber optical interferometers belong to highly sensitive equipments that are able to measure slight changes like distortion of shape, temperature and electric field variation and etc. Their great advantage is that they are insensitive on ageing component, from which they are composed of. It is in virtue of herewith, that there are evaluated no changes in optical signal intensity but number interference fringes. To monitor the movement of persons, eventually to analyze the changes in state of motion we developed method based on analysis the dynamic changes in interferometric pattern. We have used Mach- Zehnder interferometer with conventional SM fibers excited with the DFB laser at wavelength of 1550 nm. It was terminated with optical receiver containing InGaAs PIN photodiode. Its output was brought into measuring card module that performs on FFT of the received interferometer signal. The signal rises with the composition of two waves passing through single interferometer arm. The optical fiber SMF 28e in one arm is referential; the second one is positioned on measuring slab at dimensions of 1x2m. A movement of persons around the slab was monitored, signal processed with FFT and frequency spectra were evaluated. They rose owing to dynamic changes of interferometric pattern. The results reflect that the individual subjects passing through slab embody characteristic frequency spectra, which are individual for particular persons. The scope of measuring frequencies proceeded from zero to 10 kHz. It was also displayed in experiments that the experimental subjects, who walked around the slab and at the same time they have had changed their state of motion (knee joint fixation), embodied characteristic changes in their frequency spectra. At experiments the stability of interferometric patterns was evaluated as from time aspects, so from the view of repeated identical experiments. Two kinds of balls (tennis and ping-pong) were used to plot the repeatability measurements and

  7. Quantum heat engines based on electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Sothmann, Björn

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties of heat engines based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The energy dependence of the transmission amplitudes in such setups arises from a difference in the interferometer arm lengths. Any thermoelectric response is thus of purely quantum-mechanical origin. In addition to an experimentally established three-terminal setup, we also consider a two-terminal geometry as well as a four-terminal setup consisting of two interferometers. We find that Mach-Zehnder interferometers can be used as powerful and efficient heat engines which perform well under realistic conditions.

  8. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mičuda, Michal, E-mail: micuda@optics.upol.cz; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav, E-mail: jezek@optics.upol.cz [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  9. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Du, Shusong

    2015-11-01

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a new kind of Fourier-transform spectroscopic technique capable of very high spectral resolution. In this paper, a spatial heterodyne spectrometer based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZ-SHS) is proposed. It is modified by replacing one mirror in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a diffraction grating. This technique retains many of the advantages of traditional SHS. Moreover, the spatial frequency of the interferogram is strictly linear with wavenumber. We describe the concept of the new MZ-SHS and elaborate the exact expression of the interferogram. Also, a design example and two kinds of imitated interferograms are presented in this paper. One is simulated in MATLAB and the other is generated in ZEMAX using ray tracing method. The retrieved spectra from these two interferograms show a good agreement with the theoretical results.

  10. Vibration induced phase noise in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J; Miffre, Alain; Jacquey, Marion; B\\"{u}chner, Matthias; Vigu\\'{e}, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The high inertial sensitivity of atom interferometers has been used to build accelerometers and gyrometers but this sensitivity makes these interferometers very sensitive to the laboratory seismic noise. This seismic noise induces a phase noise which is large enough to reduce the fringe visibility in many cases. We develop here a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are thus able to explain the observed dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. The dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to further reduce this phase noise in atom interferometers and this reduction should open the way to improved interferometers.

  11. Temperature sensitivity of waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project that aims to develop a sensor for the detection of methane in the air and in water based on a waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The main application of this sensor is monitoring the environment and the ability to detect a leakage of methane. The development of a sensor includes analysis of operational conditions. In this project one of the greatest concerns is temperature. The temperature difference can reach several tens of degrees in the air, and severa...

  12. Quantum logic processor: Implementation with electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patwardhan, Ajay

    2006-05-01

    An approach for implementation of quantum logic in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been described in this letter. All single qubit gates can be achieved by electron spin manipulation using Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Double qubit gates can also be implemented using the orbital degree of freedom of the electron. The MZI can be realized with intertwined ballistic nanowires. Spin injection and detection in the system can be done by a mesoscopic Stern-Gerlach apparatus. The system can be coupled in an array to form the quantum logic processor.

  13. A new magnetic sensor with Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac optical fiber interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang LI; Xinwan LI; Xin WANG; Jianping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new structure for magnetic sensor with Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac optical fiber interferometer. The magnetostrictive optical fiber sensor is placed in one of the two arms of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which can detect the optic phase shift by testing the length difference of the arm caused by environmental magnetic field. Because of forward and backward transmission in the arms, the Mach-Zehnder/ Sagnac optical fiber interferometer can deduce twice exactly of the phase shift proportional to the length difference as Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Theoretically, description of the Mach-Zehnder/Sagnac interferometer is given, and some main issues in the magnetic field sensor with optical fiber interferometer are demonstrated with experiments. The magnetic sensors are implemented using the proposed methods.

  14. Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.

  15. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Coupled Dielectric Pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ding-Shan; HAO Ran; ZHOU Zhi-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on coupled dielectric pillars. It is composed of single-row pillar coupled waveguide modulating arms and three-row pillar waveguide 3 dB couplers. The slow light property and transmission loss of the single-row pillar modulating arm are optimized by the plane wave expansion method. A short 3dB coupler is designed based on the modes transformation in three-row pillar waveguide. Finite difference time domain simulations prove the validity of this MZI and show that it has low insertion loss of<1.1 dB and high extinction ratio of>12 dB.

  16. Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, T; van Frank, S; Bücker, R; Schumm, T; Schaff, J-F; Schmiedmayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Particle-wave duality enables the construction of interferometers for matter waves, which complement optical interferometers in precision measurement devices. This requires the development of atom-optics analogues to beam splitters, phase shifters and recombiners. Integrating these elements into a single device has been a long-standing goal. Here we demonstrate a full Mach-Zehnder sequence with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates confined on an atom chip. Particle interactions in our Bose-Einstein condensate matter waves lead to a nonlinearity, absent in photon optics. We exploit it to generate a non-classical state having reduced number fluctuations inside the interferometer. Making use of spatially separated wave packets, a controlled phase shift is applied and read out by a non-adiabatic matter-wave recombiner. We demonstrate coherence times a factor of three beyond what is expected for coherent states, highlighting the potential of entanglement as a resource for metrology. Our results pave the way for integrated quantum-enhanced matter-wave sensors.

  17. Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Zhou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10 made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20–1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30–350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3–5 fold by fabricating an inline micro–trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N2 is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI–type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.

  18. Ultra-abrupt tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benye; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Zhou, Lanying; Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2011-01-01

    A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10) made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20-1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30-350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3-5 fold by fabricating an inline micro-trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N(2) is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI-type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.

  19. Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer for people monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Vitasek, Jan; Skapa, Jan

    2010-10-01

    Fiber optical interferometers belong to highly sensitive equipments that are able to measure slight changes like distortion of shape, temperature and electric field variation and etc. Their great advantage is that they are insensitive on ageing component, from which they are composed of. It is in virtue of herewith, that there are evaluated no changes in optical signal intensity but number interference fringes. To monitor the movement of persons, eventually to analyze the changes in state of motion we developed method based on analysis the dynamic changes in interferometric pattern. We have used Mach- Zehnder interferometer with conventional SM fibers excited with the DFB laser at wavelength of 1550 nm. It was terminated with optical receiver containing InGaAs PIN photodiode. Its output was brought into measuring card module that performs on FFT of the received interferometer signal. The signal rises with the composition of two waves passing through single interferometer arm. The optical fiber SMF 28e in one arm is referential; the second one is positioned on measuring slab at dimensions of 1x2m. A movement of persons over the slab was monitored, signal processed with FFT and frequency spectra were evaluated. They rose owing to dynamic changes of interferometric pattern. The results reflect that the individual subjects passing through slab embody characteristic frequency spectra, which are individual for particular persons. The scope of measuring frequencies proceeded from zero to 10 KHz. It was also displayed in experiments that the experimental subjects, who walked around the slab and at the same time they have had changed their state of motion (knee joint fixation), embodied characteristic changes in their frequency spectra. At experiments the stability of interferometric patterns was evaluated as from time aspects, so from the view of repeated identical experiments. Two kinds of balls (tennis and ping-pong) were used to plot the repeatability measurements and

  20. Vortex array laser beam generation from a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2008-11-24

    This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  1. Manipulation of quantum states in a memory cell: controllable Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, A. S.; Golubeva, T. Yu; Golubev, Yu M.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we consider the possibility of manipulation of quantum signals, ensured by the use of the tripod-type atomic memory cell. We show that depending on a configuration of driving fields at the writing and reading, such a cell allows the signal to both be stored and transformed. It is possible to provide the operation of the memory cell in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer mode passing two successive pulses at the input. We proposed a procedure of partial signal readout that provides entanglement between the retrieved light and the atomic ensemble. Thus, we have shown that a tripod atomic cell is a promising candidate to implement quantum logical operations, including two-qubit ones, which can be performed on the basis of only one cell.

  2. Event-based simulation of single-photon beam splitters and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; De Raedt, K; Michielsen, K

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit a behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event

  3. Analysing surface plasmon resonance phase sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique using glycerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Hashim, Fazida Hanim

    2016-12-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a very accurate tool for the detection and analysis of molecular interactions. The performance of the proposed SPR phase sensor is dependent upon multiple performance parameters that include sensitivity, repeatability, drift and the induction speed of fluid into the flow cell. The SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer is tested for different glycerin-water concentrations to check its performance based on the different parameters. This paper highlights the enhancement of the performance of SPR phase technique based on MZI that is influenced by different parameters, measured using glycerin solutions. These four performance parameters can affect the performance of SPR based on MZI and have a particular impact on the sensor output. It also provides us information about suitable working conditions for the SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor. The experiment data shows that the sensor's sensitivity is high for small concentrations of glycerin-water mixtures. Also, any change in drift as well as in induction speed of fluid can affect the performance of SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The sensitivity of SPR phase sensor is high as it can measure glycerin concentration as low as 0.05%.

  4. A versatile all-optical modulator based on nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.; Villeneuve, A.; Stegeman, G.I.; Lambeck, P.V.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A device based on a Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NMI) which exploits cross-phase modulation of two co-propagating modes in bimodal branches has been described in this paper. The advantage of this device is that it becomes polarisation independent while keeping phase insensitive by using di

  5. On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…

  6. On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…

  7. Refractometric sensor based on all-fiber coaxial Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for ethanol detection in fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, L; Osorio, Jonas H; Hayashi, Juliano G; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B, E-mail: lmosquera@uni.edu.pe [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, Campinas - Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    A refractometric sensor based on mechanically induced interferometers formed with long period gratings is reported. It is also shown two different setups based on a Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application to measure ethanol concentration in gasoline.

  8. Distributed optical fiber perturbation sensing system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wengang WANG; Deming LIU; Hairong LIU; Qizhen SUN; Zhifeng SUN; Xu ZHANG; Ziheng XU

    2009-01-01

    A novel distributed optical fiber vibration-sensing system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Firstly, the principle of Mach-Zehnder optical path interferometer technique is clarified. The output of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proportional to the phase shift induced by the perturbation. Secondly, the system consists of the laser diode (LD) as the light source, fiber, Mach-Zehnder optical interferometers as the sensing units, a 1×N star fiber-optic coupler, an N×1 fiber-optic coupler, a photodiode (PD) detector, and a computer used in signal processing. The entire monitoring region of this system is divided into several small zones, and each small monitoring zone is independent from each other. All of the small monitoring zones have their own sensing unit, which is defined by Mach-Zehnder optical interferometer. A series of sensing units are connected by the star fiber-optic couplers to form a whole sensing net. Thirdly, signal-processing techniques are subsequently used to calculate the phase shift to estimate whether intruders appear. The sensing system is able to locate the vibration signal simultaneously, includ-ing multiple vibrations at different positions, by employing the time-division multiplexed (TDM) technique. Finally, the operation performance of the proposed system is tested in the experiment lab with the conditions as follows: the number of the sensing units is 3, the length of the sensing fiber is 50 m, and the wavelength of the light diode is 1550nm. Based on these investigations, the fiber surrounding alert system is achieved. We have experimen-tally demonstrated that the sensing system can measure both the frequency and position of the vibration in real time, with a spatial positional resolution better than 50 m in an area of 1 km2.

  9. Stabilized fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for carrier-frequency rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Nathan; Bateman, James; Dunning, Alexander; Freegarde, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated stabilization of a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with a centimeter-scale path difference, to the transmission minimum for the carrier wave of a frequency-modulated laser beam. A time-averaged extinction of 32 dB, limited by the bandwidth of the feedback, was maintained over several hours. The interferometer was used to remove the carrier wave from a 780 nm laser beam that had been phase modulated at 2.7 GHz.

  10. Lateral-shearing, delay-dithering Mach-Zehnder interferometer for spatial coherence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly

    2013-11-15

    An image-shearing interferometer of Mach-Zehnder type with corner cubes is introduced for the purpose of measuring spatial coherence at the output of inhomogeneous optical sources, such as multimode fibers (MMFs). One arm of the interferometer is modulated in optical delay to produce dynamic interference fringes. Fringe visibility and the two individual intensities are measured nearly simultaneously to allow direct calculation of the modulus of the complex degree of coherence as a function of the lateral shear between the two interferometer arms. Spatial degree of coherence is measured for a step-index MMF pumped with monochromatic and broadband optical sources.

  11. All optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in a Mach-Zehnder configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, T.; Jørgensen, C.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1994-01-01

    Penalty free wavelength conversion is demonstrated at 2.5 Gbit/s over a wavelength span of 12 nm by the use of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)'s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. An increase in the extinction ratio is measured for the converted signal compared to the input signal implying si...... signal regeneration as well as wavelength conversion...

  12. Vibration sensing using a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Qin, Zengguang; Harris, Jeremie; Baset, Farhana; Lu, Ping; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-02-11

    In this study, a novel fiber-optic sensor consisting of a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to realize damped and continuous vibration measurement. The double cladding structure and the central coating region of the in-fiber interferometer ensure an enhanced mechanical strength, reduced external disturbance, and a more uniform spectrum. A damped vibration frequency range of 29-60 Hz as well as continuous vibration disturbances ranging from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz are successfully demonstrated.

  13. Tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer is realized by using cascaded long-period fiber gratings. The long-period fiber gratings can couple the guided core mode to several cladding modes. If two identical long-period fiber gratings are concatenated, an interference pattern can be generated, which results from an interaction of the core and the cladding modes in the second long-period fiber grating. Therefore, a simple multichannel filter based on an in-line Mach Zehnder interferometer can be realized. The wavelength spacing of the proposed multichannel filter is controlled by the number of long-period fiber gratings. We apply the proposed multichannel fiber to the generation of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a tunability on the order of the wavelength spacing. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier is implemented as a gain medium. The gain competition of erbium ions is suppressed by soaking the erbium-doped fiber in liquid nitrogen. The power fluctuation of the proposed multiwavelength fiber laser is measured to be less than 0.5 dB. A high-quality multiwavelength output with a high extinction ratio of more than 40 dB is achieved. The wavelength spacing of the proposed multiwavelength fiber laser is controlled by increasing the number of long-period fiber gratings. The wavelength spacing is changed from 0.8 nm to 1.6 nm discretely.

  14. Optical Coupling Structures of Fiber-Optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Using CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI can be used to test changes in the refractive index of sucrose solutions at different concentrations. However, the popularity of this measurement tool is limited by its substantial size and portability. Therefore, the MZI was integrated with a small fiber-optic waveguide component to develop an interferometer with fiber-optic characteristics, specifically a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FO-MZI. Optical fiber must be processed to fabricate two optical coupling structures. The two optical coupling structures are a duplicate of the beam splitter, an optical component of the interferometer. Therefore, when the sensor length and the two optical coupling structures vary, the time or path for optical transmission in the sensor changes, thereby influencing the back-end interference signals. The researchers successfully developed an asymmetrical FO-MZI with sensing abilities. The spacing value between the troughs of the sensor length and interference signal exhibited an inverse relationship. In addition, image analysis was employed to examine the size-matching relationship between various sensor lengths and the coupling and decoupling structure. Furthermore, the spectral wavelength shift results measured using a refractive index sensor indicate that FO-MZIs with a sensor length of 38 mm exhibited excellent sensitivity, measuring 59.7 nm/RIU.

  15. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to deduce nitrogen density mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, F.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an optical method using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We especially diagnose a pure nitrogen gas subjected to a point to plane corona discharge, and visualize the density spatial map. The interelectrode distance equals 6 mm and the variation of the optical path has been measured at different pressures: 220 Torr, 400 Torr, and 760 Torr. The interferograms are recorded with a CCD camera, and the numerical analysis of these interferograms is assured by the inverse Abel transformation. The nitrogen density is extracted through the Gladstone-Dale relation. The obtained results are in close agreement with values available in the literature.

  16. A Novel Method to Monitor OSNR Using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to monitor optical signal to noise ratio using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is introduced. The OSNR meter is composed of two 3dB couplers, one phase tuner and one power meter which are of low cost. The experiments show that the error of our novel method is less than 0.5dB and the dynamic range is from 10dB to 25dB. They also show that the method works well under different cases of bit rates.

  17. Developing an Interactive Tutorial on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Single Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations and explore differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about quantum phenomena and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We also discuss findings from a preliminary in-class evaluation.

  18. Integrated optical displacement sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Qian, Guang; Fu, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Li-Jiang; Hu, Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Zhang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Displacement sensor is one of the most important measuring instruments in many automated systems. We demonstrated an integrated optical displacement sensor based on an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer chip on a flexible substrate. The sensing chip was made of polymer materials and fabricated by lithography and lift-off techniques. Measured results show that the device has a loss of less than 5 dB and a potential sensitivity of about 0.105 rad/μm with quite a large space for promotion. The sensor has advantages of antielectromagnetic interference, high reliability and stability, simple preparing process, and low cost; it will occupy an important place in displacement sensors.

  19. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  20. Theoretical Analysis and Experiment of Temperature Stability for Fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer(MZI) can be used as wavelength-multiplexers and demultiplexers. The △L and △φ directly influence the properties of MZI. To lengthen the △L can demultiplex much more wavelengths, but when the △L is longer, the temperature will influence MZI more seriously. A method to solve this problem is proposed, which enables MZI to work stably. The wavelength distance is 0.8nm, and the extinction ratio is high.

  1. Phase noise due to vibrations in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J

    2006-01-01

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive to accelerations and rotations. This property, which has some very interesting applications, induces a deleterious phase noise due to the seismic noise of the laboratory and this phase noise is sufficiently large to reduce the fringe visibility in many experiments. We develop a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are able to explain the observed phase noise which has been detected through the rapid dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. We think that the dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to reduce the vibration induced phase noise in atom interferometers, making many new experiments feasible.

  2. Multi-wavelength Operation of an Er3+-doped Fiber Laser at Room Temperature with a Novel Optical Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hong-Lin; LIN Xiang-Zhi; LIU Hong-Du

    2000-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a double-pass Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer acting both as a comb filter and as a reflection mirror is demonstrated. The spatial hole burning effect introduced by the standing wave cavity configuration enables the simultaneous operation of multiple wavelengths in the homogeneously broadened erbium-doped fiber at room temperature. In the experiment, simultaneous oscillation of four wavelengths at room temperature has been obtained.

  3. 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Lu, Ping; Zhao, Shui; Liu, Deming; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrated a 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect. Few-mode fiber-embedded Sagnac ring configuration and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are cascaded to form a multiwavelength filter for our previous 2-μm fiber laser. By adopting suitable fiber length and adjusting the polarization controller, we obtained a 2-μm dual-wavelength fiber laser with switchable wavelength interval. Experimental results revealed that the proposed laser shows higher quality and better stability compared with our previous work and it has potential applications in the fields of atmospheric propagation and microwave photonics.

  4. Temperature characterization of integrated optical all-polymer Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Langenecker, Alexa; Shermann, Stanislav; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Two new design concepts for all-polymer-based integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers in foil as chemical or bio-chemical sensors are presented. Fabricated with hot-embossing and printing techniques, these all polymer optical components are designed for low-cost fabrication and yield highly sensitive response to external refractive index changes. Compared to traditional semiconductor based systems, these polymer sensors do not need the interaction window and do not require a cleanroom for fabrication. The optical response of the asymmetric interferometers to temperature variations is determined theoretically and compared for two designs. Using the designed asymmetric interferometer, a chemical micro-fluidic test system with temperature controller experimentally demonstrates the sensors' temperature characteristics.

  5. Terahertz Detection Based on Spectral-Domain Interferometry Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Akram; Sharma, Gargi; Singh, Kanwarpal; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to improve the performance of terahertz electric field measurements based on spectral-domain interferometry. The interferometer is introduced into the probe beam line to improve the temporal overlap between the two probe pulses. The probe pulse in the sample arm of the interferometer passes through the detection crystal and overlaps with the terahertz pulse, while the probe pulse in the reference arm does not. We measure the phase change between spectral components of these two pulses using spectral-domain interferometry. Using this new technique, we enable an unlimited temporal scanning window without the loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, thus overcoming the major limitation of conventional spectral-domain interferometry techniques for terahertz electric field detection.

  6. A Thermally Annealed Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyao Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI for high temperature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is constructed of a piece of thin-core fiber (TCF sandwiched between two short sections of multimode fiber (MMF, i.e., a MMF-TCF-MMF structure. A well-defined interference spectrum is obtained owing to the core-mismatch, and the interference dips are sensitive to the ambient temperature. The experimental results show that the proposed interferometer is capable of high temperature measurement up to 875 °C with a sensitivity of 92 pm/°C over repeated measurements. The explored wavelength drop point may limit the measurement range, which can be improved by repeated thermal annealing.

  7. Photonic crystal fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Feng, Wenlin

    2016-02-08

    We report a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer used as a gas sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). The interferometric sensor head is formed by embedding a segment of large-mode-area/grapefruit PCF between standard single-mode fibers via butt coupling, which produces two small air gaps in between terminated fiber ends with ceramic ferrule connectors as coupling regions, which also serve as inlet/outlet for the gas. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The selectivity to TNT vapor is achieved by immobilizing a molecular recognition ployallylamine layer on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF. The TNT-induced variations of the interference fringes are measured and the sensing capability of the proposed sensor is demonstrated experimentally.

  8. A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagasabey, Albert; Michie, Andrew; Canning, John; Holdsworth, John; Fleming, Simon; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Aslund, Mattias L

    2011-01-01

    Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI) with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are w(L) (MZI) = (1.6 ± 0.2) kHz and w(L) (MI) = (1.4 ± 0.1) kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  9. A Comparison of Delayed Self-Heterodyne Interference Measurement of Laser Linewidth Using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fleming

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are wL (MZI = (1.6 ± 0.2 kHz and wL (MI = (1.4 ± 0.1 kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  10. Gain Flattening Filter for Hybrid Sb-Doped EDFA Using All-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjung Han; Youngeun Im; Woojin Shin; Uh-Chan Ryu; K. Oh

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel gain-flattening filter based on all fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers for Sb-doped silica hybrid EDFA. A gain flatness of better than 0.9dB has been achieved for three concatenated filters in C-band.

  11. High extinction ratio multiplexer/demultiplexer with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a fiber loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglin Huang(黄勇林); Jie Li(李杰); Guiyun Kai(开桂云); Xiaoyi Dong(董孝义)

    2003-01-01

    A novel structure of high extinction ratio multiplexer/demultiplexer with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a fiber loop mirror (FLM) is proposed. The experimental results show that the extinction ratio can be enhanced about two times in comparison with the conventional MZI.

  12. Ultrafast optical reversible double Feynman logic gate using electro-optic effect in lithium-niobate based Mach Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-02-01

    In this ultra fast computing era power optimization is a major technological challenge that requires new computing paradigms. Conservative and reversible logic opens up the possibility of ultralow power computing. In this paper, basic reversible logic gate (double Feynman gate) using the lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The results are verified using beam propagation method and MATLAB simulations.

  13. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  14. Simulation of acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    ]. In [3] it is explained how a SAW can be employed to modulate the output light of a GaAs Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and experimental results with a relative modulation depth of 40 % are presented. To modulate the light using a MZI a SAW is transmitted perpendicularly to the two waveguide arms...... in waveguide structures is to let the light interact with surface acoustic waves (SAW) [1]. SAWs are elastic waves that propagate along a material surface, they consist of a longitudinal and a shear component and they have most of their energy density concentrated within one wavelength of the surface [2...... and the elastic stress field from the SAW results in a periodic change of the refractive index and therefore a periodical phase change in the waveguide arms. At a wave crest the refractive index will increase and at a trough it will decrease. Thus, if the distance between the arms is chosen as an unequal multiple...

  15. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Marshman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  16. Optical waveguide biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator with Vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been extensively investigated owing to its various advantages and many potential applications. In this article, we demonstrate a novel highly sensitive biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and ring resonator with the Vernier effect using wavelength interrogation. The experimental results show that the sensitivity reached 1,960 nm/RIU and 19,100 nm/RIU for sensors based on MZI alone and cascaded MZI-ring with Vernier effect, respectively. A biosensing application was also demonstrated by monitoring the interaction between goat and antigoat immunoglobulin G (IgG) pairs. This integrated high sensitivity biosensor has great potential for medical diagnostic applications.

  17. Photonic crystal fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2012-01-01

    We report on a refractive index sensor using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which was realized by fusion splicing a short section of PCF (Blaze Photonics, LMA-10) between two standard single mode fibers. The fully collapsed air holes of the PCF at the spice regions allow the coupling of PCF core and cladding modes that makes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The transmission spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the cladding/core surface of the PCF is immersed with different RI of the surrounding medium. Experimental results using wavelength-shift interrogation for sensing different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.62 × 10(-4)-8.88 × 10(-4) RIU or 1.02 × 10(-4)-9.04 × 10(-4) RIU (sensing length for 3.50 or 5.00 cm, respectively) was achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.422, suggesting that the PCF interferometer are attractive for chemical, biological, biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions, as well as for civil engineering and environmental monitoring applications.

  18. Ultra-compact and temperature-insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on one multimode waveguide on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huizhan; Zhang, Jianhao; Zhu, Yuntao; Zhou, Xuan; He, Sailing; Liu, Liu

    2017-02-01

    An ultra-compact and temperature-insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer device is introduced on the silicon-on-insulator platform. The device is constructed through one straight multimode waveguide, which consists of two densely packed silicon wires with a narrow gap of varying positions along the device. The total width of the proposed Mach-Zehnder interferometer is only about 1 μm. Interference patterns with extinction ratios of better than 20 dB are achieved. Temperature insensitive operation of the proposed device is also demonstrated for both global and local temperature changes. The shift rate of the wavelength response with respect to the substrate temperature change is within ±10  pm/K in a 30 nm wavelength range.

  19. Design of 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators using electro-optic effect in Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Bisht, Ashish; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Kuldeep; Raina, K. K.; Amphawan, Angela

    2015-12-01

    The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures collectively show powerful capability in switching an input optical signal to a desired output port from a collection of output ports. Hence, it is possible to construct complex optical combinational digital circuits using the electro-optic effect constituting MZI structure as a basic building block. Optical switches have been designed for 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators based on electro-optic effect using Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. Analysis of some factors influencing the performances of proposed device has been discussed properly. The study is verified using beam propagation method.

  20. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on orbital angular momentum for improved vortex coronagraph efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Piron, P; Huby, E; Mawet, D; Ruane, M Karlsson ad G; Habraken, S; Absil, O; Surdej, J

    2016-01-01

    The Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) is a vectorial vortex phase mask. It acts as a half-wave plate with a radial fast axis orientation operating in the mid infrared domain. When placed at the focus of a telescope element provides a continuous helical phase ramp for an on axis sources, which creates the orbital angular momentum. Thanks to that phase, the intensity of the central source is canceled by a down-stream pupil stop, while the off axis sources are not affected. However due to experimental conditions the nulling is hardly perfect. To improve the null, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing Dove prisms differently oriented can be proposed to sort out light based on its orbital angular momentum (OAM). Thanks to the differential rotation of the beam, a {\\pi} phase shift is achieved for the on axis light affected by a non zero OAM. Therefore the contrast between the star and its faint companion is enhanced. Nevertheless, due the Dove prisms birefringence, the performance of the interferometer is relativ...

  1. Tunable Photonic Crystal Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Self-collimation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-Yao; LI Hui; QIU Yi-Shen; WANG Yu-Fei; NI Bo

    2008-01-01

    @@ A theoretical model for tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers (TMZIs) constructed in a two-dimensional pho-tonic crystal (2D PhC) is proposed.The 2D PhC consists of a square lattice of cylindric air holes in silicon.The TMZI includes two mirrors and two splitters.Light propagates between them employing a sell-collimation effect.The two interferometer branches have different path lengths.Parts of the longer branch are infiltrated with a kind of liquid crystal (LC) with ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices 1.522 and I.706, respectively.The transmission spectra at two TMZI output ports are in the shape of sinusoidal carves and have a uniform peak spacing 0.0017c/a in the frequency range from 0.26c/a to 0.27c/a.When the effective refractive index neff of the liquid crystal is increased from 1.522 to 1.706, the peaks shift to the lower frequencies over 0.0017c/a while the peak spacing is almost kept unchanged.Thus this TMZI can work as a tunable power splitter or an optical switch.For the central operating wavelength around 1550nm, its dimensions are only about tens of micron.Thus this device may be applied to photonic integrated circuits.

  2. Temperature sensing setup based on an aluminum coated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Chacón, Eliana I.; Gallegos-Arellano, E.; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Hernandez, Emmanuel; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a temperature sensing setup based on a Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI), coated with aluminum is proposed. Here, this interferometer is fabricated through the concatenation of two sections of Single Mode Fiber (SMF) with a segment of PCF between them. The SMF-PCF joint acts as beam splitter causing the excitement of PCF's, both cladding and fundamental core modes. In the PCF-SMF union, the cladding modes couple again to the core of the SMF, and interfere with the fundamental core mode, this interaction results in an interference pattern spectrum. Moreover, the MZI was coated with aluminum, using the evaporation technique. By adding a thin metal layer to the PCF section, the general thermal coefficient of the structure changes, enhancing the sensitivity of the device. Experimental results show that a visibility of 13 dBm can be obtained and a sensitivity of 250 pm/°C. Finally, the proposed structure is simple, cost effective and easy to fabricate.

  3. Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers and directional coupler switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosciniak, J.; Markey, L.; Dereux, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report detailed experimental studies of compact fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components-Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and directional couplers (DCs)-whose operation at telecom wavelengths is controlled via the thermo-optic effect by electrically heating the gold st......, and wavelength dependent low power (similar to 0.92 mW) rerouting is achieved with DC switches. Furthermore, simulations were performed to confirm the switching characteristics of the components....

  4. On-chip modulation for rotating sensing of gyroscope based on ring resonator coupled with Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity.

  5. Design and analysis of various multifunctional operations at ultrahigh speed by using a semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovkesh; Marwaha, Anupma

    2016-03-01

    Various multifunctional operations are performed by proposing designs of optical adder, subtractor, comparator, and decoder at 60 Gb/s. In all operations, constructive interference is produced by choosing optimized parameters, i.e., optical pulse generator power, input power, semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer parameters, and so on, for delivering a true output signal. An optical pulse-generated signal is required for all operations except addition, subtraction and equal to in a comparator.

  6. Characteristics of an add-drop filter composed of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and double ring resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fufei Pang; Xiuyou Han; Haiwen Cai; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ A planar lightwave circuit (PLC) add-drop filter is proposed and analyzed, which consists of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) combined with double microring resonators. A critical coupling condition is derived for a better box-like drop spectrum. Comparisons of its characteristics with other schemes,such as a MZI with a single ring resonator, are presented, and some of the issues about device design and fabrication are also discussed.

  7. Switchable and multi-wavelength linear fiber laser based on Fabry-Perot and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Gutierrez, J.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Sierra-Hernández, J. M.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Vargas-Treviño, M.; Tepech-Carrillo, L.; Grajales-Coutiño, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript, switchable and multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser arrangement, based on Fabry-Perot (FPI) and Mach-Zehnder (MZI) interferometers is presented. Here, the FPI is composed by two air-microcavities set into the tip of conventional single mode fiber, this one is used as a partially reflecting mirror and lasing modes generator. And the MZI fabricated by splicing a segment of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) between a single-mode fiber section, was set into an optical fiber loop mirror that acts as full-reflecting and wavelength selective filter. Both interferometers, promotes a cavity oscillation into the fiber laser configuration, besides by curvature applied over the MZI, the fiber laser generates: single, double, triple and quadruple laser emissions with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 30 dB. These laser emissions can be switching between them from 1525 nm to 1534 nm by adjusting the curvature radius over the MZI. This laser fiber offers a wavelength and power stability at room temperature, compactness and low implementation cost. Moreover the linear laser proposed can be used in several fields such as spectroscopy, telecommunications and fiber optic sensing systems.

  8. Optical directional coupler and Mach-Zehnder interferometer enhanced via 4H-SiC phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Michael F.; Saunders Filho, Claudio A. B.; Lail, Brian A.

    2016-09-01

    Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), similar to it cousin phenomenon surface plasmon polaitons (SPPs), are quasi-neutral particles resulting from light-matter coupling that can provide high modal confinement and long propagation in the mid to long infrared (IR). Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a combination of two connected optical directional couplers (ODC). With the use of SPhPs, sub-wavelength feature sizes and modal areas can be achieved and to this end a hybrid SPhP waveguide, where propagation length and modal area can be trade-off, will be employed in the design of an ODC and MZI. This endeavor analyzes and characteristics both an ODC and MZI using commercially available numerical simulation software employing finite element method (FEM). The ODC and MZI are design using a novel SPhP hybrid waveguide design where a 4H-SiC substrate provides the polariton mode. The output ports power and relative phase difference between ports are investigated. SPhP enhanced ODC and MZI has applications including, but not limited to, next-generation ultra-compact photonic integrated circuits and waveguide based IR sensing.

  9. Design of all-optical multi-level regenerators based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjian; Wu, Baojian; Zhou, Xingyu; Wan, Qingyao; Jiang, Shanglong; Wen, Feng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a design method for all-optical multi-level regenerators by mimicking the normalized power transfer function (PTF) in the first-order approximation to the ideal step-like PTF, in which a key step is to appropriately select the amplitude and phase conditions of Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MZI)-based regenerators. As an example, we describe the design process of the self-phase-modulation (SPM)-based MZI regenerator constructed by a section of nonlinear fiber and an optical phase shifter (OPS). It is shown that the parameter of reference power level (RPL) can be regarded as the upper limit of input power, which is useful for the measure of the multi-level regeneration performance. The number of regenerative power levels increases with the RPL parameter. For 4-level pulse amplitude modulated (4PAM) optical signals degraded by the Gaussian noises with the standard deviation of 0.02, the SPM-based MZI regenerator has an average noise reduction ratio (NRR) of 6.5 dB, better than that of 1st-order regenerator by about 5 dB.

  10. An innovative single development process for integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer pattern transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, NurulBariah; Lau, Kuen Yau; Khor, Kang Nan; Abdul Wahid, Mohamad Halim; Ahmad Hambali, Nor Azura Malini; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer

    2017-02-01

    Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (IO-MZI) has been widely researched for various usage including for biosensor application. However, the success rate of IO-MZI pattern transfer has been low using the conventional multidevelopment process. One of the main factors is the particle contamination due to the practice of reused developer bath. In this work, an innovative single development process had been proposed with the utilization of the same conventional set-up but with a different protocol. The concept of this method is the estimation of total development time based on the calculated development rate. By doing so, the development process can be completed with only one immersion of the substrate in the developer bath. Besides, the manipulation of development rate by varying exposure time in this work also had revealed the possibility of manipulation of line-width based on the exposure time. In short, the proposed single development process has increased the success rate of IO-MZI pattern transfer from 30% (multi-development method) to 90%.

  11. Silicon photonics athermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wide thermal and spectral operating range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peng; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-02-01

    In the context of 3D-integrated circuit (3DIC) integration of photonic and electronic components on vertical stacks covering different domains (digital, analog, RF, optical and MEMS), the control and minimization of adverse thermal effects on the behavior of the different parts of the microsystem is a major concern. Solutions based on passive athermal design are good candidates for enabling operation of optical components over electronic ICs with variable temporal and spatial thermal load while at the same time, minimizing energy loss on thermal biasing resistive loads. In this work, an improved athermal design method and the corresponding validating fabricated prototype are presented with the aim of extending the spectral athermal operating range of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) over a wide thermal range with minimal temperature sensitivity. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator process flow fabrication run. The fabricated MZIs have a temperature sensitivity of around 20 pm/K over a spectral range larger than 60 nm for operating temperatures in the range of 20°C to 60°C. These devices are suitable for future optical and electronic 3D IC integration.

  12. Biosensors based on Si3N4 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Pasquardini, Laura; Falke, Floris; Zanetti, Manuela; Guider, Romain; Gandolfi, Davide; Schreuder, Eric; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Heideman, René G.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a study on photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (aMZI) for Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) detection. AFM1 is an hepatotoxic and a carcinogenic toxin present in milk. The biosensor is based on an array of four Si3N4 aMZI that are optimized for 850nm wavelength. We measure the bulk Sensitivity (S) and the Limit of Detection (LOD) of our devices. In the array, three devices are exposed and have very similar sensitivities. The fourth aMZI, which is covered by SiO2, is used as an internal reference for laser (a VCSEL) and temperature fluctuations. We measured a phase sensitivity of 14300+/-400 rad/RIU. To characterize the LOD of the sensors, we measure the uncertainty of the experimental readout system. From the measurements on three aMZI, we observe the same value of LOD, which is ≍ 4.5×10-7 RIU. After the sensor characterization on homogeneous sensing, we test the surface sensing performances by flowing specific Aflatoxin M1 and non-specific Ochratoxin in 50 mM MES pH 6.6 buffer on the top of the sensors functionalized with Antigen-Recognising Fragments (Fab'). The difference between specific and non-specific signals shows the specificity of our sensors. A moderate regeneration of the sensors is obtained by using glycine solution.

  13. Stochastic dual-plane on-axis digital holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-09-01

    For traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography, the robustness is lower because it is difficult to maintain the stability of the phase difference between the object beam and the reference beam, and it may be invalid when the objects are on the surface of a medium with uneven thickness. An improved dual-plane digital holographic method based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to address these problems. Two holograms are recorded at two different planes separated by a small distance. Then, the zero-order image and conjugated image are eliminated by Fourier domain processing. In order to enhance the robustness of the system, the object is illuminated by a stochastic beam that is a speckle wave produced by a diffuser. Simulated and experimental results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method has greater robustness than the traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography and it can be used to imaging on the irregular surface of a transparent medium.

  14. Microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on long period grating for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanzhen; Sun, Li-Peng; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2013-01-14

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) composed by a pair of long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in silica microfiber for sensing applications is demonstrated. Each LPG is fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser by creating six periodical deformations along fiber length with only one scanning cycle. The length of the MZI can reach as short as 8.84 mm when the diameter of the microfiber is 9.5 μm. Compared with the ones fabricated in single-mode fibers, the present MZI is much shorter owing to the large effective-index difference between the fundamental and higher order modes. The microfiber MZI exhibits a sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (RI) of 2225 nm per refractive index unit and the temperature sensitivity of only 11.7 pm/°C. Theoretical analysis suggests that the performances of the MZI sensor can be improved by using thinner microfibers with a diameter down to 3.5 μm: The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced due to the stronger evanescent-field interaction and reduced dispersion factor; the transmission dips become narrower which benefits high-resolution measurement; the thinner fiber also allows further reduction in device length. The present device has great potential in biochemical and medical sensing due to the advantages including easy fabrication, excellent compactness and high sensitivity.

  15. Binary to Octal and Octal to Binary Code Converter Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Speed Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-05-01

    Binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using external gates. In this paper, binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  16. Design of reversible sequential circuits using electro-optic effect of lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that reversible logic can play an important role in power optimization for computer design. The various reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, Peres, and Toffoli gates have been discussed by researchers, but very little work has been done on reversible sequential circuits. Design of reversible sequential circuits using lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers is proposed. Here, flip-flops are designed with the help of basic reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, and Peres gates. Theoretical descriptions along with mathematical formulation of the devices are provided. The devices are also analyzed through finite difference-beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation.

  17. An all-optical switch of Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active fibre ring resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Qing; Alireza Bananej; Li Qiang-Hua; Chen Qiang; Li Chun-Fei

    2004-01-01

    We propose an all-optical switch of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active nonlinear ring resonatorand analyse the significance of the parameter A, a product of gain and total loss, for performing an ideal 1 by 2switch. We found that in the range of 1 - κ≤ A ≤√/1 - k, the increment of A can compensate the losses insidethe ring, therefore increase the finesse of the ring and enhance the nonlinearity contribution to reduce the switchingpower threshold effectively. We also emphasize the importance of the initial switching point and discuss the feasibilityof utilizing a high-nonlinear fibre in the ring.

  18. Mach-Zehnder Interferometers with Asymmetric Modulation Arms in Applications of High Speed Silicon-on-Insulator Based Optical Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fei; YU Jin-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Modulation arms with different widths are introduced to Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) to obtain improved performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have shown that when the widths of the two arms are properly designed to achieve an inherent mπ/2 (m is an odd integer) optical phase difference between the arms, the asymmetric MZI presents higher modulation speed. Furthermore, the carrier-absorption induced divergence of insertion losses in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based MZI optical switches can be obviously improved.

  19. Compact silicon-on-insulator-based 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer electro-optic switch with low crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejiang Xing; Zhiyong Li; Peiji Zhou; Yuanhao Gong; Yude Yu; Manqing Tan; Jinzhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    We report a compact 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) electro-optic switch fabricated on a siliconon-insulator using standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes.With a short modulation arm length of 200 μm,the crosstalk is reduced to-22 dB by the new modulation scheme of push-pull modulation with a pre-biased π/2 phase shift.The new modulation scheme can also work with a fast switching time of about 5.4 ns.

  20. Design of 4 to 2 line encoder using lithium niobate based Mach Zehnder Interferometers for high speed communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.

    2016-04-01

    Encoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using encoder and external gates. In this paper, 4 to 2 line encoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  1. A distributed fiber vibration sensor utilizing dispersion induced walk-off effect in a unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingming; Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Lu, Chao; Yang, Liang; Li, Guifang

    2014-02-10

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel ultra-long range and sensitive distributed fiber vibration sensor. Only one unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is employed in this scheme as the sensing element. In this sensor structure, we utilize chromatic dispersion-induced walk-off effect between the vibration signals sensed by two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers at different wavelengths to locate the vibration position. Vibration signals with frequencies up to 9 MHz can be detected and the spatial resolution of 31 m is achieved over 320 km of the standard single mode fiber. Monitoring multiple vibration sources can also be realized using this scheme.

  2. Laser frequency stabilisation via quasi-monolithic, unequal arm-length Mach-Zehnder interferometer with balanced DC readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency high precision laser interferometry is subject to excess laser frequency noise coupling via arm-length differences which is commonly mitigated by locking the frequency to a stable reference system. This is crucial to achieve picometer level sensitivities in the 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz regime, where laser frequency noise is usually high and couples into the measurement phase via arm-length mismatches in the interferometers. Here we describe the results achieved by frequency stabilising an external cavity diode laser to a quasi-monolithic unequal arm-length Mach-Zehnder interferometer read out at mid-fringe via balanced detection. This stabilisation scheme has been found to be an elegant solution combining a minimal number of optical components, no additional laser modulations and relatively low frequency noise levels. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been designed and constructed to minimise the influence of thermal couplings and to reduce undesired stray light using the optical simulation tool IfoCAD...

  3. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-08-28

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10(-6) RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things.

  4. Grazing angle Mach-Zehnder interferometer using reflective phase gratings and a polychromatic, un-collimated light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Camille K; Auxier, Julie; Lynch, Susanna K; Bennett, Eric E; Morgan, Nicole Y; Wen, Han

    2010-12-20

    Normal incidence Talbot-Lau interferometers in x-ray applications have the drawbacks of low fringe visibility with polychromatic sources when the wave propagation distance is increased to achieve higher phase sensitivity, and when fabrication limits the attainable grating density. In contrast, reflective gratings illuminated at grazing angles have dramatically higher effective densities than their physical values. However, new designs are needed for far field interferometers using grazing angle geometry with incoherent light sources. We show that, with the appropriate design and choice of reflective phase gratings, there exist pairs of interfering pathways of exactly equal lengths independent of the incoming beam's incidence angle and wavelength. With a visible light grazing angle Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we show the conditions for achieving near ideal fringe visibility and demonstrate both absolute and differential phase-contrast imaging. We also describe the design parameters of an x-ray interferometer and key factors for its implementation.

  5. Comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations using Sagnac loop mirror and Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ytterbium doped fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Shahi, S.; Lim, K. S.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-02-01

    A multiwavelength Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser operating at 1030 nm region is demonstrated using a Sagnac loop mirror and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We report the Performance comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations in Yb3+ doped fiber lasers (YDFL) with typical commercial ytterbium doped silica fibers. By adjusting the polarization controller (PC), a widely tunable laser range of 22 nm from 1030 nm to 1050 nm is obtained. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) design has exhibited simplicity in the operation for controlling the smallest wavelength spacing compared to Sagnac loop mirror method. In our observations, the smallest achieved stable wavelength spacing in Sagnac loop mirror setup and MZI setup were 2.1 nm and 0.7 nm, respectively. In case of nine-wavelength operation with a MZI setup, the stability, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) and side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of laser lines are not affected by increasing pump power, While for above four wavelength operation, the laser stability with Sagnac loop mirror becomes worse specially for higher input pump power and the power fluctuation among the wave-lengths would be also slightly larger.

  6. On-chip integrated mid-infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Balluff, Franz; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kim, Seong-Soo; Leidner, Lothar; Gauglitz, Guenter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-19

    We report the design, fabrication, and first functional verification of mid-infrared (MIR; 3-12 μm) Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The developed MIR-MZIs are entirely chip-integrated solid-state devices based on GaAs/AlGaAs technology waveguide fabricated via conventional optical lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). Thus, fabricated MIR-MZIs were combined with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (tQCL) providing a wavelength coverage of 5.78-6.35 μm. MIR-MZIs have been designed with a waveguide width of 5 μm to ensure single mode behavior, avoiding optically undefined interference patterns. Several structures with different opening angles of the Y-junction were fabricated and tested for maximizing IR radiation throughput. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the very first chip-integrated mid-infrared Mach-Zehnder structures via interference patterns produced by minute amounts of water deposited at different positions of the MIR-MZI structure.

  7. All-optical clear/drop optimisation for a 4x40 Gbit/s signal in Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Optimisation of the all-optical clear and drop functionality using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is investigated for 2, 4 and 8x40 Gbit/s signals. The performance of different devices is compared, and critical design issues are discussed....

  8. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  9. Effect of Radiation on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Silicon Modulator for HL-LHC data Transmission Applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Nasr-Storey, Sarah Seif; Baudot, Charles; Detraz, Stephane; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Olantera, Lauri; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Sigaud, Christophe; Soos, Csaba; Troska, Jan; Vasey, Francois; Vivien, Laurent; Zeiler, Marcel; Ziebell, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    High-speed Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulators were irradiated with neutrons and X-rays in two separate radiation tests. The devices were exposed to a total fluence of 1.2 x 10$^{15}$ neutrons/cm$^2$ and a total ionizing dose of 1.3 MGy; levels comparable to the worst radiation levels for a tracking detector after 10 years of operation at the High- Luminosity LHC. Our measurements indicate that the devices performance does not significantly degrade after exposure to nonionizing radiation and begins to be affected by ionizing radiation after a dose of a few hundred kGy; the phase-shift for an applied reverse bias of 1 V is 10% of its pre-irradiated value after 600 kGy of received ionizing dose.

  10. Refractive index sensing performance analysis of photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on BP neural network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Teng; Wang, Wenyue; Zhu, Qiguang; Bi, Weihong

    2015-04-01

    According to the band gap and photon localization characteristics, the single-arm notching and the double-arm notching Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures based on 2D triangular lattice air hole-typed photonic crystal waveguide are proposed. The back-propagation (BP) neural network is introduced to optimize the structural parameters of the photonic crystal MZI structure, which results in the normalized transmission peak increasing from 85.3% to 97.1%. The sensitivity performances of the two structures are compared and analyzed using the Salmonella solution samples with different concentrations in the numerical simulation. The results show that the sensitivity of the double-arm notching structure is 4583 nm/RIU, which is about 6.4 times of the single-arm notching structure, which can provide some references for the optimization of the photonic devices and the design of high-sensitivity biosensors.

  11. 160 Gb/s all-optical AND gate using bulk SOA turbo-switched Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Salgado, I.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2017-09-01

    A novel architecture to implement an all-optical AND gate that relies on the use of a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier-based active Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the turbo-switch effect is presented. Its performance is analyzed in terms of relevant physical parameters and its power consumption calculated. Error-free operation at 160 Gb/s is numerically demonstrated, thus becoming the fastest AND gate of its kind. Accurate simulations using a well-tested design suite predict a 2.7 dB improvement in terms of quality factor when compared to a conventional scheme. The performance advantages of the proposed architecture remain when combined with a turbo-switched XOR gate: the resulting all-optical half-adder also operates error-free at 160 Gb/s. Our research work boosts the potential of interferometric turbo-switched photonic structures as ultra-fast all-optical processing elements.

  12. Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailiang; Wu, Zhifang; Shum, Perry Ping; Dinh, Xuan Quyen; Low, Chun Wah; Xu, Zhilin; Wang, Ruoxu; Shao, Xuguang; Fu, Songnian; Tong, Weijun; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-18

    Optical fiber sensors for strain measurement have been playing important roles in structural health monitoring for buildings, tunnels, pipelines, aircrafts, and so on. A highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structures (HSs) assisted Mach-Zehnder interference in an all-solid heterogeneous multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the HSs, a maximum strain sensitivity as high as -61.8 pm/με was experimentally achieved. This is the highest sensitivity among interferometer-based strain sensors reported so far, to the best of our knowledge. Moreover, the proposed sensor has the ability to discriminate axial strain and temperature, and offers several advantages such as repeatability of fabrication, robust structure and compact size, which further benefits its practical sensing applications.

  13. Twist and temperature characteristics of the PD-NSN fiber structure based on in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Sun, Chunran; Xiao, Han; Dong, Changbin; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel polarization-dependent (PD) no core-single mode-no core (NSN) fiber structure for twist and temperature sensing has been experimentally investigated. The proposed structure simply involves a section of polarization maintain fiber sandwiched into NSN fiber structure, only using the splicing method. We have analyzed and demonstrated the transmission characteristics of the no core fiber (NCF) with the different lengths. Experimental results indicate that the extinction ratio of the PD-NSN fiber structure comb spectrum based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) various with twist rate. The maximum sensitivity of 0.33904 dB/(rad/m) for range from -240° to 360° is achieved. The temperature sensitivity of the proposed structure reaches 41.89 pm/°C for temperature ranging from 20 to 70 °C in the experiment. By using the peak-wavelength discrimination method, the proposed sensor can overcome the temperature and twist cross-sensitivity effects.

  14. Sensitivity distribution of a vibration sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer designed inside the window system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboril, Ondrej; Nedoma, Jan; Cubik, Jakub; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Interferometric sensors are very accurate and sensitive sensors that due to the extreme sensitivity allow sensing vibration and acoustic signals. This paper describes a new method of implementation of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensing of vibrations caused by touching on the window panes. Window panes are part of plastic windows, in which the reference arm of the interferometer is mounted and isolated inside the frame, a measuring arm of the interferometer is fixed to the window pane and it is mounted under the cover of the window frame. It prevents visibility of the optical fiber and this arrangement is the basis for the safety system. For the construction of the vibration sensor standard elements of communication networks are used - optical fiber according to G.652D and 1x2 splitters with dividing ratio 1:1. Interferometer operated at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The paper analyses the sensitivity of the window in a 12x12 measuring points matrix, there is specified sensitivity distribution of the window pane.

  15. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1–20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas. PMID:28378783

  16. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1-20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study on white light interferometric fiber optic sensors network configuring by tandem of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers%级联式光纤白光干涉传感网络拓扑结构理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海丽; 苑勇贵; 杨军; 苑立波

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the multiplexing ability of optical sensors, based on the low interferential optic fiber sensing technology, a novel combination interferometer of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson system has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a Michelson interferometer and a series of tandem Mach-Zehnder interferometers which are linked with one arm of the Michelson intefferometer, forming a multi-fiber optic sensors measuring network. It can be used to measure the distribution strain or temperature, especially suitable for monitoring large scale structural deformation due to its sensing gauge length could be chosen as long as tens of meters. It also could be used in the temperature compensation mode, in which one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer measures strain caused by the variation of deformation and temperature, the other arm only measures the ambient temperature for eliminating the apparent strain caused by temperature.%为了提高传感器的多路复用能力,基于低相干光纤传感技术,提出一种新型干涉仪组合拓扑结构.该结构由Michelson干涉仪的一个臂与若干个Mach-Zehnder干涉仪混合级联而成,构成了可以同时实现多传感器测量的传感网络.构建了实验系统,对传感特性进行了分析.实验结果表明:该拓扑结构可以实现一个解调干涉仪对网络系统中多个传感器的问询,可以实现应变和温度的测量.该系统中传感器的长度可自由选取,能用于大尺度结构形变的检测;也叮以配对使用,并自动补偿应变测量过程中环境温度变化带来的影响.

  18. In Situ Observation of NaCI Crystal Growth by the Vapor Diffusion Method with a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; MIAO Hong; DUAN Li; KANG Qi; HE Ling-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer, a microscope and an image processor. Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process. The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed. It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments, according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve. This can help us understand the details of crystal growth. The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed, and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.%Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer,a microscope and an image processor.Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process.The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed.It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments,according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve.This can help us understand the details of crystal growth.The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed,and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.The growth of large crystals with a high degree of perfection is essential in the chemical industry and the protein field.Vapor diffusion[1] is the most widely used technique in protein crystallization,the principle of which is that the solution gradually reaches

  19. Improved silica-PLC Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches with error dependence compensation of directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yi, Jia; Guo, Lijun; Liu, Peng; Hall, Trevor J.; Sun, DeGui

    2017-03-01

    For the most popular structure of planer lightwave circuit (PLC) 2×2 thermo-optic switches, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), a full range of splitting ratio errors of directional coupler (DC) are investigated. All the parameters determining the splitting ratio are the dimensions and the refractive indices of the waveguide core and cladding layers. In this work, the coherent relationships between the waveguide size and the refractive indices are analyzed and then the error compensation between the width and the refractive index of waveguide core, and the controllable effect of over clad layer refractive index error upon the MZI-type optical switch are all discovered with numerical calculation and BPM simulations. Then, an MZI-type 2×2 thermo-optic switch having a higher error tolerance is established with the efficient optimizations of all the 3 dB-DC parameters. As a result, for the symmetric MZI switch, an insertion loss of 1.5 dB and optical extinction ratio of over 20 dB are realized for the average tolerance of±5.0%. An asymmetric arm optical phase and unequal arm lengths is also employed to improve the uniformities of insertion loss. The agreements between the designs and the experiments are recognized, leading to a wide adoption of practical silica-PLC optical switch products.

  20. Manufacture tolerance analysis and control for a polymer on-silicon Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-based electro-optic switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-tao; MA Chun-sheng; YAN Xin; CUI Zhan-chen; ZHANG Da-ming

    2011-01-01

    To enhance the electro-optic (EO) modulation efficiency and realize the impedance-matching, a polymer-on-silicon multi mode interference (MMI) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) -based electro-optic (EO) switch is designed and optimized.Under the central operation wavelength of 1550 nm, the driving voltages of the designed switch are O and ±1.375 V,respectively, with a short active region length of 5 mm, and the characteristic impedance of the electrode is about 49.6 Ω.The manufacture tolerance is analyzed for instructing the device fabrication. The results show that to realize ideal switching function, high fabrication accuracy on the buffer thickness, core thickness, electrode width and MMI wavegnide width is extremely required, and a small voltage drift of-0.03-0.05 V is also expected for reducing the crosstalk to less than -30 dB.The allowed 3 dB bandwidth is 60 nm, and within this spectrum range, the insertion loss and crosstalk are less than 6.71 dB and -30 dB, respectively.

  1. Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers as high performance refractive index sensors: theory and monolithic implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiakos, K; Raptis, I; Salapatas, A; Makarona, E; Botsialas, A; Hoekman, M; Stoffer, R; Jobst, G

    2014-04-21

    Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometry is analytically described and experimentally demonstrated as an analytical tool capable of high accuracy refractive index measurements over a wide spectral range. Suitable photonic engineering of the interferometer sensing and reference waveguides result in sinusoidal TE and TM spectra with substantially different eigen-frequencies. This allows for the instantaneous deconvolution of multiplexed polarizations and enables large spectral shifts and noise reduction through filtering in the Fourier Transform domain. Due to enhanced sensitivity, optical systems can be designed that employ portable spectrum analyzers with nm range resolution without compromising the sensor analytical capability. Practical detection limits in the 10(-6)-10(-7) RIU range are achievable, including temperature effects. Finally, a proof of concept device is realized on a silicon microphotonic chip that monolithically integrates broad-band light sources and single mode silicon nitride waveguides. Refractive index detection limits rivaling that of ring resonators with externally coupled laser sources are demonstrated. Sensitivities of 20 μm/RIU and spectral shifts in the tens of a pm are obtained.

  2. Analysis of frequency noise properties of 729nm extended cavity diode laser with unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan M.; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Lazar, Josef; Hrabina, Jan; Řeřucha, Šimon; Lešundák, Adam; Obšil, Petr; Filip, Radim; Slodička, Lukáš; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the frequency noise investigation of a linewidth-suppressed Extended Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL), working at 729 nm. Since the ECDL is intended as an excitation laser for the forbidden transition in a trapped and laser cooled 40Ca+ ion, an Hz-level linewidth is required. We present the experimental design that comprises a two-stage linewidth narrowing and a facility for frequency and noise analysis. The linewidth is first narrowed with a phase lock loop of the ECDL onto a selected component of an optical frequency comb where the frequency noise was suppressed with a fast electronic servo-loop controller that drives the laser injection current with a high bandwidth. The second stage comprises locking the laser onto a selected mode of a high-finesse passive optical cavity. The frequency analysis used an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fiber spool inserted in the reference arm in order to give a general insight into the signal properties by mixing two separated beams, one of them delayed by the spool, and processing it with a spectral analyzer. Such a frequency noise analysis reveals what are the most significant noises contributions to the laser linewidth, which is a crucial information in field of ion trapping and cooling. The presented experimental results show the effect of the linewidth narrowing with the first stage, where the linewidth of ECDL was narrowed down to a kHz level.

  3. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Novel Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors and Its Cost-Effective Alternative Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sumei; Jiang Lan; Li Benye; Zhao Longjiang; Yang Jinpeng; Wang Mengmeng; Xiao Hai; Lu Yongfeng; Hai-Lung Tasi

    2011-01-01

    The recent progresses of fiber sensor fabrication in our group are reviewed. Novel inline fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensors with various structures are proposed and manufactured by femtosecond laser fabrication and fusion splicing for high-quality sensing of refractivity-sensitive parameters such as temperature, concentration, humidity, pressure, stress and strain., a) for an MZI sensor with a trench on a single-mode fiber, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of acetone vapor is about 10 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the temperature sensitivity is 51.5 pm/℃ from 200 to 875℃ ; b) For an MZI consisting of two micro-air-cavities, the sensitivity is501.5 nm/RIU and the detection limit is 1. 994 × 10 RIU at the refractive index of 1.4; c) to reduce the fabrication cost, a new fusion-splicing based method is proposed to fabricate MZI sensors; the sensitivity is 664.57 nm/RIU witha detection limit of 1.5 x 10 RIU and its cost is tens of times cheaper than those of commercialized long period fiber Gratings; Also, 5×10 acetone vapors are successfully detected by the MZI sensors coated with zeolite thin films.

  4. A chitosan-coated humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged fusion bitapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu; Chen, Lihan; Dong, Xinyong; Huang, Ran; Ma, Qifei

    2017-01-01

    A novel humidity sensor, which adopts a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in normal single mode fiber (SMF) modified by the deposition of chitosan (a moisture-sensitive natural polymer) on the cladding, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It is fabricated by the fusion splicing of a segment between the two SMF with waist-enlarged fusion bitapers. This all-fiber MZI based on SMF incorporates intermodal interference between the core mode and the cladding mode. Due to the fact that it is sensitive to external refractive index and that the RI of the chitosan multi-layer film coat depends on the environmental humidity, the SMF-MZI with a chitosan coating layer of nanometer thickness is employed in humidity measuring. The sensitivity of ∼119.6 pm/RH (relative humidity unit) is achieved within the range from 10% to 90% on the experimental level. Moreover, the chitosan coat has good biocompatibility for in vivo biomedical applications like immunosensing and DNA hybridization detection in the near future.

  5. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhifang [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry [OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Quyen Dinh, Xuan [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Thales Solutions Asia Pte Ltd, R and T Department, 28 Changi North Rise, Singapore 498755 (Singapore)

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  6. Label-free detection in a lab-on-a-chip with a three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, A.; Gu, Y.; Ngamson, B.; Dongre, C.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Vlekkert, van den H.H.; Watts, P.; Pollnau, M.; Cerullo, G.; Osellame, R.

    2010-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder refractive index sensor is inscribed in a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip by exploiting the unique three-dimensional capabilities of femtosecond laser fabrication. This enables high sensitivity and spatially resolved label-free detection of biomolecules.

  7. Improving the acousto-optical interaction in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    A method for modeling the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic wave is generated by an interdigital transducer using a linear elastic plane model of a piezoelect......A method for modeling the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic wave is generated by an interdigital transducer using a linear elastic plane model...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material, and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by time-harmonic wave equations for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using stress-optical relations and the change...... bigger if the waveguides are kept single moded. It is furthermore shown that the difference increases more than ten times when the waveguides are buried below the surface, where the mechanical stresses have their maximum, and in the case where two interdigital transducers are used the difference...

  8. Comparison of all-optical co- and counter-propagating high-speed signal processing in SOA-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Buxens, Alvaro; Fischer, S.;

    2001-01-01

    The all-optical signal processing performance of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated. Calculated switching windows are used to investigate and understand the physical mechanisms limiting the high speed performance. Especially, the co- and counter-propagating operation of the MZI...... is discussed and important differences in the performance for the two schemes are addressed. The non-regenerative all-optical clear and drop functionality is investigated for a 2, 4 and 8 x 40 Gbit/s signal, showing good performance in the co-propagating case. Regenerative simultaneous clear and drop...... functionality in a single MZI is demonstrated experimentally and compared to the large signal model predictions....

  9. Design of Excess 3 to BCD code converter using electro-optic effect of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for efficient data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Amphawan, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Excess 3 code is one of the most important codes used for efficient data storage and transmission. It is a non-weighted code and also known as self complimenting code. In this paper, a four bit optical Excess 3 to BCD code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  10. Switchable Multi-Wavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using a Twin-Core Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Su-Chun; XU Ou; LU Shao-Hua; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer comb filter at room temperature is presented.The comb filter is formed by splicing a section of twin-core fiber between two single mode fibers.By adjusting the states of the polarization controller appropriately,the laser can be made to operate in stable single-,dual- and three-wavelength lazing states.The operation principle is based on spectral hole burning induced by the saturated effect and polarization hole burning.

  11. Nearly optimal measurement schemes in a noisy Mach-Zehnder interferometer with coherent and squeezed vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, Bryan T.; You, Chenglong; Singh, Robinjeet; Lee, Hwang; Corbitt, Thomas R.; Dowling, Jonathan P. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Mishra, Devendra K. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); V.S. Mehta College of Science, Physics Department, Bharwari, UP (India)

    2017-12-15

    The use of an interferometer to perform an ultra-precise parameter estimation under noisy conditions is a challenging task. Here we discuss nearly optimal measurement schemes for a well known, sensitive input state, squeezed vacuum and coherent light. We find that a single mode intensity measurement, while the simplest and able to beat the shot-noise limit, is outperformed by other measurement schemes in the low-power regime. However, at high powers, intensity measurement is only outperformed by a small factor. Specifically, we confirm, that an optimal measurement choice under lossless conditions is the parity measurement. In addition, we also discuss the performance of several other common measurement schemes when considering photon loss, detector efficiency, phase drift, and thermal photon noise. We conclude that, with noise considerations, homodyne remains near optimal in both the low and high power regimes. Surprisingly, some of the remaining investigated measurement schemes, including the previous optimal parity measurement, do not remain even near optimal when noise is introduced. (orig.)

  12. Efficient regenerative wavelength conversion at 10Gbit/s over C- and L-band (80nm span) using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dülk, M.; Fischer, St.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    A demonstration is presented of 10Gbit/s 2R regenerative wavelength up- and down-conversion within the C-band as well as up-conversion to the L-band using a monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer module with semiconductor optical amplifiers (MZI-SOAs). The converted output signals ...

  13. All-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boyun; Xiong, Liangbin; Zeng, Qingdong; Chen, Zhihong; Lv, Hao; Ding, Yaoming; Du, Jun; Yu, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate all-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an all-optical analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect. The free-carrier plasma dispersion effect modulation method is applied to improve the tuning rate with a response time of picoseconds. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and coupled-mode formalism. Compared with no phase-shift multiplication effect, the average pump power of all-optical switching required to yield the π-phase shift difference decreases by 55.1%, and the size of the modulation region is reduced by 50.1% when the average pump power reaches 60.8 mW. This work provides a new direction for low-power consumption and miniaturization of microstructure integration light-controlled switching devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  14. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I.; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost. PMID:27294930

  15. ALL OPTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED AND LOW POWER REVERSIBLE FULL ADDER USING SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER BASED MACH-ZEHNDER INTERFEROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bommi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years reversible logic design has promising applications in low power computing, optical computing, quantum computing. VLSI design mainly concentrates on low power logic circuit design. In the present scenario researchers have made implementations of reversible logic gates in optical domain for its low energy consumption and high speed. This study is all about designing a reversible Full adder using combination of all optical Toffoli and all optical TNOR and to compare it with the Full adder designed using all optical Toffoli gate in terms of optical cost. All optical TNOR gate can work as a replacement of existing NAND based All optical Toffoli Gate (TG. The gates are designed using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI based optical switch. The proposed system is developed with the basic of reversibility to design all optical full Adder implemented with CMOS transistors. The design is efficient in terms of both architecture and in power consumption.

  16. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  17. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  18. A carboxy-methyl cellulose coated humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged bi-tapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qifei; Ni, Kai; Huang, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) humidity sensor is proposed, comprising a pair of waist-enlarged bi-tapers and carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) coating. The MZI utilizes intermodal interference between the core mode and cladding modes for the measurement of the effective refractive index (RI) of the CMC film that varies with surrounding humidity, through change in the sensor's interference pattern. The proposed sensor is linearly responsive to relative humidity (RH) within the humidity range from 70% RH to 85% RH, with maximum sensitivity of -0.8578 dB/% RH. The advantages of this sensor are its compact size and a facile fabrication process. More importantly, humidity sensitivity can be improved by changing the thickness of the CMC film, which makes this structure a highly promising for real-time, practical RH monitoring application.

  19. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2010-08-02

    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability.

  20. Design of an optical 4-bit binary to BCD converter using electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh

    2017-07-01

    Binary to Binary coded decimal (BCD) converter is a basic building block for BCD processing. The last few decades have witnessed exponential rise in applications of binary coded data processing in the field of optical computing thus there is an eventual increase in demand of acceptable hardware platform for the same. Keeping this as an approach a novel design exploiting the preeminent feature of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is presented in this paper. Here, an optical 4-bit binary to binary coded decimal (BCD) converter utilizing the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based MZI has been demonstrated. It exhibits the property of switching the optical signal from one port to the other, when a certain appropriate voltage is applied to its electrodes. The projected scheme is implemented using the combinations of cascaded electro-optic (EO) switches. Theoretical description along with mathematical formulation of the device is provided and the operation is analyzed through finite difference-Beam propagation method (FD-BPM). The fabrication techniques to develop the device are also discussed.

  1. Refractometric sensor based on all-fiber coaxial Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers for ethanol detection in fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, L.; Osório, Jonas H.; Hayashi, Juliano G.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.

    2011-01-01

    A refractometric sensor based on mechanically induced interferometers formed with long period gratings is reported. It is also shown two different setups based on a Michelson and Mach-Zender interferometer and its application to measure ethanol concentration in gasoline.

  2. Reconfigurable and ultra-sensitive in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the fusion of microfiber and microfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shecheng [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Chonglei [Institute of Micro and Nano Optics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-02-23

    A reconfigurable Mach-Zenhnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microfluidic cavity (MFC) constructed by embedding a microfiber between two segments of single-mode fibers with pre-designed lateral offset has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MFC serves as an interference arm with an eccentric annular cross section and allows convenient sample (gas or liquids) replacement procedure. The microfiber works as the other interference arm that provides the proposed device with ease of reconstruction and also enhances the force sensitivity. The re-configurability and the ultra-wide tuning sensitivity range are demonstrated by immersing the MZI constructed with a 484 μm-long-MFC and a microfiber 44 μm in diameter in different droplets. Ultrahigh sensitivities of 34.65 nm/°C (∼88 380 nm/RIU) and −493.7 nm/N (∼−590 pm/με) are experimentally achieved using a droplet with a refractive index of ∼1.44.

  3. Label-free in-situ real-time DNA hybridization kinetics detection employing microfiber-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Lin, Wei; Wu, Jixuan

    2016-07-15

    A label-free DNA biosensor based on microfiber-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MAMZI) for in-situ real-time DNA hybridization kinetics detection has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber of hundreds of microns in length is fabricated by tapering a segment of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) to construct the U-shaped microcavity between the lead-in and lead-out SMFs. Thanks to the mode field mismatching between the SMF and microfiber, the incident guided mode light would separate into two beams that respectively propagate in the air microcavity and the microfiber. Consequently, interference between different light modes would occur at the joint between the microfiber and the lead-out SMF. Experimental results indicate that owing to the participation of opening cavity modes in the modal interference process, the interferometric spectrum of our proposed microcavity sensor is highly sensitive to the variation of environmental refractive index (RI), especially for the RI range around 1.34 which is useful for most biological applications. The microfiber functionalization is achieved by stepwise modifying the microfiber with monolayer Poly-l-lysine (PLL) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes to produce the sensitive surface that could uniquely attach specific target ssDNAs. The fiber surface functionalization as well as DNA hybridization processes have been experimentally investigated for different target ssDNA solutions in real time. The interferometric transmission spectrum shows large wavelength shift for different biological phases, and a detection limit conservatively down to 0.0001pmol/μL has been acquired by employing the U-shaped microcavity of 176.88μm in length. Our proposed DNA biosensor possesses several advantages such as compact size, ease of fabrication, and strong response for DNA hybridization, which make it a promising candidate for potential applications in such rapidly expanding areas as medical diagnosis, cancer

  4. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm(2). It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT.

  5. Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Eva [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bruck, Roman [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Hainberger, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.hainberger@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Laemmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@univie.ac.at [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We realize a biosensing platform for polyimide evanescent photonic wave sensors. {yields} We show that the surface functionalization via silanisation and biotinylation followed by streptavidin immobilization do not destroy or damage the thin polyimide film. {yields} A highly dense streptavidin layer enables the immobilisation of biotinylated ligands such as biotinylated ssDNA for the selective measurement of DNA hybridization. - Abstract: The process of surface functionalization involving silanization, biotinylation and streptavidin bonding as platform for biospecific ligand immobilization was optimized for thin film polyimide spin-coated silicon wafers, of which the polyimide film serves as a wave guiding layer in evanescent wave photonic biosensors. This type of optical sensors make great demands on the materials involved as well as on the layer properties, such as the optical quality, the layer thickness and the surface roughness. In this work we realized the binding of a 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on an oxygen plasma activated polyimide surface followed by subsequent derivatization of the reactive thiol groups with maleimide-PEG{sub 2}-biotin and immobilization of streptavidin. The progress of the functionalization was monitored by using different fluorescence labels for optimization of the chemical derivatization steps. Further, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized for the characterization of the modified surface. These established analytical methods allowed to derive information like chemical composition of the surface, surface coverage with immobilized streptavidin, as well as parameters of the surface roughness. The proposed functionalization protocol furnished a surface density of 144 fmol mm{sup -2} streptavidin with good reproducibility (13.9% RSD, n = 10) and without inflicted damage to the surface. This surface modification was applied to polyimide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  6. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, En-Ming; Dong, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Xin-Liang

    2011-05-01

    A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter was proposed and demonstrated, which can be applied in microwave generation. By incorporating a high extinction ratio (ER) dual-pass MZI into an erbium-doped fiber ring cavity, SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be achieved even using a MZI with relatively little free spectrum range (FSR), and by beating the two wavelengths at a photodetector, a 9.76 GHz microwave signal with a 3-dB bandwidth of less than 10 kHz is obtained. Moreover, by direct linking the two outputs of the MZI, the high ER dual-pass MZI is easily reconfigured as a half FSR dual-pass MZI. Using this structure, switchable SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be conveniently realized.

  7. Mach-Zehnder Phasing Sensor for Elts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Montoya-Martinez, Luzma

    Segmented mirror technology has been successfully applied to 10m class telescopes (Keck HET GTC) and its application to future extremely large telescopes (20m NG-CFHT 30m CELT 50m EURO50 100m OWL) is required. Extensive use of adaptive optics in these telescopes puts stringent specifications on wavefront error allowing typically of the order of lambda/20 to segmentation errors. Several phasing metrology schemes adaptable to these giant telescopes are under development. We investigate a novel technique based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a spatial filter in one arm. Atmospheric turbulence is tolerated in this setup if the spatial filter has the size similar to that of the seeing disk. The resulting interference pattern only contains the high-frequency spatial information including information about the piston step height. We describe the theoretical analysis of this system and show simulated and experimatal results. Different error sources are analyzed in order to provide a preliminary idea of the merits of this technique compared with other phasing techniques.

  8. 一种基于空芯光纤的微型Mach-Zehnder干涉仪%A Miniature Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Hollow-core optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小军; 刘艳; 李卫东

    2016-01-01

    Miniature interferometer has a high value in many micro-sensor areas. All-fiber Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer based on hollow-core optical fiber has become a hot research point in recent years. The principle of light transmission and the mechanism of interference about the all-fiber MZ interferometer are researched. In refer⁃ence to the study of the previous air-core optical fiber interferometer, a novel MZ interferometer based on hol⁃low-core optical fiber is proposed. The transmission spectrum of the MZ interferometer in the experimental environ⁃ment is verified. Experimental results show that the free spectral range of the interferometer is about 140 nm when the wavelength is 1 550 nm and the sensor arm length of the interferometer is 50μm. The new MZ interferometer is simulated by using BPM method and simulation results accord with theoretical expectations. At the same time, the stimulated high-order mode is discussed and the transmission characteristics of radiation modes are obtained.%微型干涉仪在许多微传感领域有很高的应用价值。基于空芯光纤的全光纤Mach-Zehnder干涉仪成为了近些年研究的热点。研究了全光纤MZ干涉仪的传光原理及干涉机制。在参考前人对空芯光纤干涉仪研究的基础上,提出了一种基于空芯光纤的新型MZ干涉仪。搭建实验环境对该结构的MZ干涉仪的传输谱进行了验证。实验得出,当波长为1550 nm,传感臂长度为50μm时,自由波谱范围大约为140 nm。利用BPM法对该新型MZ干涉仪进行了仿真,仿真结果符合理论预期。同时对激发出的高阶模式进行了仿真探讨,并且得到辐射模的传输特性。

  9. Positioning approach based on Mach-Zehnder fiber sensors and a DSP processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Zhimin; Zhang, Huaming; Wang, Peng

    2013-12-01

    A positioning system based on Mach-Zehnder optical fiber interferometer is proposed, which can sense vibration information along the circumference of the fiber sensor and hence be applied to positioning invasions as a safe-guard system in residence communities. A cross-correlation algorithm fulfilled with a DSP processor has been adopted to calculate the time difference of two channels of the Mach-Zehnder optical fiber interferometer. A signal identification algorithm is proposed to decrease the workload of the DSP when no vibration occurs. An experiment with 11.28 kilometers sensing fiber has been carried out, whose results show the Mach-Zehnder positioning system identifies the position of vibration instantaneously and has a 44 meters positioning error within the total sensing distance.

  10. Mach-Zehnder Modulator Performance on the NIF South Pole Bang Time Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Chow, R.; Carpenter, A.; Bond, E.; Zayas-Rivera, Z.; Bell, P.; Celeste, J.; Clancy, T.; Miller, E. K.; Edgell, D.; Donaldson, W. R.

    2013-09-01

    We present performance data for Mach-Zehnder optical modulators fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a potential signal path upgrade for the South Pole Bang Time diagnostic. A single channel demonstration system has been deployed utilizing two modulators operating in a 90-degree In phase and Quadrature (I/Q) configuration. X-ray target emission signals are split and fed into two recording systems: a reference CRT based oscilloscope, Greenfield FTD10000, and the dual Mach-Zehnder system. Results of X-ray implosion time (bang time) determination from these two recording systems are compared and presented.

  11. Mach-Zehnder-based five-port silicon router for optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyao; Xiao, Xi; Xu, Hao; Li, Zhiyong; Chu, Tao; Yu, Jinzhong; Yu, Yude

    2013-05-15

    We propose and fabricate a five-port silicon optical router based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches. Only 10 switching elements and five low-loss waveguide crossings are required in our design. Through thermal control of the switching network, we successfully demonstrate 20 possible I/O paths of the five-port optical router at a data transmission rate of 32 Gb/s. The results here show great potential for application in ultrahigh-capacity optical interconnects.

  12. Investigation on characteristics of self-organization in Mach-Zehnder erbium-doped fiber laser cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengnian Liu; Bo Liu; Bangcai Huang; Guiyun Kai; Shuzhong Yuan; Xiaoyi Dong

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of coherent coupling in Mach-Zehnder erbium-doped fiber laser cavity are experimentally studied.By virtue of a seemly controlling of length difference between two interferometric arms,the obtained comb-like spectrum of interferometer resonator with a period of 0.06 nm commendably agrees with the theory of self-organization coherence The coherent output exits from the output mirror of a fiber Bragg grating with 4.5% reflectivity.A high coherent combining efficiency of 94% is obtained.Investigation on characteristics of the leak power opens out self-organization mechanism in Mach-Zehnder composite cavity.

  13. Mach-Zehnder Fiber-Optic Links for ICF Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E. K., Hermann, H. W.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the operation and evolution of Mach-Zehnder links for single-point detectors in inertial confinement fusion experimental facilities, based on the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility.

  14. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E. K.; Abbott, R. Q.; McKenna, I.; Macrum, G.; Baker, D.; Tran, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbits, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Waltman, T. B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Santa Barbara and Livermore, California 93111 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); and National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Caldwell, S. E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  15. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E K; Abbott, R Q; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  16. Mach-Zehnder Recording Systems for Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E K; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as Z-R at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at OMEGA and NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  17. Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William; Lee, Reginald; Derose, Guy; Scherer, Axel; Yariv, Amnon

    2005-03-07

    An InGaAsP-InP optical switch geometry based on electrical control of waveguide-resonator coupling is demonstrated. Thermooptic tuning of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated with a racetrack resonator is shown to result in switching with ON-OFF contrast up to 18.5 dB. The optical characteristics of this unique design enable a substantial reduction of the switching power, to a value of 26 mW in comparison with 40 mW for a conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch. Modulation response measurements reveal a 3 dB bandwidth of 400 kHz and a rise time of 1.8 micros, comparing favorably with current state-of-the-art thermooptic switches.

  18. 多路集成有机聚合物光子学射频移相器%Multiple Output Photonic RF Phase Shifter using a novel polymer nested Mach- Zehnder modulators configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志浩

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new integrated photonic RF phase shifters in the optically controlled phased array radar system and analyses the characteristics and the operation of the device . This device involves a nested Mach - Zehnder modulator and realizes the phase control of each unit by itself; low loss; high stability of the optical output intensity. Measurements of these devices show that multioutputs are independent and have highly linear RF phases over 360° with negligible RF power fluctuation ( below 3 dB ) at the modulation frequency.%本文简要介绍一种新型的集成光子学射频移相器,并对移相器的工作原理及特点进行分析。该新型移相器能够实现对每一阵元的相移量进行独立的调控、相移线性度大、插入损耗小、相移精度和幅度稳定度高等优点。结果表明,输出的射频信号的功率波动小于3dB,得到360°连续线性相移。

  19. Pass-through Mach-Zehnder topologies for macroscopic quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Khalili, F Ya

    2011-01-01

    Several relatively small-scale experimental setups aimed on prototyping of future laser gravitational-wave detectors and testing of new methods of quantum measurements with macroscopic mechanical objects, are under development now. In these devices, not devoted directly to the gravitational-wave detection, Mach-Zehnder interferometer with pass-through Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms can be used instead of the standard Michelson/Fabry-Perot one. The advantage of this topology is that it does not contain high-reflectivity end mirrors with multilayer coatings, which Brownian noise could constitute the major part of the noise budget of the Michelson/Fabry-Perot interferometers. We consider here two variants of this topology: the "ordinary" position meter scheme, and a new variant of the quantum speed meter.

  20. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  1. Migrating the Mach-Zehnder chemical and bio-sensor to the mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, L.; Ewald, M.; Sieger, M.; Mizaikoff, B.; Gauglitz, G.

    2013-05-01

    The properties of integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (IO-MZI) are used to set up a new generation of chemical and biochemical sensors working in the mid-infrared. First applications of the MZI principle were introduced in the beginning 1990s. They range from a gas sensor to monitor organic solvent concentrations1 to setting up an immunoassay for the detection of the herbicide simazine2. Most if not all sensors of MZI type operate at wavelengths of the visible or near infrared spectrum. There are several reasons to change this strategy and move into the mid-infrared spectral range (MIR): higher manufacturing tolerances, increased evanescent field penetration depth, signal amplification by surface enhanced infrared absorption effect (SEIRA), species identification by MIR fingerprints. The basis of the planned MIR-MZI is a GaAs waveguide pattern epitaxially grown on a substrate3. As a first step towards nanostructuring the waveguide surface, chemical deposition of Au nanoparticles on GaAs transducers was established. For the use of MIR-MZI sensors in bioanalytical assay development, chemical immobilization of molecular recognition elements on GaAs transducers was carried out. The modified surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), dark field microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometric data as well as by a modified version of Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS)4. It was possible to monitor both the immobilization of gold nanoparticles and time-resolved specific binding using a model antibody antigen assay. After successful setup of relevant assays with RIfS, e.g. the detection of bacteria or endocrine disruptors, the assays are designed to be transferred onto the mid-infrared Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  2. Mach-zehnder based optical marker/comb generator for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Kirk

    2015-03-03

    This disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for generating marker and comb indicia in an optical environment using a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator. High speed recording devices are configured to record image or other data defining a high speed event. To calibrate and establish time reference, the markers or combs are indicia which serve as timing pulses (markers) or a constant-frequency train of optical pulses (comb) to be imaged on a streak camera for accurate time based calibration and time reference. The system includes a camera, an optic signal generator which provides an optic signal to an M-Z modulator and biasing and modulation signal generators configured to provide input to the M-Z modulator. An optical reference signal is provided to the M-Z modulator. The M-Z modulator modulates the reference signal to a higher frequency optical signal which is output through a fiber coupled link to the streak camera.

  3. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of LiNbO3-Based Integrated Optical Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer%铌酸锂基集成光波导马赫-曾德尔干涉仪的设计、制备及其特性的初步测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方; 刘瑞鹏; 祁志美

    2011-01-01

    设计了具有推挽调制电极和消逝场敏感窗口的铌酸锂(LiNbO3)基集成光波导马赫-曾德尔干涉仪(MZI).利用标准微光机电系统(MOEMS)加工工艺结合高温钛内扩散法制备出三维单模LiNbO3光波导MZI阵列芯片,并对芯片进行了端面抛光,实现了光纤一波导端面输入和输出耦合,并初步调查了干涉仪芯片的相位调制特性,结果表明,在633 nm波长下其半波调制电压为5.61 V,干涉条纹对比度为0.62.当干涉仪芯片被用于生化探测时-这种电光调制功能可用于调节干涉仪芯片的初始相位差和识别其相位差的变化方向.%LiNbO3-based integrated optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with push-pull electrodes and evanescent field sensing window is developed. By using standard micro-opto-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) technique and titanium-indiffusion method, LiNbO3 monomode channel waveguide MZI array with modulating electrodes is fabricated. The near-field profile of the guided mode is detected after launching light into the LiNbO3 waveguide by fiber end-fire coupling. The phase-modulating property of the LiNbO3 MZI is investigated. The experimental results show that the phase modulation of the MZI is fully reversible and its half-wave voltage Vπ is 5.61 V, and fringe contrast is 0.62. The phase-modulating capability allows the initial phase of the MZI device to be a quadrature point to make the device work in the linear-response region for biochemical sensor.

  4. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays with dramatically improved both intra-chip response repeatability and assay detection sensitivity.

  5. Structure optimization of polymeric Mach-Zehnder rib waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-guo; LiU Yong-zhi; LIAO Jin-kun; LIAO Yi-tao; HAN Wen-jie

    2007-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the polymeric Mach-Zehnder rib waveguide is presented based on the calculation and optimization. The simulation is carried out with the Effective Index Method (EIM) and two-dimensional (2-D)Finite Difference Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM). The large refractive index step between the consecutive polymer layers is reduced by using EIM and thus the precision of the calculation is ensured. The important parameters of the waveguide such as Y-junction angle and the separation gap are discussed and their relationships with the optical power propagation and the loss characteristics are investigated in this paper. The total loss of the optimized structure is 0.258 dB.

  6. Optimization design of optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder electro-optical polymer modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; ZHANG Xiao-xia; LIAO Jin-kun

    2011-01-01

    @@ In order to reduce transmission loss of the optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) electro-optical (EO) polymer modulator,the basic iterative formula of semi-vector finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is obtained from the scalar wave equation.The transition waveguide is combined with S-type bend branch waveguide for the M-Z EO modulator in the branch waveguide.The effects of structure parameters such as ridge width, length of the branch waveguide and interferometer spacing on the transmission loss are systematically studied by using the semi-vector FD-BPM method.The structure is optimized as an S-sine bend branch waveguide, with rib width w=7 μm, length of branch waveguide L=1200μm and interferometer spacing G=22 μm.The results show that the optimized structure can reduce transmission loss to 0.083 dB,which have a certain reference value to the design of optical waveguide in M-Z polymer modulator.

  7. Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2001-01-01

    Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a reversely biased semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and successfully demonstrated in a commercial device. The converted signals exhibit extinction ratio >13 dB and penalty......Wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in a reversely biased semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and successfully demonstrated in a commercial device. The converted signals exhibit extinction ratio >13 dB and penalty...

  8. A recirculating delayed self-heterodyne method using a Mach-Zehnder modulator for kHz-linewidth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuo; Li, Min; Gao, Hongyun; Dai, Yawen

    2016-09-01

    A laser linewidth measurement method which uses a Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (MZM) is proposed in a loss-compensated recirculating delayed self-heterodyne interferometer (LC-RDSHI). Compared with the traditional acousto-optic modulator (AOM), the electro-optic modulator has the merits of broader bandwidth, lower insertion loss, higher extinction ratio and thus, a wider application. A theoretical analysis shows that the power spectrum curve of the novel measurement system is a Lorentzian line, which fits well with experiment. The linewidth is measured to be 137 ± 7 kHz at a frequency shift of 4 GHz. Measurement of a distributed feedback Bragg (DFB) laser has manifested that the linewidth broadens from 98.5 kHz to 137.4 kHz as the operating temperature changes by 16 °C. This work will allow investigation of narrow linewidth semiconductor and fiber laser stability.

  9. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  10. The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Brugman, A.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.; Dominguez, C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the realization of a symmetric integrated channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder sensor which uses the evanescent field to detect small refractive-index changes (¿nmin ¿ 1 × 10¿4) near the guiding-layer surface. This guiding layer consists of ridge structures with a height of 3 nm and a width of

  11. Time-dependent simulation and analytical modelling of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometry with edge-states wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggi, Andrea; Bordone, Paolo; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We compute the exact single-particle time-resolved dynamics of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on Landau edge-states transport, and assess the effect of the spatial localization of carriers on the interference pattern. The exact carrier dynamics is obtained by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a suitable 2D potential profile reproducing the interferometer design. An external magnetic field, driving the system to the quantum Hall regime with filling factor one, is included. The injected carriers are represented by a superposition of edge states, and their interference pattern—controlled via magnetic field and/or area variation—reproduces the one of (Ji et al 2003 Nature 422 415). By tuning the system towards different regimes, we find two additional features in the transmission spectra, both related to carrier localization, namely a damping of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with increasing difference in the arms length, and an increased mean transmission that we trace to the energy-dependent transmittance of quantum point contacts. Finally, we present an analytical model, also accounting for the finite spatial dispersion of the carriers, able to reproduce the above effects.

  12. Thermo-optically driven silicon microring-resonator-loaded Mach-Zehnder modulator for low-power consumption and multiple-wavelength modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Rajdeep; Kaneshige, Hiroki; Yamada, Hitoshi; Katouf, Redouane; Arakawa, Taro; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2014-02-01

    Low-power-consumption thermo-optically controlled silicon-microring-resonator loaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MRR-loaded MZMs) are demonstrated. We experimentally characterized a single microring and cascaded-multiple-microring resonators coupled to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The driving power consumption of the proposed MZM is significantly reduced owing to the enhanced phase shift in the MRR. The device was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide structure, and each microring is equipped with TiN microheater for thermo-optic tuning. The coupling efficiency between the microring and a busline waveguide was regulated by varying the gap between two waveguides at a directional coupler. The power consumption of single microring and cascaded MRR-loaded MZMs was approximately 0.4 and 1 mW, respectively. The phase-shift enhancement factor of up to 19 with a maximum extinction ratio of 18 dB was obtained experimentally. Multiple-wavelength operation was also demonstrated in the cascaded MRR-loaded MZM.

  13. High Accuracy Microwave Frequency Measurement Based on Single-Drive Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement based on bias manipulation of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 10-3 relative error verifies a significant accuracy improvement by this method.......A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement based on bias manipulation of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 10-3 relative error verifies a significant accuracy improvement by this method....

  14. Electro-optic metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roney; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a CMOS-compatible electro-optic Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator is investigated using electromagnetic and carrier transport simulations. Each arm of the Mach-Zehnder device comprises a metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) structure on a buried oxide substrate. Quantum mechanical effects at the oxide/semiconductor interfaces were considered in the calculation of electron density profiles across the structure, in order to determine the refractive index distribution and its dependence on applied bias. This information was used in finite element simulations of the electromagnetic modes within the MISIM structure in order to determine the Mach-Zehnder arm lengths required to achieve destructive interference and the corresponding propagation loss incurred by the device. Both inversion and accumulation mode devices were investigated, and the layer thicknesses and height were adjusted to optimise the device performance. A device loss of <8 dB is predicted for a MISIM structure with a 25 nm thick silicon layer, for which the device length is <3 μm, and <5 dB loss is predicted for the limiting case of a 5 nm thick silicon layer in a 1.2 μm long device: in both cases, the maximum operating voltage is 7.5 V.

  15. Two all-optical logic gates in a single photonic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Antônio; Oliveira, Antônio; Martins, Francisco; Coelho, Amarílio; Fraga, Wilton; Nascimento, José

    2015-11-01

    In this paper is presented the all-optical AND and OR gates with high contrast ratio in a single interferometric configuration, i.e., when two logic signals are modulated in the input of the interferometer, so we have the OR gate in the first output and the AND gate in the second output. These logic gates were obtained by numerical investigation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer constituted of dual-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber operating with ultrashort fundamental solitons of 100 fs. To represent the logic information, pulse amplitude modulation by amplitude shift-keying was used.

  16. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, V; Santbergen, R; Tijssen, M; Zeman, M

    2011-10-10

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach-Zehnder and Michelson-Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac interferometer. However, the Sagnac interferometer is much harder to study because of the fact that one input port and output port coincide. Further, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer has the advantage that the output ports are symmetric, reducing the systematic effects. Examples of standing wave light absorption in several simple objects are given. Attention is drawn to the influence of standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers with weak-absorbing layers incorporated. A method is described for how these can be theoretically analyzed and experimentally measured. Further experiments are needed for a thorough comparison between theory and experiment.

  17. Linearization of Mach-Zehnder modulator using microring-based all-pass filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyi Yang; Fan Wang; Xiaoqing Jiang; Hongchang Qu; Yaming Wu; Minghua Wang; Yuelin Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ By applying the microring resonator to the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical modulator and employing the super-linear phase change characteristic of the all-pass filter, the sublinear modulation curve of the conventional MZ modulator is highly linearized. With properly controlled power coupling between the microring and the arm of the MZ modulator, the third-order distortion can be suppressed. If the transmission coefficient is set between 0.25 and 0.42, the linearity range larger than 90% can be easily achieved. The maximum linearity range is even up to 99.5%.

  18. Application of fiber optic interferometers for Cook-off measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Smorenburg, C.; Scholtes, J.H.G.; Meer, B.J. van der

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic interferometer comprising of a Sagnac interferometer and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was developed. The interferometer enabled detection of explosive subtonic expansion velocities during the Cook-off test. The system enabled a comparison between the results of the two interferometer

  19. High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Trevor Reed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new experimental data from a lateral PN junction silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. Efficiencies in the 1.4V.cm to 1.9V.cm range are demonstrated for drive voltages between 0V and 6V. High speed operation up to 52Gbit/s is also presented. The performance of the device which has its PN junction positioned in the centre of the waveguide is then compared to previously reported data from a lateral PN junction device with the junction self-aligned to the edge of the waveguide rib. An improvement in modulation efficiency is demonstrated when the junction is positioned in the centre of the waveguide. Finally we propose schemes for achieving high modulation efficiency whilst retaining self-aligned formation of the PN junction.

  20. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Kale, S. N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Girinagar, Pune 411 025, Maharashtra (India); Choubey, Ravi Kant [Department of Applied Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201 313 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  1. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Kale, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  2. Mach-Zehnder fiber-optic links for reaction history measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. Kirk; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2010-08-01

    We present the details of the analog fiber-optic data link that will be used in the chamber-mounted Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. The system is based on Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators integrated into the diagnostic, with the source lasers and bias control electronics located remotely to protect the active electronics. A complete recording system for a single GRH channel comprises two MZ modulators, with the fiber signals split onto four channels on a single digitizer. By carefully selecting the attenuation, the photoreceiver, and the digitizer settings, the dynamic range achievable is greater than 1000:1 at the full system bandwidth of greater than 10 GHz. The system is designed to minimize electrical reflections and mitigate the effects of transient radiation darkening on the fibers.

  3. Exploration of Whole Atmosphere Lidar: Mach-zehnder Receiver to Extend Fe Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements from the Thermosphere to the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-06-01

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrowband Fe Doppler (372 nm) lidar from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with an MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift from Rayleigh-Mie scattering that is independent of aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature and pressure of the lidar volume and also independent of geometric overlap, the chopper function and any other factor affecting the signal in both MZI channels equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). Using actual data obtained recently from the Fe Doppler lidar, we show the expected measurement performance of this whole atmosphere lidar instrument concept.

  4. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a...... 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications.......A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing...... a two-stage frequency measurement cooperating with digital signal processing. In the experiment, 10GHz measurement range is guaranteed and the average uncertainty of estimated microwave frequency is 5.4MHz, which verifies the measurement accuracy is significantly improved by achieving an unprecedented...

  5. High dynamic range microwave photonic down-conversion based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Jia, Yupeng; Li, Jingnan; Zhong, Xin; Yang, Dengcai; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    In order to enhance conversion efficiency and spurious free dynamic range of microwave photonic link, we present a microwave photonic down-conversion system based on an integrated dual-parallel Mach Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and microwave photonic filter. The principle of frequency down conversion is analyzed. We demonstrate the conversion efficiency of system through theoretical derivation and simulation. The performance of the microwave photonic link is tested experimentally. It is found that the spurious free dynamic range of the proposed method is up to 102.5dB/Hz2/3 and the conversion efficiency is up to -22.01dB. The integrated dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator link can serve as a good alternative to improve the conversion efficiency and spurious free dynamic range.

  6. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  7. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  8. 40-Gb/s star 16-QAM transmitter based on single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Xinyu Xu; Qingjiang Chang; Yikai Su

    2009-01-01

    We propose a 40-Gb/s star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) transmitter using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM). This transmitter is demonstrated through experiment and simulation and shows the advantage of simplicity for implementation. Simulation results indicate that error free performance could be achieved for the generated signal after 80-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission with coherent detection scheme.

  9. Temperature effects of Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a liquid crystal-filled fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Su, Hsien-Pin; Tseng, Yu-Pei;

    2015-01-01

    with a maximum interferometric contrast over 35dB. The temperature-induced resonant wavelength blue-shifts 70.4 nm for the MZI with an LC length of 9.79 mm and the wavelength temperature sensitivity of -1.55 nm/degrees C is easily achieved as the temperature increases from 25 degrees C to 77 degrees C. (C)2015...

  10. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  11. A novel and small curvature sensor based on butterfly-shape Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-qing; Zhao, Yong; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A novel hollow-core fiber (HCF) curvature sensor based on a tapered HCF sandwiched between two single mode fibers (Butterfly-Shape Structure) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The collapsed region around the first fusion interface excites the high-order modes, and the butterfly shape couples the high-order modes back into the core and interferes with the fundamental mode in the second fusion interface. Simulation of the butterfly-shape structure is carried out using the beam propagation method to determine an optimized size of sensing element. The experimental results show that the variation of the interference spectrum light intensity is almost linearly proportional to the change of curvature, and the curvature sensitivity and resolution of the proposed sensor can be up to -10.9041dB / m-1 and 0.000917m-1 respectively in the range from 0.387 to 1.285 m-1. The proposed curvature sensor is compact size, high sensitive, and inexpensive.

  12. Comment on "Particle path through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-06-01

    Griffiths [Phys. Rev. A 94, 032115 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032115] analyzed, in the framework of a consistent histories interpretation, the controversy regarding the approach to the past of a quantum particle introduced by Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 87, 052104 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052104]. I argue that Griffith's criticism of my approach using an analysis of experiments with weak probes is unfounded.

  13. Characterization of an Optically Integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for the Detection of Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    nanotechnology for chemical and biochemical analysis. The integration of planar waveguides with these technologies can provide new methods of detection...Project Group 33 on automated biosensors. The work described herein is relevant to NATO Panel 7 in that it presents a novel method of chemical-optical...the analytes possess flu- P502399.PDF [Page: 12 of 62] UNCLASSIFIED 2 orescence labels) or by refractometry . Surface plasmon resonance (Refs. 1 and 2

  14. Silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for next-generation short-reach optical communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Liu, Z.; Thomson, D.; Ke, Li; Fedeli, J. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Reed, G. T.; Petropoulos, P.

    2016-02-01

    Communication traffic grows relentlessly in today's networks, and with ever more machines connected to the network, this trend is set to continue for the foreseeable future. It is widely accepted that increasingly faster communications are required at the point of the end users, and consequently optical transmission plays a progressively greater role even in short- and medium-reach networks. Silicon photonic technologies are becoming increasingly attractive for such networks, due to their potential for low cost, energetically efficient, high-speed optical components. A representative example is the silicon-based optical modulator, which has been actively studied. Researchers have demonstrated silicon modulators in different types of structures, such as ring resonators or slow light based devices. These approaches have shown remarkably good performance in terms of modulation efficiency, however their operation could be severely affected by temperature drifts or fabrication errors. Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM), on the other hand, show good performance and resilience to different environmental conditions. In this paper we present a CMOS-compatible compact silicon MZM. We study the application of the modulator to short-reach interconnects by realizing data modulation using some relevant advanced modulation formats, such as 4-level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM-4) and Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation and compare the performance of the different systems in transmission.

  15. Mach-Zehnder modulator modulated radio-over-fiber transmission system using dual wavelength linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Hui, Ming; Shen, Dongya; Zhang, Xiupu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, dual wavelength linearization (DWL) technique is studied to suppress odd and even order nonlinearities simultaneously in a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission system. A theoretical model is given to analyze the DWL employed for MZM. In a single-tone test, the suppressions of the second order harmonic distortion (HD2) and third order harmonic distortion (HD3) at the same time are experimentally verified at different bias voltages of the MZM. The measured spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) with respect to the HD2 and HD3 are improved simultaneously compared to using a single laser. The output P1 dB is also improved by the DWL technique. Moreover, a WiFi signal is transmitted in the RoF system to test the linearization for broadband signal. The result shows that more than 1 dB improvement of the error vector magnitude (EVM) is obtained by the DWL technique.

  16. Investigation on Nyquist pulse generation using a single dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zang, Jizhao; Li, Yan; Kong, Deming; Qiu, Jifang; Zhou, Siyuan; Shi, Jindan; Lin, Jintong

    2014-08-25

    The generation of Nyquist pulses with a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) driven by a single RF signal is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. A complete theoretical analysis is developed and the limitation of the proposed scheme is also discussed. It is theoretically proved that Nyquist pulses with a spectrum of 5 flat comb lines can be generated using a single DPMZM, which is also verified with simulation. 7 flat comb lines in frequency domain can also be obtained if a large RF driving voltage is applied to DPMZM but the generated waveforms won't present a sinc-shape. This scheme is further investigated experimentally. 40 GHz Nyquist pulses with full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) less than 4.65 ps, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than 29.5 dB, and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) less than 2.4% are generated. It is found that a tradeoff exists between the insertion loss of the DPMZM and the deviation of generated pulses. The tunability of repetition rate is experimentally verified by generation of 1 GHz to 40 GHz Nyquist pulses with SNR better than 28.4 dB and NRMSE less than 6.15%.

  17. Design and experimental verification of a novel Mie Doppler wind lidar based on all-fiber Mach-Zehnder frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Fei; Wang, Jun; Yan, Qing; Chang, Bo; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-04-01

    Spaceborne Doppler wind lidar is currently one of the hot spots on the lidar technology. The all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) as a frequency discriminator of Doppler wind lidar is proposed for profiling the atmospheric wind velocity. The frequency discriminator system parameters are optimized, and the retrieval method of wind velocity based on FMZI is deduced. The arm length difference of FMZI for the aerosol backscattering signal is optimized to be 74.8 cm at the laser wavelength of 532 nm. The maximum system sensitivity for wind profiling can reach up to 2.62%/(m/s), and the dynamic range of wind velocity is ±18.2 m/s. The system simulation shows that the detection range is up to 6.7 km for 1 m/s wind velocity error at a wind velocity of 15 m/s with laser energy of 250 mJ and telescope diameter of 406 mm. A rotating disc experimental system is designed to simulate the atmospheric wind field for verifying the feasibility of the system, and the results show that there is good agreement between the retrieved wind velocity and simulated wind velocity. The simulation and experimental test results show that FMZI is feasible as a frequency discriminator and can be suitable for direct Mie Doppler lidar, especially for satellite-based platform lidar due to its desirable characteristics, including its small volume, light weight, good stability and compact structure.

  18. Reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xia, Yuhao; Zhang, Fanfan; Chen, Qiaoshan; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches. For all optical links in its 9 routing states, the optical signal-to-noise ratios are larger than 15 dB in the wavelength range from 1525 to 1565 nm. Each optical link of the optical router can manipulate 50 wavelength-division-multiplexing channels with the data rate of 32 Gbps for each channel in the same wavelength range. Its average energy efficiency is about 16.3 fJ/bit, and its response time is about 19 μs.

  19. A 2×2 SOI mach-zehnder thermo-optical switch based on strongly guided paired multimode interference couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator 2×2 Mach-Zehnder thermo-optical switch is developed based on strongly guided paired multimode interference couplers. The multimode-interference couplers were etched deeply for improving coupler characteristics such as self-imaging quality, uniformity and fabrication tolerance. The proposed switch achieves good performances, including a low insertion loss of -11 .OdB, a fiber-waveguide coupling loss of -4.3dB and a fast response speed measured to be 3.5 and 8.8 μs for raise and fall switching time, respectively.

  20. Fabrication and evaluation of flexible Mach-Zehnder waveguide structure embedded in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin film using a proton microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Saruya, Ryota; Akutzu, Naoki; Miura, Satoshi; Kada, Wataru; Kawabata, Shunsuke; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Miura, Kenta; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    A flexible Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical waveguide was fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film by proton beam writing (PBW). A focused 750 keV proton microbeam was used to fabricate a 40 × 20 mm2 MZ optical waveguide structure with a width of 8 µm embedded in a PDMS film for the single-mode light propagation of infrared (IR) laser light. The structure was measured by ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) analysis and the beam fluence was optimized according to the IBIL intensity obtained from the waveguide structure. The entire structure of the MZ waveguide functioned well, confirmed by observing the near-field pattern (NFP) with a tunable IR laser (1.55 µm) for different PDMS film conditions. The optical throughput measurements for different sample configurations were obtained under continuous mechanical stress and a relatively low optical loss was observed at an inclination angle of 16°. Our results suggest that the MZ waveguide can be used for optical interlink connections under continuous mechanical stress.

  1. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  2. Versatile photonic microwave waveforms generation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator without other dispersive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang-Fu; Hu, Lin; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Jing; Zi, Yue-Jiao; Wu, Ting-Wei; Huang, Feng-Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic microwave waveform generator based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this reported scheme, only one radio frequency signal is used to drive the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. Meanwhile, dispersive elements or filters are not required in the proposed scheme, which make the scheme simpler and more stable. In this way, six variables can be adjusted. Through the different combinations of these variables, basic waveforms with full duty and small duty cycle can be generated. Tunability of the generator can be achieved by adjusting the frequency of the RF signal and the optical carrier. The corresponding theoretical analysis and simulation have been conducted. With guidance of theory and simulation, proof-of-concept experiments are carried out. The basic waveforms, including Gaussian, saw-up, and saw-down waveforms, with full duty and small duty cycle are generated at the repetition rate of 2 GHz. The theoretical and simulation results agree with the experimental results very well.

  3. A system-level model for high-speed, radiation-hard optical links in HEP experiments based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M.; Detraz, S.; Olantera, L.; Sigaud, C.; Soos, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators have been shown to be relatively insensitive to displacement damage beyond a 1-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence of 3ṡ1016n/cm2. Recent investigations on optimized device designs have also led to a high resistance against total ionizing dose levels of above 1 MGy. Such devices could potentially replace electrical and/or optical links close to the particle interaction points in future high energy physics experiments. Since they require an external continuous-wave light source, radiation-hard optical links based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators need to have a different system design when compared to existing directly modulated laser-based optical links. 10 Gb/s eye diagrams of irradiated Mach-Zehnder modulators were measured. The outcomes demonstrate the suitability for using these components in harsh radiation environments. A proposal for the implementation of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators in CERN's particle detectors was developed and a model to calculate the system performance is presented. The optical power budget and the electrical power dissipation of the proposed link is compared to that of the upcoming Versatile Link system that will be installed in 2018.

  4. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For mic

  5. Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Ruiqiang; Tian, Yonghui; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Min, Rui

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate a carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator, which is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works well at a low driving voltage. This is achieved by the optimization of the coplanar waveguide electrode to reduce the electrical signal transmission loss. At the same time, the velocity and impedance matching are both considered. The 12.5 Gbit/s data transmission experiment of the fabricated device with a 2-mm-long phase shifter is performed. The driving voltages with the swing amplitudes of 1 V and 2 V and the reverse bias voltages of 0.5 V and 0.8 V are applied to the device, respectively. The corresponding extinction ratios are 7.67 and 12.79 dB.

  6. Polarization independent thermally tunable erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain equalizer using a cascaded Mach-Zehnder coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P P

    2008-02-10

    A thermally tunable erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain equalizer filter based on compact point symmetric cascaded Mach-Zehnder (CMZ) coupler is presented with its mathematical model and is found to be polarization dependent due to stress anisotropy caused by local heating for thermo-optic phase change from its mathematical analysis. A thermo-optic delay line structure with a stress releasing groove is proposed and designed for the reduction of polarization dependent characteristics of the high index contrast point symmetric delay line structure of the device. It is found from thermal analysis by using an implicit finite difference method that temperature gradients of the proposed structure, which mainly causes the release of stress anisotropy, is approximately nine times more than that of the conventional structure. It is also seen that the EDFA gain equalized spectrum by using the point symmetric CMZ device based on the proposed structure is almost polarization independent.

  7. W-band OFDM photonic vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator and precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple radio-over-fiber (RoF) link architecture for millimeter-wave orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and precoding technique. In the transmission system, the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) OFDM signal on each sub-carrier are precoded, to ensure that the OFDM signal after photodetector (PD) can be restored to original OFDM signal. The experimental results show that the bit-error ratios (BERs) of the transmission system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3), which demonstrates that the generation of OFDM vector signal based on our proposed scheme can be employed in our system architecture.

  8. Investigation of a field-widened Mach-Zehnder receiver to extend Fe Doppler lidar wind measurements from the thermosphere to the ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-02-20

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrow-band Fe Doppler lidar operating at 372 nm from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to near the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with a novel MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift that rejects the influence of atmospheric parameters such as the aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature, and pressure of the lidar volume and receiver parameters such as the geometric overlap, the chopper function, and any other factor affecting the proportion of the signal in both channels of the MZI equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). In addition, we show how the use of multiple transmitted frequencies can yield a wind measurement wherein the accuracy is insensitive to the optical imperfection and misalignment of the MZI or any other factor that affects the contrast, though the precision is still impacted by the fringe contrast. Simply adding a second surface mirror of a particular thickness to the basic tilted MZI can allow the field of the MZI to be widened sufficiently for most resonance Doppler lidar receivers in operation today. Provided that the detection sensitivity in each channel is known, the original resonance fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering signals can be recovered by simply scaling and adding the contributions from both channels. Consequently, the wind and temperature from the MLT region and the temperature from the Rayleigh region can be derived alongside the Rayleigh Doppler wind measurement without compromising the

  9. N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Minming; Tang, Zhenhua; Chang, Kan; Huang, Xufang; Zheng, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    A universal method for constructing an N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on 2×2 Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip is proposed. By analyzing the routing table of the N-port optical router, the relationship between the optical links of port m→port n and port m→port n-1 is indicated, as well as the relationships between the block matrices of the N-port optical router. The strictly non-blocking property of the N-port optical router is proved by the contradiction method. The scale of the N-port optical router can be increased with the improvement of the performance of the Mach-Zehnder optical switch.

  10. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  11. Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  12. Calibration-free and bias-drift-free microwave characterization of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators using heterodyne mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    An electrical method is proposed for the microwave characterization of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators based on heterodyne mixing. The proposed method utilizes the heterodyne products between the two-tone modulated optical sidebands and frequency-shifted optical carrier, and achieves calibration-free and bias-drift-free microwave measurement of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators with high resolution electrical-domain techniques. Our method avoids the extra calibration for the photodetector and reduces half the bandwidth requirement for the photodetector and the electrical spectrum analyzer through carefully choosing a half frequency relationship of the two-tone modulation. Moreover, our measurement avoids the bias drifting problem due to the insensitivity to the bias phase of the modulator under test. The frequency-dependent modulation depths and half-wave voltages are measured for a commercial dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator with our method, which agree well with the results obtained by the conventional optical spectrum analysis method.

  13. Wide Spectral Characteristics of Si Photonic Crystal Mach-Zehnder Modulator Fabricated by Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Hinakura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical modulators for optical interconnects require a small size, small voltage, high speed and wide working spectrum. For this purpose, we developed Si slow-light Mach-Zehnder modulators via a 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. We employed 200 μm lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides with interleaved p-n junctions as phase shifters. The group index spectrum of slow light was almost flat at ng ≈ 20 but exhibited ±10% fluctuation over a wavelength bandwidth of 20 nm. The cutoff frequency measured in this bandwidth ranged from 15 to 20 GHz; thus, clear open eyes were observed in the 25 Gbps modulation. However, the fluctuation in ng was reflected in the extinction ratio and bit-error rate. For a stable error-free operation, a 1 dB margin is necessary in the extinction ratio. In addition, we constructed a device with varied values of ng and confirmed that the extinction ratio at this speed was enhanced by larger ng up to 60. However, this larger ng reduced the cutoff frequency because of increased phase mismatch between slow light and radio frequency signals. Therefore, ng available for 25 Gbps modulation is limited to up to 40 for the current device design.

  14. Development of an ELT XAO testbed using a Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor: calibration of the deformable mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Delacroix, Christian; Loupias, Magali; Thiébaut, Eric; Adjali, Louisa; Leger, Jonathan; Tallon, Michel

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Extreme adaptive optics (XAO) encounters severe difficulties to cope with the high speed (>1kHz), high accuracy and high order requirements for future extremely large telescopes. An innovative high order adaptive optics system using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor (MZWFS) allows counteracting these limitations. This sensor estimates very accurately the wavefront phase at small spatial scale by measuring intensity differences between two outputs, with a $\\lambda /4$ path length difference between its two legs, but is limited in dynamic range due to phase ambiguity. During the past few years, such an XAO system has been studied by our team in the framework of 8-meter class telescopes. In this work, we report on our latest results with the XAO testbed recently installed in our lab, and dedicated to high contrast imaging with 30m-class telescopes (such as the E-ELT or the TMT). After reminding the principle of a MZWFS and describing the optical layout of our experiment, we will show the...

  15. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  16. Frequency entanglement characterization of short-pulse pumped SPDC biphoton source with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwei; Dong, Ruifang; Li, Baihong; Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang

    2017-06-01

    Frequency entangled biphoton sources have played an important role in quantum information. There are two key characteristics which determine the extent of their applications: the spectral indistinguishability and the degree of frequency entanglement. Previously, the spectral indistinguishability of the biphoton state is measured by the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference visibility, whereas the degree of frequency entanglement is normally characterized with independent spectral measurements. However, these two quantum features have not been successfully measured with a single experimental setup. In this paper, we deduce the temporal distribution of a short-pulse pumped type-II spontaneous parametric down converted (SPDC) biphoton source and its relevant temporal entanglement parameter R t for operationally quantifying the degree of frequency entanglement. Furthermore, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate, due to the inherent group delay, the difference between the signal and idler photons at the exit of the type-II nonlinear crystal, resulting in a HOM-shape dip at both sides of the center fringed envelope of the MZ interferometric coincidence diagram. By measuring the HOM-shape dip depth, the separation between the two sideband dips as well as the MZ fringed envelope width, both the spectral indistinguishability and the temporal entanglement parameter can thus be simultaneously quantified. This implementation provides us a unified and convenient method to characterize the frequency entanglement of the short-pulse pumped biphotons.

  17. Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer based Optical Digital Magnitude Comparator and 1's Complement Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The optical switching activity is one of the most essential phenomena in the optical domain. The electro-optic effect-based switching phenomena are applicable to generate some effective combinational and sequential logic circuits. The processing of digital computational technique in the optical domain includes some considerable advantages of optical communication technology, e.g. immunity to electro-magnetic interferences, compact size, signal security, parallel computing and larger bandwidth. The paper describes some efficient technique to implement single bit magnitude comparator and 1's complement calculator using the concepts of electro-optic effect. The proposed techniques are simulated on the MATLAB software. However, the suitability of the techniques is verified using the highly reliable Opti-BPM software. It is interesting to analyze the circuits in order to specify some optimized device parameter in order to optimize some performance affecting parameters, e.g. crosstalk, extinction ratio, signal losses through the curved and straight waveguide sections.

  18. Refractive Index Sensing Using a Three-Port Interferometer and Comparison with Ring Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, R.J.J. van; Boer, B.M. de; Harmsma, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we compare ring resonator and three-port Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) devices fabricated on silicon-on-insulator for the purpose of refractive index sensing. Their respective sensitivities and limits of detection (LOD) were determined with NaCl solutions. A sensitivity of 113.07

  19. Feasibility of evanescent wave interferometer immunosensors for pesticide detection: chemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechuga, L.M.; Lenferink, A.T.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.

    1995-01-01

    A waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) immunosensor has been developed which can detect, in a direct way, a minimum average layer growth thickness of the analyte of 2×10−3 nm (bound mass, I′=1×10−4 δ cm−2). The design and fabrication of the sensor and the experimental set-up are aimed at decr

  20. Violation of a Bell-like inequality by a combination of Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a statistical operator that contains a negative quasi-probability can be related to the corresponding quantum mechanical experiment. It is demonstrated that the derivation and usage of the T-matrix and the Green's function is equivalent to what is known from classical scattering theory. It is shown moreover that the negative quasi-probability of the statistical operator may be interpreted as a sink of probabilities related to two single events of the considered 4-dim. event space. A necessary condition for the violation of the CHSH-inequality is derived and discussed afterwards. In the second part of this paper I discuss a modification of the 4-dim. event space considered in the first part. It is shown that a combination of conventional Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup would be able to put this modification into practice. Thus it becomes possible to achieve a maximum violation of the CHSH-inequality, if formulated in terms of intensities, on a pure classical way. The combination of classical light scattering with correlation experiments such as proposed in this paper may open new ways to study and to use the violation of Bell-like inequalities in modern optics.

  1. Frequency measurement of THz waves by electro-optic sampling using Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Isao; Kirigaya, Mayu; Kaneko, Yuta; Katayama, Ikufumi; Sakamoto, Takahide; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-02-01

    In the recent progress in terahertz (THz) devices, various kinds of source devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum cascade lasers and so forth, have been developed. Frequency measurement of THz radiations, which can operate in high speed and at room-temperature, is important for development of high-performance THz source devices. Recently, frequency measurement using optical combs are demonstrated by several groups. In these techniques, modelocked lasers (MLLs) are used for optical comb source, so that phase-locking techniques are required in order to stabilize the repetition frequency of the MLLs. On the other hand, a modulator-based optical comb generator has high accuracy and stability in the comb spacing, which is comparable to that of microwave signal driving the modulator. Thus it is suitable for frequency measurement of THz waves. In this paper, we demonstrated frequency measurement of THz waves using a Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator (MZ-FCG). The frequency measurement was carried out by an electro-optic (EO) sampling method, where an optical two-tone signal extracted from the optical comb generated by the MZ-FCG was used for the probe light. A 100 GHz signal generated by a W-band frequency multiplier and the probe beam collinearly traveled through an EO crystal, and beat signals between them were measured by a combination of a balanced photodetector and a spectrum analyzer. As a result, frequency measurement of the 100 GHz wave was successfully demonstrated, in which the linewidth of the beat signal was less than 1 Hz.

  2. Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Rugeland, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micr...

  3. Performance of a Mach-Zehnder based analogue data recording system for use with the Gas Cherenkov Detector on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Beeman, B. V.; Lopez, F. E.; Hernandez, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper covers the performance of a high speed analogue data transmission system. This system uses multiple Mach- Zehnder optical modulators to transmit and record fusion burn history data for the Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) on the National Ignition Facility. The GCD is designed to measure the burn duration of high energy gamma rays generated by Deuterium-Tritium (DT) interactions in the NIF. The burn duration of DT fusion can be as short as 10ps and the optical photons generated in the gas Cherenkov cell are measured using a vacuum photodiode with a FWHM of 55ps. A recording system with a 3dB bandwidth of ≥10GHz and a signal to noise ratio of ≥5 for photodiode output voltage of 50mV is presented. The data transmission system uses two or three Mach-Zehnder modulators and an RF amplifier to transmit data optically. This signal is received and recorded by optical to electrical converts and a high speed digital oscilloscope placed outside of the NIF Target Bay. Electrical performance metrics covered include signal to noise ratio (SNR), signal to peak to peak noise ratio, single shot dynamic range, shot to shot dynamic range, system bandwidth, scattering parameters, are shown. Design considerations such as self-test capabilities, the NIF radiation environment, upgrade compatibility, Mach-Zehnder (MZ) biasing, maintainability, and operating considerations for the use of MZs are covered. This data recording system will be used for the future upgrade of the GCD to be used with a Pulse Dilation PMT, currently under development.

  4. Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Folkert; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Shank, Steven M; Vlasov, Yurii A; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2013-05-20

    We present 1-to-8 wavelength (de-)multiplexer devices based on a binary tree of cascaded Mach-Zehnder-like lattice filters, and manufactured using a 90 nm CMOS-integrated silicon photonics technology. We demonstrate that these devices combine a flat pass-band over more than 50% of the channel spacing with low insertion loss of less than 1.6 dB, and have a small device size of approximately 500 × 400 µm. This makes this type of filters well suited for application as WDM (de-)multiplexer in silicon photonics transceivers for optical data communication in large scale computer systems.

  5. Zero-Chirp Return-to-Zero Pulses Generation with Two Single-Driver z-Cut Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xi; CAO Ji-Hong; ZHANG Feng; WANG Mu-Guang; ZHANG Jian-Yong; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to suppress the frequency chirp of single-driver z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators.Theoretical analysis shows that by multiplying the output pulses of a half clock frequency driving single-driver z-cut modulator with the one delayed odd multiple bit duration,the frequency chirp can be removed entirely,and return-to-zero(RZ)pulses with duty cycles of about 25% and 56% are obtained.An experimental scheme is proposed to validate the proposed method.The experimental results show that perfect 40 GHz zero-chirp RZ pulses can be obtained by using this scheme.

  6. A novel scheme to generate 40-GHz CSRZ pulse trains using a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei Xing; Caiyun Lou

    2011-01-01

    A new technique to generate 40-GHz carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) optical pulse trains using only a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum of the generated CSRZ pulses is calculated by simulation and compared with conventional MZM-based RZ and CSRZ pulse trains. The experimental results demonstrate that CSRZ pulse trains are obtained, and that the carrier and the unwanted 20-GHz low-frequency component are suppressed by 25 dB. The technique can also be extended to 160-GHz CSRZ pulse generation when 40-GHz devices are employed.%@@ A new technique to generate 40-GHz carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) optical pulse trains using only a 10-GHz dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum of the generated CSRZ pulses is calculated by simulation and compared with conventional MZM-based RZ and CSRZ pulse trains. The experimental results demonstrate that CSRZ pulse trains are obtained, and that the carrier and the unwanted 20-GHz low-frequency component are suppressed by 25 dB. The technique can also be extended to 160-GHz CSRZ pulse generation when 40-GHz devices are employed.

  7. Long-term stabilization of a heterodyne metrology interferometer down to a noise level of 20 pm over an hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yoshito; Arai, Koji; Ueda, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masaaki; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei

    2009-11-10

    A heterodyne metrology interferometer was stabilized down to a noise level of 20 picometers (pm) as a root-mean-square (RMS) value integrated between 0.3 mHz and 1 Hz. This noise level was achieved by employing active and passive interferometer stabilization techniques. The heterodyne interferometer was built on a 50 mm square ultralow expansion glass plate in order to reduce an optical path length change caused by temperature variation. An optical configuration of the interferometer is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a design as symmetric as possible so that a detection signal can be insensitive to homogeneous thermal expansion of the glass plate. The heterodyne frequency is actively controlled in order to suppress residual noises caused by optical path length changes outside of the glass plate as well as phase fluctuations of the heterodyne frequency source. Our stabilization scheme is considered useful in achieving the 20 pm noise level without a stable heterodyne frequency source, as well as temperature stabilization around a whole apparatus. This interferometer can be used in precise metrology applications, such as characterization of deformation for satellite optical components against thermal exposure.

  8. 基于绝缘体上硅的一种改进的Mach-Zehnder声光调制器∗%An improved Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic mo dulator on a silicon-on-insulator platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晨; 余辉; 叶乔波; 卫欢; 江晓清

    2016-01-01

    The interdigital transducer (IDT) of the traditional Mach-Zehnder (MZ) acousto-optic modulator on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is located outside its two arms. The crest and trough of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) are used to modulate the two arms of the MZ interferometer so as to achieve a high modulation efficiency. Therefore, the distance between the two arms must be odd multiples of half acoustic wavelength. However, since the substrate is usually not uniform, the wavelength of the SAW changes as it transmits through the surface of the device. As a result, the exact distance between the two arms is difficult to choose. On the other hand, the SAW losses a portion of energy after passing through the first arm of the MZ interferometer, so the modulation of the second arm becomes much weaker. To solve these problems, we propose a new structure where its IDT is situated in the middle of the two arms of the MZ interferometer. With this scheme, the two arms of the MZ interferometer are located exactly at the crest and the trough of the SAW, while they are modulated with equal strength. In this paper, we first use the finite element method to simulate the acoustic frequency and the surface displacement of the excited SAW. Then we deduce the refractive index variations of all layers according to their acousto-optic effects. After that, we analyze the influences of different factors on the acousto-optic modulation efficiency, including the type and size of waveguide, the thickness of zinc oxide (ZnO) layer, and the area it covers, the number of electrodes, etc. These parameters are accordingly optimized to enhance the modulation efficiency. Modeling result based on COMSOL Multiphysics indicates that when the width of the strip waveguide is 6 µm, the ZnO layer covers only the area under the IDT and has a thickness of 2.2 µm, and the number of the electrodes is 50, the effective refractive index variation of the waveguide reaches 4.08 × 10−4 provided that

  9. V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometer for high-temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhen; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Gao, Rong

    2015-01-10

    Novel V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometers fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation on a standard single-mode fiber are described. The high-order cladding modes are excited due to the special V-groove structure. The interferometers are classified as Mach-Zehnder and Michelson type based on the way they are structured. Benefiting from the large difference of thermal coefficients of the core and high-order cladding modes, both types receive high temperature sensitivity by monitoring the wavelength shift of the interference spectrum, and their responses to temperature are similar. Compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is more compact and more flexible in application.

  10. Coplanar-waveguide-based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using a meandering optical waveguide and alternating-side PN junction loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Po; Sinsky, Jeffrey H; Gui, Chengcheng

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line electrode structure using a meandering optical waveguide and alternating-side PN junction loading of the electrodes, which helps suppress the signal distortion caused by the parasitic slot-line mode and improves the electro-optic (EO) bandwidth. The silicon MZM exhibits a π-phase-shift voltage (Vπ) of 4.5 V with an EO 3 dB bandwidth of ∼20  GHz for a 5 mm long phase shifter. This achieved Vπ is among the lowest for silicon-only modulators with a bandwidth of more than 20 GHz.

  11. Generation of Carrier and Odd Sidebands Suppressed Optical MM-Wave with Signal Only on One Sideband Using an External Integrated Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; XIN Xiang-Jun; ZHAO Tong-Gang; LING Jing; YU Chong-Xiu

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme to generate millimeter(mm)-wave is proposed where the quadrupling of local radio frequency is formed by using an external integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator through intensity modulation or phase modulation.Generated optical mm-wave signal suffers from neither power periodical fading nor time shift of the sidebands as it is transmitted along the fiber.Receiver sensitivity of our 10Gbit/s radio-over-fiber system based on the proposed scheme is-28.3dBm under intensity modulation while-24dBm under phase modulation after 65 km transmission,and bit error rate is at 10~(-4) level after 100km transmission.Optical carrier in uplink is provided by the central station to simplify the base station,which also reduces the cost of the base station.

  12. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  13. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Kyung Pan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM. Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications.

  14. Integrated Optical Interferometers with Micromachined Diaphragms for Pressure Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBrabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    Optical pressure sensors have been fabricated which use an integrated optical channel waveguide that is part of an interferometer to measure the pressure-induced strain in a micromachined silicon diaphragm. A silicon substrate is etched from the back of the wafer leaving a rectangular diaphragm. On the opposite side of the wafer, ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometers are formed with optical channel waveguides made from a low pressure chemical vapor deposited film of silicon oxynitride. The interferometer's phase is altered by pressure-induced stress in a channel segment positioned over the long edge of the diaphragm. The phase change in the ring resonator is monitored using a link-insensitive swept frequency laser diode, while in the Mach-Zehnder it is determined using a broad band super luminescent diode with subsequent wavelength separation. The ring resonator was found to be highly temperature sensitive, while the Mach-Zehnder, which had a smaller optical path length difference, was proportionally less so. The quasi-TM mode was more sensitive to pressure, in accord with calculations. Waveguide and sensor theory, sensitivity calculations, a fabrication sequence, and experimental results are presented.

  15. Spherical-Wave Far-Field Interferometer for Hard X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Houxun; Harmon, Katherine J; Bennett, Eric E; Chedid, Nicholas; Panna, Alireza; Bhandarkar, Priya; Wen, Han

    2014-01-01

    Low dose, high contrast x-ray imaging is of general interest in medical diagnostic applications. X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometers using collimated synchrotron beams demonstrate the highest levels of phase contrast under a given exposure dose. However, common x-ray sources emit divergent cone beams. Here, we developed a spherical-wave inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer for phase contrast imaging over an extended area with a broadband and divergent source. The first tabletop system was tested in imaging experiments of a mammographic accreditation phantom and various biological specimens. The noise level of the phase contrast images at a clinical radiation dose corresponded to a 6 nano radian bending of the x-ray wavefront. Un-resolved structures with conventional radiography and near-field interferometer techniques became visible at a fraction of the radiation dose.

  16. Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampini, Mario A.; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Quantum metrology is the state-of-the-art measurement technology. It uses quantum resources to enhance the sensitivity of phase estimation over that achievable by classical physics. While single parameter estimation theory has been widely investigated, much less is known about the simultaneous estimation of multiple phases, which finds key applications in imaging and sensing. In this manuscript we provide conditions of useful particle (qudit) entanglement for multiphase estimation and adapt them to multiarm Mach-Zehnder interferometry. We theoretically discuss benchmark multimode Fock states containing useful qudit entanglement and overcoming the sensitivity of separable qudit states in three and four arm Mach-Zehnder-like interferometers - currently within the reach of integrated photonics technology.

  17. The 7-channel FIR HCN Interferometer on J-TEXT Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Chen, J; Li, Q; Wang, Z J; Zhuang, G

    2011-01-01

    A seven-channel far-infrared hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer has been established aiming to provide the line integrated plasma density for the J-TEXT experimental scenarios. A continuous wave glow discharge HCN laser designed with a cavity length 3.4 m is used as the laser source with a wavelength of 337 {\\mu}m (cutoff density is 9.8*10^21/m^3) and an output power up to 100 mW. The system is configured as a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. Phase modulation is achieved by a rotating grating, with a modulation frequency of 10 kHz which corresponds to the temporal resolution of 0.1 ms. The optic viewing chords travel through the plasma vertically, their radial positions are r=21cm, 14cm, 7cm, 0cm, -7cm, -14cm, -21cm, respectively. The beat signal is detected by TGS detector. The phase shift induced by the plasma is derived by the comparator with a phase sensitivity of 0.06 fringe. The experimental results measured by the J-TEXT interferometer are presented in details in this meeting. In addition, th...

  18. Wave-particle duality in a Raman atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai-Ai; Yang, Jun; Yan, Shu-Hua; Hu, Qing-Qing; Luo, Yu-Kun; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the wave-particle duality based on a Raman atom interferometer, via the interaction between the atom and Raman laser, which is similar to the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wave and which-way information are stored in the atomic internal states. For the φ - π - π/2 type of atom interferometer, we find that the visibility (V) and predictability (P) still satisfy the duality relation, P2 + V2 ≤ 1. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275523) and the Special Research Found for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20134307110009).

  19. Temperature measurement of axisymmetric partially premixed methane/air flame in a co-annular burner using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoost, M. S.; Ashjaee, M.; Askari, M. H.; Ahmadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame is established on an axisymmetric co-annular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame characteristics for methane/air axisymmetric partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. Different equivalence ratios (φ=1.4-2.2) and Reynolds numbers (Re=100-1200) are considered in the study. Flame generic visible appearance and the corresponding fringe map structures are also investigated. It is seen that the fringe maps are poorly influenced by equivalence ratio variations at constant Reynolds number but are significantly affected by Reynolds number variations in constant equivalence ratio. Temperatures obtained from optical techniques are compared with those obtained from thermocouples and good agreement is observed. It is concluded that the effect of Reynolds number increment on maximum flame temperature is negligible while equivalence ratio reduction increases maximum flame temperature substantially.

  20. Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromu; Miura, Hiroki; Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M; Kashino, Tsubasa; Kikuchi, Takamasa; Ozawa, Masaaki; Nawata, Hideyuki; Odoi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2017-01-23

    An electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide using an ultra-thin silicon hybrid has been designed and fabricated. The silicon core has the thickness of 50 nm and a width of 5 μm. The waveguide was completed after covering the cladding with the high temperature stable EO polymer. We have demonstrated a low half-wavelength voltage of 0.9 V at the wavelength of 1.55 μm by using a Mach-Zehnder interference modulator with TM mode operation. The measured modulation corresponded to an effective in-device EO coefficient of 165 pm/V. By utilizing the traveling-wave electrode on the modulator the high-frequency response was tested up to 40 GHz. The 3 dB modulation bandwidth was measured to be 23 GHz. In addition, the high frequency sideband spectral measurement revealed that a linear response of the modulation index against the RF power was confirmed up to 40 GHz signal.

  1. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  2. Co-integrated 1.3µm hybrid III-V/silicon tunable laser and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at 25Gb/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrotti, Thomas; Blampey, Benjamin; Jany, Christophe; Duprez, Hélène; Chantre, Alain; Boeuf, Frédéric; Seassal, Christian; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2016-12-26

    In this paper, the 200mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is used to demonstrate the monolithic co-integration of hybrid III-V/silicon distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tunable lasers and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), to achieve fully integrated hybrid transmitters for silicon photonics. The design of each active component, as well as the fabrication process steps of the whole architecture are described in detail. A data transmission rate up to 25Gb/s has been reached for transmitters using MZMs with active lengths of 2mm and 4mm. Extinction ratios of respectively 2.9dB and 4.7dB are obtained by applying drive voltages of 2.5V peak-to-peak on the MZMs. 25Gb/s data transmission is demonstrated at 1303.5nm and 1315.8nm, with the possibility to tune the operating wavelength by up to 8.5nm in each case, by using metallic heaters above the laser Bragg reflectors.

  3. Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

    2014-04-15

    We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of ∼0.6  V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ∼50  GHz at -2  V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50  Gb/s operation under 2.5  Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88  dB/100  μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration.

  4. Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udd, Eric

    1996-04-01

    By placing fiber optic gratings in a Sagnac loop a distributed strain sensor may be formed by using the light reflected from the fiber gratings as sources for balanced Michelson and Mach- Zehnder interferometers. In this manner the resulting fiber optic sensor is capable of measuring integrated strain over lengths determined by the fiber grating position, point strain and temperature at the fiber grating locations and localizing and measuring the position of a time varying signal such as an acoustic wave.

  5. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  6. Assessment of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion Based on Elimination of Second-Order Harmonics in Optical OFDM Single Sideband Modulation Using Mach Zehnder Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the analytical and numerical investigations of the transmission performance of an optical Single Sideband (SSB) modulation technique generated by a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) with a 90° and 120° hybrid coupler. It takes into account the problem of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers in Passive Optical Networks (PON), which severely degrades the performance of the system. Considering the transmission length of the fiber, the SSB modulation generated by maintaining a phase shift of π/2 between the two electrodes of the MZM provides better receiver sensitivity. However, the power of higher-order harmonics generated due to the nonlinearity of the MZM is directly proportional to the modulation index, making the SSB look like a quasi-double sideband (DSB) and causing power fading due to chromatic dispersion. To eliminate one of the second-order harmonics, the SSB signal based on an MZM with a 120° hybrid coupler is simulated. An analytical model of conventional SSB using 90° and 120° hybrid couplers is established. The latter suppresses unwanted (upper/lower) first-order and second-order (lower/upper) sidebands. For the analysis, a varying quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal with a data rate of 5 Gb/s is upconverted using both of the SSB techniques and is transmitted over a distance of 75 km in Single Mode Fiber (SMF). The simulation results show that the SSB with 120° hybrid coupler proves to be more immune to chromatic dispersion as compared to the conventional SSB technique. This is in tandem with the theoretical analysis presented in the article.

  7. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  8. Enhanced spectral sensitivity of a chip-scale photonic-crystal slow-light interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Schulz, Sebastian A; Awan, Kashif; Upham, Jeremy; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the spectral sensitivity of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer can be enhanced through structural slow light. We observe a 20 times enhancement by placing a dispersion-engineered-slow-light photonic-crystal waveguide in one arm of a fibre-based MZ interferometer. The spectral sensitivity of the interferometer increases roughly linearly with the group index, and we have quantified the resolution in terms of the spectral density of interference fringes. These results show promise for the use of slow-light methods for developing novel tools for optical metrology and, specifically, for compact high-resolution spectrometers.

  9. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Thermo-Optical Modulator with Fast Response%快速响应SOI马赫曾德热光调制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红振; 余金中; 夏金松; 严清峰; 刘忠立; 房昌水

    2002-01-01

    给出了Y分支MZI热光调制器的模型,实验研制了基于SOI(silicon-on-insulator)的MZI热光调制器,调制器的消光比为-16.5dB,开关的上升时间为10μs,下降时间为20μs,相应的功耗为0.39W.

  10. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add/Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gbit/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens, Alvaro A.; Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov;

    2000-01-01

    We report a novel method for simultaneous add-drop multiplexing in OTDM systems which includes regenerative capabilities and perfect clearing of the drop channel time slot. The principle has been demonstrated at 40 Gb/s showing an excellent performance....

  11. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a modified dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a new type tunable comb filter is proposed and demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization controllers, dual-function operation of the channel spacing tunability and the wavelength switching (interleaving) can be readily achieved. Up to 29 stable lasing lines with 0.4 nm spacing and 14 lasing wavelengths with 0.8 nm spacing in 3 dB bandwidth were obtained at room temperature. In addition, the lasing output, including the number of the lasing lines, the lasing evenness and the lasing locations, can also be flexibly adjusted through the wavelength-dependent polarization rotation mechanism.

  12. A Novel Dynamic Wavelength Cross-connect Based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Optical ad/drop Multiplexer and Optical Space Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai

    1999-01-01

    We have proposed a novel dynamic WXC based on MZI-OADM. The advantages of this dynamic WXC are very low differential insertion loss, using less exchanging units than reported structures, and the ability to be integrated. In experiment, the three channels from the path with maximum OADMs in a 2×2 ...

  13. 基于光纤M-Z干涉的高灵敏度液体折射率传感器的实验研究%Experimentally Study on High-sensitivity Fiber-optic Refractometers Based on Mach-Zehnder Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周赢武

    2012-01-01

    A high sensitivity fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed and fabricated. The relationship between the resonance wavelength shifts to the refractive index is studied with NaCl and glycerin solution. The experimental results show that the resonance wavelength shifts to longer wavelength with the increase of the refractive index of the surrounding media, and the wavelength shift is nearly linear to the refractive index with a sensitivity is of 4 086 nm/refractive-index as the refractive index ranges from 1. 333 to 1. 356. The sensor is easy to fabricate, compact, and will be usefull in chemical and biotechnological industry.%提出并制备了一种基于Mach-Zehnder干涉效应的高灵敏度光纤液体折射率传感器.分别利用NaCl溶液和甘油溶液,研究了传感器的透射光谱和外界介质折射率的关系.实验结果表明,随着周围介质折射率的增大,传感器干涉谱的极小值点对应的波长向长波方向漂移,在1.333~1.356的折射率变化范围内,极小值点对应的波长的漂移量和折射率的变化具有较好的线性关系,对应的灵敏度约为4086 nm/refractive-index.该传感器制作简单、结构紧凑,在生物和化学测量中具有较好的应用前景.

  14. Temperature Measurement of Small Objects by Mach—Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.T.Wong; B.Liu; 等

    1993-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder Interferometer incorporated with image processing has been set up to study the temperature field of small objects.Small objects with width to height rations ranging from 0.33 to 1.0 subjected to natural convection are used to simulate the condition at which the end effects are significant.Interferogram representing the temperature gradient is captured.digitized,and image processed with the aid of an image processing unit.A simple correction model is proposed to treat the stored interferometric data.The interference data are found to compare well with those provided by the thermocouples.

  15. Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junfeng; Fang, Q; Tao, S H; Liow, T Y; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2008-09-29

    We designed and fabricated silicon-on-insulator based Michelson interferometer (MI) thermo-optical switches with deep etched trenches for heat-isolation. Switch power was reduced approximately 20% for the switch with deep etched trenches, and the MI saved approximately 50% power than that of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. 10.6 mW switch power, approximately 42 micros switch time for the MI with deep trenches, 13.14 mW switch power and approximately 34 micros switch time for the MI without deep trenches were achieved.

  16. High sensitivity, low-systematics atom interferometers using Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new scheme for atom interferometry based on both large-momentum transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. Combining the advantages of previous approaches to recoil-sensitive interferometers, we increase the signal and suppress a systematic phase shift caused by Bragg diffraction at least 60-fold, matching experiment to theory; the systematic shift can be eliminated from Mach-Zehnder interferometers. We demonstrate high contrast, interference with up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves, and a resolution of $\\delta \\alpha/\\alpha=0.33\\,$ppb$\\sqrt{\\rm 6h}$ available to measurements of the fine structure constant.

  17. Design of a full-dynamic-range balanced detection heterodyne gyroscope with common-path configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-En; Yu, Chih-Jen; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2013-04-22

    In this article, we propose an optical heterodyne common-path gyroscope which has common-path configuration and full-dynamic range. Different from traditional non-common-path optical heterodyne technique such as Mach-Zehnder or Michelson interferometers, we use a two-frequency laser light source (TFLS) which can generate two orthogonally polarized light with a beat frequency has a common-path configuration. By use of phase measurement, this optical heterodyne gyroscope not only has the capability to overcome the drawback of the traditional interferometric fiber optic gyro: lack for full-dynamic range, but also eliminate the total polarization rotation caused by SMFs. Moreover, we also demonstrate the potential of miniaturizing this gyroscope as a chip device. Theoretically, if we assume that the wavelength of the laser light is 1550nm, the SMFs are 250m in length, and the radius of the fiber ring is 3.5cm, the bias stability is 0.872 deg/hr.

  18. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  19. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Jader da Silva; Ostermann,Fernanda; Prado,Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência- Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação d...

  20. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto,Jader da; Ostermann,Fernanda; Prado,Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação de...

  1. O tema da dualidade onda-partícula na educação profissional em radiologia médica a partir da simulação do interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto,Jader da; Ostermann, Fernanda; Prado, Sandra Denise

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo apresenta-se a aplicação de uma proposta de introdução de tópicos de física moderna a estudantes de um curso técnico na área da saúde e a avaliação de um software tipo bancada virtual que simula o interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder. A teoria sociointeracionista de Vygotsky e a ênfase curricular Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade foram tomados como referenciais. No âmbito do Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), fez-se a aplicação de...

  2. Transmission of Duobinary Signal in Optical 40 GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio-Over-Fiber Systems Utilizing Dual-Arm LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder Modulator for Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, for the first time transmission of 2.5 Gb/s duobinary signal is investigated for the downlink direction in 40 GHz optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion, utilizing a dual-arm LiNb{O}_3 Mach-Zehnder modulator based on different modulation schemes, namely double- and single-sideband (DSB and SSB) and optical carrier suppression (OCS). The up-converted optical millimeter-wave employing OCS modulation scheme indicates the highest back-to-back received optical power and the smallest power penalty after long propagation in the single-mode fiber, in comparison to DSB and SSB. Directly modulated laser in association with OCS modulation scheme has been used to generate duobinary optical millimeter-wave signal in order to minimize the cost and complexity of the system.

  3. Sensor applications of two-mode fiber in the Michelson interferometer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr; Prochazka, Pavel

    1994-11-01

    The classical coherence formalism and guided-mode field representation is used to discuss the operation of few-mode fiber waveguide excited by a low-coherence, cross-spectrally pure, spatially coherent source in Michelson interferometer configuration as a sensor, even if a suppressed interference pattern at its exit face exists. In the case of a low- coherence excitation of few-mode fiber waveguide the principle of coherence modulation can be used, that is, the optical path difference between guided modes that exceeds the source coherence length can be compensated in Michelson interferometer configuration. The analysis of temporal coherence in a particular case of two-mode, weakly-guiding, step-index fiber waveguide takes also into consideration the effect of second-order modal dispersion; the potential applications to low- coherence source based interferometric sensors are discussed.

  4. A nanofabricated, monolithic, path-separated electron interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Akshay; Hobbs, Richard; van Dyck, Dirk; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    We report a self-aligned, monolithic electron interferometer, consisting of two 45 nm thick silicon layers separated by 20 $\\mu$m. This interferometer was fabricated from a single crystal silicon cantilever on a transmission electron microscope grid by gallium focused ion-beam milling. Using this interferometer, we demonstrate beam path-separation, and obtain interference fringes in a Mach-Zehnder geometry, in an unmodified 200 kV transmission electron microscope. The fringes have a period of 0.32 nm, which corresponds to the $\\left[\\bar{1}\\bar{1}1\\right]$ lattice planes of silicon, and a maximum contrast of 15 %. This design can potentially be scaled to millimeter-scale, and used in electron holography. It can also be applied to perform fundamental physics experiments, such as interaction-free measurement with electrons.

  5. Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zhender interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosciniak, J.; Markey, L.; Dereux, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Compact fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating at telecom wavelengths and controlled via the thermo-optic effect are reported. Two fabricated structures with Cytop substrate and a ridge made of PMMA or a cycloaliphatic acrylate polymer (CAP) were considered...... showing low switching power of 2.35 mW and switching time in the range of microseconds for a CAP ridge and milliseconds switching time for a PMMA ridge. Full output modulation is demonstrated for the structure with a CAP ridge and 40% modulation with a PMMA ridge. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  6. InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum-dot superluminescent diodes with active multimode interferometer configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin-Kun; Jin Peng; Liang De-Chun; Wu Ju; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2013-01-01

    With a chirped InAs/GaAs SML-QD (quantum dot) structure serving as the active region,the superluminescent diodes emitting at wavelength of around 970 nm are fabricated.By using an active multimode interferometer configuration,these devices exhibit high continue-wave output powers from the narrow ridge waveguides.At continue-wave injection current of 800 mA,an output power of 18.5 mW,and the single Gaussian-like emission spectrum centered at 972 nm with a full width at half maximum of 18 nm are obtained.

  7. Multiplexing of fiber-optic acoustic sensors in a Michelson interferometer configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changsen

    2003-06-15

    A new multiplexing method demonstrating the separation of two series of geometrically arranged fiber-optic distributed sensors in a Michelson interferometer (MI) configuration has been developed. This method can acquire data from two sensors, then propagate the data into one channel, and finally separate the data by determining their working point, which is essential for some remote measurements. The working point of one sensor was deflected from the normal MI by introduction of two reference arms. The deflection was extracted electrically and employed to label the sensor. Verification with commercial piezoelectric transducers proves the efficiency of the method.

  8. Optimal calculations for the transmission field of Mach-Zehnder channel waveguide switches%Mach-Zehnder条形光波导开关传输光场的优化计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超燕; 任一涛; 孟荣; 杨贵荣

    2011-01-01

    结合有效折射率法和有限差分光束传播法,实现对三维光波导结构计算的降维处理,运用二维有效折射率--有限差分光束传播方法(EI-FD-BPM)计算Mach-Zehnder光波导开关的传输光场;通过比较不同的光波导结构,优化得到具有较高输出能量的条形光波导光开关及其最佳的结构设计参数(横截面尺寸,器件结构及其尺寸等).表明用二维EI-FD-BPM方法代替三维有限差分光束传播(FD-BPM)方法进行光波导器件设计计算是简便可行的,能有效地减少计算量,节约计算时间,2个方法彼此间的结果差异(对小尺寸光波导结构)在1.5%以内,该方法可在具有较高的计算精度条件下为光波导器件的制备设计提供理论依据.%Calculations for three - dimensional optical waveguides are successfully simplified into two - dimensional ones by combining the effective index method (EIM) with the finite difference beam propagation method ( FD - BPM) , and the optical transmission field of Mach - Zehnder switches is calculated and analyzed by two - dimensional effective index - finite difference beam propagation method (EI - FD - BPM). The structure parameters (e. g. the cross section of channel waveguide, the switch structure and its size) of Mach - Zehnder waveguide switches are optimized and a waveguide switch with higher transmission efficiency is achieved. It is demonstrated that the use of a two - dimensional EI - FD - BPM is feasible and easier instead of a three - dimensional FD - BPM, which the result difference from the two methods for the small waveguide structure is within 1.5% ,and the calculations are reduced greatly, thus save time effectively. The approach provides theoretical guide for the designing and fabricating optical waveguide device at a high accuracy.

  9. A Simple Configuration for 40 Gbit/s CSRZ Signal Generation with Electrical Band-Limiting to Achieve Large Dispersion Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Soo; Lee; Man; Seop; Lee; Ampalavanapillai; Nirmalathas

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel configuration for carrier suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) signal generation, which only requires a single stage Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator in conjunction with an electrical mixer. Electrical band-limiting is also introduced to increase dispersion tolerance without causing additional penalty due to nonlinear effects in long haul dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) CSRZ systems using conventional launch power levels.

  10. A Complete Mathematical Model to Study the Characteristics of an Arbitrary Geometry LiNbO3 Structure for a High-Speed Mach-Zehnder Modulator for RADAR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Reena

    2017-06-01

    In graded index fiber, some degree of ellipticity is found. So it is important to study the effect which is little bit different from circularity. With the help of a new method illustrated in this paper, the core fields in case of non-circular profile can be written in a more simple way. The convenient feature of this method is that mode patterns can be found by simple analysis of algebraic equations. Ray path propagations in graded non-circular fibers were already studied by researchers. However, we provide the analysis of mode field using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. In our analysis, the core fields of step index fibers are considered assuming the elliptical core-cladding interface followed by the limiting cases with focus approaches to infinity and focus approaches to zero. Finally, modes for parabolic profile with circular refractive index are discussed with the concept of bounded and leaky modes. The convenient feature of this method is that mode patterns can be analytically studied. In this paper, the main focus is also on the experimental characteristic of optical communication link and of their components. We give an introduction to optical fiber systems and various phenomena related to it. The phenomena of attenuation and dispersion are discussed elaborately and details are provided through experimental observation and verification. All the details about various topics mentioned above are concluded and verified through experiments. This type of an arbitrary optical waveguide structure has a vast application in microwave engineering where the high-speed Mach-Zehnder modulator is going to deployed.

  11. Chronology of Fabry-Perot Interferometer Fiber-Optic Sensors and Their Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibul Islam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

  12. Effects of losses in the atom-light hybrid SU(1,1) interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Dan; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Ma, Hong-Mei; Li, Dong; Chen, L Q; Ou, Z Y; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-08-08

    Collective atomic excitation can be realized by the Raman scattering. Such a photon-atom interface can form an SU(1,1)-typed atom-light hybrid interferometer, where the atomic Raman amplification processes take the place of the beam splitting elements in a traditional Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We numerically calculate the phase sensitivities and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of this interferometer with the method of homodyne detection and intensity detection, and give their differences of the optimal phase points to realize the best phase sensitivities and the maximal SNRs from these two detection methods. The difference of the effects of loss of light field and atomic decoherence on measure precision is analyzed.

  13. Cost-effective fiber multiplexing system based on low coherence interferometers and application to temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Zhongze; Li, Kun; Wang, Zeming; Zhan, Yage; Zhou, Hongying; Yang, Fu

    2016-12-01

    Based on the low-coherence interferometric principles, a cost-effective all-fiber Mach-Zehnder multiplexing system is proposed and demonstrated. The system consists of two interferometers: sensing interferometer and demodulation interferometer. By scanning an optical tunable delay line back and forth constantly with a stable speed, sensing fibers with different optical paths can be temporal interrogated. The system is experimentally proved to have a high performance with a good stability and low system noises. The multiplexing capacity of the system is also investigated. An experiment of measuring the surrounding temperature is carried out. A sensitivity of 12 μm/°C is achieved within the range of 20°C to 80°C. This low cost fiber multiplexing system has a potential application in the remote monitoring of temperature and strain in building structures, such as bridges and towers.

  14. Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rajibul; Ali, Muhammad Mahmood; Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-04-24

    Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

  15. Novel technique for measuring intermodal dispersion in optical fibers using the spectral interference in the Michelson interferometer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-07-01

    The spectral interference between two modes of an optical fiber, which shows up as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum at its output, cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the optical fiber when the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. We proposed a novel measuring technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and a two-mode optical fiber in which the intermodal interference can be restored, and consequently spectral interference fringes can be resolved, even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the optical path difference (OPD) in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. The feasibility of this technique has successfully been demonstrated in obtaining the wavelength dependence of the group OPD between two modes of the optical fiber. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the intermodal dispersion of the two-mode optical fiber has been obtained.

  16. Condition for unity absorption in an ultrathin and highly lossy film in a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    We present a condition for unity absorption for a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration constructed from an ultrathin and highly lossy film on top of metallic mirror. From the impedance matching condition in the transmission line theory, we identify a solution space for the required complex refractive index of the lossy film in various film thickness and dielectric constants of the metallic mirror. It is shown that strong absorption requires the imaginary part of the refractive index of the ultrathin lossy film be larger than 0.64, and the physical origin of this condition is elucidated. The proposed method is useful in identifying candidate semiconductor materials that can be used as the lossy film in a unity-absorption Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration and designing the thickness of this film to maximize absorption.

  17. Advanced configuration of gravitational-wave interferometer on the base of "sensitive mode" in "white-light cavity"

    OpenAIRE

    Karapetyan, G. G.

    2002-01-01

    A novel conception of "sensitive mode" (SM) is proposed to apply in gravitational-wave advanced interferometer configuration. The SM is resonant oscillation of electromagnetic field in "white-light cavity", where the resonance line is broadened without decreasing cavity quality. The frequency of the SM is greatly susceptible to the change of cavity length, and the SM is established in a cavity with time constant smaller than a conventional mode. Due to these advantages the sensitivity and ban...

  18. 一种改进的2×2 SOI Mach-Zehnder热光开关%An Improvement on 2×2 Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermo-Optical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨笛; 余金中; 陈少武

    2008-01-01

    本文设计并制作了基于强限制多模干涉耦合器的2×2 SOI马赫-曾德热光开关.这种光开关采用了深刻蚀结构的多模干涉耦合器和输入/输出波导,较大地提高了干涉耦合器的性能并减少了连接耦合损耗.同时,在调制臂区域采用浅刻蚀结构,保持其单模调制状态.深刻蚀多模干涉耦合器具有优越的特性,在实验中测得不均衡度只有0.03 dB,插入损耗-0.6 dB.基于这种耦合器的新型热光开关,其插入损耗为-6.8 dB,其中包括光纤-波导耦合损耗-4.3 dB,开关时间为6.8 μs.%An improved 2×2 silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermo-optical switch is designed and fabricated, which is based on strongly guided multimode interference couplers and single-mode phase-shifting arms. The multimode interference couplers and input/output waveguides are deeply etched to improve coupler performances and coupler-waveguide coupling efficiencies. However, shallow etching is used in the phase-shifting arms to guarantee single-mode property. The strongly guided coupler presents an attractive uniformity about 0.03 dB and a low propagation loss of -0.6 dB. The 2×2 switch shows an insertion loss as low as -6.8 dB, where the fiber-waveguide coupling loss of -4.3 dB is included, and the response-time is measured as short as 6.8 μs, which are much better than our previous results.

  19. Coherence and information in a fiber interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglaé; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2016-01-01

    We present an experiment based on a fibered Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The aim is to familiarize students with fibered optics and interferometry, and to improve their understanding of optical amplification. The laboratory project has two parts: in a first part, the students modulate the optical path of the interferometer to study the spectra of light sources via Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In a second part, an optical amplifier is placed in one or both arms of the interferometer. The set-up uses monomode, polarization-maintaining fibers that propagate light of 1.5 $\\mu$m wavelength. In this article, we describe the set-up and the analysis of the measurements, and we present results from student reports. All components are part of standard optical catalogues. Even though the experiment is based on fibered optics, it is robust to manipulation (it is however relatively expensive $\\sim \\pounds 15\\,000$): We describe our efforts to protect the components from damage. This experiment is now offered as a 2-wee...

  20. Theory of thermal phase noise in Michelson and Sagnac fiber interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanser, Keith H.

    1994-09-01

    The intrinsic thermal phase noise spectra of the Michelson, Michelson with phase conjugate mirrors, and Sagnac fiber optic interferometers are presented. The thermal phase noise is maximum at dc and zero at the loop frequency for the Michelson with ordinary mirrors. Thermal phase noise eliminates the factor of two transducer phase sensitivity advantage of the Michelson over a comparable length Mach Zehnder. The Michelson with two phase conjugate mirrors exhibits identical noise to a Sagnac interferometer with the same total fiber length. The Sagnac exhibits common mode phase noise rejection at low frequencies and a broad maximum in the phase noise at the loop frequency of approximately 1 (mu) rad rms/(root)Hz for a 1 km fiber loop at 1319 nm.

  1. Electron density measurements of a field-reversed configuration plasma using a novel compact ultrastable second-harmonic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi, F.; Giammanco, F. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Harris, W. S.; Roche, T.; Trask, E.; Wessel, F. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A compact high-sensitivity second-harmonic interferometer for line-integrated electron density measurements on a large plasma machine is presented. The device is based on a fiber coupled near-infrared continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser and is remotely controlled. The performances of the instrument are tested on the Irvine field-reversed configuration machine, and a sensitivity of few 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} in measuring line integrated electron density is demonstrated with a time resolution of a few microseconds. The interferometer is self calibrated, has an impressive stability, and it does not require any further alignment after proper installation. These features make this device a real turn-key system suitable for electron density measurement in large plasma machines.

  2. Response to the comment on "Paradox of photons disconnected trajectories being located by means of `weak measurements' in the nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer" (JETP Letters 105, 152 (2017))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, G. N.

    2017-04-01

    In [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)], a clear and comprehensive analysis of the paradoxical results of experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] was carried out on the basis of the classical wave theory of light, which presupposes the continuity of possible of light paths. It was shown that the paradoxical results of the experiment are due not to the discontinuity of the trajectories of light, as claimed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)], but to the used way of detecting the path of photons. The experiment modification proposed in [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] allows us to eliminate the seeming discontinuity of the light trajectories. In Comment [arXiv:1705.02137 (2017)] to the article such modification is declared unreasonable. This Response to the Comment shows that this statement is not based on clear and logical arguments. Instead, it is only asserted that the proposed modification "violates the faithfulness indication of the trace" of photons. Therefore, the Comment's criticism can not be considered as well-founded. Consequently, the conclusion of [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] that a new concept of disconnected trajectories proposed by the authors of work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] is unnecessary, remains valid.

  3. Atom interferometry with lithium atoms: theoretical analysis and design of an interferometer, applications; Interferometrie atomique avec l'atome de lithium: analyse theorique et construction d'un interferometre, applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, C

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to studies which prepared the construction of an atom Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In such an interferometer, the propagating waves are spatially separated, and the internal state of the atom is not modified. The beam-splitters are diffraction gratings, consisting of standing optical waves near-resonant with an atomic transition. We use the Bloch functions to define the atom wave inside the standing wave grating and thus explain the diffraction process in different cases. We developed a nearly all-analytical model for the propagation of an atom wave inside a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The contrast of the signal is studied for many cases: phase or amplitude gratings, effects of extra paths, effects of the main mismatches, monochromatic or lightly polychromatic sources. Finally, we discuss three interferometric measurements we think very interesting. The first, the index of refraction of gas for atomic waves, is studied in detail, with numerical simulations. The other measures we propose deal with the electrical properties of lithium. We discuss the ultimate limit for the measure of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atomic interferometry. Then, we discuss how one could measure the possible charge of the lithium atom. We conclude that an optically cooled and collimated atom beam would improve precision. (author)

  4. Michelson interferometer with diffractively-coupled arm resonators in second-order Littrow configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Britzger, Michael; Khalaidovski, Alexander; Friedrich, Daniel; Kroker, Stefanie; Brueckner, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; ennermann, Andreas Tu; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Michelson-type laser-interferometric gravitational-wave (GW) observatories employ very high light powers as well as transmissively- coupled Fabry-Perot arm resonators in order to realize high measurement sensitivities. Due to the absorption in the transmissive optics, high powers lead to thermal lensing and hence to thermal distortions of the laser beam profile, which sets a limit on the maximal light power employable in GW observatories. Here, we propose and realize a Michelson-type laser interferometer with arm resonators whose coupling components are all-reflective second-order Littrow gratings. In principle such gratings allow high finesse values of the resonators but avoid bulk transmission of the laser light and thus the corresponding thermal beam distortion. The gratings used have three diffraction orders, which leads to the creation of a second signal port. We theoretically analyze the signal response of the proposed topology and show that it is equivalent to a conventional Michelson-type interferomet...

  5. Multibeam Interferometer Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber with Two Asymmetric Cores for Torsion, Strain and Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Khurram; Kwon, Il-Bum; Chung, Youngjoo

    2017-01-01

    We present a fiber-optic multibeam Mach-Zehnder interferometer (m-MZI) for simultaneous multi-parameter measurement. The m-MZI is comprised of a section of photonic crystal fiber integrated with two independent cores of distinct construction and birefringence properties characterized for torsion, strain and temperature sensing. Due to the presence of small core geometry and use of a short fiber length, the sensing device demonstrates inter-modal interference in the small core alongside the dominant inter-core interference between the cores for each of the orthogonal polarizations. The output spectrum of the device is characterized by the three-beam interference model and is polarization-dependent. The two types of interferometers present in the fiber m-MZI exhibit distinct sensitivities to torsion, strain and temperature for different polarizations, and matrix coefficients allowing simultaneous measurement of the three sensing parameters are proposed in experiment. PMID:28085046

  6. Michelson interferometer with diffractively-coupled arm resonators in second-order Littrow configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzger, Michael; Wimmer, Maximilian H; Khalaidovski, Alexander; Friedrich, Daniel; Kroker, Stefanie; Brückner, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-11-05

    Michelson-type laser-interferometric gravitational-wave (GW) observatories employ very high light powers as well as transmissively-coupled Fabry-Perot arm resonators in order to realize high measurement sensitivities. Due to the absorption in the transmissive optics, high powers lead to thermal lensing and hence to thermal distortions of the laser beam profile, which sets a limit on the maximal light power employable in GW observatories. Here, we propose and realize a Michelson-type laser interferometer with arm resonators whose coupling components are all-reflective second-order Littrow gratings. In principle such gratings allow high finesse values of the resonators but avoid bulk transmission of the laser light and thus the corresponding thermal beam distortion. The gratings used have three diffraction orders, which leads to the creation of a second signal port. We theoretically analyze the signal response of the proposed topology and show that it is equivalent to a conventional Michelson-type interferometer. In our proof-of-principle experiment we generated phase-modulation signals inside the arm resonators and detected them simultaneously at the two signal ports. The sum signal was shown to be equivalent to a single-output-port Michelson interferometer with transmissively-coupled arm cavities, taking into account optical loss. The proposed and demonstrated topology is a possible approach for future all-reflective GW observatory designs.

  7. The Michelson Stellar Interferometer Error Budget for Triple Triple-Satellite Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathay, Arvind S.; Shiefman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the instrumentation tolerances for a conventional style Michelson stellar interferometer (MSI). The method used to determine the tolerances was to determine the change, due to the instrument errors, in the measured fringe visibility and phase relative to the ideal values. The ideal values are those values of fringe visibility and phase that would be measured by a perfect MSI and are attributable solely to the object being detected. Once the functional relationship for changes in visibility and phase as a function of various instrument errors is understood it is then possible to set limits on the instrument errors in order to ensure that the measured visibility and phase are different from the ideal values by no more than some specified amount. This was done as part of this study. The limits we obtained are based on a visibility error of no more than 1% and a phase error of no more than 0.063 radians (this comes from 1% of 2(pi) radians). The choice of these 1% limits is supported in the literture. The approach employed in the study involved the use of ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) software provided by Breault Research Organization, Inc., in conjunction with parallel analytical calculations. The interferometer accepts object radiation into two separate arms each consisting of an outer mirror, an inner mirror, a delay line (made up of two moveable mirrors and two static mirrors), and a 10:1 afocal reduction telescope. The radiation coming out of both arms is incident on a slit plane which is opaque with two openings (slits). One of the two slits is centered directly under one of the two arms of the interferometer and the other slit is centered directly under the other arm. The slit plane is followed immediately by an ideal combining lens which images the radiation in the fringe plane (also referred to subsequently as the detector plane).

  8. Pulse generation and compression using an asymmetrical porous silicon-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHU-WEN GUO; JIAN-WEI WU

    2016-12-01

    We propose an asymmetrical Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for efficient pulse generation and compression using porous silicon (PS) waveguide, fibre delay line and couplers. We show a pulse compression of about 0.4 ns at the output port with third-order super-Gaussian input pulse in ∼2 ns time duration and ∼40.3 W peak power level. Also, we show the possibility of obtaining compressed single- or double-pulse with judicious choice of various parameters like input peak power, delay time and input pulse width.

  9. Design and simulation of integrated optical interferometers fabricated in polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Zappe, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) can be used as high sensitivity sensors through the interaction of the evanescent field of the waveguide with liquids or gases surrounding the sensor. We present here the design of polymer-based MZIs fabricated by hot-embossing and printing technologies. Simulations of an integrated MZI system with regard to variations of the waveguide cross-section and the refractive indices of the core layer are carried out to guarantee single mode behavior and optimize high sensitivity to external refractive index changes of analytes. The simulation of propagation losses induced by the Y-coupleres is also presented. Furthermore, transmission as a function of different interaction window lengths are also simulated on the entire MZI structure using a mixture of water and ethanol as an analyte on the sensing arm. Finally, we calculate the coupling efficiency of a laser diode into a tapered waveguide and estimate that a value of 30% is possible.

  10. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  11. Tilt performance of the ground settlement sensor configured in a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Guo, Jingjing; Sun, Changsen

    2016-10-01

    Ground settlement (GS) is one of the causes that destroy the durability of reinforced concrete structures. It could lead to a deterioration in the structural basement and increase the risk of collapse. The methods used for GS monitoring were mostly electronic-based sensors for reading the changes in resistance, resonant frequencies, etc. These sensors often bear low accuracy in the long term. Our published work demonstrated that a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer configured in a Michelson interferometer was designed as a GS sensor, and a micro-meter resolution in the room environment was approached. However, the designed GS sensor, which in principle is based on a hydraulic connecting vessel, has to suffer from a tilt degeneration problem due to a strictly vertical requirement in practical installment. Here, we made a design for the GS sensor based on its robust tilt performance. The experimental tests show that the sensor can work well within a ±5° tilt. This could meet the requirements in most designed GS sensor installment applications.

  12. Influence of PDMS encapsulation on the sensitivity and frequency range of fiber-optic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are one of the dynamically developing areas of photonics and photonic applications. This group of sensors can also include fiber-optic interferometers which enable very sensitive sensing. They are entirely passive regarding power supply, and immune to electromagnetic interference. This type of sensor is dependent on the phase change. It mostly used in the field which requires high measurement accuracy. We can achieve a change of sensitivity in the order of 10-8. The fundamental problem of fiber-optic interferometry is a design and imposition (encapsulation) of the measuring arm and reference arm of the interferometer. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMS) is one of the possibilities to encapsulation of the sensory arm. Two-component PDMS Sylgard 184 is used type. The article analyzes the effect of encapsulation into a PDMS of the measuring arm of the interferometer to frequency response and sensitivity of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the division of power in a ratio of 1:1 (measuring arm and reference arm). Input power set to a reference value of 1 mW, this value was constant for all performed experimental measurements. The generator of a harmonic signal with fixed amplitude signal used for analysis of the frequency characteristic of the interferometer. The application written in LabView development environment, evaluated the amplitude-frequency spectra of the signal. Repeated test of assembled prototype verified the measured results.

  13. White light interferometer: applications in research and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sujit

    2015-06-01

    Applications of interferometer are countless both in the research and commercial world. Laser sources offer precise measurements of relative path difference between two interfering beams. An exciting example is LIGO (laser Interferometer for Gravitational Observatory), which is aiming to resolve length change as small as 10-19 m over a 4 km length for detection of gravitational waves. However, laser is a disadvantage for microscopic imaging and surface topography applications usually required in semiconductor industry. A different approach for microscopy is to use white light in place of laser. White light due to its limited temporal coherence offers a multitude of benefits for imaging applications. An immediate benefit from white light is the sharp localisation of interference fringe that makes the 3D topography construction or OCT (Optical Coherence Topography) realisable using a Scanning White Light Interferometer (SWLI) imager. In Mirau Mode, SWLI performs high resolution imaging; whereas in Michelson mode Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) is realised. SWLI can easily be modified into PUPS (Pupil Plane SWLI) for Ellipsometry. Superimposing Michelson Interferometer known as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any reflector) can form interference fringes even in presence of wide angle light scattered from a moving illuminated object. This paper describes work undertaken at Nanometrics (UK) on simulation of SWLI fringes including high Numerical Aperture (NA) applications, thin film characterisation, OCT generation and Zemax modelling of compact dispersion-free vibration-immune Fourier-Transformed spectrometer. VISAR as a modified Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is also discussed based on the work at Rutherford-Appleton laboratory (UK).

  14. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  15. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  16. Optical carrier-based microwave interferometers for sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Wang, Hanzheng; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber interferometers (OFIs) have been extensively utilized for precise measurements of various physical/chemical quantities (e.g., temperature, strain, pressure, rotation, refractive index, etc.). However, the random change of polarization states along the optical fibers and the strong dependence on the materials and geometries of the optical waveguides are problematic for acquiring high quality interference signal. Meanwhile, difficulty in multiplexing has always been a bottleneck on the application scopes of OFIs. Here, we present a sensing concept of optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) by reading optical interferometric sensors in microwave domain. It combines the advantages from both optics and microwave. The low oscillation frequency of the microwave can hardly distinguish the optical differences from both modal and polarization dispersion making it insensitive to the optical waveguides/materials. The phase information of the microwave can be unambiguitly resolved so that it has potential in fully distributed sensing. The OCMI concept has been implemented in different types of interferometers (i.e., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Fabry-Perot) among different optical waveguides (i.e., singlemode, multimode, and sapphire fibers) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low polarization dependence. A spatially continuous distributed strain sensing has been demonstrated.

  17. Comments on X. Yin, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and T. Wang, `Studies in an optical millimeter-wave generation scheme via two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators', Journal of Modern Optics, 58(8), 2011, pp. 665-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J.

    2015-04-01

    Yin et al. have described an innovative filter-less optical millimeter-wave generation scheme for octotupling of a 10 GHz RF oscillator, or sedecimtupling of a 5 GHz RF oscillator using two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs). The great merit of their design is the suppression of all harmonics except those of order ? (octotupling) or all harmonics except those of order ? (sedecimtupling), where ? is an integer. A demerit of their scheme is the requirement to set a precise RF signal modulation index in order to suppress the zeroth order optical carrier. The purpose of this comment is to show that, in the case of the octotupling function, all harmonics may be suppressed except those of order ?, where ? is an odd integer, by the simple addition of an optical ? phase shift between the two DP-MZMs and an adjustment of the RF drive phases. Since the carrier is suppressed in the modified architecture, the octotupling circuit is thereby released of the strict requirement to set the drive level to a precise value without any significant increase in circuit complexity.

  18. 40  Gb/s DWDM Structure with Optical Phase Configuration for Long-Haul Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Sheng; Lai, Po-Chou

    2017-03-01

    We propose the experimental transport of 48 channels with 40 Gbit/s dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) system that uses single-mode fiber (SMF) in combination with dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) which is a dispersion compensation device, in C and L band wavelength range to solve the dispersion program. The DWDM system scheme employing single Mach-Zehnder modulation (MZM) return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation format with hybrid Raman/EDFA (Erbium-doped fiber amplifier) configuration to improve transmission signal, and employing an optical phase conjugation (OPC) configuration in the middle line. That can compensate for dispersion impairment and improve nonlinear effects to investigate transmission distance performances.

  19. Evolution of the wave function of an atom hit by a photon in a three-grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenovic, Dusan; Bozic, Mirjana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Sanz, Angel S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Davidovic, Milena [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: arsenovic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: bozic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: asanz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: milena@grf.bg.ac.yu

    2009-07-15

    In 1995, Chapman et al (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 2783) showed experimentally that the interference contrast in a three-grating atom interferometer does not vanish in the presence of scattering events with photons, as required by the complementarity principle. In this work, we present an analytical study of this experiment by determining the evolution of an atom's wave function along the three-grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer under the assumption that the atom is hit by a photon after passing through the first grating. The consideration of a transverse wave function in momentum representation is essential in this study. As is shown, the number of atoms transmitted through the third grating is given by a simple periodic function of the lateral shift along this grating, both in the absence and in the presence of photon scattering. Moreover, the relative contrast (laser on/laser off) is shown to be a simple analytical function of the ratio d{sub p}/{lambda}{sub i}, where d{sub p} is the distance between atomic paths at the scattering locus and {lambda} {sub i} the scattered photon wavelength. We argue that this dependence, being in agreement with experimental results, can be considered as showing compatibility between the wave and corpuscle properties of atoms.

  20. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Li, Chunyue; Zhao, Chengwu; Li, Weizheng

    2016-06-01

    A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM). When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm-30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm-6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333-1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution), when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10(-5) RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  1. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM. When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm–30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm–6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333–1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution, when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10−5 RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  2. Jamin-interferometer-setup for the determination of concentration and temperature dependent face-specific crystal growth rates from a single experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Cornelia; Choscz, Carsten; Müller, Vesna; Briesen, Heiko

    2015-09-01

    An interference technique that permits the investigation of the crystal growth from a temperature controlled solution is presented. Contrary to Mach-Zehnder- or Michelson-type interferometers, the Jamin-interferometer applied in this work is characterized by improved thermal and long-time stability. In consequence a single experiment may comprise several temperature steps leading to significant changes in the bulk concentration. A procedure for the automated analysis of the acquired sequence of interference patterns is presented. Within this evaluation procedure the position of the selected crystal face, the bulk concentration and the vertical concentration distribution above the crystal are determined simultaneously. Long-term single crystal growth experiments in the range from 20 to 60 °C with sucrose and lactose crystals are used to test the method. The exact bulk concentration is determined by the interferometer. The obtained results for the growth rate of sucrose are consistent with values given in the literature. The vertical concentration distribution above the two saccharide crystals differs clearly indicating that the diffusion strongly limits the sucrose growth but not the growth of the lactose crystal. The major benefit of the described setup is that the data of a single experiment are sufficient to deduce the parameters of the model equation for the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation.

  3. TCF-MMF-TCF fiber structure based interferometer for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiwei; Li, Huidong; Shao, Min; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yinggang; Li, Yan; Yan, Xu; Liu, Qinpeng

    2015-06-01

    A liquid refractive index (RI) sensor based on in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) by sandwiching multi-mode fiber (MMF) between two short sections of thinned core fiber (TCF) is proposed in this paper. The first section of TCF excites the high-order modes and the second section TCF couples the core mode and high-order modes into lead-out SMF to form intermodal interference. The sensor with MMF length of 20 mm and TCFs length of 1 mm was fabricated. The transmission spectrum variation of the sensor with respect to surrounding refractive index (SRI) has been studied by experiment. The results show that the central wavelength of dips/peaks shifting had a good linearity with SRI. The RI sensitivity of the sensor is 130.00 nm/RIU over the RI range of 1.3333-1.4182. The RI sensitivity increase to 433.60 nm/RIU after etching the MMF cladding of the sensor. The sensor keeps low dependence on temperature before and after etching.

  4. Phase sensitivity of two nonlinear interferometers with inputting entangled coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Ping; Xiao-Yu, Hu; Ya-Fei, Yu; Zhi-Ming, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the phase sensitivity of the SU(1,1) interfereometer [SU(1,1)I] and the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MMZI) with the entangled coherent states (ECS) as inputs. We consider the ideal case and the situations in which the photon losses are taken into account. We find that, under ideal conditions, the phase sensitivity of both the MMZI and the SU(1,1)I can beat the shot-noise limit (SNL) and approach the Heisenberg limit (HL). In the presence of photon losses, the ECS can beat the coherent and squeezed states as inputs in the SU(1,1)I, and the MMZI is more robust against internal photon losses than the SU(1,1)I. Project supported by the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91121023), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574092, 61378012, and 60978009), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20124407110009), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2013CB921804), and the Program for Innovative Research Team in University (Grant No. IRT1243).

  5. Measurement of M²-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao

    2016-11-29

    For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M²-curve is developed. The M²-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M²-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  6. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  7. Miniature Fourier transform spectrometer based on wavelength dependence of half-wave voltage of a LiNbO₃ waveguide interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2014-07-01

    A simple and reliable spectrum-retrieval method was proposed for the development of miniature stationary Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers based on a LiNbO₃ (LN) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator. The method takes into account the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength difference (OPD) and allows us to use a nonlinear voltage ramp to modulate the OPD. The method is based on the dispersion of the half-wave voltage, which was measured to be a monotonous polynomial function of the wavelength for the LN waveguide MZI used. With the measured dispersion of the half-wave voltage, the OPD, as a linear function of the modulating voltage, can be accurately determined at each wavelength in the near-infrared region in which the MZI used is a single-mode device. A prototype FT spectrometer was prepared using a LN waveguide MZI modulator based on the above method. The experimental results demonstrated that the spectrometer can be used for accurate determination of the laser wavelength and for liquid absorptiometry.

  8. SOI-Based 16×16 Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-Yuan; LI Yan-Ping; SUN Fei; YANG Di; CHEN Shao-Wu; YU Jin-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ A 16 × 16 thermo-optic waveguide switch matrix has been designed and fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer.For reducing device length, blocking switch matrix configuration is chosen. The building block of the matrix is a 2 × 2 switch cell with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, where a multi-mode interferometer serves as splitter/combiners. Spot size converters and isolating grooves are integrated on the same chip to reduce loss and power consumption. Average power consumption of the switch cell is 220mW. The switching time of a switch cell is less than 3 μs.

  9. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  10. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; M.; R.; Sadat; Hosseini; A.; Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractive index profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and applying fringe analysis methods.

  11. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. R. Sadat Hosseini; A. Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractiveindex profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer andapplying fringe analysis methods.

  12. Determining the 630nm emission altitude using modelling and observations from a tristatic configuration of Fabry-Perot Interferometers and EISCAT radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruliah, Anasuya; Kosch, Michael

    Anasuya Aruliah, a.aruliah@ucl.ac.uk University College London, London, United Kingdom Michael Kosch, m.kosch@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom Tristatic team Anasuya Aruliah,Ho-Ching Iris Yiu,Ian McWhirter, Michael Kosch,Kazuo Shiokawa,Shin-ichiro Oyama,Satonori Nozawa,Vikki Howells,Ian McCrea During early February 2010 a tristatic FPI-EISCAT experiment was run in order to investigate the peak emission altitude of the 630nm airglow and auroral emission in the region of the auroral oval. Two UCL Fabry-Perot Interferometers and a new STEL FPI have been located close to the three EISCAT radars at Tromsø, Kiruna and Sodankylü. The radars were pointed a at a common volume seen by all three FPIs, on assuming a peak emission height of 235km. This altitude is generally assumed to be fairly steady for FPI studies probing the behaviour of the upper atmosphere, though the height is a little different at other latitudes. The smoothing effect of the large viscosity of the upper thermosphere is invoked as a reason why the actual altitude is not too important, and there has been little investigation of the appropriateness of this assumption. However, mesoscale variability in the ionosphere has now been identified as producing a similar quantity of heating as does steady state convection; and FPIs and the CHAMP satellite have shown mesoscale structure in the high-latitude thermosphere. This indicates a need to revisit old assumptions that were based on the premise of thermospheric variability being large-scale. The STEL FPI at Ramfjord has a fully variable pointing direction mechanism and was programmed to point rapidly at successive volumes that would overlap the UCL KEOPS/Kiruna FPI look direction if the emission volume was 195km, 215km, 235km and 255km. Cross-correlation of the temperatures and intensity measurements would then identify the peak emission height. The EISCAT radar provided ionospheric parameters to model the 630nm emission profile

  13. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of pulsatile blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bencteux, Jeffrey; Kostas, Thomas; Bayat, Sam; Atlan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile motion induced by blood flow using heterodyne holographic interferometry on the thumb of a healthy volunteer, in real-time. Optical Doppler images were measured with green laser light by a frequency-shifted Mach-Zehnder interferometer in off-axis configuration. The recorded optical signal was linked to local instantaneous out-of-plane motion of the skin at velocities of a few hundreds of microns per second, and compared to blood pulse monitored by plethysmoraphy during an occlusion-reperfusion experiment.

  14. Cascaded all-optical operations in a hybrid integrated 80-Gb/s logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrange, J D; Dinu, M; Sochor, T; Bollond, P; Kasper, A; Cabot, S; Johnson, G S; Kang, I; Grant, A; Kay, J; Jaques, J

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate logic functionalities in a high-speed all-optical logic circuit based on differential Mach-Zehnder interferometers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as the nonlinear optical elements. The circuit, implemented by hybrid integration of the semiconductor optical amplifiers on a planar lightwave circuit platform fabricated in silica glass, can be flexibly configured to realize a variety of Boolean logic gates. We present both simulations and experimental demonstrations of cascaded all-optical operations for 80-Gb/s on-off keyed data.

  15. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  16. Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The Michelson Interferometer is a device used in many applications, but here it was used to measure small differences in distance, in the milli-inch range, specifically for defects in the Orbiter windows. In this paper, the method of using the Michelson Interferometer for measuring small distances is explained as well as the mathematics of the system. The coherence length of several light sources was calculated in order to see just how small a defect could be measured. Since white light is a very broadband source, its coherence length is very short and thus can be used to measure small defects in glass. After finding the front and back reflections from a very thin glass slide with ease and calculating the thickness of it very accurately, it was concluded that this system could find and measure small defects on the Orbiter windows. This report also discusses a failed attempt for another use of this technology as well as describes an area of promise for further analysis. The latter of these areas has applications for finding possible defects in Orbiter windows without moving parts.

  17. Digital signal processing for velocity measurements in dynamical material's behaviour studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlaminck, Julien; Luc, Jérôme; Chanal, Pierre-Yves

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we describe different configurations of optical fiber interferometers (types Michelson and Mach-Zehnder) used to measure velocities during dynamical material's behaviour studies. We detail the algorithms of processing developed and optimized to improve the performance of these interferometers especially in terms of time and frequency resolutions. Three methods of analysis of interferometric signals were studied. For Michelson interferometers, the time-frequency analysis of signals by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is compared to a time-frequency analysis by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results have shown that the CWT was more suitable than the STFT for signals with low signal-to-noise, and low velocity and high acceleration areas. For Mach-Zehnder interferometers, the measurement is carried out by analyzing the phase shift between three interferometric signals (Triature processing). These three methods of digital signal processing were evaluated, their measurement uncertainties estimated, and their restrictions or operational limitations specified from experimental results performed on a pulsed power machine.

  18. New detection method for atrazine pesticides with the optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Bergevoet, A.J.H.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of analytes can be determined within a few minutes using on-line analysis of the immunobinding kinetics in a solid phase immunoassay. This approach has been applied to the detection of atrazine. Atrazine is detected, at concentrations around the European Community limit (0.1 ¿g/l) by

  19. New detection method for atrazine pesticides with the optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Schipper, E.F.; Bergevoet, A.J.H.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of analytes can be determined within a few minutes using on-line analysis of the immunobinding kinetics in a solid phase immunoassay. This approach has been applied to the detection of atrazine. Atrazine is detected, at concentrations around the European Community limit (0.1 ¿g/l) by

  20. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  1. Interferometer for measuring dynamic corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Jason Daniel

    The cornea is the anterior most surface of the eye and plays a critical role in vision. A thin fluid layer, the tear film, coats the outer surface of the cornea and serves to protect, nourish, and lubricate the cornea. At the same time, the tear film is responsible for creating a smooth continuous surface where the majority of refraction takes place in the eye. A significant component of vision quality is determined by the shape of the cornea and stability of the tear film. It is desirable to possess an instrument that can measure the corneal shape and tear film surface with the same accuracy and resolution that is currently performed on common optical elements. A dual interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography is designed, built, and verified. The completed system is validated by testing on human subjects. The system consists of two co-aligned polarization splitting Twyman-Green interferometers designed to measure phase instantaneously. The primary interferometer measures the surface of the tear film while the secondary interferometer simultaneously tracks the absolute position of the cornea. Eye motion, ocular variation, and a dynamic tear film surface will result in a non-null configuration of the surface with respect to the interferometer system. A non-null test results in significant interferometer induced errors that add to the measured phase. New algorithms are developed to recover the absolute surface topography of the tear film and corneal surface from the simultaneous interferometer measurements. The results are high-resolution and high-accuracy surface topography measurements of the in vivo cornea that are captured at standard camera frame rates. This dissertation will cover the development and construction of an interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography of the human eye. The discussion starts with the completion of an interferometer for measuring the tear film. The tear film interferometer is part of an

  2. Special relativity and interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation of gravitational wave detectors is expected to be based on interferometers. Yurke et al. (1986) introduced a class of interferometers characterized by SU(1,1) which can in principle achieve a phase sensitivity approaching 1/N, where N is thte total number of photons entering the interferometer. It is shown here that the SU(1,1) interferometer can serve as an analog computer for Wigner's little group of the Poincare\\'| group.

  3. The Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Colavita, M. M.; Wallace, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long-baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. It was built as a testbed for interferometric techniques applicable to the Keck Interferometer. First fringes were obtained in July 1995. PTI implements a dual-star architecture, tracking two stars simultaneously for phase referencing and narrow-angle astrometry. The three fixed 40-cm apertures can be combined pair-wise to provide baselines to 110 m. The interferomet...

  4. Special relativity and interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation of gravitational wave detectors is expected to be based on interferometers. Yurke et al. (1986) introduced a class of interferometers characterized by SU(1,1) which can in principle achieve a phase sensitivity approaching 1/N, where N is thte total number of photons entering the interferometer. It is shown here that the SU(1,1) interferometer can serve as an analog computer for Wigner's little group of the Poincare\\'| group.

  5. Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-12-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing---conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9\\% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  6. MIT's interferometer CST testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Tupper; Kim, Ed; Anderson, Eric; Blackwood, Gary; Lublin, Leonard

    1990-12-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) has developed a controlled structures technology (CST) testbed based on one design for a space-based optical interferometer. The role of the testbed is to provide a versatile platform for experimental investigation and discovery of CST approaches. In particular, it will serve as the focus for experimental verification of CSI methodologies and control strategies at SERC. The testbed program has an emphasis on experimental CST--incorporating a broad suite of actuators and sensors, active struts, system identification, passive damping, active mirror mounts, and precision component characterization. The SERC testbed represents a one-tenth scaled version of an optical interferometer concept based on an inherently rigid tetrahedral configuration with collecting apertures on one face. The testbed consists of six 3.5 meter long truss legs joined at four vertices and is suspended with attachment points at three vertices. Each aluminum leg has a 0.2 m by 0.2 m by 0.25 m triangular cross-section. The structure has a first flexible mode at 31 Hz and has over 50 global modes below 200 Hz. The stiff tetrahedral design differs from similar testbeds (such as the JPL Phase B) in that the structural topology is closed. The tetrahedral design minimizes structural deflections at the vertices (site of optical components for maximum baseline) resulting in reduced stroke requirements for isolation and pointing of optics. Typical total light path length stability goals are on the order of lambda/20, with a wavelength of light, lambda, of roughly 500 nanometers. It is expected that active structural control will be necessary to achieve this goal in the presence of disturbances.

  7. Observation of vapor bubble of non-azeotropic binary mixture in microgravity with a two-wavelength interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    1999-07-01

    Although non-azeotropic mixtures are considered to be promising working fluids in advanced energy conversion systems, the primary technical problems in the heat transfer degradation in phase change processes cause economical handicap to wide-spread applications. The boiling behavior of mixtures still remains a number of basic questions being not answered yet, and the present authors believe that the most essential information for the boiling process in non-azeotropic mixtures is how temperature and concentration profiles are developed around the bubbles. The present study attempts at understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer mechanisms in nucleate pool boiling of non-azeotropic binary mixtures, and with the knowledge to develop a passive boiling heat transfer enhancement eventually. To this end, the authors have employed microgravity environment for rather detailed observation around vapor bubbles in the course of boiling inception and bubble growth. A two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been developed, which withstands mechanical shock caused by gravity change from very low gravity of the order of 10{sup {minus}5} g to relatively high gravity of approximately 8 g exposed during deceleration period. A series of experiments on single vapor bubbles for CFC113 single component and CFC12/CFC112 non-azeotropic binary mixture have been conducted under a high quality microgravity conditions available in 10-second free-fall facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The results for single component liquid showed a strong influence due to Marangoni effect caused by the temperature profile around the bubble. The results for non-azeotropic binary mixture showed, however, considerably different behavior from single component liquid. Both temperature and concentration profiles around a single vapor bubble were evaluated from the interferograms. The temperature and concentration layers established around the bubbles were nearly one order of magnitude larger

  8. Two-interferometer fiber optic sensor with disturbance localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2006-09-01

    We present investigation results of a new generation of the fiber optic perimeter sensor in a Sagnac and Michelson interferometers configuration. This sensor can detect a potential intruder and determine its position along a protected zone. We propose a localization method that makes use of the inherent properties of both interferometers. After demodulation of signals from both interferometers, the obtained amplitude characteristic of the Sagnac interferometer depends on position of a disturbance along the interferometer, while amplitude characteristic of the Michelson interferometer do not depend on this position. So, quotient of both demodulated characteristics makes it possible to localize the disturbance. Arrangement of a laboratory model of the sensor and its signal processing scheme is also presented. During research of the laboratory model of the sensor, it was possible to detect the position of the disturbance with resolution of about 40m along the 6-km long sensor.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement based on application of multi-pass interferometry in phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, H. P.; Yuan, W.; Wong, C. L.; Wu, S. Y.; Suen, Y. K.; Kong, S. K.; Lin, Chinlon

    2007-07-01

    A novel design of multi-pass surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with differential phase interrogation based on multi-pass interferometry is presented. This new configuration provides an intrinsic phase amplification effect of over twofold by placing the SPR sensor head in a signal arm of the interferometer so that the interrogating optical beam will traverse the sensor surface infinite number of times. Experimental interferometers based on the Michelson and Fabry-Perot configurations have been employed to experimentally verify this amplification effect when they were compared with Mach-Zehnder configuration, results obtained from salt-water mixtures, antibody-antigen, and protein-DNA binding reaction confirmed the expected phase measurement enhancement, thus leading to the possibility of direct detection of small sized bio-molecules using SPR.

  10. Polarized-interferometer feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using a polarized-interferometer system as a rendezvous and docking sensor for two cooperating spacecraft was studied. The polarized interferometer is a radio frequency system for long range, real time determination of relative position and attitude. Range is determined by round trip signal timing. Direction is determined by radio interferometry. Relative roll is determined from signal polarization. Each spacecraft is equipped with a transponder and an antenna array. The antenna arrays consist of four crossed dipoles that can transmit or receive either circularly or linearly polarized signals. The active spacecraft is equipped with a sophisticated transponder and makes all measurements. The transponder on the passive spacecraft is a relatively simple repeater. An initialization algorithm is developed to estimate position and attitude without any a priori information. A tracking algorithm based upon minimum variance linear estimators is also developed. Techniques to simplify the transponder on the passive spacecraft are investigated and a suitable configuration is determined. A multiple carrier CW signal format is selected. The dependence of range accuracy and ambiguity resolution error probability are derived and used to design a candidate system. The validity of the design and the feasibility of the polarized interferometer concept are verified by simulation.

  11. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase-conjugator

    CERN Document Server

    Okulov, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to configuration most suitable for a coherent coupling of a thousands of a fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that Michelson phase conjugating configuration with double passage through array of fiber amplifiers have the definite advantages compared to one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless to amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on entrance/output beamsplitter. In both configurations the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope due to gain saturation is capable to randomize the position of chirp inside envelope thus it may reduce the visibility of interference pattern at output beamsplitter. A certain advantages...

  12. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  13. Michelson and His Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a brief historical account of Michelson's invention of his interferometer with some subsequent ingenious applications of its capabilities for precise measurement discussed in details, including the experiment on detrmination of the diameters for heavenly bodies. (CC)

  14. Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....

  15. Physical and chemical sensing using monolithic semiconductor optical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Maisenhoelder, Bernd; Moser, Michael; Riel, Peter; Kunz, Rino E.

    1997-09-01

    We present two monolithically integrated optical sensor systems based on semiconductor photonic integrated circuits. These compact, robust and highly functional transducers perform all necessary optical and electro-optical functions on-chip; extension to multi-sensor arrays is easily envisaged. A monolithic Michelson interferometer for high-resolution displacement measurement and a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractometry are discussed.

  16. Fiber Optic Fourier Transform White-Light Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jiang; Cai-Jie Tang

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic Fourier transform white-light inter-fereometry is presented to interrogate the absolute optical path difference of an Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer. The phase change of the interferometer caused by scanning wavelength can be calculated by a Fourier transform-based phase demodulation technique. A linear output is achieved.

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model of a piezoele......In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...

  18. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  19. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  20. Broadband detuned Sagnac interferometer for future generation gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Voronchev, N V; Danilishin, S L

    2015-01-01

    Broadband suppression of quantum noise below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) becomes a top-priority problem for the future generation of large-scale terrestrial detectors of gravitational waves, as the interferometers of the Advanced LIGO project, predesigned to be quantum-noise-limited in the almost entire detection band, are phased in. To this end, among various proposed methods of quantum noise suppression or signal amplification, the most elaborate approach implies a so-called *xylophone* configuration of two Michelson interferometers, each optimised for its own frequency band, with a combined broadband sensitivity well below the SQL. Albeit ingenious, it is a rather costly solution. We demonstrate that changing the optical scheme to a Sagnac interferometer with weak detuned signal recycling and frequency dependent input squeezing can do almost as good a job, as the xylophone for significantly lower spend. We also show that the Sagnac interferometer is more robust to optical loss in filter cavity, used f...

  1. A naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lukens, Joseph M; Pooser, Raphael C

    2016-01-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing---conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9\\% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  2. Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fengnian; Sekaric, Lidija; Vlasov, Yurii A

    2006-05-01

    Two complimentary types of SOI photonic wire based devices, the add/drop (A/D) filter using a racetrack resonator and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with one arm consisting of an identical resonator in all-pass filter (APF) configuration, were fabricated and characterized in order to extract the optical properties of the resonators and predict the performance of the optical delay lines based on such resonators. We found that instead of well-known waveguide bending and propagation losses, mode conversion loss in the coupling region of such resonators dominates when the air gap between the racetrack resonator and access waveguide is smaller than 120nm. We also show that this additional loss significantly degrades the performance of the optical delay line containing cascaded resonators in APF configuration.

  3. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  4. The upgraded S18 neutron interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, G. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-11-01

    The instrument S18, the perfect-crystal neutron interferometer was reopened in October 1998. The instrument, which was dismantled during the reactor shutdown, has been set up again within the last two years. The upgraded version allows more advanced neutron optics experiments for fundamental, nuclear and condensed-matter physics. The instrument also takes advantage of the new super-mirror guide which provides considerably higher intensities. Several types of large perfect-crystal interferometers are available for different applications. A new multipurpose monochromator allows the use of a wide wavelength range and the configuration of the system as an advanced high-resolution Bonse-Hart small-angle scattering camera. Another instrument option is the use of completely polarised beams which are obtained using permanent magnetic prism deflection. An additional third analyser axis permits novel post-selection experiments concerning momentum distribution and polarisation analysis of the interfering beams. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  6. Information configuration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauro Cesar Araujo; Mamede Lima-Marques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term "configuration information" has emerged in the works of Information Architecture; however, there isn’t a conceptualization of “configuration” within Information Architecture. Objective: The objective is propose a definition for "configuration" and "information configuration" within the Information Architecture discipline, and indicate a teleological corpus from configuration management that can be used as paxis in Information Architecture. Methodolo...

  7. Measurement of Optical Response of a Detuned Resonant Sideband Extraction Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Miyakawa, O; Adhikari, R; Evans, M; Abbott, B; Bork, R; Busby, D; Heefner, J; Ivanov, A; Smith, M; Taylor, R; Vass, S; Weinstein, A; Varvella, M; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Sakata, S; Mow-Lowry, C; Miyakawa, Osamu; Ward, Robert; Adhikari, Rana; Evans, Matthew; Abbott, Benjamin; Bork, Rolf; Busby, Daniel; Heefner, Jay; Ivanov, Alexander; Smith, Michael; Taylor, Robert; Vass, Stephen; Weinstein, Alan; Varvella, Monica; Kawamura, Seiji; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Sakata, Shihori; Mow-Lowry, Conor

    2006-01-01

    We report on the optical response of a suspended-mass detuned resonant sideband extraction (RSE) interferometer with power recycling. The purpose of the detuned RSE configuration is to manipulate and optimize the optical response of the interferometer to differential displacements (induced by gravitational waves) as a function of frequency, independently of other parameters of the interferometer. The design of our interferometer results in an optical gain with two peaks: an RSE optical resonance at around 4 kHz and a radiation pressure induced optical spring at around 41 Hz. We have developed a reliable procedure for acquiring lock and establishing the desired optical configuration. In this configuration, we have measured the optical response to differential displacement and found good agreement with predictions at both resonances and all other relevant frequencies. These results build confidence in both the theory and practical implementation of the more complex optical configuration being planned for Advanc...

  8. Detailed experimental investigation of an all-active dual-order mode Mach-Zehnder wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan;

    2000-01-01

    A new all-active DOMO converter has been assessed experimentally at 10 Gbit/s showing almost wavelength-independent performance for signal and CW wavelengths converting the entire EDFA window. Good performance has also been demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s.......A new all-active DOMO converter has been assessed experimentally at 10 Gbit/s showing almost wavelength-independent performance for signal and CW wavelengths converting the entire EDFA window. Good performance has also been demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s....

  9. Violation of a Bell-like inequality by a combination of Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup

    OpenAIRE

    Rother, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a sta...

  10. All-optical DAC using counter-propagating optical and electrical pulses in a Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2014-10-20

    A novel method of converting binary-level electrical pulses into multi-level optical pulses using only a conventional traveling-wave optical modulator is presented. The method provides low inter-pulse interference due to the counter-propagating pulses, low amplitude noise, and a timing jitter determined chiefly by the quality of the optical pulse source. The method only requires one electrical drive per modulator and provides low-jitter variable-amplitude optical pulses that are suitable for shaping into a wide variety of modulation formats using a programmable optical filter.

  11. Imaging on a Sphere with Interferometers: the Spherical Wave Harmonic Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Carozzi, T D

    2015-01-01

    I present an exact and explicit solution to the scalar (Stokes flux intensity) radio interferometer imaging equation on a spherical surface which is valid also for non-coplanar interferometer configurations. This imaging equation is comparable to $w$-term imaging algorithms, but by using a spherical rather than a Cartesian formulation this term has no special significance. The solution presented also allows direct identification of the scalar (spin 0 weighted) spherical harmonics on the sky. The method should be of interest for future multi-spacecraft interferometers, wide-field imaging with non-coplanar arrays, and CMB spherical harmonic measurements using interferometers.

  12. A Sagnac-Michelson fibre optic interferometer: Signal processing for disturbance localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Pałka, N.; Ciurapiński, W.; Życzkowski, M.

    2007-09-01

    We present numerical and experimental results on a new generation fibre optic perimeter sensor based on a Sagnac and Michelson interferometers configuration. In particular, an original signal processing scheme is presented. The sensor can detect a potential intruder and determine its position along a protected zone. We propose a localization method that offers the inherent properties of both interferometers. After demodulation of the signals from both interferometers, the obtained amplitude characteristic of the Sagnac interferometer depends on a position of a disturbance along the interferometer, while amplitude characteristic of the Michelson interferometer does not depend on this position. So, quotient of both demodulated characteristics makes it possible to localize the disturbance. During investigations of a laboratory model of the sensor, it was possible to detect the position of the disturbance with a resolution of about 40 m along the 6-km-long sensor.

  13. Fabry-Perot interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Mora-Hernandez, G

    1988-01-01

    This book describes the Fabry-Perot interferometer and its variants as well as its use, optimisation and applications. The author begins with an historical perspective on the development of the instrument. Because of the quantitative uses of the device, the text tends to be mostly mathematical in its treatment. However, there is also much practical detail on the use and optimization of the Fabry-Perot interferometer and discussion of its classical uses (such as in metrology) and its contemporary applications (such as in lasers). In addition the book contains a comprehensive bibliography summarizing the extensive literature on the subject. This book will appeal both to high-resolution practitioners, such as spectroscopists, and to the laser community, since the Fabrv-Perot is not only an integral part of the laser but is also usea to characterize its optical and spectroscopic behaviour.

  14. Guided magnonic Michelson interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad H. Ahmed; Jeske, Jan; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Magnonics is an emerging field with potential applications in classical and quantum information processing. Freely propagating magnons in two-dimensional media suffer from dispersion, which limits their effective range and fidelity. We show the design of controllable magnonic circuitry, that utilise surface current carrying wires to create magnonic waveguides. We also show the design of a magnonic directional coupler and controllable Michelson interferometer to demonstrate its utility for inf...

  15. Automatic alignment of a Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, F.; Di Fiore, L.; Milano, L.; Russo, G.; Solimeno, S. (Inst. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (IT))

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the control system for the automatic control of a very large dual-wave Michelson interferometer to be used in the VIRGO experiment, a gravitational wave search in the band 10 to 3000 Hz. The system is mainly based on a VME bus architecture for the local controls, on which numeric control system based on digital filters are implemented. The authors describe these control systems, and the way they are linked together to form the global control system, in a hierarchical configuration.

  16. Design and Performance Investigation for the Optical Combinational Networks at High Data Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Devendra Kr.

    2017-05-01

    This article explores performance study for optical combinational designs based on nonlinear characteristics with semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Two configurations for optical half-adder with non-return-to-zero modulation pattern altogether with Mach-Zehnder modulator, interferometer at 50-Gbps data rate have been successfully realized. Accordingly, SUM and CARRY outputs have been concurrently executed and verified for their output waveforms. Numerical simulations for variation of data rate and key design parameters have been effectively executed outcome with optimum performance. Investigations depict overall good performance of the design in terms of the extinction factor. It also inferred that all-optical realization based on SOA is competent scheme, as it circumvents costly optoelectronic translation. This could be well supportive to erect larger complex optical combinational circuits.

  17. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of microvascular blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Magnain, C; Boucneau, T; Simonutti, M; Ferezou, I; Rancillac, A; Vitalis, T; Sahel, J A; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on local superficial blood flow monitoring in biological tissue from laser Doppler holographic imaging. In time averaging recording conditions, holography acts as a narrowband bandpass filter, which, combined with a frequency shifted reference beam, permits frequency selective imaging in the radiofrequency range. These Doppler images are acquired with an off axis Mach Zehnder interferometer. Microvascular hemodynamic components mapping is performed in the cerebral cortex of the mouse and the eye fundus of the rat with near-infrared laser light without any exogenous marker. These measures are made from a basic inverse method analysis of local first order optical fluctuation spectra at low radiofrequencies, from 0 Hz to 100 kHz. Local quadratic velocity is derived from Doppler broadenings induced by fluid flows, with elementary diffusing wave spectroscopy formalism in backscattering configuration. We demonstrate quadratic mean velocity assessment in the 0.1 to 10 millimeters per second range in vitro ...

  18. Optical encryption using photon-counting polarimetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluenda, David; Carnicer, Artur; Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Juvells, Ignasi; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-01-26

    We present a polarimetric-based optical encoder for image encryption and verification. A system for generating random polarized vector keys based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration combined with translucent liquid crystal displays in each path of the interferometer is developed. Polarization information of the encrypted signal is retrieved by taking advantage of the information provided by the Stokes parameters. Moreover, photon-counting model is used in the encryption process which provides data sparseness and nonlinear transformation to enhance security. An authorized user with access to the polarization keys and the optical design variables can retrieve and validate the photon-counting plain-text. Optical experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the encryption method.

  19. Atom-Light Hybrid Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Qiu, Cheng; Chen, Shuying; Guo, Jinxian; Chen, L Q; Ou, Z Y; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-07-24

    A new type of hybrid atom-light interferometer is demonstrated with atomic Raman amplification processes replacing the beam splitting elements in a traditional interferometer. This nonconventional interferometer involves correlated optical and atomic waves in the two arms. The correlation between atoms and light developed with the Raman process makes this interferometer different from conventional interferometers with linear beam splitters. It is observed that the high-contrast interference fringes are sensitive to the optical phase via a path change as well as the atomic phase via a magnetic field change. This new atom-light correlated hybrid interferometer is a sensitive probe of the atomic internal state and should find wide applications in precision measurement and quantum control with atoms and photons.

  20. Digital holografic interferometry used for identification of 2D temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    The presented paper shows the possibility of digital holographic interferometry application in measurement of unsteady 2D temperature field generated by pulsatile flow which is impinging heated surface. Special holographic setup with double sensitivity was developed instead of the commonly used MachZehnder type of holographic interferometer in order to attain the parameters sufficient for the studied case. This setup is not light efficient like the MachZehnder type but has double sensitivity. The results from the digital holographic interferometry experiments are perfected by measurement of the velocity field achieved by methods of hot-wire anemometry.

  1. Digital holografic interferometry used for identification of 2D temperature field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psota Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the possibility of digital holographic interferometry application in measurement of unsteady 2D temperature field generated by pulsatile flow which is impinging heated surface. Special holographic setup with double sensitivity was developed instead of the commonly used MachZehnder type of holographic interferometer in order to attain the parameters sufficient for the studied case. This setup is not light efficient like the MachZehnder type but has double sensitivity. The results from the digital holographic interferometry experiments are perfected by measurement of the velocity field achieved by methods of hot-wire anemometry.

  2. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  3. Coherent population trapping in a Raman atom interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Bing; Merlet, Sébastien; Santos, Franck Pereira dos

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of coherent population trapping (CPT) in an atom inter-ferometer gravimeter based on the use of stimulated Raman transitions. We find that CPT leads to significant phase shifts, of order of a few mrad, which may compromise the accuracy of inertial measurements. We show that this effect is rejected by the k-reversal technique, which consists in averaging inertial measurements performed with two opposite orientations of the Raman wavevector k, provided that internal states at the input of the interferometer are kept identical for both configurations.

  4. Demonstration of improved sensitivity of echo interferometers to gravitational acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, C; Carew, A; Berthiaume, R; Beattie, S; Kumarakrishnan, A

    2013-01-01

    We have developed two configurations of an echo interferometer that rely on standing wave excitation of a laser-cooled sample of rubidium atoms that measures acceleration. For a two-pulse configuration, the interferometer signal is modulated at the recoil frequency and exhibits a sinusoidal frequency chirp as a function of pulse spacing. For a three-pulse stimulated echo configuration, the signal is observed without recoil modulation and exhibits a modulation at a single frequency. The three-pulse configuration is less sensitive to effects of vibrations and magnetic field curvature leading to a longer experimental timescale. For both configurations of the atom interferometer (AI), we show that a measurement of acceleration with a statistical precision of 0.5% can be realized by analyzing the shape of the echo envelope that has a temporal duration of a few microseconds. Using the two-pulse AI, we obtain measurements of acceleration that are statistically precise to 6 parts per million (ppm) on a 25 ms timescal...

  5. Broad spectral range synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran; Doerr, Christopher R.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.

    2012-01-01

    A broad-band Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating is presented with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over 90 nm of spectral range and a central excess loss value of -0.5 dB.

  6. Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Salapatas, Alexandros; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2016-01-01

    An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2

  7. New method to simulate quantum interference using deterministic processes and application to event-based simulation of quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam-splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event-b

  8. High speed polymer E-O modulator consisting of a MZI with a microring resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, A.; Diemeer, M.B.J.; Rousseau, A.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an polymer electro-optic micro-ring resonator on one of its branches is realized in a polymer layerstack and characterized. Electro-optic coefficients of 10 pm/V and modulation frequencies of 1 GHz were measured.

  9. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment with photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable ref

  10. CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, S J; Geis, M W; Zhou, G-R; Grein, M E; Gan, F; Popovic, M A; Yoon, J U; Lennon, D M; Ippen, E P; Kärtner, F Z; Lyszczarz, T M

    2008-07-21

    A broadband, Mach-Zehnder-interferometer based silicon optical modulator is demonstrated, with an electrical bandwidth of 26 GHz and V(pi)L of 4 V.cm. The design of this modulator does not require epitaxial overgrowth and is therefore simpler to fabricate than previous devices with similar performance.

  11. Optical Generation of Single- or Two-Mode Excited Entangled Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhen-Zhong; JING Hui; ZHANG Xian-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    With nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NLMZI) and a type-Ⅰ beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal, we optically generate single-mode excited entangled coherent states. This scheme can be easily generalized to generate two-mode excited entangled coherent states. We simply analyse different influences of single- and two-mode photon excitations on entangled coherent states.

  12. Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Salapatas, Alexandros; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2017-01-01

    An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2

  13. Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Arno; Seise, Enrico; Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-11-21

    We present a fiber CPA system consisting of two coherently combined fiber amplifiers, which have been arranged in an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pulse durations as short as 470 fs and pulse energies of 3 mJ, corresponding to 5.4 GW of peak power, have been achieved at an average power of 30 W.

  14. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  15. Path length distribution of multiple-scattered photons by low coherence Doppler interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.; Tuchin, V.V.; Izatt, J.A.; Fujimoto, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report results of measurements by low coherence Doppler interferometry of the path length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded index fibers and a superluminescent diode as light source. The pat

  16. Phase-selective quantum eraser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, A.; Pieplow, G.; Menzel, R.

    2015-07-01

    A quantum-eraser experiment is reported with photon pairs generated by two synchronously pumped parametric down-converters coupled via induced coherence. The complementarity between which-source information and two-photon interference fringe visibility is demonstrated explicitly. Changing the phase in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer allows a continuous transition from wavelike to particlelike behavior of photons.

  17. Bandwidth-adaptable silicon photonic differentiator employing a slow light effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    exploits the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) to overcome the inherent bandwidth limitation of current photonic DIFFs. We fabricated a PhCW Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PhCW-MZI) on the silicon-onisolator material platform to validate our concept. Input Gaussian pulses with full...

  18. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  19. Efficient and robust regenerative all-optical wavelength converter for C- and L-band (80 nm span) and for data rates up to 40 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dülk, M.; Fischer, St.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a monolithically integrated Mach_Zehnder interferometer module for efficient regenerative (2R and 3R) wavelength conversion at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s covering the 80 nm wavelength span of the C- and L-band....

  20. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...

  1. Slow Light by Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; HUANG Yan; MAO Xiao-Yu; CUI Kai-Yu; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De

    2009-01-01

    A simple and effective way to measure the group velocity of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWGs) is developed by using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A PCWG with perfect air-bridge structure is fabricated and slow light with group velocity slower than c/80 is demonstrated.

  2. Group IV platforms for the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Chen, X.; Ben Masaud, T. M.; Muneeb, M.; Strain, M.; Sorel, M.; Krauss, T. F.; Roelkens, G. C.; Peacock, A. C.; Chong, H. M. H.; Reed, G. T.

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated several material platforms for the mid-infrared including silicon on insulator (SOI), polycrystalline silicon, and suspended silicon structures. We review photonic devices based on these platforms including splitters, ring/racetrack resonators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and spectrometers.

  3. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment with photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable

  4. Path-length-resolved optical Doppler perfusion monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We report the first path-length-resolved perfusion measurements on human skin measured with a phase-modulated low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. Optical path lengths of Doppler shifted and unshifted light and path-length-dependen

  5. Experimental investigation of a control scheme for a zero-detuning resonant sideband extraction interferometer for next-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kawazoe, Fumiko; Kawamura, Seiji; Leonhardt, Volker; Miyakawa, Osamu; Morioka, Tomoko; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sato, Shuichi; Somiya, Kentaro; Sugamoto, Akio; Yamazaki, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Some next-generation gravitational-wave detectors, such as the American Advanced LIGO project and the Japanese LCGT project, plan to use power recycled resonant sideband extraction (RSE) interferometers for their interferometer's optical configuration. A power recycled zero-detuning (PRZD) RSE interferometer, which is the default design for LCGT, has five main length degrees of freedom that need to be controlled in order to operate a gravitational-wave detector. This task is expected to be very challenging because of the complexity of optical configuration. A new control scheme for a PRZD RSE interferometer has been developed and tested with a prototype interferometer. The PRZD RSE interferometer was successfully locked with the control scheme. It is the first experimental demonstration of a PRZD RSE interferometer with suspended test masses. The result serves as an important step for the operation of LCGT.

  6. Effect of beam quality on tilt measurement using cyclic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretheesh Kumar, V. C.; Ganesan, A. R.; Joenathan, C.; Somasundaram, U.

    2016-08-01

    Accurate measurement of angles is extremely important in various metrological applications. Interferometry has always been an excellent technique for accurate measurements. Several methods have been proposed for accurate tilt measurement using interferometric techniques. Almost all of them use the Michelson configuration which is extremely sensitive to environmental vibrations and turbulences. We know that a cyclic interferometer is extremely stable. Even though it is not sensitive to displacement changes, it is twice sensitive to tilt compared to that of a Michelson interferometer. We have enhanced the sensitivity to measure tilt using multiple reflections in a cyclic interferometer. Since the input beam is collimated, we have studied the effect of aberration of the input beam on the accuracy of tilt measurement. Experimental results on this study are presented in this paper.

  7. Folding gravitational-wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. R.; Ballmer, Stefan W.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of kilometer-scale terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers is limited by mirror coating thermal noise. Alternative interferometer topologies can mitigate the impact of thermal noise on interferometer noise curves. In this work, we explore the impact of introducing a single folding mirror into the arm cavities of dual-recycled Fabry–Perot interferometers. While simple folding alone does not reduce the mirror coating thermal noise, it makes the folding mirror the critical mirror, opening up a variety of design and upgrade options. Improvements to the folding mirror thermal noise through crystalline coatings or cryogenic cooling can increase interferometer range by as much as a factor of two over the Advanced LIGO reference design.

  8. A hybrid Fabry-Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, O.; Silva, S. F.; Viegas, J.; Baptista, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Roy, P.

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid Fabry-Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber is demonstrated. The hybrid interferometer presents three waves. Two parallel Fabry-Perot cavities with low finesse are formed between the splice region and the end of a dual-core microstructured fiber. A Michelson configuration is obtained by the two small cores of the microstructured fiber. The spectral response of the hybrid interferometer presents two pattern fringes with different frequencies due to the respective optical path interferometers. The hybrid interferometer was characterized in strain and temperature presenting different sensitivity coefficients for each topology. Due to these characteristics, this novel sensing head is able to measure strain and temperature, simultaneously.

  9. The Fizeau Interferometer Testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X; Lyon, R G; Huet, H; Marzouk, J; Solyar, G; Zhang, Xiaolei; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; Huet, Hubert; Marzouk, Joe; Solyar, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    The Fizeau Interferometer Testbed (FIT) is a collaborative effort between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, Sigma Space Corporation, and the University of Maryland. The testbed will be used to explore the principles of and the requirements for the full, as well as the pathfinder, Stellar Imager mission concept. It has a long term goal of demonstrating closed-loop control of a sparse array of numerous articulated mirrors to keep optical beams in phase and optimize interferometric synthesis imaging. In this paper we present the optical and data acquisition system design of the testbed, and discuss the wavefront sensing and control algorithms to be used. Currently we have completed the initial design and hardware procurement for the FIT. The assembly and testing of the Testbed will be underway at Goddard's Instrument Development Lab in the coming months.

  10. Guided magnonic Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad H.; Jeske, Jan; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Magnonics is an emerging field with potential applications in classical and quantum information processing. Freely propagating magnons in two-dimensional media are subject to dispersion, which limits their effective range and utility as information carriers. We show the design of a confining magnonic waveguide created by two surface current carrying wires placed above a spin-sheet, which can be used as a primitive for reconfigurable magnonic circuitry. We theoretically demonstrate the ability of such guides to counter the transverse dispersion of the magnon in a spin-sheet, thus extending the range of the magnon. A design of a magnonic directional coupler and controllable Michelson interferometer is shown, demonstrating its utility for information processing tasks.

  11. Sub-angstrom surface metrology with a virtual reference interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freischlad, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Non-contact, 3D optical interferometric profilers provide detailed topography measurements of super-smooth surfaces such as hard disk substrates and super-polished optics. However, the contribution of the interferometer system to the measurement can be significant for surfaces with an RMS roughness of one Angstrom and below. Special care must be taken to minimize random noise as well as to remove the systematic instrument error from the measured data. While the random noise can be addressed by low-noise design and averaging of measurements, the systematic instrument error is more difficult to eliminate. In this paper an interferometer configuration is presented that eliminates the mid to higher spatial frequencies from the reference beam. This configuration is called a virtual-reference interferometer, since there is no physical surface in focus conjugate to the test surface. This provides very smooth systematic instrument errors with essentially no contribution in the mid to high spatial frequencies of surface waviness and roughness. The virtual-reference interferometer has a midsize measurement area of 20x20 mm, is fully compensated for white light, extended source illumination, and enables data acquisition for both phase shifting and coherence scanning modes. Current performance data show a residual systematic tool waviness error of < 0.2 Angstrom RMS, with potential for improvement. Efficient stitching of subaperture measurements accommodates high resolution roughness and waviness maps of test surfaces up to 150 mm x100 mm.

  12. THE KECK INTERFEROMETER NULLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serabyn, E.; Mennesson, B.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Koresko, C. [Argon ST, Inc., 1386 Connellsville Road, Lemont Furnace, PA 15456 (United States); Kuchner, M. J., E-mail: Gene.Serabyn@jpl.nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN), the first operational separated-aperture infrared nulling interferometer, was designed to null the mid-infrared emission from nearby stars so as to ease the measurement of faint circumstellar emission. This paper describes the basis of the KIN's four-beam, two-stage measurement approach and compares it to the simpler case of a two-beam nuller. In the four-beam KIN system, the starlight is first nulled in a pair of nullers operating on parallel 85 m Keck-Keck baselines, after which 'cross-combination' on 4 m baselines across the Keck apertures is used to modulate and detect residual coherent off-axis emission. Comparison to the constructive stellar fringe provides calibration. The response to an extended source is similar in the two cases, except that the four-beam response includes a term due to the visibility of the source on the cross-combiner baseline-a small effect for relatively compact sources. The characteristics of the dominant null depth errors are also compared for the two cases. In the two-beam nuller, instrumental imperfections and asymmetries lead to a series of quadratic, positive-definite null leakage terms. For the four-beam nuller, the leakage is instead a series of correlation cross-terms combining corresponding errors in each of the two nullers, which contribute offsets only to the extent that these errors are correlated on the timescale of the measurement. This four-beam architecture has allowed a significant ({approx}order of magnitude) improvement in mid-infrared long-baseline fringe-visibility accuracies.

  13. All-reflective Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Perot interferometers based on grating beam splitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K X; Byer, R L

    1998-04-15

    All-reflective Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Perot interferometers based on grating beam splitters are experimentally demonstrated at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A 1200-groove/mm grating diffracting 0 and -1 orders with an efficiency of 48.2% for each order was used as a near-50/50 beam splitter. The all-reflective Sagnac and Michelson interferometers were formed by reintroducing both of the diffracted beams back to the grating. The Fabry-Perot interferometer was formed in a Littrow configuration by using a 1700-groove/mm grating with a blazing efficiency of 91% as a cavity coupler. These interferometers encompass all the fundamental configurations of all-reflective laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, promising improved wave-front quality by avoiding volume thermal effects in transmissive optics under high-power laser illumination.

  14. The photothermal effect in interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S R

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the photothermal effect in a single cross-polarized interferometer at audio frequencies (5 Hz - 4 kHz). In a Fabry-Perot interferometer, light in one polarization is chopped to periodically heat the interferometer mirrors, while light in the orthogonal polarization measures the mirror length changes. Tests of a polished solid metal mirror show good agreement with relevant proposed theories by Braginsky et al. ["Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Physics Letters A 264, 1-10 (1999)] and Cerdonio et al. ["Thermoelastic effects at low temperatures and quantum limits in displacement measurements," Physical Review D 63 082003 (2001)] describing uncoated optics.

  15. A Xylophone Configuration for a third Generation Gravitational Wave Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hild, Stefan; Freise, Andreas; Franc, Janyce; Morgado, Nazario; Flaminio, Raffaele; DeSalvo, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Achieving the demanding sensitivity and bandwidth, envisaged for third generation gravitational wave (GW) observatories, is extremely challenging with a single broadband interferometer. Very high optical powers (Megawatts) are required to reduce the quantum noise contribution at high frequencies, while the interferometer mirrors have to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures in order to reduce thermal noise sources at low frequencies. To resolve this potential conflict of cryogenic test masses with high thermal load, we present a conceptual design for a 2-band xylophone configuration for a third generation GW observatory, composed of a high-power, high-frequency interferometer and a cryogenic low-power, low-frequency instrument. Featuring inspiral ranges of 3200Mpc and 38000Mpc for binary neutron stars and binary black holes coalesences, respectively, we find that the potential sensitivity of xylophone configurations can be significantly wider and better than what is possible in a single broadband interferometer...

  16. $T^3$-interferometer for atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, M; Roura, A; Schleich, W P; DeSavage, S A; Davis, J P; Srinivasan, A; Narducci, F A; Werner, S A; Rasel, E M

    2016-01-01

    The quantum mechanical propagator of a massive particle in a linear gravitational potential derived already in 1927 by Earle H. Kennard \\cite{Kennard,Kennard2} contains a phase that scales with the third power of the time $T$ during which the particle experiences the corresponding force. Since in conventional atom interferometers the internal atomic states are all exposed to the same acceleration $a$, this $T^3$-phase cancels out and the interferometer phase scales as $T^2$. In contrast, by applying an external magnetic field we prepare two different accelerations $a_1$ and $a_2$ for two internal states of the atom, which translate themselves into two different cubic phases and the resulting interferometer phase scales as $T^3$. We present the theoretical background for, and summarize our progress towards experimentally realizing such a novel atom interferometer.

  17. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  18. T 3-Interferometer for atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M.; Efremov, M. A.; Roura, A.; Schleich, W. P.; DeSavage, S. A.; Davis, J. P.; Srinivasan, A.; Narducci, F. A.; Werner, S. A.; Rasel, E. M.

    2017-04-01

    The quantum mechanical propagator of a massive particle in a linear gravitational potential derived already in 1927 by Kennard [2, 3] contains a phase that scales with the third power of the time T during which the particle experiences the corresponding force. Since in conventional atom interferometers the internal atomic states are all exposed to the same acceleration a, this T^3-phase cancels out and the interferometer phase scales as T^2. In contrast, by applying an external magnetic field we prepare two different accelerations a_1 and a_2 for two internal states of the atom, which translate themselves into two different cubic phases and the resulting interferometer phase scales as T^3. We present the theoretical background for, and summarize our progress towards experimentally realizing such a novel atom interferometer.

  19. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, Anmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displa...

  20. Michelson Interferometer (MINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew; Carlson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    MINT is a Michelson interferometer designed to measure the thermal emission from the earth at high spectral resolution (2/cm) over a broad spectral range (250-1700/cm, 6-40 mu m) with contiguous 3-pixel wide (12 mrad, 8 km field of view) along-track sampling. MINT is particularly well suited for monitoring cloud properties (cloud cover, effective temperature, optical thickness, ice/water phase, and effective particle size) both day and night, as well as tropospheric water vapor, ozone, and temperature. The key instrument characteristics that make MINT ideally suited for decadal monitoring purposes are: high wavelength to wavelength precision across the full IR spectrum with high spectral resolution; space-proven long-term durability and calibration stability; and small size, low cost, low risk instrument incorporating the latest detector and electronics technology. MINT also incorporates simplicity in design and operation by utilizing passively cooled DTGS detectors and nadir viewing geometry (with target motion compensation). MINT measurement objectives, instrument characteristics, and key advantages are summarized in this paper.

  1. Development of Phase Detection Schemes Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR is a novel optical sensing technique with a unique ability to monitor molecular binding in real-time for biological and chemical sensor applications. Interferometry is an excellent tool for accurate measurement of SPR changes, the measurement and comparison is made for the sensitivity, dynamic range and resolution of the different analytes using interferometry techniques. SPR interferometry can also employ phase detection in addition to the amplitude of the reflected light wave, and the phase changes more rapidly compared with other approaches, i.e., intensity, angle and wavelength. Therefore, the SPR phase interferometer offers the advantages of spatial phase resolution and high sensitivity. This work discusses the advancements in interferometric SPR methods to measure the phase shifts due to refractive index changes. The main application areas of SPR sensors are demonstrated, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with different configurations. The three interferometers are discussed in detail, and solutions are suggested to enhance the performance parameters that will aid in future biological and chemical sensors.

  2. Hypertext Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2016-01-01

    , links, interactive processes, and time scalings, and that the hypertext configuration is a major but not sole source of the messiness of big data. The notion of hypertext will be revalidated, placed at the center of the interpretation of networked digital media, and used in the analysis of the fast...

  3. Hypertext Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2016-01-01

    , links, interactive processes, and time scalings, and that the hypertext configuration is a major but not sole source of the messiness of big data. The notion of hypertext will be revalidated, placed at the center of the interpretation of networked digital media, and used in the analysis of the fast......The article presents a conceptual framework for distinguishing different sorts of heterogeneous digital materials. The hypothesis is that a wide range of heterogeneous data resources can be characterized and classified due to their particular configurations of hypertext features such as scripts......-growing amounts of heterogeneous digital collections, assemblages, and corpora. The introduction summarizes the wider background of a fast-changing data landscape....

  4. Liquid-helium-cooled Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augason, G. C.; Young, N.

    1972-01-01

    Interferometer serves as a rocket-flight spectrometer for examination of the far infrared emission spectra of astronomical objects. The double beam interferometer is readily adapted to make spectral scans and for use as a detector of discrete line emissions.

  5. Triple Michelson Interferometer for a Third-Generation Gravitational Wave Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Freise, A; Hild, S; Del Pozzo, W; Perreca, A; Vecchio, A

    2008-01-01

    The upcoming European design study `Einstein gravitational wave Telescope' represents the first step towards a substantial, international effort for the design of a third-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector. It is generally believed that third generation instruments cannot be installed into existing infrastructures but will require a new search for optimal detector sites. Consequently, the detector design will be subject to fewer constraints than the on-going design of the second generation instruments. In particular, it will be prudent to investigate alternatives to the traditional L-shaped Michelson interferometer. In this article, we review an old proposal to use three Michelson interferometers in a triangular configuration. We use this example of a triple Michelson interferometer to clarify the terminology and will put this idea into the context of more recent research on interferometer technologies. Furthermore the benefits of a triangular detector will be used to motivate this design ...

  6. Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Yang; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2015-02-01

    A novel fiber optic temperature sensor has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated with ~9 times sensitivity enhancement by using two cascaded Sagnac interferometers. These two Sagnac interferometers consist of the same type of polarization maintaining fibers with slightly different lengths. The working principle is analogous to a Vernier scale. One interferometer acts as filter, while the other is for temperature sensing. The envelope of the cascaded sensor shifts much more than single one with a certain enhancement factor, which related to the free space range difference between the filter and sensor interferometers. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced from -1.46 nm/°C based on single Sagnac configuration to -13.36 nm/°C.

  7. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  8. Line-imaging VISAR for laser-driven equations of state experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylyuk, A. V.; Koshkin, D. S.; Gubskii, K. L.; Kuznetsov, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the diagnostic system for velocity measurements in laser- driven equations of state experiments. Two Mach-Zehnder line-imaging VISAR-type (velocity interferometer system for any reflector) interferometers form a vernier measuring system and can measure velocity in the interval of 5 to 50 km/s. Also, the system includes a passive channel that records target luminescence in the shock wave front. Spatial resolution of the optical layout is about 5 μm.

  9. Active multi-mode-interferometer broadband superluminescent diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifei, Wang; Peng, Jin; Ju, Wu; Yanhua, Wu; Fajie, Hu; Zhanguo, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We report a new quantum dot superluminescent diode with a new device structure. In this device, a multi-mode-interferometer configuration and a J-bend structure were monolithically integrated. Owing to the multi-mode-interferometer structure, the superluminescent diode exhibits 60% increase in output power and 43% reduction in the differential resistance compared with the uniform waveguide width superluminescent diode fabricated from the same wafer. Our device produces an emission spectrum as wide as 103.7 nm with an output power of 2.5 mW at 600 mA continue-wave injection current. This broadband emission spectrum makes the axial resolution of the optical coherence tomography system employing the superluminescent diode to 6 μm in theory, which is high enough for most tissue imaging. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274072) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014201).

  10. Optical displacement measurement using a monolithic Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1997-04-01

    Contactless optical displacement measurement has the potential for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. For highly accurate displacement measurements at distances below 1 m, interferometric methods are preferred over most other methods. This is mainly because of the good resolution and the possibility of doing the measurements in real-time. Furthermore, the use of direct bandgap semiconductor materials also enables the fabrication of a compact interferometer-based device which unites all necessary components, including the light emitter, on a single chip. In this paper, a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensor fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system is reported. This single chip microsystem is configured as a double Michelson interferometer and comprises a distributed Bragg reflector laser, photodetectors, phase shifters and waveguide couplers. In the course of this paper, we will also briefly discuss possible scientific and industrial applications of such devices.

  11. Multi-object fixed delay Michelson interferometer for astronomical observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yi; Wang, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Optical interferometry isn't only widely applied into optical workshop, but also makes great contribution in astronomical observation. A multi-object fixed delay Michelson interferometer commissioned to search extra-solar planet (exoplanet) is introduced here. Fixed delay of 1.9mm, which is good for stellar radial velocity measuring precision, is obtained by two interference arms with different materials. This configuration has different refractive indexes and physical characteristics so that supplies wider field of view and better thermal stability. In addition, compact interference component with three glued prisms and smart structure are the other important features. Because of vibration influence, the combination among the prisms is a direct and effective method. And the reason why make the structure as small as possible is of central obscuration under the workspace of interferometer.

  12. Orbit analysis of a geostationary gravitational wave interferometer detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Tinto, Massimo; Kuga, Helio K; Alves, Marcio E S; Aguiar, Odylio D

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the trajectories of three geostationary satellites forming the GEOstationary GRAvitational Wave Interferometer (GEOGRAWI)~\\cite{tinto}, a space-based laser interferometer mission aiming to detect and study gravitational radiation in the ($10^{-4} - 10$) Hz band. The combined effects of the gravity fields of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon make the three satellites deviate from their nominally stationary, equatorial and equilateral configuration. Since changes in the satellites relative distances and orientations could negatively affect the precision of the laser heterodyne measurements, we have derived the time-dependence of the inter-satellite distances and velocities, the variations of the polar angles made by the constellation's three arms with respect to a chosen reference frame, and the time changes of the triangle's enclosed angles. We find that, during the time between two consecutive station-keeping maneuvers (about two weeks), the relative variations of the inter-satellite distances do not...

  13. Single-side-band optical modulation in SCM systems for high-speed optical transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠义; 廖同庆

    2009-01-01

    In order to decrease dispersion penalty and increase the optical bandwidth efficiency,an optical single-side-band modulation(SSBM) scheme in sub-carrier multiplexing(SCM) is proposed.The principle of the SSBM is analytically presented,and a configuration for generating optical SSB signal is proposed using a balanced Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator.

  14. The Inability of the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer to Spectrally Resolve Spacetime Distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that the spacetime distortions resulting from the experimentally obtainable electric field of a parallel plate capacitor configuration cannot be detected by the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer [1]. Any post-processing results indicating a vanishing, non-zero difference between the charged and uncharged states of the capacitor are due to local effects rather than spacetime perturbations.

  15. High-order inertial phase shifts for time-domain atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Bongs, K; Kasevich, M A; Bongs, Kai; Launay, Romain; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    High-order inertial phase shifts are calculated for time-domain atom interferometers. We obtain closed-form analytic expressions for these shifts in accelerometer, gyroscope, optical clock and photon recoil measurement configurations. Our analysis includes Coriolis, centrifugal, gravitational, and gravity gradient-induced forces. We identify new shifts which arise at levels relevant to current and planned experiments.

  16. Measurement of the frequency response of a bench-top quantum speed meter interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Glenn de; Gray, Malcolm; McClelland, David E.; Chen Yanbei; Whitcomb, Stan

    2003-09-15

    A simplified 'quantum speed meter' interferometer configuration, a candidate for future gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, was constructed and locked using a radio frequency (RF) locking scheme for length control. Employing a signal-laser-injection technique, we obtain the experimental frequency response, which shows good agreement with theoretical modeling.

  17. SIM Configuration Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  18. Atomic pair-state interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nipper, J.; Balewski, Jonathan B.; Krupp, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    to measure the phase shift. Although the coupling between pair states is coherent on the time scale of the experiment, a loss of visibility occurs as a pair-state interferometer involves three simultaneously interfering paths and only one of them is phase shifted by the mutual interaction. Despite additional...... dephasing mechanisms, a pulsed Förster coupling sequence allows for observation of coherent dynamics around the Förster resonance....

  19. Stellar Interferometer Technology Experiment (SITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David; Laskin, Robert; Shao, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory stand ready to advance science sensor technology for discrete-aperture astronomical instruments such as space-based optical interferometers. The objective of the Stellar Interferometer Technology Experiment (SITE) is to demonstrate system-level functionality of a space-based stellar interferometer through the use of enabling and enhancing Controlled-Structures Technologies (CST). SITE mounts to the Mission Peculiar Experiment Support System inside the Shuttle payload bay. Starlight, entering through two apertures, is steered to a combining plate where it is interferred. Interference requires 27 nanometer pathlength (phasing) and 0.29 archsecond wavefront-tilt (pointing) control. The resulting 15 milli-archsecond angular resolution exceeds that of current earth-orbiting telescopes while maintaining low cost by exploiting active optics and structural control technologies. With these technologies, unforeseen and time-varying disturbances can be rejected while relaxing reliance on ground alignment and calibration. SITE will reduce the risk and cost of advanced optical space systems by validating critical technologies in their operational environment. Moreover, these technologies are directly applicable to commercially driven applications such as precision matching, optical scanning, and vibration and noise control systems for the aerospace, medical, and automotive sectors. The SITE team consists of experienced university, government, and industry researchers, scientists, and engineers with extensive expertise in optical interferometry, nano-precision opto-mechanical control and spaceflight experimentation. The experience exists and the technology is mature. SITE will validate these technologies on a functioning interferometer science sensor in order to confirm definitely their readiness to be baselined for future science missions.

  20. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  1. Michelson Interferometer characterisation of noise reduction in DFB fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagasabey, Albert; Jones, David; Mann, David; Canning, John; Fleming, Simon; Holdsworth, John

    2012-02-01

    A comparison is made between unpackaged and packaged distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers using the Michelson interferometer configuration for delayed self-heterodyne interferometery (MIDSHI) to ascertain the improvements to the external environmental noise, quantified by reductions in the Gaussian linewidth. Voigt fitting is used to extract and separate out the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidth contributions and therefore the associated sources of noise. Significant improvements in the Gaussian linewidth were achieved as a result of significant reductions in the sensitivity of the DFB laser to external perturbations using packaging. However, a broadening of the laser Lorentzian linewidth was observed.

  2. Cost estimate for the Kilometric Optical Interferometer (KOI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Parameswariah, Chethan; Rajagopal, Jayadev

    2008-07-01

    We present a parametric cost estimate for the Kilometric Optical Interferometer (KOI) in a classical array configuration: 24 telescopes, 4-meter primary mirror, up to 1 km baseline. The parametric cost estimate is based on available cost information from the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) Interferometer at New Mexico Tech. A Kilometric Optical Interferometer based on a classical array concept has an estimated construction cost between 1B and 3B if it would be built today (2008 dollars and technology). The implication of the estimated construction cost is that cost reductions are critical in the planning phase to bring the cost within a reasonable envelope. Hence we propose to set a budget ceiling that seems feasible given the support to be expected from the scientific community and funding agencies. Given a budget ceiling, a design-to-cost process should be followed. We propose to set a construction phase budget cap of $800M (2008 dollars) for KOI as an initial goal. Narrowing down of the science goals in combination with technology development to reduce cost and technological complexity are the main areas of activities for the next decade. We propose to establish a virtual project office to coordinate these activities.

  3. Progress on multi-object exoplanet search spectral interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Yue, Zhongyu; Chen, Yi; Tang, Jin; Hu, Zhongwen

    2012-09-01

    It's a very important point that fully open up power of Gou Shoujing telescope (LAMOST) in exoplanet detection field by developing a multi-exoplanet survey system. But it's an indisputable truth in the present astronomy that a traditional type of multi-object high resolution spectrograph is almost impossible to be developed. External Dispersed Interferometry is an effective way to improve the radial velocity measuring accuracy of medium resolution spectrograph. With the using of this technique, Multi-object Exoplanet Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is an exploratory system with medium measuring accuracy based on LAMOST low resolution spectrograph works in medium-resolution mode (R=5,000 - 10,000). And it's believed that will bring some feasible way in the future development of multi-object medium/high resolution spectrograph. After prototype experiment in 2010, a complete configuration is under the development, including a multi-object fixed-delay Michelson interferometer, an iodine cell with multi-fiber optical coupling system and a multi-terminal switching system in an efficient fiber physical coupling way. By some effective improvement, the interferometer has smaller cross section and more stable interference component. Moreover, based on physical and optical fiber coupling technique, it's possible for the iodine cell and the switching system to simultaneously and identically coupling 25 pairs of fibers. In paper, all of the progress is given in detail.

  4. ON THE DETECTION OF GLOBAL 21-cm SIGNAL FROM REIONIZATION USING INTERFEROMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Saurabh; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N. Udaya; Raghunathan, A., E-mail: saurabhs@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2015-12-20

    Detection of the global redshifted 21-cm signal is an excellent means of deciphering the physical processes during the Dark Ages and subsequent Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, detection of this faint monopole is challenging due to the high precision required in instrumental calibration and modeling of substantially brighter foregrounds and instrumental systematics. In particular, modeling of receiver noise with mK accuracy and its separation remains a formidable task in experiments aiming to detect the global signal using single-element spectral radiometers. Interferometers do not respond to receiver noise; therefore, here we explore the theory of the response of interferometers to global signals. In other words, we discuss the spatial coherence in the electric field arising from the monopole component of the 21-cm signal and methods for its detection using sensor arrays. We proceed by first deriving the response to uniform sky of two-element interferometers made of unit dipole and resonant loop antennas, then extend the analysis to interferometers made of one-dimensional arrays and also consider two-dimensional aperture antennas. Finally, we describe methods by which the coherence might be enhanced so that the interferometer measurements yield improved sensitivity to the monopole component. We conclude (a) that it is indeed possible to measure the global 21-cm from EoR using interferometers, (b) that a practically useful configuration is with omnidirectional antennas as interferometer elements, and (c) that the spatial coherence may be enhanced using, for example, a space beam splitter between the interferometer elements.

  5. Cryogenic Michelson Interferometer on the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Wellard, Stan; Blakeley, Jeff; Brown, Steven; Bartschi, Brent

    1993-01-01

    A helium-cooled interferometer was flown aboard shuttle ifight STS-39. This interferometer, along with its sister radiometer, set new benchmarks for the quantity and quality of data collected. The interferometer generated approximately 150,000 interferograms during the course of the ifight. Data was collected at tangent heights from the earth's surface to celestial targets. The interferograms encoded spectral data from aurora, earth limb, and earth terminator scenes. The interfemmeter collect...

  6. The WIND-HAARP-HIPAS Interferometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6750--99-8349 The WIND- HAARP -HIPAS Interferometer Experiment P. RODRIGUEZ AND M. J...1999 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Interim Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The WIND- HAARP -HIPAS Interferometer Experiment 5. FUNDING NUMBERS JO...frequency transmitting facilities in a bistatic, interferometer mode. The HAARP and HIPAS facilities in Alaska radiated at 4525 kHz with total combined

  7. Sangac interferometer on the holographic bragg grating

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The ring interferometer with zero optical path difference known as Sagnac one is offered with a diffraction splitting of the entering light beam. As the beamsplitter, a transmission holographic Bragg grating is used. Conditions of normal operation of this interferometer achieve under the equal intensity of beam copies and the adjustable phase shift between them in its two interferometer shoulders. These conditions are met with the holographic grating, which provides the phase shift 180^0 on the central Bragg wavelength. Experimental approbation of the modified interferometer validates the expected results.

  8. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  9. Novel method of detecting movement of the interference fringes using one-dimensional PSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xia, Ji; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Yong

    2015-06-02

    In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD) by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD) to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe's phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  10. Measuring of the maximum measurable velocity for dual-frequency laser interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping Zhang; Zhaogu Cheng; Zhaoyu Qin; Jianqiang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand on the measurable velocity of laser interferometer in manufacturing technologies. The maximum measurable velocity is limited by frequency difference of laser source, optical configuration, and electronics bandwidth. An experimental setup based on free falling movement has been demonstrated to measure the maximum easurable velocity for interferometers. Measurement results show that the maximum measurable velocity is less than its theoretical value. Moreover, the effect of kinds of factors upon the measurement results is analyzed, and the results can offer a reference for industrial applications.

  11. Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, M. J.; Kersey, A. D.; Villarruel, C. A.; Kirkendall, C. K.; Dandridge, A.

    1992-09-01

    Attention is given to a technique for the elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced phase noise in remotely addressed Michelson interferometer systems. The technique, which allows high sensitivity measurements over long input/output fiber leads, is based on the use of commercial polarization insensitive isolators and is completely passive in its operation. Faraday-rotator and mirror devices for the reflectors in the Michelson interferometer are used to demonstrate a practical fiber sensor configuration for remote applications that is both free of polarization-induced signal fading and insensitive to Rayleigh backscattering effects.

  12. Time-division phase modulated single-photon interference in a Sagnac interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guang; ZHOU Chunyuan; ZENG Heping

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a stable, long-distance single- photon Sagnac interferometer, which has a balanced configuration to efficiently compensate phase drift caused by change of the fiber-optic path. By using time-division phase modulation, single-photon interference was realized at 1550 nm in a 5-km-long as well as 27-km-long Sagnac fiber loops, with a fringe visibility higher than 90% and long-term stability. The stable performance of the single-photon interference indicated that the time-division phase-modulated Sag- nac interferometer might readily lead to practical applications in single-photon routing and quantum cryptography.

  13. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  14. Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  15. QUBIC: A Fizeau Interferometer Targeting Primordial B-Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, A.; Aumont, J.; Banfi, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battistelli, E. S.; Baù, A.; Bélier, B.; Bennett, D.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J. Ph.; Bersanelli, M.; Bigot-Sazy, M. A.; Bleurvacq, N.; Bordier, G.; Brossard, J.; Bunn, E. F.; Buzi, D.; Cammilleri, D.; Cavaliere, F.; Chanial, P.; Chapron, C.; Coppolecchia, A.; D'Alessandro, G.; De Bernardis, P.; Decourcelle, T.; Del Torto, F.; De Petris, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Franceschet, C.; Gault, A.; Gayer, D.; Gervasi, M.; Ghribi, A.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gradziel, M.; Grandsire, L.; Hamilton, J. Ch.; Haynes, V.; Holtzer, N.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lande, J.; Lowitz, A.; Maffei, B.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; McCulloch, M.; Melhuish, S.; Mennella, A.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Néel, D.; Ng, M. W.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Perbost, C.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Prêle, D.; Rambaud, D.; Rigaut, O.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Scully, S.; Stolpovskiy, M. M.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Viganò, D.; Voisin, F.; Watson, B.; Zannoni, M.

    2016-08-01

    Q and U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) is a Fizeau interferometer sensitive to linear polarisation, to be deployed at the Antarctic station of Dome C. This experiment in its final configuration will be operated at 97, 150 and 220 GHz and is intended to target CMB primordial B-modes in a multipole window 20<ℓ <150. A sensitivity of r = 0.05 (95 % CL) can be reached by the first module alone, after 2 years of operation. Here we review in particular its working principles, and we show how the QUBIC interferometric configuration can be considered equivalent to a pupil-plane filtered imaging system. In this context, we show how our instrument can be self-calibrated. Finally, we conclude by showing an overview of the first dual-band module (150/220 GHz), which will serve also as a demonstrator for the subsequent units, and review the technological choices we made for each subsystem, with particular emphasis on the detection system.

  16. Characterization and Performance Comparison of Low-Voltage, High-Speed, Push-Pull and Traveling-Wave Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    combination of the PNA internally changing to a mixer with more noise, and the low level of input optical power to the LCA ...loop and not closed-loop motors , so a recursive search algorithm was developed to ensure that the power optimization algorithm accurately and...location where the highest power reading was found. Because of the fact that the motor is open-loop, the position to which the algorithm returns is not

  17. A xylophone configuration for a third-generation gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, S [Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Chelkowski, S; Freise, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Franc, J; Morgado, N; Flaminio, R [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances (LMA), 22 Boulevard Niels Bohr, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France); DeSalvo, R, E-mail: stefan.hild@ligo.or [California Institute of Technology, LIGO Project, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-01-07

    Achieving the demanding sensitivity and bandwidth, envisaged for third-generation gravitational wave (GW) observatories, is extremely challenging with a single broadband interferometer. Very high optical powers (megawatts) are required to reduce the quantum noise contribution at high frequencies, while the interferometer mirrors have to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures in order to reduce thermal noise sources at low frequencies. To resolve this potential conflict of cryogenic test masses with high thermal load, we present a conceptual design for a 2-band xylophone configuration for a third-generation GW observatory, composed of a high-power, high-frequency interferometer and a cryogenic low-power, low-frequency instrument. Featuring inspiral ranges of 3200 Mpc and 38 000 Mpc for binary neutron stars and binary black holes coalesences, respectively, we find that the potential sensitivity of xylophone configurations can be significantly wider and better than what is possible in a single broadband interferometer.

  18. Mid-infrared photonics devices in SOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Milošević, M. M.; Hu, Y.; Ben Masaud, T. M.; Jaberansary, E.; Chen, X.; Strain, M.; Sorel, M.; Peacock, A. C.; Chong, H. M. H.; Reed, G. T.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present silicon photonics devices designed for the 3-4μm wavelength region including waveguides, MMIs, ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The devices are based on silicon on insulator (SOI) platform. We show that 400-500 nm high silicon waveguides can have propagation losses as low as ~ 4 dB/cm at 3.8μm. We also demonstrate MMIs with insertion loss of 0.25 dB, high extinction ratio asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and SOI ring resonators. This combined with our previous results reported at 3.4μm confirm that SOI is a viable platform for the 3-4 μm region and that low loss mid-infrared passive devices can be realized on it.

  19. Parallel phase modulation scheme for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, M T; Quetschke, V; Tanner, D B; Reitze, D H; Mueller, G

    2014-11-17

    Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) requires multiple frequency sidebands to disentangle all of the main interferometer's length signals. This paper presents the results of a risk reduction experiment to produce two sets of frequency sidebands in parallel, avoiding mixed 'sidebands on sidebands'. Two phase modulation frequencies are applied to separate Electro-Optic Modulators (EOMs), with one EOM in each of the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this system the Mach-Zehnder's arm lengths are stabilized to reduce relative intensity noise in the recombined carrier beam by feeding a corrective control signal back to the Rubidium Titanyl Phosphate (RTP) EOM crystals to drive the optical path length difference to zero. This setup's use of the RTP crystals as length actuators provides enough bandwidth in the feedback to meet arm length stability requirements for aLIGO.

  20. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-01

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  1. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  2. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  3. Multimode interferometer for guided matter waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erika; Calarco, Tommaso; Folman, Ron; Andersson, Mauritz; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2002-03-11

    Atoms can be trapped and guided with electromagnetic fields, using nanofabricated structures. We describe the fundamental features of an interferometer for guided matter waves, built of two combined Y-shaped beam splitters. We find that such a device is expected to exhibit high contrast fringes even in a multimode regime, analogous to a white light interferometer.

  4. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  5. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  6. Design of a speed meter interferometer proof-of-principle experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gräf, C; Bell, A S; Campbell, F; Cumming, A V; Danilishin, S L; Gordon, N A; Hammond, G D; Hennig, J; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Jones, R A; Leavey, S S; Lück, H; Macarthur, J; Marwick, M; Rigby, S; Schilling, R; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Steinlechner, S; Strain, K A; Hild, S

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of large scale interferometric gravitational wave detectors will be limited by quantum noise over a wide frequency range in their detection band. Further sensitivity improvements for future upgrades or new detectors beyond the second generation motivate the development of measurement schemes to mitigate the impact of quantum noise in these instruments. Two strands of development are being pursued to reach this goal, focusing both on modifications of the well-established Michelson detector configuration and development of different detector topologies. In this paper, we present the design of the world's first Sagnac speed meter interferometer which is currently being constructed at the University of Glasgow. With this proof-of-principle experiment we aim to demonstrate the theoretically predicted lower quantum noise in a Sagnac interferometer compared to an equivalent Michelson interferometer, to qualify Sagnac speed meters for further research towards an implementation in a future genera...

  7. Preliminary measurement performance evaluation of a new white light interferometer for cylindrical surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, Armando Jr; Pont, Alex Dal [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Metrology and Automation Laboratory, Cx Postal 5053, CEP 88 040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design of a white light interferometer, suitable for measurement of cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical parts. A high precision 45 deg. conical mirror is used to direct collimated light radially, making it possible to measure in true cylindrical coordinates. The image of the measurand, distorted by the conical mirror, is projected in a high resolution digital camera. A mapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the cylindrical geometry from the distorted image. The rest of the interferometer is quite similar to a conventional white light interferometer: A flat reference mirror is scanned through the measurement range while an algorithm is searching for the maximum contrast position of the interference pattern. The performance evaluation of a configuration suitable for measurement of external cylindrical surfaces is also presented in this paper. A master cylinder was used as reference. Uncertainties of about 1.0 {mu}m were found at the present stage of development.

  8. Simulating a dual-recycled gravitational wave interferometer with realistically imperfect optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bochner, B

    2003-01-01

    We simulate the performance of a gravitational wave interferometer in the Dual Recycling (DR) configuration, as will be used for systems like Advanced-LIGO. Our grid-based simulation program models complex interferometric detectors with realistic optical deformations (e.g., fine-scale mirror surface roughness). Broadband and Tuned DR are modeled here; the results are also applied qualitatively to Resonant Sideband Extraction (RSE). Several beneficial properties anticipated for DR detectors are investigated: signal response tuning and narrowbanding, power loss reduction, and the reclamation of lost power as useful light for signal detection. It is shown that these benefits would be limited by large scattering losses in large (multi-kilometer) systems. Furthermore, losses may be resonantly enhanced (particularly for RSE), if the interferometer's modal resonance conditions are not well chosen. We therefore make two principal recommendations for DR/RSE interferometers: the DR/RSE cavity must be modally nondegener...

  9. Interferometer Techniques for Gravitational-Wave Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Freise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world wide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques, however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.

  10. Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charlotte; Brown, Daniel; Freise, Andreas; Strain, Kenneth A.

    2016-12-01

    Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed worldwide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques; however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review, we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.

  11. Magneto-optical switch with amorphous silicon waveguides on magneto-optical garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Eiichi; Miura, Kengo; Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a magneto-optical (MO) switch with a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide on an MO garnet. The switch is composed of a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The switch state is controlled by an MO phase shift through a magnetic field generated by a current flowing in an electrode located on the MZI. The switching operation was successfully demonstrated with an extinction ratio of 11.7 dB at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  12. Characterization of optical quantum circuits using resonant phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Poot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that important information about linear optical circuits can be obtained through the phase shift induced by integrated optical resonators. As a proof of principle, the phase of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is determined. Then the method is applied to a complex optical circuit designed for linear optical quantum computation. In this controlled-NOT gate with qubit initialization and tomography stages, the relative phases are determined as well as the coupling ratios of its directional couplers.

  13. Development of a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua Rosenberg; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2010-03-01

    The purpose this paper is the development a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector, using a fiber- optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and polymeric magnetostrictive material. Metal detection is based on the straininduced optical path length change steming from the ferromagnetic material introduced in the magnetic field. Varied optical phase shifts resulted largely from different metal objects. In this paper, the preliminary results on the different metal material detection will be discussed.

  14. Fiberoptic metal detector capable of profile detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua R.; Erwin, Nicholas A.; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system by using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing device. This ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is made possible by disrupting the magnetic flux density pres...

  15. Development of a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua Rosenberg; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2010-01-01

    The purpose this paper is the development a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector, using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and polymeric magnetostrictive material. Metal detection is based on the strain-induced optical path length change steming from the ferromagnetic material introduced in the magnetic field. Varied optical phase shifts resulted largely from different metal objects. In this paper, the preliminary results on the different metal material detection will be discussed.

  16. Development of a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua Rosenberg; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2010-01-01

    The purpose this paper is the development a novel polymeric fiber-optic magnetostrictive metal detector, using a fiber–optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and polymeric magnetostrictive material. Metal detection is based on the strain-induced optical path length change steming from the ferromagnetic material introduced in the magnetic field. Varied optical phase shifts resulted largely from different metal objects. In this paper, the preliminary results on the different metal material detection...

  17. CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Biswajeet; Kyotoku, Bernardo B C; Lipson, Michal

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new class of resonant silicon optical devices, consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is passively temperature compensated by tailoring the optical mode confinement in the waveguides. We demonstrate operation of the device over a wide temperature range of 80 degrees. The fundamental principle behind this work can be extended to other photonic devices based on resonators such as modulators, routers, switches and filters.

  18. Bell-inequality violations with single photons entangled in momentum and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadway, B R; Galvez, E J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); De Zela, F [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)], E-mail: egalvez@mail.colgate.edu

    2009-01-14

    We present a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and the Clauser-Horne inequalities using heralded single photons entangled in momentum and polarization modes. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer and polarization optics are used to rotate the spatial and polarization bases, respectively. With this setup we were able to test quantum mechanics with the original formulation of the Clauser-Horne inequality. The results rule out a wide class of realistic non-contextual hidden-variable theories.

  19. Overview of the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    continuous wave (CW) laser (at ~1550 nm) is modulated with a Mach-Zehnder modulator, and amplified with a two stage Erbium-doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA ...interferometer, the clock rate remains fixed. The DPSK transmitter utilizes a MOPA architecture similar to the PPM transmitter[5]. The EDFA ...transmitter sends pulses only a fraction of the time, sending no optical power the remainder of the time. Since the EDFA is average power limited, the peak

  20. Optical Measurement Techniques for Optical Fiber and Waveguide Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.; Kim; Y.; Park; N.H.; Seong; Y.C.Youk; J.Y.; Lee; S.; Moon; I.H.; Shin; H.S.; Ryu

    2003-01-01

    We describe three major optical characterization methods for fiber and fiber devices. A simple servo controlled scanning fiber-optic confocal microscope is proposed for determining the refractive index profile of an optical fiber. To measure the chromatic dispersion of a short length fiber a Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer with a novel interferometric distance meter is introduced. At the end, a tomographic method is demonstrated for determining the 2-D stress profile of a fiber.

  1. Performance evaluation of photonic Sigma Delta ADCS

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yean Wee

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The integration of photonic and electronic components to realize a photonic sigma delta ADC is considered in this thesis. The integration process was broken up into steps. First, the performance of a pair of dual-port Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) modulating a train of narrow high-speed laser pulses from a mode-locked laser was investigated. Various parameters like the half-wave voltage (V) and insertion loss were verified. Nex...

  2. Phase-Locking and Coherent Power Combining of Broadband Linearly Chirped Optical Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    high-power fiber amplifiers, and also has potential applications in electronic beam steering for LIDAR and 3-D imaging systems. The output power of...O pt ic a l f re qu en cy ω L Time τ ω 0 + ξ t Delay τ Coupler Frequency shifter Swept- frequency laser (SFL) Photodetector (PD) ξτ Fig. 1...a negative feedback loop. SCL: Semiconductor laser, MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer, PD: Photodetector . (b) and (c) Measured slope of the optical

  3. Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T

    2001-09-15

    We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.

  4. Recent progress on arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers based on silica planar lightwave circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh, Tsutomu

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports recent advances on arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers based on silica-based planar lightwave circuits (PLC). After briefly summarizing the fabrication and properties of PLCs, this work describes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-synchronized AWG with reagrd to reduced loss, and athermalization. The paper then reports our recent demonstration of the integration of a PLC-based wavelength selective switch (WSS) and an integrated single-chip VMUX/DEMUX.

  5. Mesospheric imaging Michelson interferometer instrument development and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, David D.

    This dissertation demonstrated the capability of the Mesospheric Imaging Michelson Interferometer (MIMI) instrument to passively measure wind velocities from Doppler-shifted atmospheric airglow emissions. The work consisted of two parts, (i) laboratory work focused on the measurement of simulated atmospheric winds with both Doppler-shifted visible and near-IR wavelengths and (ii) the development of a field instrument based on a lab prototype to investigate the potential of measuring Mesospheric winds from the ground. The primary component of the MIMI instrument was a custom built Michelson interferometer which was field widened, chromatically compensated, thermally compensated, and monolithic with no moving parts. The Michelson interferometer, used together with a novel four-point wind retrieval algorithm, provides simultaneous emission rate and wind velocity data over a single integration time. Simultaneously measuring the emission rate over the FOV and measuring wind velocity relative to the observer, of an air parcel containing an emitting chemical species, is a unique feature of the MIMI instrument. Eliminating sequential scanning of the Michelson to measure wind velocities (or being able to take a 'snapshot' of the atmosphere) and provide data on the emission rates and wind velocities, renders the instrument insensitive to scene changes over the integration time, which is an advantage over traditional scanning Michelson interferometers. Spectral lines from visible and near-IR sources were Doppler shifted in a controllable procedure to provide known velocities which were compared to the velocities measured by the interferometer. Wind simulations completed in the visible wavelength region retrieved velocities to within a standard deviation of +/-1ms-1. Wind simulations in the near-IR retrieved wind velocities to within a standard deviation of +/-2ms -1. These standard deviations are acceptable when compared to typical Mesospheric winds of 10 to 100ms-1 and when

  6. Compensation of non-ideal beam splitter polarization distortion effect in Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yeng-Cheng; Lo, Yu-Lung; Liao, Chia-Chi

    2016-02-01

    A composite optical structure consisting of two quarter-wave plates and a single half-wave plate is proposed for compensating for the polarization distortion induced by a non-ideal beam splitter in a Michelson interferometer. In the proposed approach, the optimal orientations of the optical components within the polarization compensator are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) such that the beam splitter can be treated as a free-space medium and modeled using a unit Mueller matrix accordingly. Two implementations of the proposed polarization controller are presented. In the first case, the compensator is placed in the output arm of Michelson interferometer such that the state of polarization of the interfered output light is equal to that of the input light. However, in this configuration, the polarization effects induced by the beam splitter in the two arms of the interferometer structure cannot be separately addressed. Consequently, in the second case, compensator structures are placed in the Michelson interferometer for compensation on both the scanning and reference beams. The practical feasibility of the proposed approach is introduced by considering a Mueller polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) structure with three polarization controllers in the input, reference and sample arms, respectively. In general, the results presented in this study show that the proposed polarization controller provides an effective and experimentally-straightforward means of compensating for the polarization distortion effects induced by the non-ideal beam splitters in Michelson interferometers and Mueller PS-OCT structures.

  7. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  8. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase conjugator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, A Yu

    2014-04-10

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to the most suitable configuration for a coherent coupling of thousands of fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that a Michelson phase-conjugating configuration with double passage through an array of fiber amplifiers has the definite advantage compared to a one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless of the amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers, the Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on an entrance/output beam splitter. In both configurations, the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope, due to gain saturation, is capable of randomizing the position of chirp inside an envelope; thus it may reduce the visibility of the interference pattern at an output beam splitter. Certain advantages are inherent to the sech-form temporal envelope because of the exponential precursor and self-similar propagation in gain medium. The Gaussian envelope is significantly compressed in a deep gain saturation regime, and the frequency chirp position inside pulse envelope is more deformed.

  9. Study on talbot pattern for grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Oh, Oh Sung; Lee, Seung Wook [Dept. of School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Yul [Neutron Instrument Division, Korea Atomic Energy Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    One of properties which X-ray and Neutron can be applied nondestructive test is penetration into the object with interaction leads to decrease in intensity. X-ray interaction with the matter caused by electrons, Neutron caused by atoms. They share applications in nondestructive test area because of their similarities of interaction mechanism. Grating interferometer is the one of applications produces phase contrast image and dark field image. It is defined by Talbot interferometer and Talbot-Lau interferometer according to Talbot effect and Talbot-Lau effect respectively. Talbot interferometer works with coherence beam like X-ray, and Talbot-Lau has an effect with incoherence beam like Neutron. It is important to expect the interference in grating interferometer compared normal nondestructive system. In this paper, simulation works are conducted according to Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer in case of X-ray and Neutron. Variation of interference intensity with X-ray and Neutron based on wave theory is constructed and calculate elements consist the system. Additionally, Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer is simulated in different kinds of conditions.

  10. Interferometer predictions with triangulated images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Dullemond, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Interferometers play an increasingly important role for spatially resolved observations. If employed at full potential, interferometry can probe an enormous dynamic range in spatial scale. Interpretation of the observed visibilities requires the numerical computation of Fourier integrals over...... the synthetic model images. To get the correct values of these integrals, the model images must have the right size and resolution. Insufficient care in these choices can lead to wrong results. We present a new general-purpose scheme for the computation of visibilities of radiative transfer images. Our method...... requires a model image that is a list of intensities at arbitrarily placed positions on the image-plane. It creates a triangulated grid from these vertices, and assumes that the intensity inside each triangle of the grid is a linear function. The Fourier integral over each triangle is then evaluated...

  11. Handheld ESPI-speckle interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Hansen, René

    2003-01-01

    reference. The reference wave is established by reflecting a part of the diffuse object illumination from a glass plate located just in front of the object. The glass plate is mounted on a piezoelectric translator in order to control the phase of the reference wave when using phase stepping algorithms....... The coherent light source is a laser diode. A web camera with a Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface is employed as the image-capturing device. Likewise, is the piezoelectric translator controlled through the USB interface. The necessary size of the optical set-up depends on the size of the object....... The interferometer presented here is a compact version of the set-up, Which is capable of measuring displacements of small objects, having either a specularly reflecting-or a diffusely scattering surface. The small optical set-up together with the use of the popular USB-communication for acquiring the images...

  12. Thermal Conductance of Andreev Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Chandrasekhar, V.

    2005-04-01

    We calculate the thermal conductance GT of diffusive Andreev interferometers, which are hybrid loops with one superconducting arm and one normal-metal arm. The presence of the superconductor suppresses GT; however, unlike a conventional superconductor, GT/GTN does not vanish as the temperature T→0, but saturates at a finite value that depends on the resistance of the normal-superconducting interfaces, and their distance from the path of the temperature gradient. The reduction of GT is determined primarily by the suppression of the density of states in the proximity-coupled normal metal along the path of the temperature gradient. GT is also a strongly nonlinear function of the thermal current, as found in recent experiments.

  13. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  14. Comparative Sensitivities of Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Thorpe, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. Whether this potential advantage outweighs the additional complexity associated with including atom interferometers will require further study.

  15. Performance evaluation of a radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer using a diffractive optical element for residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, A., Jr.; Viotti, M. R.; Kapp, W. A.

    2010-08-01

    A digital speckle pattern (DSP) interferometer using a special diffractive optical element (DOE) was developed by the authors. A collimated laser beam is diffracted by the DOE in such a way that the first diffraction orders produce a circular double illuminated measurement area. Due to natural symmetry of the illumination scheme, the interferometer reaches pure radial in-plane sensitivity. It is demonstrated and verified that the resulting interferometer is not sensitive to laser wavelength variations at all. Its configuration is presented as well as its performance evaluation for residual stress measurements using the blind hole-drilling method.

  16. Double-grating interferometer with a one-to-one correspondence with a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yande; Sasaki, Osami; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2003-10-01

    We describe a double-grating interferometer that has a one-to-one correspondence with a Michelson interferometer. The half spatial periods of the gratings are equivalent to the wavelengths of the interferometer. The widths of the interference fringes can be changed easily. The intensity distribution of the interference pattern is independent of the wavelength of the light source used. The surface profile of an object can be measured because two interference beams can coincide precisely on the image plane of the object. The measuring range is much larger than that of a Michelson interferometer.

  17. Combination of optical and electronic logic gates for error correction in multipath differential demodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lize, Yannick K; Christen, Louis; Nazarathy, Moshe; Nuccio, Scott; Wu, Xiaoxia; Willner, Alan E; Kashyap, Raman

    2007-05-28

    We present an optical multipath error correction technique for differentially encoded modulation formats such as differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) and differential polarization shift keying (DPolSK) for fiber-based and free-space communication. This multipath error correction method combines optical and electronic logic gates. The scheme can easily be implemented using commercially available interferometers and high speed logic gates and does not require any data overhead therefore does not affect the effective bandwidth of the transmitted data. It is not merely compatible but also complementary to error correction codes commonly used in optical transmission systems such as forward-error-correction (FEC). The technique consists of separating the demodulation at the receiver in multiple paths. Each path consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a different integer bit delay used in each path. Some basic logic operations follow and the three paths are compared using a simple majority vote algorithm. Experimental results show that the scheme improves receiver sensitivity by 1.5 dB at BER of 10(-3),in back-to-back configuration. Numerical results indicate a 1.6 dB improvement in the presence of Chromatic Dispersion for a 25% increase in tolerance for a 3dB penalty from +/-1220 ps/nm to +/-1520 ps/nm. and a 0.35 dB improvement for back-to-back operation.

  18. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  19. An Optimal Design for Universal Multiport Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, William R; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    Universal multiport interferometers, which can be programmed to implement any linear transformation between multiple channels, are emerging as a powerful tool for both classical and quantum photonics. These interferometers are typically composed of a regular mesh of beam splitters and phase shifters, allowing for straightforward fabrication using integrated photonic architectures and ready scalability. The current, standard design for universal multiport interferometers is based on work by Reck et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 58, 1994). We demonstrate a new design for universal multiport interferometers based on an alternative arrangement of beam splitters and phase shifters, which outperforms that by Reck et al. Our design occupies half the physical footprint of the Reck design and is significantly more robust to optical losses.

  20. Improved double-pass michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interferometer design separates beams by offsetting centerlines of cat's-eye retroreflectors vertically rather than horizontally. Since beam splitter is insensitive to minimum-thickness condition in this geometry, relatively-low-cost, optically flat plate can be used.

  1. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer's arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer's position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth's rotated kilometer-scale Fabry-Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations.

  2. Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Michelson Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; JIANG Tian-fu; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    A new Michelson interferometer based on fiber Bragg grating(FBG) is demonstrated. FBGs are used as reflectors, and the laser is replaced by a broadband source as input light in this interferometer. To demodulate the signals, a 3×3 coupler is used as a splitter. By combining with software demodulation, the outer inter ference can be obtained from the outputs of the interferometer. This kind of in terferometer can also be wavelength-multiplexed easily by composing a series Michelson interferometer. The experiment results show that the clear interference fringe can be obtained by adjusting the path difference to make it less than interference length of FBG. The signals are also demodulated.

  3. Interferometer measurements in pulsed plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, I.V.; Kohno, Susumu; Kawauchi, Toshinori; Sueda, Tsuyoshi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    The interferometer measurements are extremely informative in plasma experiments allowing direct evaluations of the electron density. The primary goal of the work presented, is to build a laser interferometer which meets the requirements of the highest possible simplicity, economy, convenience and ease of construction. These requirements are successfully satisfied while maintaining high sensitivity ({+-}0.5deg - of phase shift) and a wide density range (10{sup 14} and 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} - line-integrated) of the interferometer. In our experiments we used a low average power (5 mW) He-Ne laser without complicated and costly stabilization or detection environments. The He-Ne laser interferometer with the Michelson arrangement was used to measure the line-integrated plasma densities in various plasma experiments. Time- and spatially-resolved density measurements were performed for a plasma opening switch, a laser produced plasma, an electrothermal launcher and railgun plasmas. (author)

  4. Step index fibre using laser interferometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Hamed

    2014-03-01

    model is suggested to describe the fringe shift which occurs due to the phase variations of cladded glass fibre introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer illuminated with a He–Ne laser. The fringe shift of the phase object which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution formula of the multiple beam interference is represented in the harmonic term. An experiment is conducted using liquid wedge interferometer where the step index glass fibre of a nearly quadratic thickness variation is introduced between the two plates of the interferometer. The obtained fringe shift shows a good agreement with the proposed quadratic model. The Matlab code is written to plot the interferometer fringes comprising the shift of the step index fibre. Secondly, recognition of elliptical fibres is outlined using tomographic imaging. Finally, results and concluding remarks are given.

  5. Laser in-cavity Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C.M.

    1978-09-01

    A new laser interferometer is proposed which can be regarded as an in-cavity Michelson interferometer. It utilizes a polarizing beam splitter in conjunction with two quarter-wave plates to produce oscillations between three mirrors. It would measure a change in length of 10/sup -3/ A that, if used for plasma diagnostics, is equivalent to measuring an electron density of 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/ over a plasma length of 1 cm.

  6. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

  7. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo; Rivas Vargas, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the ene...

  8. The VLA Atmospheric Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Atmospheric Phase Interferometer (API) is a two-element atmospheric seeing monitor located at the Very Large Array (VLA) site. The instrument measures turbulent refractive index variation through the atmosphere by examining phase differences in a satellite beacon signal detected at two (or more) antennas. With this measurement, the VLA scheduling software is able to consider atmospheric stability when determining which frequency observation to schedule next. We are in the process of extending this two-element interferometer to four elements, which will allow us to measure the turbulence in two dimensions and at multiple length scales. This thesis will look at some statistical properties of turbulence, the effects of atmospheric stability on radio interferometric observations, and discuss details of the instrument and the data that it collects. The thesis will also cover some techniques and principles of signal processing, and an analysis of some data from the instrument. The results demonstrate that other surface atmospheric variables (e.g. windspeed, water vapor pressure) show the same structure function exponent as the atmospheric phase fluctuations. In particular, the structure functions of water vapor partial pressure and wind speed show the same exponent as the phase. Though the agreement between meteorological variables and atmospheric phase is scientifically satisfying, these surface measurements are not nearly as sensitive as the API saturation phase measurement, and therefore cannot be used to schedule telescope time in its stead. What is informative about these results is that the similar structure functions for API and meteorological data are detecting reinforce the claim that both measurements represent turbulent transport, and not instrumental noise. Data from the instrument reveals that measurements are consistent with both Kolmogorov turbulence theory, and with prior observations. The API predominately measures three-dimensional isotropic

  9. Novel Fourier transform infrared spectrometer architecture based on cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present a novel architecture for Fourier transform spectrometers based on cascaded low-finesse FP interferometers. One of the interferometers has fixed path length while the second is a scanning one using a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. The fixed interferometer results in a spectrum modulation and, hence, a shifted version of the interferogram away from the point of the zero spacing between the two mirrors. The shifted interferogram can then be used with the Fourier transform algorithm to obtain the spectrum of the measured light. This cascaded FP configuration results in a simple arrangement of mirrors on a line, which makes it much tolerant to misalignment errors. The proposed configuration is implemented using the MEMS DRIE technology on an SOI wafer with a simple MEMS process flow without metallization or dielectric coating of the vertical optical surface. The fabricated compact structure is measured with both a laser source with narrow spectrum at 1550 nm and a wide spectrum source composed of an SLED and the ASE of a semiconductor optical amplifier source. The obtained results validate the concept of the new configuration.

  10. Wavelength Phase-shift Dual-diffraction Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng-An Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelength phase-shift dual-diffraction interferometer for the displacement measurement. The measurement system is divided into two parts. On the part of the optical configuration, the grating displacement is converted into the phase of the light based on Doppler effect. By means of the dual-diffraction design, the phase sensitivity corresponding to the grating shift is enhanced. The second part is the phase analysis system. Because of the unbalance optical path design and the modulated wavelength, the wavelength phase-shift technique is developed for analyzing the phase variation resulted from the grating displacement. The experimental results demonstrate that this system has good stability and repeatability.

  11. Comparison of Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers as Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.

  12. Comparison of atom interferometers and light interferometers as space-based gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G; Thorpe, J I

    2012-05-25

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational-wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, noninertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g., multiple-arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and, in principle, favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.

  13. Lock Acquisition and Sensitivity Analysis of Advanced LIGO Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Denis

    Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) consists of two complex large-scale laser interferometers designed for direct detection of gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range 10Hz - 5kHz. Direct detection of space-time ripples will support Einstein's general theory of relativity and provide invaluable information and new insight into physics of the Universe. The initial phase of LIGO started in 2002, and since then data was collected during the six science runs. Instrument sensitivity improved from run to run due to the effort of commissioning team. Initial LIGO has reached designed sensitivity during the last science run, which ended in October 2010. In parallel with commissioning and data analysis with the initial detector, LIGO group worked on research and development of the next generation of detectors. Major instrument upgrade from initial to advanced LIGO started in 2010 and lasted until 2014. This thesis describes results of commissioning work done at the LIGO Livingston site from 2013 until 2015 in parallel with and after the installation of the instrument. This thesis also discusses new techniques and tools developed at the 40m prototype including adaptive filtering, estimation of quantization noise in digital filters and design of isolation kits for ground seismometers. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the description of methods for bringing the interferometer into linear regime when collection of data becomes possible. States of longitudinal and angular controls of interferometer degrees of freedom during lock acquisition process and in low noise configuration are discussed in details. Once interferometer is locked and transitioned to low noise regime, instrument produces astrophysics data that should be calibrated to units of meters or strain. The second part of this thesis describes online calibration technique set up in both observatories to monitor the quality of the collected data in

  14. Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer with high sensitivity based on a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jui-Ming; Horng, Jing-Shyang; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Ling

    2014-11-01

    This study proposes an ultracompact and highly sensitive liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber Michelson interferometer (LF-PCFMI) based on material dispersion engineering. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements are performed in the work, and both of their results show that the temperature sensitivity can be more greatly improved than those of conventional photonic crystal fiber interferometers (PCFIs). The experimental results indicate that a very high sensitivity with interference wavelength shifts of almost 27 nm within temperature variation of 5 °C has been achieved by the configuration. Numerical analysis for the proposed LF-PCFMI also exhibits a good agreement with the results of the experimental measurements.

  15. "First Light" for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    VLTI . It was first envisaged in the early 1980's and has been continuously updated, as new technologies and materials became available during the intervening period. The present series of functional tests will go on for some time and involve many different configurations of the small telescopes and the instrument. It is then expected that the first combination of light beams from two of the VLT 8.2-m telescopes will take place in late 2001 . According to current plans, regular science observations will start from 2002, when the European and international astronomical community will have access to the full interferometric facility and the specially developed VLTI instrumentation now under construction. A wide range of scientific investigations will then become possible, from the search for planets around nearby stars, to the study of energetic processes at the cores of distant galaxies. With its superior angular resolution (image sharpness), the VLT is now beginning to open a new era in observational optical and infrared astronomy. The ambition of ESO is to make this type of observations available to all astronomers, not just the interferometry specialists. Video Clip 03/01 : Various video scenes related to the VLTI and the "First Fringes". PR Photo 10a/01 : "First Fringes" from the VLTI on the computer screen. PR Photo 10b/01 : Celebrating the VLTI "First Fringes" . PR Photo 10c/01 : Overview of the VLT Interferometer . PR Photo 10d/01 : Interferometric observations: Fringes from two stars of different angular size . PR Photo 10e/01 : Interferometric observations: Change of fringes with increasing baseline . PR Photo 10f/01 : Aerial view of the installations for the VLTI on the Paranal platform. PR Photo 10g/01 : Stations for the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes. PR Photo 10h/01 : A test siderostat in place for observations. PR Photo 10i/01 : A test siderostat ( close-up ). PR Photo 10j/01 : One of the Delay Line carriages in the Interferometric Tunnel. PR Photo 10k/01 : The

  16. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  17. Interferometric vibration sensor using phase-generated carrier method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Liu, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tan, Zhongwei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-09-01

    An interferometric fiber-optic vibration sensing system using the phase-generated carrier (PGC) method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing section consists of a Sagnac interferometer combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a length of sensing fiber is shared between the two interferometers. The PGC demodulation scheme is used to demodulate the time-varying phase shifts induced by vibrations. Spatial information can be extracted from the demodulated results. A prototype sensing system with a 628 m long sensing fiber has been tested and a spatial resolution better than 12 m is successfully achieved.

  18. Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Xu, Nan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-10

    This paper presents a simple spatial phase shift shearography based on the Michelson interferometer. The Michelson interferometer based shearographic system has been widely utilized in industry as a practical nondestructive test tool. In the system, the Michelson interferometer is used as a shearing device to generate a shearing distance by tilting a small angle in one of the two mirrors. In fact, tilting the mirror in the Michelson interferometer also generates spatial frequency shift. Based on this feature, we introduce a simple Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography. The Fourier transform (FT) method is applied to separate the spectrum on the spatial frequency domain. The phase change due to the loading can be evaluated using a properly selected windowed inverse-FT. This system can generate a phase map of shearography by using only a single image. The effects of shearing angle, spatial resolution of couple charge device camera, and filter methods are discussed in detail. The theory and the experimental results are presented.

  19. The AEI 10 m prototype interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossler, S; Bertolini, A; Born, M; Dahl, K; Kranz, O; Lueck, H; Schnabel, R; Wanner, A; Westphal, T [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Chen, Y; Somiya, K [California Institute of Technology, Theoretical Astrophysics 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gering, D; Graef, C; Heinzel, G; Kawazoe, F; Kuehn, G; Mossavi, K; Taylor, J R [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Hild, S; Strain, K A, E-mail: stefan.gossler@aei.mpg.d [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    A 10 m prototype interferometer facility is currently being set up at the AEI in Hannover, Germany. The prototype interferometer will be housed inside a 100 m{sup 3} ultra-high vacuum envelope. Seismically isolated optical tables inside the vacuum system will be interferometrically interconnected via a suspension platform interferometer. Advanced isolation techniques will be used, such as inverted pendulums and geometrical anti-spring filters in combination with multiple-cascaded pendulum suspensions, containing an all-silica monolithic last stage. The light source is a 35 W Nd:YAG laser, geometrically filtered by passing it through a photonic crystal fibre and a rigid pre-modecleaner cavity. Laser frequency stabilisation will be achieved with the aid of a high finesse suspended reference cavity in conjunction with a molecular iodine reference. Coating thermal noise will be reduced by the use of Khalili cavities as compound end mirrors. Data acquisition and control of the experiments is based on the AdvLIGO digital control and data system. The aim of the project is to test advanced techniques for GEO 600 as well as to conduct experiments in macroscopic quantum mechanics. Reaching standard quantum-limit sensitivity for an interferometer with 100 g mirrors and subsequently breaching this limit, features most prominently among these experiments. In this paper we present the layout and current status of the AEI 10 m Prototype Interferometer project.

  20. Perfect crystal interferometer and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yuji [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-08-01

    The interferometry with angstrom scale wavelength has developed steadily, and various types of interferometers have been investigated. Among them, LLL interferometers are widely used. The first neutron interferometry was achieved in 1962 by Maier-Leibnitz et al. A new type of neutron interferometers was constructed with a perfect crystal, and experimentally performed in 1974 by Rauch et al. The precise measurements with LLL neutron interferometers were performed on scattering length, gravitational effect, coherence, Fizeau effects, spin superposition, complementarity, and post-selection effects. Since the early stage of quantum physics, the double-slit experiment has served as the example of the epistemologically strange features of quantum phenomena, and its course of study is described. The time-delayed interferometry with nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation and phase transfer in time-delayed interferometry with nuclear resonant scattering were experimented, and are briefly reported. A geometric phase factor was derived for a split beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolution. The geometric phase was observed with a two-loop neutron interferometer. All the experimental results showed complete agreement with the theoretical treatment. (K.I.)

  1. Triple Michelson interferometer for a third-generation gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freise, A; Chelkowski, S; Hild, S; Pozzo, W Del; Perreca, A; Vecchio, A, E-mail: adf@star.sr.bham.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-21

    The upcoming European design study 'Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope' represents the first step towards a substantial, international effort for the design of a third-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector. It is generally believed that third-generation instruments might not be installed into existing infrastructures but will provoke a new search for optimal detector sites. Consequently, the detector design could be subject to fewer constraints than the on-going design of the second-generation instruments. In particular, it will be prudent to investigate alternatives to the traditional L-shaped Michelson interferometer. In this paper, we review an old proposal to use three Michelson interferometers in a triangular configuration. We use this example of a triple Michelson interferometer to clarify the terminology and will put this idea into the context of more recent research on interferometer technologies. Furthermore, the benefits of a triangular detector will be used to motivate this design as a good starting point for a more detailed research effort towards a third-generation gravitational-wave detector.

  2. Visible Nulling Coronagraphy Testbed Development for Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Chen, Andrew; Petrone, Peter; Booth, Andrew; Madison, Timothy; Bolcar, Matthew; Noecker, M. Charley; Kendrick, Stephen; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Three of the recently completed NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept (ASMC) studies addressed the feasibility of using a Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) as the prime instrument for exoplanet science. The VNC approach is one of the few approaches that works with filled, segmented and sparse or diluted aperture telescope systems and thus spans the space of potential ASMC exoplanet missions. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has a well-established effort to develop VNC technologies and has developed an incremental sequence of VNC testbeds to advance the this approach and the technologies associated with it. Herein we report on the continued development of the vacuum Visible Nulling Coronagraph testbed (VNT). The VNT is an ultra-stable vibration isolated testbed that operates under high bandwidth closed-loop control within a vacuum chamber. It will be used to achieve an incremental sequence of three visible light nulling milestones of sequentially higher contrasts of 10(exp 8) , 10(exp 9) and 10(exp 10) at an inner working angle of 2*lambda/D and ultimately culminate in spectrally broadband (>20%) high contrast imaging. Each of the milestones, one per year, is traceable to one or more of the ASMC studies. The VNT uses a modified Mach-Zehnder nulling interferometer, modified with a modified "W" configuration to accommodate a hex-packed MEMS based deformable mirror, a coherent fiber bundle and achromatic phase shifters. Discussed will be the optical configuration laboratory results, critical technologies and the null sensing and control approach.

  3. Vacuum Nuller Testbed (VNT) Performance, Characterization and Null Control: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Madison, Timothy; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Noecker, M. Charley; Kendrick, Stephen; Helmbrecht, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report on the development. sensing and control and our first results with the Vacuum Nuller Testbed to realize a Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) for exoplanet coronagraphy. The VNC is one of the few approaches that works with filled. segmented and sparse or diluted-aperture telescope systems. It thus spans a range of potential future NASA telescopes and could be Hown as a separate instrument on such a future mission. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has a well-established effort to develop VNC technologies. and has developed an incremental sequence of VNC testbeds to advance this approach and the enabling technologies associated with it. We discuss the continued development of the vacuum Visible Nulling Coronagraph testbed (VNT). Tbe VNT is an ultra-stable vibration isolated testbed that operates under closed-loop control within a vacuum chamber. It will be used to achieve an incremental sequence of three visible-light nulling milestones with sequentially higher contrasts of 10(sup 8), 10(sup 9) and ideally 10(sup 10) at an inner working angle of 2*lambda/D. The VNT is based on a modified Mach-Zehnder nulling interferometer, with a "W" configuration to accommodate a hex-packed MEMS based deformable mirror, a coherent fiber bundle and achromatic phase shifters. We discuss the initial laboratory results, the optical configuration, critical technologies and the null sensing and control approach.

  4. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium upon single- and two-color femtosecond double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-10-05

    Single- and two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on titanium to study the dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences in two configurations - either at 800 nm only, or at 400 and 800 nm wavelengths. The inter-pulse delays of the individual 50-fs pulses ranged up to some tens of picoseconds. Multiple of these single- or two-color double-fs-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surface. In both experimental configurations, the peak fluence of each individual pulse was kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the periods were quantified by Fourier analyses. The LIPSS periods along with the orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. A plasmonic model successfully explains the delay-dependence of the LIPSS on titanium and confirms the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  5. HLT configuration management system

    CERN Document Server

    Daponte, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented running a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on thousands of CPUs. The CMS software is written mostly in C++, using Python as its configuration language through an embedded CPython interpreter. The configuration of each process is made up of hundreds of modules, organized in sequences and paths. As an example, the HLT configurations used for 2011 data taking comprised over 2200 different modules, organized in more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and the large number of configuration produced require the design of a suitable data management system. The present work describes the designed solution to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations. The system is required to be remotely accessible and OS-independent as well as easly maintainable easy to use. To meet these requirements a three-layers architecture has been choose...

  6. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  7. Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.

  8. Two-wavelength HeNe laser interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granneman, E.H.A.

    1981-03-24

    This paper presents an interferometer set-up in which two wavelengths are used simultaneously. This enables one to determine separately the phase shifts caused by changes in plasma density and by mechanical vibrations of the interferometer structure.

  9. Digital holographic Michelson interferometer for nanometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrygin, Alexander A.; Korotkov, V. I.; Pulkin, S. A.; Tursunov, I. M.; Venediktov, D. V.; Venediktov, V. Yu.; Volkov, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper considers the dynamic holographic interferometry schemes with amplification (multiplication) of holographic fringes and with correction for distortions, imposed by the interferometer scheme elements. The use of digital microscope and of the matrix light modulator with direct addressing provides the completely digital closed-loop performance of the overall system for real-time evaluation of nano-scale objects size. Considered schemes were verified in the laboratory experiment, using the Michelson micro-interferometer, equipped by the USB-microscope and digital holography stage, equipped by the Holoeye spatial light modulator.

  10. Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco

    2008-12-22

    A Michelson interferometer based on an optical set-up allowing multiple reflection between two plane mirrors performs the multiplication of the optical path by a factor N, proportionally increasing the resolution of the measurement. A multiplication factor of almost two orders of magnitude has been demonstrated with a simple set-up. The technique can be applied to any interferometric measurement where the classical interferometer limits due to fringe nonlinearities and quantum noise are an issue. Applications in precision engineering, vibration analysis, nanometrology, and spectroscopy are foreseen.

  11. Quantum Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein W. A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent conductance of ballistic mesoscopic interferometer is investigated. The quantum interferometer is in the form of ring, in which a quantum dot is embedded in one arm. This quantum dot is connected to one lead via tunnel barrier. Both Aharonov- Casher and Aharonov-Bohm e ects are studied. Our results confirm the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and quantum interference e ects in such confined quantum systems. This investigation is valuable for spintronics application, for example, quantum information processing.

  12. Continuous phase amplification with a Sagnac interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Starling, David J; Williams, Nathan S; Jordan, Andrew N; Howell, John C

    2009-01-01

    We describe a weak value inspired phase amplification technique in a Sagnac interferometer. We monitor the relative phase between two paths of a slightly misaligned interferometer by measuring the average position of a split-Gaussian mode in the dark port. Although we monitor only the dark port, we show that the signal varies linearly with phase and that we can obtain similar sensitivity to balanced homodyne detection. We derive the source of the amplification both with classical wave optics and as an inverse weak value.

  13. Superconducting on-chip microwave interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Edwin P.; Fischer, Michael; Schneider, Christian; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the realm of all-microwave quantum computation, information is encoded in itinerant microwave photons propagating along transmission lines. In such a system unitary operations are implemented by linear elements such as beam splitters or interferometers. However, for two-qubit operations non-linear gates, e.g., c-phase gates are required. In this work, we investigate superconducting interferometers as a building block of a c-phase gate. We experimentally characterize their scattering properties and compare them to simulation results. Finally, we discuss our progress towards the realization of a c-phase gate.

  14. A naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-01-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing---conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed ...

  15. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  16. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays--in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs--for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA's can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both ins...

  17. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  18. Airport Configuration Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Airport configuration is a primary factor in various airport characteristics such as arrival and departure capacities and terminal area traffic patterns. These...

  19. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-11-18

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k{sub eff} regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k{sub eff} regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed.

  20. Ansible configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Ansible Configuration Management"" is a step-by-step tutorial that teaches the use of Ansible for configuring Linux machines.This book is intended for anyone looking to understand the basics of Ansible. It is expected that you will have some experience of how to set up and configure Linux machines. In parts of the book we cover configuration files of BIND, MySQL, and other Linux daemons, therefore a working knowledge of these would be helpful but are certainly not required.