Effects of rocket jet on stability and control at high Mach numbers
Fetterman, David E , Jr
1958-01-01
Paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the jet-interference effects which may occur at high jet static-pressure ratios and high Mach numbers. Tests were made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.86.
Mason, M. L.; Putnam, L. E.
1979-01-01
The flow field behind a circular arc nozzle with exhaust jet was studied at subsonic free stream Mach numbers. A conical probe was used to measure the pitot pressure in the jet and free stream regions. Pressure data were recorded for two nozzle configurations at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0, 2.9, and 5.0. At each set of test conditions, the probe was traversed from the jet center line into the free stream region at seven data acquisition stations. The survey began at the nozzle exit and extended downstream at intervals. The pitot pressure data may be applied to the evaluation of computational flow field models, as illustrated by a comparison of the flow field data with results of inviscid jet plume theory.
Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion in jet events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tachibana, Y., E-mail: tachibana@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Nishinippon Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 800-0344 (Japan); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Hirano, T., E-mail: hirano@sophia.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)
2016-12-15
We study the hydrodynamic response to jet propagation in the expanding QGP and investigate how the particle spectra after the hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP reflect it. We perform simulations of the space-time evolution of the QGP in gamma-jet events by solving (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic equations with source terms. Mach cone is induced by the jet energy deposition and pushes back the radial flow of the expanding background. Especially in the case when the jet passage is off-central one, the number of particles emitted in the direction of the push back decreases. This is the signal including the information about the formation of the Mach cone and the jet passage in the QGP fluid.
Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion in jet events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tachibana, Y.; Hirano, T.
2016-01-01
We study the hydrodynamic response to jet propagation in the expanding QGP and investigate how the particle spectra after the hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP reflect it. We perform simulations of the space-time evolution of the QGP in gamma-jet events by solving (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic equations with source terms. Mach cone is induced by the jet energy deposition and pushes back the radial flow of the expanding background. Especially in the case when the jet passage is off-central one, the number of particles emitted in the direction of the push back decreases. This is the signal including the information about the formation of the Mach cone and the jet passage in the QGP fluid.
Improving Euler computations at low Mach numbers
Koren, B.; Leer, van B.; Deconinck, H.; Koren, B.
1997-01-01
The paper consists of two parts, both dealing with conditioning techniques for lowMach-number Euler-flow computations, in which a multigrid technique is applied. In the first part, for subsonic flows and upwind-discretized, linearized 1-D Euler equations, the smoothing behavior of
Improving Euler computations at low Mach numbers
Koren, B.
1996-01-01
This paper consists of two parts, both dealing with conditioning techniques for low-Mach-number Euler-flow computations, in which a multigrid technique is applied. In the first part, for subsonic flows and upwind-discretized linearized 1-D Euler equations, the smoothing behavior of
Putnam, L. E.; Mercer, C. E.
1986-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to measure the flow field in and around the jet exhaust from a nonaxisymmetric nozzle configuration. The nozzle had a rectangular exit with a width-to-height ratio of 2.38. Pitot-pressure measurements were made at five longitudinal locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum distance downstream of the exit was about 5 nozzle heights. These measurements were made at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.00, 0.60, and 1.20 with the nozzle operating at a ratio of nozzle total pressure to free-stream static pressure of 4.0. The jet exhaust was simulated with high-pressure air that had an exit total temperature essentially equal to the free-stream total temperature.
Low-Mach number simulations of transcritical flows
Lapenna, Pasquale E.
2018-01-08
A numerical framework for the direct simulation, in the low-Mach number limit, of reacting and non-reacting transcritical flows is presented. The key feature are an efficient and detailed representation of the real fluid properties and an high-order spatial discretization. The latter is of fundamental importance to correctly resolve the largely non-linear behavior of the fluid in the proximity of the pseudo-boiling. The validity of the low-Mach number assumptions is assessed for a previously developed non-reacting DNS database of transcritical and supercritical mixing. Fully resolved DNS data employing high-fidelity thermodynamical models are also used to investigate the spectral characteristic as well as the differences between transcritical and supercritical jets.
Irie, T.; Yasunobu, T.; Kashimura, H.; Setoguchi, T.
2003-05-01
When the high-pressure gas is exhausted to the vacuum chamber from the nozzle, the underexpanded supersonic jet contained with the Mach disk is generally formed. The eventual purpose of this study is to clarify the unsteady phenomenon of the underexpanded free jet when the back pressure continuously changes with time. The characteristic of the Mach disk has been clarified in consideration of the diameter and position of it by the numerical analysis in this paper. The sonic jet of the exit Mach number Me=1 is assumed and the axisymmetric conservational equation is solved by the TVD method in the numerical calculation. The diameter and position of the Mach disk differs with the results of a steady jet and the influence on the continuously changing of the back pressure is evidenced from the comparison with the case of steady supersonic jet.
Violato, D.; Bryon, K.; Moore, P.; Scarano, F.
2010-01-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation by time-resolved planar and tomographic PIV on the sound production mechanism of vortex pairing of a transitional water-jet flow at Re=5000. The shear layer is characterized by axisymmetric vortex rings which undergo pairing with a varicose mode.
Aeroacoustic computation of low Mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K.S.
1996-12-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound field are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the characteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a pulsating sphere, which is a monopole; a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. The governing equations are written and solved for spherical, Cartesian, and cylindrical coordinates, respectively, thus, representing three common orthogonal coordinate systems. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions for the problems of the pulsating sphere and the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. The technique has potential for applications to airfoil flows as they are on a wind turbine blade, as well as for other low Mach number flows. (au) 2 tabs., 33 ills., 48 refs.
Experimental investigation of liquid jet injection into Mach 6 hypersonic crossflow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beloki Perurena, J. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[RWTH Aachen University, Shock Wave Laboratory, Aachen (Germany); Asma, C.O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Ghent University, Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent (Belgium); Theunissen, R. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Chazot, O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)
2009-03-15
The injection of a liquid jet into a crossing Mach 6 air flow is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a sharp leading edge flat plate with flush mounted injectors. Water jets were introduced through different nozzle shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios. Sufficient temporal resolution to capture small scale effects was obtained by high-speed recording, while directional illumination allowed variation in field of view. Shock pattern and flow topology were visualized by Schlieren-technique. Correlations are proposed on relating water jet penetration height and lateral extension with the injection ratio and orifice diameter for circular injector jets. Penetration height and lateral extension are compared for different injector shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios showing that penetration height and lateral extension decrease and increase, respectively, with injector's aspect ratio. Probability density function analysis has shown that the mixing of the jet with the crossflow is completed at a distance of x/d{sub j}{proportional_to} 40, independent of the momentum-flux ratio. Mean velocity profiles related with the liquid jet have been extracted by means of an ensemble correlation PIV algorithm. Finally, frequency analyses of the jet breakup and fluctuating shock pattern are performed using a fast Fourier algorithm and characteristic Strouhal numbers of St=0.18 for the liquid jet breakup and of St=0.011 for the separation shock fluctuation are obtained. (orig.)
Sogukpinar, Haci
2018-02-01
In this paper, some of the NACA 64A series airfoils data are estimated and aerodynamic properties are calculated to facilitate great understandings effect of relative thickness on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by using COMSOL software. 64A201-64A204 airfoils data are not available in literature therefore 64A210 data are used as reference data to estimate 64A201, 64A202, 64A203, 64A204 airfoil configurations. Numerical calculations are then conducted with the angle of attack from -12° to +16° by using k-w turbulence model based on the finite-volume approach. The lift and drag coefficient are one of the most important parameters in studying the airplane performance. Therefore lift, drag and pressure coefficient around selected airfoil are calculated and compared at the Reynolds numbers of 6 × 106 and also stalling characteristics of airfoil section are investigated and presented numerically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erinc Erdem
2014-12-01
Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.
Mathematical and numerical aspects of low mach number flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schochet, St.; Bresch, D.; Grenier, E.; Alazard, T.; Gordner, A.; Sankaran, V.; Massot, M.; Sery, R.; Pebay, P.; Lunch, O.; Mazhorova, O.; Turkel, O.E.; Faille, I.; Danchin, R.; Allain, O.; Birken, P.; Lafitte, O.; Kloczko, T.; Frick, W.; Bui, T.; Dellacherie, S.; Klein, R.; Roe, Ph.; Accary, G.; Braack, M.; Picano, F.; Cadiou, A.; Dinescu, C.; Lesage, A.C.; Wesseling, P.; Heuveline, V.; Jobelin, M.; Weisman, C.; Merkle, C.
2004-07-01
Low Mach number flows represent a significant part of the various flows encountered in geophysics, industry or every day life. Paradoxically, the mathematical analysis of the equations governing these flows is difficult and on the practical side, the research of numerical algorithms valid for all flow speeds is continuing to be a challenge. However, in the last decade, both from the theoretical and the numerical sides, significant progresses were made in the understanding and analysis of the equations governing these flows. This conference intends to provide an up-to-date inventory of recent mathematical and numerical results in the analysis of these flows by bringing together both mathematicians and numericists active in this area. In the framework of the conference, a numerical workshop is organized which proposes to compute several challenging low Mach number flows: liquid flow around non-cavitating and cavitating NACA0015 hydrofoil, natural convection with large temperature differences, free convection, free surface flow, vessel pressurization. This document brings together the descriptions of the test cases of the numerical workshop and the abstracts of the conference papers: A 3D high order finite volume method for the prediction of near-critical fluid flows (G. ACCARY, I. RASPO, P. BONTOUX, B. ZAPPOLI); low Mach number limit of the non-isentropic Navier-Stokes equations (T. ALAZARD); simulation of cavitation rolls past a forward step with a bubble model (O. ALLAIN, N. BLASKA, C. LECA); flux preconditioning methods and fire events (P. BIRKEN, A. MEISTER); an adaptive finite element solver for compressible flows: application to heat-driven cavity benchmarks in 2D and 3D (M. BRAACK); comparison of various implicit, explicit, centered and upwind schemes for the simulation of compressed flows on moving mesh (A. CADIOU, M. BUFFAT, L. Le PENVEN, C. Le RIBAULT); low Mach number limit for viscous compressible flows (R. DANCHIN); some Properties of the low Mach number
Physical and numerical modelling of low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paillerre, H.; Clerc, S.; Dabbene, F.; Cueto, O.
1999-01-01
This article reviews various physical models that may be used to describe compressible flow at low Mach numbers, as well as the numerical methods developed at DRN to discretize the different systems of equations. A selection of thermal-hydraulic applications illustrate the need to take into account compressibility and multidimensional effects as well as variable flow properties. (authors)
Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas
Quest, Kevin B.
1986-01-01
The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.
Low Mach number asymptotics for reacting compressible fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana
2010-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 2 (2010), s. 455-480 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * reacting fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4660
Low Mach number limits of compressible rotating fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard
2012-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 1 (2012), s. 61-78 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number limit * rotating fluid * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/635r1116j40t6428/
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.
2014-01-01
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2014-05-15
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.
Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teper, M.J.
1979-12-01
A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)
Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J B; Aspden, A J; Day, M S; Lijewski, M J
2007-01-01
Using examples from active research areas in combustion and astrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical approach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. The method enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range of temporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremely high degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate the efficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicit integration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying the interaction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flame structures
Mach Number effects on turbulent superstructures in wall bounded flows
Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Scharnowski, Sven
2017-11-01
Planer and three-dimensional flow field measurements along a flat plat boundary layer in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel Munich (TWM) are examined with the aim to characterize the scaling, spatial organization, and topology of large scale turbulent superstructures in compressible flow. This facility is ideal for this investigation as the ratio of boundary layer thickness to test section spanwise extent ratio is around 1/25, ensuring minimal sidewall and corner effects on turbulent structures in the center of the test section. A major difficulty in the experimental investigation of large scale features is the mutual size of the superstructures which can extend over many boundary layer thicknesses. Using multiple PIV systems, it was possible to capture the full spatial extent of large-scale structures over a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0.3 - 3. To calculate the average large-scale structure length and spacing, the acquired vector fields were analyzed by statistical multi-point methods that show large scale structures with a correlation length of around 10 boundary layer thicknesses over the range of Mach numbers investigated. Furthermore, the average spacing between high and low momentum structures is on the order of a boundary layer thicknesses. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The Variation of Slat Noise with Mach and Reynolds Numbers
Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
The slat noise from the 30P30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. By varying the Mach number from 0.13 to 0.25, the noise was found to vary roughly with the 5th power of the speed. Slight changes in the behavior with directivity angle could easily account for the different speed dependencies reported in the literature. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.4 to 2.4 million resulted in almost no differences, and primarily served to demonstrate the repeatability of the results. However, changing the underlying hybrid Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy-Simulation turbulence model significantly altered the mean flow because of changes in the flap separation. However, the general trends observed in both the acoustics and near-field fluctuations were similar for both models.
Angular dependence of high Mach number plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, V.A.; Brecht, S.H.
1987-01-01
In this paper a 2-1/2-dimensional hybrid code is used to examine the collisionless large spatial scale (kc/ω pi ∼ 1) low-frequency (ω ∼ ω ci ) interaction initiated by a plasma shell of finite width traveling at high Alfven Mach number relative to a uniform background plasma. Particular attention is given to the angle of the relative velocity relative to the ambient magnetic field for the range of angles O < θ < π/2. An attempt is made to parameterize some of the important physics including the Alfven ion cyclotron instability, the field-aligned electromagnetic ion counter streaming instability, mixing of the plasma shell with the background ions, and structuring of the interaction region. These results are applicable to various astrophysical interactions such as bow shocks and interplanetary shocks
Numerical solutions of unsteady flows with low inlet Mach numbers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová, Petra; Furst, Jiří; Horáček, Jaromír; Kozel, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 8 (2010), s. 1795-1805 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4Y0D67D-1-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409003607&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlb-zSkzk&md5=ed6eaf0a050968ee978714fd54e7f131&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Effects of Mach number on pitot-probe displacement in a turbulent boundary layer
Allen, J. M.
1974-01-01
Experimental pitot-probe-displacement data have been obtained in a turbulent boundary layer at a local free-stream Mach number of 4.63 and unit Reynolds number of 6.46 million meter. The results of this study were compared with lower Mach number results of previous studies. It was found that small probes showed displacement only, whereas the larger probes showed not only displacement but also distortion of the shape of the boundary-layer profile. The distortion pattern occurred lower in the boundary layer at the higher Mach number than at the the lower Mach number. The maximum distortion occurred when the center of the probe was about one probe diameter off the test surface. For probes in the wall contact position, the indicated Mach numbers were, for all probes tested, close to the true profile. Pitot-probe displacement was found to increase significantly with increasing Mach number.
High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2017-01-01
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Numbers
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Gaffney, R. L., Jr.
2007-01-01
A new turbulence model suited for calculating the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is presented. The model is based on a set of two equations: one governing the variance of the enthalpy and the other governing its dissipation rate. These equations were derived from the exact energy equation and thus take into consideration compressibility and dissipation terms. The model is used to study two cases involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 9.22 and Mach 5.0. In general, heat transfer prediction showed great improvement over traditional turbulence models where the turbulent Prandtl number is assumed constant. It is concluded that using a model that calculates the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is the key to bridging the gap between theory and experiment for flows dominated by shock wave/boundary layer interactions.
Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens
Adler, Alfred A
1946-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is
Dynamic pressure sensitivity determination with Mach number method
Sarraf, Christophe; Damion, Jean-Pierre
2018-05-01
Measurements of pressure in fast transient conditions are often performed even if the dynamic characteristic of the transducer are not traceable to international standards. Moreover, the question of a primary standard in dynamic pressure is still open, especially for gaseous applications. The question is to improve dynamic standards in order to respond to expressed industrial needs. In this paper, the method proposed in the EMRP IND09 ‘Dynamic’ project, which can be called the ‘ideal shock tube method’, is compared with the ‘collective standard method’ currently used in the Laboratoire de Métrologie Dynamique (LNE/ENSAM). The input is a step of pressure generated by a shock tube. The transducer is a piezoelectric pressure sensor. With the ‘ideal shock tube method’ the sensitivity of a pressure sensor is first determined dynamically. This method requires a shock tube implemented with piezoelectric shock wave detectors. The measurement of the Mach number in the tube allows an evaluation of the incident pressure amplitude of a step using a theoretical 1D model of the shock tube. Heat transfer, other actual effects and effects of the shock tube imperfections are not taken into account. The amplitude of the pressure step is then used to determine the sensitivity in dynamic conditions. The second method uses a frequency bandwidth comparison to determine pressure at frequencies from quasi-static conditions, traceable to static pressure standards, to higher frequencies (up to 10 kHz). The measurand is also a step of pressure generated by a supposed ideal shock tube or a fast-opening device. The results are provided as a transfer function with an uncertainty budget assigned to a frequency range, also deliverable frequency by frequency. The largest uncertainty in the bandwidth of comparison is used to trace the final pressure step level measured in dynamic conditions, owing that this pressure is not measurable in a steady state on a shock tube. A reference
Jet propagation and Mach-cone formation in (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betz, Barbara
2009-01-01
This thesis investigates the jet-medium interactions in a Quark-Gluon Plasma using a hydrodynamical model. Such a Quark-Gluon Plasma represents a very early stage of our universe and is assumed to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Its properties are subject of current research. Since the comparison of measured data to model calculations suggests that the Quark-Gluon Plasma behaves like a nearly perfect liquid, the medium created in a heavy-ion collision can be described applying hydrodynamical simulations. One of the crucial questions in this context is if highly energetic particles (so-called jets), which are produced at the beginning of the collision and traverse the formed medium, may lead to the creation of a Mach cone. Such a Mach cone is always expected to develop if a jet moves with a velocity larger than the speed of sound relative to the medium. In that case, the measured angular particle distributions are supposed to exhibit a characteristic structure allowing for direct conclusions about the Equation of State and in particular about the speed of sound of the medium. Several different scenarios of jet energy loss are examined (the exact form of which is not known from first principles) and different mechanisms of energy and momentum loss are analyzed, ranging from weak interactions (based on calculations from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, pQCD) to strong interactions (formulated using the Anti-de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence, AdS/CFT). Though they result in different angular particle correlations which could in principle allow to distinguish the underlying processes (if it becomes possible to analyze single-jet events), it is shown that the characteristic structure observed in experimental data can be obtained due to the different contributions of several possible jet trajectories through an expanding medium. Such a structure cannot directly be connected to the Equation of State. In this context, the impact of a strong flow
Performance Limiting Flow Processes in High-State Loading High-Mach Number Compressors
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tan, Choon S
2008-01-01
In high-stage loading high-Mach number (HLM) compressors, counter-rotating pairs of discrete vortices are shed at the trailing edge of the upstream blade row at a frequency corresponding to the downstream rotor blade passing frequency...
Derivation of the low Mach number diphasic system. Numerical simulation in mono-dimensional geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, St.
2004-01-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Number
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
Present simulation of turbulent flows involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction invariably overestimates heat flux by almost a factor of two. One possible reason for such a performance is a result of the fact that the turbulence models employed make use of Morkovin's hypothesis. This hypothesis is valid for non-hypersonic Mach numbers and moderate rates of heat transfer. At hypersonic Mach numbers, high rates of heat transfer exist in regions where shock wave/boundary layer interactions are important. As a result, one should not expect traditional turbulence models to yield accurate results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the role of a variable Prandtl number formulation in predicting heat flux in flows dominated by strong shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The intended applications involve external flows in the absence of combustion such as those encountered in supersonic inlets. This can be achieved by adding equations for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Such equations can be derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations. Traditionally, modeled equations are based on the low speed energy equation where the pressure gradient term and the term responsible for energy dissipation are ignored. It is clear that such assumptions are not valid for hypersonic flows. The approach used here is based on the procedure used in deriving the k-zeta model, in which the exact equations that governed k, the variance of velocity, and zeta, the variance of vorticity, were derived and modeled. For the variable turbulent Prandtl number, the exact equations that govern the temperature variance and its dissipation rate are derived and modeled term by term. The resulting set of equations are free of damping and wall functions and are coordinate-system independent. Moreover, modeled correlations are tensorially consistent and invariant under Galilean transformation. The final set of equations will be given in the paper.
On the use of microjets to suppress turbulence in a Mach 0.9 axisymmetric jet
Arakeri, V. H.; Krothapalli, A.; Siddavaram, V.; Alkislar, M. B.; Lourenco, L. M.
2003-09-01
We have experimentally studied the effect of microjets on the flow field of a Mach 0.9 round jet. Planar and three-dimensional velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry show a significant reduction in the near-field turbulent intensities with the activation of microjets. The axial and normal turbulence intensities are reduced by about 15% and 20%, respectively, and an even larger effect is found on the peak values of the turbulent shear stress with a reduction of up to 40%. The required mass flow rate of the microjets was about 1% of the primary jet mass flux. It appears that the microjets influence the mean velocity profiles such that the peak normalized vorticity in the shear layer is significantly reduced, thus inducing an overall stabilizing effect. Therefore, we seem to have exploited the fact that an alteration in the instability characteristics of the initial shear-layer can influence the whole jet exhaust including its noise field. We have found a reduction of about 2 dB in the near-field overall sound pressure level in the lateral direction with the use of microjets. This observation is qualitatively consistent with the measured reduced turbulence intensities.
On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory
Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.
1990-01-01
The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dellacherie, St
2004-07-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, J.
1965-03-01
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m 3 are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter
Applicability of higher-order TVD method to low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akamatsu, Mikio
1995-01-01
Steep gradients of fluid density are the influential factor of spurious oscillation in numerical solutions of low Mach number (M<<1) compressible flows. The total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is a promising remedy to overcome this problem and obtain accurate solutions. TVD schemes for high-speed flows are, however, not compatible with commonly used methods in low Mach number flows using pressure-based formulation. In the present study a higher-order TVD scheme is constructed on a modified form of each individual scalar equation of primitive variables. It is thus clarified that the concept of TVD is applicable to low Mach number flows within the framework of the existing numerical method. Results of test problems of the moving interface of two-component gases with the density ratio ≥ 4, demonstrate the accurate and robust (wiggle-free) profile of the scheme. (author)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, J
1965-03-15
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m{sup 3} are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter.
Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.
2015-01-01
Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.
Numerical simulation of unsteady compressible low Mach number flow in a channel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír; Fürst, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 83-97 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : CFD * finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Background-oriented schlieren imaging of flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers
Stadler, Hannes; Bauknecht, André; Siegrist, Silvan; Flesch, Robert; Wolf, C. Christian; van Hinsberg, Nils; Jacobs, Markus
2017-09-01
The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging method has, for the first time, been applied in the investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers (Msuccessive imaging at incremental angular positions around the cylinder. This density distribution has been found to agree well with the pressure measurements and with potential theory where appropriate.
A two-dimensional, TVD numerical scheme for inviscid, high Mach number flows in chemical equilibrium
Eberhardt, S.; Palmer, G.
1986-01-01
A new algorithm has been developed for hypervelocity flows in chemical equilibrium. Solutions have been achieved for Mach numbers up to 15 with no adverse effect on convergence. Two methods of coupling an equilibrium chemistry package have been tested, with the simpler method proving to be more robust. Improvements in boundary conditions are still required for a production-quality code.
Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, Stephane
2011-01-01
This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified
Application of a transitional boundary-layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1975-01-01
An investigation is made to assess the capability of a finite-difference boundary-layer procedure to predict the mean profile development across a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the low hypersonic Mach-number regime. The boundary-layer procedure uses an integral form of the turbulence kinetic-energy equation to govern the development of the Reynolds apparent shear stress. The present investigation shows the ability of this procedure to predict Stanton number, velocity profiles, and density profiles through the transition region and, in addition, to predict the effect of wall cooling and Mach number on transition Reynolds number. The contribution of the pressure-dilatation term to the energy balance is examined and it is suggested that transition can be initiated by the direct absorption of acoustic energy even if only a small amount (1 per cent) of the incident acoustic energy is absorbed.
Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1972-01-01
An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.
Low Mach-number collisionless electrostatic shocks and associated ion acceleration
Pusztai, I.; TenBarge, J. M.; Csapó, A. N.; Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; Yi, L.; Fülöp, T.
2018-03-01
The existence and properties of low Mach-number (M≳ 1) electrostatic collisionless shocks are investigated with a semi-analytical solution for the shock structure. We show that the properties of the shock obtained in the semi-analytical model can be well reproduced in fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Poisson simulations, where the shock is generated by the decay of an initial density discontinuity. Using this semi-analytical model, we study the effect of the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and the presence of impurities on both the maximum shock potential and the Mach number. We find that even a small amount of impurities can influence the shock properties significantly, including the reflected light ion fraction, which can change several orders of magnitude. Electrostatic shocks in heavy ion plasmas reflect most of the hydrogen impurity ions.
Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise
Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.
1985-01-01
A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.
Axisymmetric vortex method for low-Mach number, diffusion-controlled combustion
Lakkis, I
2003-01-01
A grid-free, Lagrangian method for the accurate simulation of low-Mach number, variable-density, diffusion-controlled reacting flow is presented. A fast-chemistry model in which the conversion rate of reactants to products is limited by the local mixing rate is assumed in order to reduce the combustion problem to the solution of a convection-diffusion-generation equation with volumetric expansion and vorticity generation at the reaction fronts. The solutions of the continuity and vorticity equations, and the equations governing the transport of species and energy, are obtained using a formulation in which particles transport conserved quantities by convection and diffusion. The dynamic impact of exothermic combustion is captured through accurate integration of source terms in the vorticity transport equations at the location of the particles, and the extra velocity field associated with volumetric expansion at low Mach number computed to enforced mass conservation. The formulation is obtained for an axisymmet...
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donatella Donatelli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.
Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amano, T.
2008-01-01
Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)
The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)
2017-02-10
Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.
Numerical study of circular synthetic jets at low Reynolds numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Qingfeng; Lei, Shenghui; Ma, Jieyan; Zhong, Shan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Parameter maps depicting different flow regimes of synthetic jets are produced. • Boundaries separating these regimes are defined using quantitative criteria. • The Reynolds number is most appropriate for classifying different flow regimes. • A use of high suction cycle factors enhances the effectiveness of synthetic jets. - Abstract: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, Re Do , is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore
2013-01-01
was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number......, and the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet for impinging jet flows at high jet Reynolds numbers. Copyright © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....
Acoustic-hydrodynamic-flame coupling—A new perspective for zero and low Mach number flows
Pulikkottil, V. V.; Sujith, R. I.
2017-04-01
A combustion chamber has a hydrodynamic field that convects the incoming fuel and oxidizer into the chamber, thereby causing the mixture to react and produce heat energy. This heat energy can, in turn, modify the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields by acting as a source and thereby, establish a positive feedback loop. Subsequent growth in the amplitude of the acoustic field variables and their eventual saturation to a limit cycle is generally known as thermo-acoustic instability. Mathematical representation of these phenomena, by a set of equations, is the subject of this paper. In contrast to the ad hoc models, an explanation of the flame-acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling, based on fundamental laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, is presented in this paper. In this paper, we use a convection reaction diffusion equation, which, in turn, is derived from the fundamental laws of conservation to explain the flame-acoustic coupling. The advantage of this approach is that the physical variables such as hydrodynamic velocity and heat release rate are coupled based on the conservation of energy and not based on an ad hoc model. Our approach shows that the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction arises from the convection of acoustic velocity fluctuations by the hydrodynamic field and vice versa. This is a linear mechanism, mathematically represented as a convection operator. This mechanism resembles the non-normal mechanism studied in hydrodynamic theory. We propose that this mechanism could relate the instability mechanisms of hydrodynamic and thermo-acoustic systems. Furthermore, the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction is shown to be responsible for the convection of entropy disturbances from the inlet of the chamber. The theory proposed in this paper also unifies the observations in the fields of low Mach number flows and zero Mach number flows. In contrast to the previous findings, where compressibility is shown to be causing different physics for zero and low Mach
The Experimental Measurement of Aerodynamic Heating About Complex Shapes at Supersonic Mach Numbers
Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma C.
2011-01-01
In 2008 a wind tunnel test program was implemented to update the experimental data available for predicting protuberance heating at supersonic Mach numbers. For this test the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel was also used. The significant differences for this current test were the advances in the state-of-the-art in model design, fabrication techniques, instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities. This current paper provides a focused discussion of the results of an in depth analysis of unique measurements of recovery temperature obtained during the test.
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
Needleman, Kathy E.; Mack, Robert J.
1990-01-01
This paper presents and discusses trends in nose shock overpressure generated by two conceptual Mach 2.0 configurations. One configuration was designed for high aerodynamic efficiency, while the other was designed to produce a low boom, shaped-overpressure signature. Aerodynamic lift, sonic boom minimization, and Mach-sliced/area-rule codes were used to analyze and compute the sonic boom characteristics of both configurations with respect to cruise Mach number, weight, and altitude. The influence of these parameters on the overpressure and the overpressure trends are discussed and conclusions are given.
Low Mach number analysis of idealized thermoacoustic engines with numerical solution.
Hireche, Omar; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Le Quéré, Patrick; Bauwens, Luc
2010-12-01
A model of an idealized thermoacoustic engine is formulated, coupling nonlinear flow and heat exchange in the heat exchangers and stack with a simple linear acoustic model of the resonator and load. Correct coupling results in an asymptotically consistent global model, in the small Mach number approximation. A well-resolved numerical solution is obtained for two-dimensional heat exchangers and stack. The model assumes that the heat exchangers and stack are shorter than the overall length by a factor of the order of a representative Mach number. The model is well-suited for simulation of the entire startup process, whereby as a result of some excitation, an initially specified temperature profile in the stack evolves toward a near-steady profile, eventually reaching stationary operation. A validation analysis is presented, together with results showing the early amplitude growth and approach of a stationary regime. Two types of initial excitation are used: Random noise and a small periodic wave. The set of assumptions made leads to a heat-exchanger section that acts as a source of volume but is transparent to pressure and to a local heat-exchanger model characterized by a dynamically incompressible flow to which a locally spatially uniform acoustic pressure fluctuation is superimposed.
Thermodynamic analysis on optimum performance of scramjet engine at high Mach numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Duo; Yang, Shengbo; Zhang, Silong; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen
2015-01-01
In order to predict the maximum performance of scramjet engine at flight conditions with high freestream Mach numbers, a thermodynamic model of Brayton cycle was utilized to analyze the effects of inlet pressure ratio, fuel equivalence ratio and the upper limit of gas temperature to the specific thrust and the fuel impulse of the scramjet considering the characteristics of non-isentropic compression in the inlet. The results show that both the inlet efficiency and the temperature limit in the combustor have remarkable effects on the overall engine performances. Different with the ideal Brayton cycles assuming isentropic compression without upper limit of gas temperature, both the maximum specific thrust and the maximum fuel impulse of a scramjet present non-monotonic trends against the fuel equivalence ratio in this study. Considering the empirical design efficiencies of inlet, there is a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios in which the fuel impulses remain at high values. Moreover, the maximum specific thrust can also be achieved with a fuel equivalence ratio near this range. Therefore, it is possible to achieve an overall high performance in a scramjet at high Mach numbers. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis with Brayton cycle on overall performances of scramjet. • The compression loss in the inlet was considered in predicting scram-mode operation. • Non-monotonic trends of engine performances against fuel equivalence ratio.
Influences of mach number and flow incidence on aerodynamic losses of steam turbine blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seok Jae; Ng, Wing Fai
2000-01-01
An experiment was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic losses of high pressure steam turbine nozzle (526A) subjected to a large range of incident angles (-34 .deg. to 26 .deg. ) and exit Mach numbers (0.6 and 1.15). Measurements included downstream pitot probe traverses, upstream total pressure, and endwall static pressures. Flow visualization techniques such as shadowgraph and color oil flow visualization were performed to complement the measured data. When the exit Mach number for nozzles increased from 0.9 to 1.1 the total pressure loss coefficient increased by a factor of 7 as compared to the total pressure losses measured at subsonic conditions (M 2 <0.9). For the range of incidence tested, the effect of flow incidence on the total pressure losses is less pronounced. Based on the shadowgraphs taken during the experiment, it's believed that the large increase in losses at transonic conditions is due to strong shock/ boundary layer interaction that may lead to flow separation on the blade suction surface
Nonaka, Andrew; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
2018-01-01
We present a numerical approach for low Mach number combustion that conserves both mass and energy while remaining on the equation of state to a desired tolerance. We present both unconfined and confined cases, where in the latter the ambient pressure changes over time. Our overall scheme is a projection method for the velocity coupled to a multi-implicit spectral deferred corrections (SDC) approach to integrate the mass and energy equations. The iterative nature of SDC methods allows us to incorporate a series of pressure discrepancy corrections naturally that lead to additional mass and energy influx/outflux in each finite volume cell in order to satisfy the equation of state. The method is second order, and satisfies the equation of state to a desired tolerance with increasing iterations. Motivated by experimental results, we test our algorithm on hydrogen flames with detailed kinetics. We examine the morphology of thermodiffusively unstable cylindrical premixed flames in high-pressure environments for confined and unconfined cases. We also demonstrate that our algorithm maintains the equation of state for premixed methane flames and non-premixed dimethyl ether jet flames.
Monte Carlo study of quantum number retention in hadron jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, S.K.; Weiss, N.
1992-01-01
We present a Monte Carlo study in which we used weighted quantum numbers of hadron jets in an attempt to identify the parent parton of these jets. Two-jet events produced by e + e- annihilation were studied using the Lund Monte Carlo program. It was found that the sign of the charge of the leading parton could be determined in a majority of events and that the quark jet could be distinguished from the antiquark jet in a majority of events containing baryons. A careful selection of a subset of the events by making cuts on the value of these weighted quantum numbers increased significantly the accuracy with which both the charge and the baryon number of the leading parton could be determined. Some success was also made in differentiating light-quark from heavy-quark events and in determining the leading quark flavor in the light-quark events. Unfortunately quantum number retention does not differentiate gluon jets from quark jets. The consequences of this for three-jet events and for jet identification in other reactions is discussed
MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.
2016-12-01
Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: ymatumot@astro.s.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 1-33, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2012-08-20
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.
Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios
Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.
2015-01-01
As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.
Sensitivity of boundary-layer stability to base-state distortions at high Mach numbers
Park, Junho; Zaki, Tamer
2017-11-01
The stability diagram of high-speed boundary layers has been established by evaluating the linear instability modes of the similarity profile, over wide ranges of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In real flows, however, the base state can deviate from the similarity profile. Both the base velocity and temperature can be distorted, for example due to roughness and thermal wall treatments. We review the stability problem of high-speed boundary layer, and derive a new formulation of the sensitivity to base-state distortion using forward and adjoint parabolized stability equations. The new formulation provides qualitative and quantitative interpretations on change in growth rate due to modifications of mean-flow and mean-temperature in heated high-speed boundary layers, and establishes the foundation for future control strategies. This work has been funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Grant: FA9550-16-1-0103.
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi
2001-01-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII (γ=468.58 nm) and HeI (γ=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T i increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2001-07-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII ({gamma}=468.58 nm) and HeI ({gamma}=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T{sub i} increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Engineering method for aero-propulsive characteristics at hypersonic Mach numbers
Goradia, Suresh; Torres, Abel O.; Stack, Sharon H.; Everhart, Joel L.
1991-01-01
An engineering method has been developed for the rapid analysis of external aerodynamics and propulsive performance characteristics of airbreathing vehicles at hypersonic Mach numbers. This method, based on the theory of characteristics, has been developed to analyze fuselage-wing body combinations and body flaps with blunt or sharp leading/trailing edges. Arbitrary ratio of specific heat for the flowing medium can be specified in the program. Furthermore, the capability exists in the code to compute the inviscid inlet mass capture and momentum flux. The method is under development for computations of pressure distribution, and flow characteristics in the inlet, along with the effect of viscosity. Correlative studies have been performed for representative hypersonic configurations using the current method. The results of these correlations for various aerodynamics parameters are encouraging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Jiangyong
2006-01-01
Jet properties, extracted from two particle azimuth correlation, are found to be strongly modified in Au + Au collisions at √(s NN ) = 200 GeV. At intermediate pT and in central Au + Au collisions, the modifications appear as a broadening of jet width at the near side and a cone structure at the away side. As one increase the pT for both hadrons, the away side cone structure seems to gradually evolve into a peak structure. The interpretation of these results requires careful separation of various medium effects and surface bias
Investigation of Jet Noise Using Optical Holography
1973-04-01
Holographic interferograms have been made of cold, laboratory scale, supersonic air and nitrogen jet in the mach number range of 2.1 ot 3.4, and of helium jets in the mach number range of 1.5 to 2.95. These holograms demonstrate that the acoustic fie...
Effect of Mach number on thermoelectric performance of SiC ceramics nose-tip for supersonic vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Jun
2014-01-01
This paper focus on the effects of Mach number on thermoelectric energy conversion for the limitation of aero-heating and the feasibility of energy harvesting on supersonic vehicles. A model of nose-tip structure constructed with SiC ceramics is developed to numerically study the thermoelectric performance in a supersonic flow field by employing the computational fluid dynamics and the thermal conduction theory. Results are given in the cases of different Mach numbers. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance in each case is predicted with and without Thomson heat, respectively. Due to the increase of Mach number, both the temperature difference and the conductive heat flux between the hot side and the cold side of nose tip are increased. This results in the growth of the thermoelectric power generated and the energy conversion efficiency. With respect to the Thomson effect, over 50% of total power generated converts to Thomson heat, which greatly reduces the thermoelectric power and efficiency. However, whether the Thomson effect is considered or not, with the Mach number increasing from 2.5 to 4.5, the thermoelectric performance can be effectively improved. -- Highlights: • Thermoelectric SiC nose-tip structure for aerodynamic heat harvesting of high-speed vehicles is studied. • Thermoelectric performance is predicted based on numerical methods and experimental thermoelectric parameters. • The effects of Mach number on thermoelectric performance are studied in the present paper. • Results with respect to the Thomson effect are also explored. • Output power and energy efficiency of the thermoelectric nose-tip are increased with the increase of Mach number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correia, C.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 (Brazil); Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kowal, G., E-mail: caioftc@dfte.ufrn.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil)
2014-04-10
We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number (M{sub s} ) from {sup 13}CO linewidths relates to the actual three-dimensional sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations that include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. However, we find that opacity broadening causes M{sub s} to be overestimated by a factor of ≈1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick {sup 13}CO lines. We also find that there is a dependence on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for supersonic turbulence. Our results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σ{sub ρ/(ρ)}) relationship, σ{sub ρ/〈ρ〉}{sup 2}=b{sup 2}M{sub s}{sup 2}, and the related column density standard deviation (σ {sub N/(N)}) sonic Mach number relationship. In particular, we find that the parameter b, as an indicator of solenoidal versus compressive driving, will be underestimated as a result of opacity broadening. We compare the σ {sub N/(N)}-M{sub s} relation derived from synthetic dust extinction maps and {sup 13}CO linewidths with recent observational studies and find that solenoidally driven MHD turbulence simulations have values of σ {sub N/(N)}which are lower than real molecular clouds. This may be due to the influence of self-gravity which should be included in simulations of molecular cloud dynamics.
Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.
1993-01-01
An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.
Study of Perturbations on High Mach Number Blast Waves in Various Gasses
Edens, A.; Adams, R.; Rambo, P.; Shores, J.; Smith, I.; Atherton, B.; Ditmire, T.
2006-10-01
We have performed a series of experiments examining the properties of high Mach number blast waves. Experiments were conducted on the Z-Beamlet^1 laser at Sandia National Laboratories. We created blast waves in the laboratory by using 10 J- 1000 J laser pulses to illuminate millimeter scale solid targets immersed in gas. Our experiments studied the validity of theories forwarded by Vishniac and Ryu^2-4 to explain the dynamics of perturbations on astrophysical blast waves. These experiments consisted of an examination of the evolution of perturbations of known primary mode number induced on the surface of blast waves by means of regularly spaced wire arrays. The temporal evolution of the amplitude of the induced perturbations relative to the mean radius of the blast wave was fit to a power law in time. Measurements were taken for a number of different mode numbers and background gasses and the results show qualitative agreement with previously published theories for the hydrodynamics of thin shell blast wave. The results for perturbations on nitrogen gas have been recently published^5. .^1 P. K. Rambo, I. C. Smith, J. L. Porter, et al., Applied Optics 44, 2421 (2005). ^2 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 313, 820 (1987). ^3 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 368, 411 (1991). ^4 E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 274, 152 (1983). ^5 A. D. Edens, T. Ditmire, J. F. Hansen, et al., Physical Review Letters 95 (2005).
Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian
2018-05-01
The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to
Investigation of side wall effects on an inward scramjet inlet at Mach number 8.6
Rolim, Tiago Cavalcanti
Experimental and computational studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a scramjet inlet as the side cowl length is changed. A slender inward turning inlet of a total length of 304.8 mm, a span of 50.8 mm with the compression at 11.54 deg and CR = 4.79 was used. The side cowl lengths were of 0, 50.8 and 76.2 mm. The UTA Hypersonic Shock Tunnel facility was used in the reflected mode. The model was instrumented with nine piezoelectric pressure transducers, for static and total pressure measurements. A wedge was mounted at the rear of the inlet in order to accommodate a Pitot pressure rake. The driven tube was instrumented with three pressure transducers. Two of them were used to measure the incident shock wave speed, and a third one was used for stagnation pressure measurements during a test. Furthermore, a Pitot probe was installed below the model in order to measure the impact pressure on each run, this reading along with the driven sensor readings, allowed us for the calculation of freestream properties. During the experiments, nominal stagnation enthalpy of 0.67 MJ/kg and stagnation pressure of 3.67 MPa were achieved. Freestream conditions were Mach number 8.6 and Reynolds number of 1.94 million per m. Test times were 300 - 500 microseconds. Numerical simulations using RANS with the Wilcox K-w turbulence model were performed using ANSYS Fluent. The results from the static pressure measurements presented a good agreement with CFD predictions. Moreover, the uniformity at the inlet exit was achieved within the experimental precision. The experiments showed that the cowl length has a pronounced effect in the pressure distribution on the inlet and a minor effect in the exit flow Mach number. The numerical results confirmed these trends and showed that a complex flow structure is formed in the cowl-ramp corners; a non-uniform transverse shock structure was found to be related to the cowl leading edge position. Cross flow due to the side expansion
Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers
Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a
Particle image velocimetry measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers
Brooks, J. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.
2018-05-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers (TBL) have been performed under low Reynolds number conditions, Re_τ =200{-}1000, typical of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Three reservoir pressures and three measurement locations create an overlap in parameter space at one research facility. This allows us to assess the effects of Reynolds number, particle response and boundary layer thickness separate from facility specific experimental apparatus or methods. The Morkovin-scaled streamwise fluctuating velocity profiles agree well with published experimental and numerical data and show a small standard deviation among the nine test conditions. The wall-normal fluctuating velocity profiles show larger variations which appears to be due to particle lag. Prior to the current study, no detailed experimental study characterizing the effect of Stokes number on attenuating wall-normal fluctuating velocities has been performed. A linear variation is found between the Stokes number ( St) and the relative error in wall-normal fluctuating velocity magnitude (compared to hot wire anemometry data from Klebanoff, Characteristics of Turbulence in a Boundary Layer with Zero Pressure Gradient. Tech. Rep. NACA-TR-1247, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Springfield, Virginia, 1955). The relative error ranges from about 10% for St=0.26 to over 50% for St=1.06. Particle lag and spatial resolution are shown to act as low-pass filters on the fluctuating velocity power spectral densities which limit the measurable energy content. The wall-normal component appears more susceptible to these effects due to the flatter spectrum profile which indicates that there is additional energy at higher wave numbers not measured by PIV. The upstream inclination and spatial correlation extent of coherent turbulent structures agree well with published data including those using krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) performed at the same facility.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86
Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald
1968-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.
Vink, J.; Yamazaki, R.
2014-01-01
It is shown that, under some generic assumptions, shocks cannot accelerate particles unless the overall shock Mach number exceeds a critical value M > √5. The reason is that for M ≤ √5 the work done to compress the flow in a particle precursor requires more enthalpy flux than the system can sustain.
Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin
2011-09-01
In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.
Effect of finite cavity width on flow oscillation in a low-Mach-number cavity flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ke; Naguib, Ahmed M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)
2011-11-15
The current study is focused on examining the effect of the cavity width and side walls on the self-sustained oscillation in a low Mach number cavity flow with a turbulent boundary layer at separation. An axisymmetric cavity geometry is employed in order to provide a reference condition that is free from any side-wall influence, which is not possible to obtain with a rectangular cavity. The cavity could then be partially filled to form finite-width geometry. The unsteady surface pressure is measured using microphone arrays that are deployed on the cavity floor along the streamwise direction and on the downstream wall along the azimuthal direction. In addition, velocity measurements using two-component Laser Doppler Anemometer are performed simultaneously with the array measurements in different azimuthal planes. The compiled data sets are used to investigate the evolution of the coherent structures generating the pressure oscillation in the cavity using linear stochastic estimation of the velocity field based on the wall-pressure signature on the cavity end wall. The results lead to the discovery of pronounced harmonic pressure oscillations near the cavity's side walls. These oscillations, which are absent in the axisymmetric cavity, are linked to the establishment of a secondary mean streamwise circulating flow pattern near the side walls and the interaction of this secondary flow with the shear layer above the cavity. (orig.)
Measurement and analysis of the noise radiated by low Mach numbers centrifugal blowers
Yeager, D. M.; Lauchle, G. C.
1987-11-01
The broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices is investigated. An interdisciplinary approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller which was placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. New frequency-domain expressions for the correlation area and dipole source strength per unit area on a surface immersed in turbulence were developed which can be used to characterize the noise generation process over a rigid surface immersed in turbulence. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil (impeller blade) was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques.
Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Bare, E. A.
1982-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of twin two dimensional nozzles and twin baseline axisymmetric nozzles installed on a fully metric 0.047 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, wing, horizontal tails). The effects on performance of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing, locations and orientation of the vertical tails, and deflections of the horizontal tails were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 6.5.
Moore, P.D.
2009-01-01
Jet noise is an extensively studied phenomenon since the deployment of the first civil jet aircraft more than 50 years ago. Jet noise makes up a considerable portion of the total noise of jet aircraft, and the expansion of the numbers of airplanes and airports has only been possible by keeping the
Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.
1979-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.
The evolution of the flame surface in turbulent premixed jet flames at high Reynolds number
Luca, Stefano; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2017-11-01
A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames in a spatially developing turbulent slot burner at four Reynolds number is presented. This configuration is of interest since it displays turbulent production by mean shear as in real combustion devices. The gas phase hydrodynamics are modeled with the reactive, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in the low Mach number limit, with finite-rate chemistry consisting of 16 species and 73 reactions. For the highest jet Reynolds number of 22 ×103, 22 Billion grid points are employed. The jet consists of a lean methane/air mixture at 4 atm and preheated to 800 K. The analysis of stretch statistics shows that the mean total stretch is close to zero. Mean stretch decreases moving downstream from positive to negative values, suggesting a formation of surface area in the near field and destruction at the tip of the flame; the mean contribution of the tangential strain term is positive, while the mean contribution of the propagative term is always negative. Positive values of stretch are due to the tangential strain rate term, while large negative values are associated with the propagative term. Increasing Reynolds number is found to decrease the correlation between stretch and the single contributions.
JET TRAILS AND MACH CONES: THE INTERACTION OF MICROQUASARS WITH THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, D.; Morsony, B.; Heinz, S.; Wiersema, K.; Fender, R. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sunyaev, R.
2011-01-01
A subset of microquasars exhibits high peculiar velocity with respect to the local standard of rest due to the kicks they receive when being born in supernovae. The interaction between the radio plasma released by microquasar jets from such high-velocity binaries with the interstellar medium must lead to the production of trails and bow shocks similar to what is observed in narrow-angle tailed radio galaxies and pulsar wind nebulae. We present a set of numerical simulations of this interaction that illuminate the long-term dynamical evolution and the observational properties of these microquasar bow-shock nebulae and trails. We find that this interaction always produces a structure that consists of a bow shock, a trailing neck, and an expanding bubble. Using our simulations to model emission, we predict that the shock surrounding the bubble and the neck should be visible in H α emission, the interior of the bubble should be visible in synchrotron radio emission, and only the bow shock is likely to be detectable in X-ray emission. We construct an analytic model for the evolution of the neck and bubble shape and compare this model with observations of the X-ray binary SAX J1712.6-3739.
Schmeer, James W.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a variable-sweep arrow-wing model with the outer wing panels swept 75 deg. has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Four outboard engines located above and below the wing provided propulsive thrust, and, by deflecting in the pitch direction and rotating in the lateral plane, also produced control forces. The engine nacelles incorporated swept lateral and vertical fins for aerodynamic stability and control. Jet-off data were obtained with flow-through nacelles, simulating inlet flow; jet thrust and hot-jet interference effects were obtained with faired-nose nacelles housing hydrogen peroxide gas generators. Six-component force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.05 through a range of angles of attack and angles of side-slip. Control characteristics were obtained by deflecting the nacelle-fin combinations as elevators, rudders, and ailerons at several fixed angles for each control. The results indicate that the basic wing-body configuration becomes neutrally stable or unstable at a lift coefficient of 0.15; addition of nacelles with fins delayed instability to a lift coefficient of 0.30. Addition of nacelles to the wing-body configuration increased minimum drag from 0.0058 to 0.0100 at a Mach number of 0.60 and from 0.0080 to 0.0190 at a Mach number of 1.05 with corresponding reductions in maximum lift-drag ratio of 12 percent and 33 percent, respectively. The nacelle-fin combinations were ineffective as longitudinal controls but were adequate as directional and lateral controls. The model with nacelles and fins was directionally and laterally stable; the stability generally increased with increasing lift. Jet interference effects on stability and control characteristics were small but the adverse effects on drag were greater than would be expected for isolated nacelles.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ghenai, C; Philippidis, G. P; Lin, C. X
2005-01-01
... (subsonic- supersonic) combustion studies. A high-speed imaging system was used for the visualization of pure liquid jet, aerated liquid jet and pulsed aerated jet injection into a supersonic cross flow at Mach number 1.5...
Plasma wave profiles of Earth's bow shock at low Mach number: ISEE 3 observations on the far flank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenstadt, E.W.; Coroniti, F.V.; Moses, S.L.; Smith, E.J.
1992-01-01
The Earth's bow shock is weak along its distant flanks where the projected component of solar wind velocity normal to the hyperboloidal surface is only a fraction of the total free stream velocity, severely reducing the local Mach number. The authors present a survey of selected crossings far downstream from the subsolar shock, delineating the overall plasma wave (pw) behavior of a selected set of nearly perpendicular crossings and another set of limited Mach number but broad geometry; they include their immediate upstream regions. The result is a generalizable pw signature, or signatures, of low Mach number shocks and some likely implications of those signatures for the weak shock's plasma physical processes on the flank. They find the data consistent with the presence of ion beam interactions producing noise ahead of the shock in the ion acoustic frequency range. One subcritical case was found whose pw noise was presumably related to a reflected ion population just as in stronger events. The presence or absence, and the amplitudes, of pw activity are explainable by the presence or absence of a population of upstream ions controlled by the component of interplanetary magnetic field normal to the solar wind flow
Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady
2008-02-01
We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Number Centrifugal Blowers.
Yeager, David Marvin
An investigation was performed of the broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices. An interdisciplinary experimental approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Results showed that the centrifugal blower is a distributed, random noise source, unlike an axial fan which exhibited the effects of a coherent, interacting source distribution. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. Both circumferential and spanwise mean flow nonuniformities were identified along with a region of increased turbulence just downstream of the scroll cutoff. The fluid incidence angle, normally taken as an indicator of blower performance, was estimated from mean flow data as deviating considerably from an ideal impeller design. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques. Radiation from the single blade in flow was characterized using newly developed expressions for the correlation area and the dipole source strength per unit area, and from the relationship between the blade surface pressure and the incident turbulent flow field. Results
Reynolds number calculation and applications for curved wall jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu DRAGAN
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The current paper refers to the preliminary estimation of the Reynolds number for curved wall jets. This, in turn, can be a useful tool for controlling the boundary layer mesh size near a generic curved wall which is wetted by a thin, attached jet. The method relies on analytical calculations that link the local curvature of the wall with the pressure gradient and further, the local Reynolds number. Knowing the local Reynolds number distribution, a CFD user can tailor their mesh size to more exact specifications (e.g. y+=1 for k-omega RANS models and lower the risk that the mesh is too coarse or finer than necessary.
Hruschka, R.; Klatt, D.
2018-03-01
The transient shock dynamics and drag characteristics of a projectile flying through a pipe 3.55 times larger than its diameter at transonic speed are analyzed by means of time-of-flight and pipe wall pressure measurements as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, free-flight drag of the 4.5-mm-pellet-type projectile was also measured in a Mach number range between 0.5 and 1.5, providing a means for comparison against in-pipe data and CFD. The flow is categorized into five typical regimes the in-pipe projectile experiences. When projectile speed and hence compressibility effects are low, the presence of the pipe has little influence on the drag. Between Mach 0.5 and 0.8, there is a strong drag increase due to the presence of the pipe, however, up to a value of about two times the free-flight drag. This is exactly where the nose-to-base pressure ratio of the projectile becomes critical for locally sonic speed, allowing the drag to be estimated by equations describing choked flow through a converging-diverging nozzle. For even higher projectile Mach numbers, the drag coefficient decreases again, to a value slightly below the free-flight drag at Mach 1.5. This behavior is explained by a velocity-independent base pressure coefficient in the pipe, as opposed to base pressure decreasing with velocity in free flight. The drag calculated by CFD simulations agreed largely with the measurements within their experimental uncertainty, with some discrepancies remaining for free-flying projectiles at supersonic speed. Wall pressure measurements as well as measured speeds of both leading and trailing shocks caused by the projectile in the pipe also agreed well with CFD.
Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S
1947-01-01
By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.
Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.
2011-01-01
Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density...... gradient length, with an experimental scaling for the pinch number being -Rvpinch/χφ = 1.2R/Ln +1.4. There is no dependence of the pinch number on collisionality, whereas the pinch seems to depend weakly on q-profile, the pinch number decreasing with increasing q. The Prandtl number was not found to depend...... either on R/Ln, collisionality or on q. The gyro-kinetic simulations show qualitatively similar dependence of the pinch number on R/Ln, but the dependence is weaker in the simulations. Gyro-kinetic simulations do not find any clear parametric dependence in the Prandtl number, in agreement...
Lattice Boltzmann method and gas-kinetic BGK scheme in the low-Mach number viscous flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Kun; He Xiaoyi
2003-01-01
Both lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the gas-kinetic BGK scheme are based on the numerical discretization of the Boltzmann equation with collisional models, such as, the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model. LBM tracks limited number of particles and the viscous flow behavior emerges automatically from the intrinsic particle stream and collisions process. On the other hand, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme is a finite volume scheme, where the time-dependent gas distribution function with continuous particle velocity space is constructed and used in the evaluation of the numerical fluxes across cell interfaces. Currently, LBM is mainly used for low Mach number, nearly incompressible flow simulation. For the gas-kinetic scheme, the application is focusing on the high speed compressible flows. In this paper, we are going to compare both schemes in the isothermal low-Mach number flow simulations. The methodology for developing both schemes will be clarified through the introduction of operator splitting Boltzmann model and operator averaging Boltzmann model. From the operator splitting Boltzmann model, the error rooted in many kinetic schemes, which are based on the decoupling of particle transport and collision, can be easily understood. As to the test case, we choose to use the 2D cavity flow since it is one of the most extensively studied cases. Detailed simulation results with different Reynolds numbers, as well as the benchmark solutions, are presented
A note on high Schmidt number laminar buoyant jets discharged horizontally
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewan, A.; Arakeri, J.H.; Srinivasan, J.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on a new model, developed for the integral analysis of high Schmidt number (or equivalently high Prandtl number) laminar buoyant jets discharged horizontally. This model assumes top-hat density profile across the inner core of jet and Gaussian velocity profile. Entrainment coefficient corresponding to pure laminar jet has been taken in the analysis. The prediction of the jet trajectory agree well with experimental data in the regions where the jet remains laminar
LES of Supersonic Turbulent Channel Flow at Mach Numbers 1.5 and 3
Raghunath, Sriram; Brereton, Giles
2009-11-01
LES of compressible, turbulent, body-force driven, isothermal-wall channel flows at Reτ of 190 and 395 at moderate supersonic speeds (Mach 1.5 and 3) are presented. Simulations are fully resolved in the wall-normal direction without the need for wall-layer models. SGS models for incompressible flows, with appropriate extensions for compressibility, are tested a priori/ with DNS results and used in LES. Convergence of the simulations is found to be sensitive to the initial conditions and to the choice of model (wall-normal damping) in the laminar sublayer. The Nicoud--Ducros wall adapting SGS model, coupled with a standard SGS heat flux model, is found to yield results in good agreement with DNS.
Numerical resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a low Mach number by a spectral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, Jochen
1990-01-01
The low Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, also called isobar, is an approximation which is less restrictive than the one due to Boussinesq. It permits strong density variations while neglecting acoustic phenomena. We present a numerical method to solve these equations in the unsteady, two dimensional case with one direction of periodicity. The discretization uses a semi-implicit finite difference scheme in time and a Fourier-Chebycheff pseudo-spectral method in space. The solution of the equations of motion is based on an iterative algorithm of Uzawa type. In the Boussinesq limit we obtain a direct method. A first application is concerned with natural convection in the Rayleigh-Benard setting. We compare the results of the low Mach number equations with the ones in the Boussinesq case and consider the influence of variable fluid properties. A linear stability analysis based on a Chebychev-Tau method completes the study. The second application that we treat is a case of isobaric combustion in an open domain. We communicate results for the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau instability of a plane laminar flame front. [fr
Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui
2018-04-01
Electron dynamics at low-Mach-number collisionless shocks are investigated by using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various shock normal angles. We found: (1) The reflected ions and incident electrons at the shock front provide an effective mechanism for the quasi-electrostatic wave generation due to the charge-separation. A fraction of incident electrons can be effectively trapped and accelerated at the leading edge of the shock foot. (2) At quasi-perpendicular shocks, the electron trapping and reflection is nonuniform due to the shock rippling along the shock surface and is more likely to take place at some locations accompanied by intense reflected ion-beams. The electron trapping process has a periodical evolution over time due to the shock front self-reformation, which is controlled by ion dynamics. Thus, this is a cross-scale coupling phenomenon. (3) At quasi-parallel shocks, reflected ions can travel far back upstream. Consequently, quasi-electrostatic waves can be excited in the shock transition and the foreshock region. The electron trajectory analysis shows these waves can trap electrons at the foot region and reflect a fraction of them far back upstream. Simulation runs in this paper indicate that the micro-turbulence at the shock foot can provide a possible scenario for producing the reflected electron beam, which is a basic condition for the type II radio burst emission at low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendijanifard, Mohammad; Willis, David A
2011-01-01
Laser-matter interactions are frequently studied by measuring the propagation of shock waves caused by the rapid laser-induced material removal. An improved method for calculating the thermo-fluid parameters behind shock waves is introduced in this work. Shock waves in ambient air, induced by pulsed Nd : YAG laser ablation of aluminium films, are measured using a shadowgraph apparatus. Normal shock solutions are applied to experimental data for shock wave positions and used to calculate pressure, temperature, and velocity behind the shock wave. Non-dimensionalizing the pressure and temperature with respect to the ambient values, the dimensionless pressure and temperature are estimated to be as high as 90 and 16, respectively, at a time of 10 ns after the ablation pulse for a laser fluence of F = 14.5 J cm -2 . The results of the normal shock solution and the Taylor-Sedov similarity solution are compared to show that the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts pressure when the Mach number of the shock wave is small. At a fluence of 3.1 J cm -2 , the shock wave Mach number is less than 3, and the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts the non-dimensional pressure by as much as 45%.
Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino
2017-11-01
Our objective is to perform DNS of finite-size droplets that are evaporating in isotropic turbulence. This requires fully resolving the process of momentum, heat, and mass transfer between the droplets and surrounding gas. We developed a combined volume-of-fluid (VOF) method and low-Mach-number approach to simulate this flow. The two main novelties of the method are: (i) the VOF algorithm captures the motion of the liquid gas interface in the presence of mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation without requiring a projection step for the liquid velocity, and (ii) the low-Mach-number approach allows for local volume changes caused by phase change while the total volume of the liquid-gas system is constant. The method is verified against an analytical solution for a Stefan flow problem, and the D2 law is verified for a single droplet in quiescent gas. We also demonstrate the schemes robustness when performing DNS of an evaporating droplet in forced isotropic turbulence.
Peng, Naifu; Yang, Yue
2018-01-01
We investigate the evolution of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) in compressible Taylor-Green flows at Mach numbers (Ma) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 using direct numerical simulation. The formulation of VSFs in incompressible flows is extended to compressible flows, and a mass-based renormalization of VSFs is used to facilitate characterizing the evolution of a particular vortex surface. The effects of the Mach number on the VSF evolution are different in three stages. In the early stage, the jumps of the compressive velocity component near shocklets generate sinks to contract surrounding vortex surfaces, which shrink vortex volume and distort vortex surfaces. The subsequent reconnection of vortex surfaces, quantified by the minimal distance between approaching vortex surfaces and the exchange of vorticity fluxes, occurs earlier and has a higher reconnection degree for larger Ma owing to the dilatational dissipation and shocklet-induced reconnection of vortex lines. In the late stage, the positive dissipation rate and negative pressure work accelerate the loss of kinetic energy and suppress vortex twisting with increasing Ma.
Features of round air jet flowing at low Reynolds numbers
Lemanov, V. V.; Sharov, K. A.; Gorinovich, N. V.
2018-03-01
The laminar-turbulent transition in a round jet flowing from a cylindrical channel with the diameter of 3.2 mm was studied experimentally. In experiments, the range of Reynolds numbers determined by the mean-flow velocity was Re = Ud/ν = 700-12000. The measurements were carried out using a PIV system and one-component hot-wire anemometer. The profiles of average velocities and their pulsations in the zone of laminar-turbulent transition were obtained along with axial distributions of longitudinal velocity and pulsations of longitudinal velocity.
Investigating the round air jet dynamics at low Reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lemanov Vadim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The laminar-turbulent transition in a round jet flowing from a cylindrical channel with the diameter of 3.2 mm was studied experimentally. In experiments, the range of Reynolds numbers determined by the mean-flow velocity was Re = Ud/v = 700-12000. The measurements were carried out using a PIV system and one-component hot-wire anemometer. The profiles of average velocities and their pulsations in the zone of laminar-turbulent transition were obtained, as well as axial distributions of longitudinal velocity and pulsations of longitudinal velocity.
Harrington, Douglas E.; Burley, Richard R.; Corban, Robert R.
1986-01-01
Wall Mach number distributions were determined over a range of test-section free-stream Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.92. The test section was slotted and had a nominal porosity of 11 percent. Reentry flaps located at the test-section exit were varied from 0 (fully closed) to 9 (fully open) degrees. Flow was bled through the test-section slots by means of a plenum evacuation system (PES) and varied from 0 to 3 percent of tunnel flow. Variations in reentry flap angle or PES flow rate had little or no effect on the Mach number distributions in the first 70 percent of the test section. However, in the aft region of the test section, flap angle and PES flow rate had a major impact on the Mach number distributions. Optimum PES flow rates were nominally 2 to 2.5 percent wtih the flaps fully closed and less than 1 percent when the flaps were fully open. The standard deviation of the test-section wall Mach numbers at the optimum PES flow rates was 0.003 or less.
Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James
2015-11-01
The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.
Bogey , Christophe; Marsden , Olivier; Bailly , Christophe
2012-01-01
International audience; Five isothermal round jets at Mach number M = 0.9 and Reynolds number ReD=10(5) originating from a pipe nozzle are computed by large-eddy simulations to investigate the effects of initial turbulence on flow development and noise generation. In the pipe, the boundary layers are untripped in the first case and tripped numerically in the four others in order to obtain, at the exit, mean velocity profiles similar to a Blasius laminar profile of momentum thickness equal to ...
Influence of Mach Number and Dynamic Pressure on Cavity Tones and Freedrop Trajectories
2014-03-27
18 LU-SGS Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SSOR Successive Symmetric Over...complexity, the number of iterations necessary to gain convergence causes the simulation to be too expensive. The modern CFD method of overset or...solvers are Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) Beam-Warming, Steger- Warming, Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS), and Successive Symmetric
Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...
Trajectory of a synthetic jet issuing into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
Berk, Tim; Baidya, Rio; de Silva, Charitha; Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-11-01
Synthetic jets are zero-net-mass-flux actuators that can be used in a range of flow control applications. For several pulsed/synthetic jet in cross-flow applications the variation of the jet trajectory in the mean flow with jet and boundary layer parameters is important. This trajectory will provide an indication of the penetration depth of the pulsed/synthetic jet into a boundary layer. Trajectories of a synthetic jet in a turbulent boundary layer are measured for a range of actuation parameters in both low- and high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ = 13000). The important parameters influencing the trajectory are determined from these measurements. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is shown to only have a small effect on the trajectory. In fact, the critical parameters are found to be the Strouhal number of the jet based on jet dimensions as well as the velocity ratio of the jet (defined as a ratio between peak jet velocity and the freestream velocity). An expression for the trajectory of the synthetic (or pulsed) jet is derived from the data, which (in the limit) is consistent with known expressions for the trajectory of a steady jet in a cross-flow. T.B. and B.G. are grateful to the support from the ERC (Grant Agreement No. 277472) and the EPSRC (Grant ref. no. EP/L006383/1).
Flowing of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers
Mironov, S. G.; Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.
2017-10-01
The paper presents new experimental results on the simulation of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets by macro-jet in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers of air outflow from the nozzle. A correlation is shown between the variations in the Pitot pressure in the model micro-jet with variations in the length of the supersonic core of real the micro-jets. The results of experiments on the effect of humidity on the pulsation of mass flow rate in a micro-jet are presented.
Runckel, Jack F.; Schmeer, James W.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a variable-sweep arrow-wing model (the "Swallow") with the outer wing panels swept 25 deg has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The wing was uncambered and untwisted and had RAE 102 airfoil sections with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.14 normal to the leading edge. Four outboard engines located above and below the wing provided propulsive thrust, and, by deflecting in the pitch direction and rotating in the lateral plane, also produced control forces. A pair of swept lateral fins and a single vertical fin were mounted on each engine nacelle to provide aerodynamic stability and control. Jets-off data were obtained with flow-through nacelles, stimulating the effects of inlet flow; jet thrust and hot-jet interference effects were obtained with faired-nose nacelles housing hydrogen peroxide gas generators. Six-component force and moment data were obtained through a Mach number range of 0.40 to 0.90 at angles of attack and angles of sideslip from 0 deg to 15 deg. Longitudinal, directional, and lateral control were obtained by deflecting the nacelle-fin combinations as elevators, rudders, and ailerons at several fixed angles for each control.
Jet Impingement Heat Transfer at High Reynolds Numbers and Large Density Variations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore
2010-01-01
Jet impingement heat transfer from a round gas jet to a flat wall has been investigated numerically in a configuration with H/D=2, where H is the distance from the jet inlet to the wall and D is the jet diameter. The jet Reynolds number was 361000 and the density ratio across the wall boundary...... layer was 3.3 due to a substantial temperature difference of 1600K between jet and wall. Results are presented which indicate very high heat flux levels and it is demonstrated that the jet inlet turbulence intensity significantly influences the heat transfer results, especially in the stagnation region....... The results also show a noticeable difference in the heat transfer predictions when applying different turbulence models. Furthermore calculations were performed to study the effect of applying temperature dependent thermophysical properties versus constant properties and the effect of calculating the gas...
Evaluation of Blended Wing-Body Combinations with Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up to 3.50
Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.
1960-01-01
This investigation is a continuation of the experimental and theoretical evaluation of the effects of wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of blended wing-body combinations. The present report compares previously tested straight-edged delta and arrow models which have leading-edge sweeps of 59.04 and 70-82 deg., respectively, with related models which have plan forms with curved leading and trailing edges designed to result in the same average sweeps in each case. All the models were symmetrical, without camber, and were generally similar having the same span, length, and aspect ratios. The wing sections had an average value of maximum thickness ratio of about 4 percent of the local wing chords in a streamwise direction. The wing sections were computed by varying their shapes along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The models were tested with transition fixed at Reynolds numbers of roughly 4,000,000 to 9,000,000, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. The characteristic effect of the wing curvature of the delta and arrow models was an increase at subsonic and transonic speeds in the lift-curve slopes which was partially reflected in increased maximum lift-drag ratios. Curved edges were not evaluated on a diamond plan form because a preliminary investigation indicated that the curvature considered would increase the supersonic zero-lift wave drag. However, after the test program was completed, a suitable modification for the diamond plan form was discovered. The analysis presented in the appendix indicates that large reductions in the zero-lift wave drag would be obtained at supersonic Mach numbers if the leading- and trailing-edge sweeps are made to differ by indenting the trailing edge and extending the root of the leading edge.
The Effect Of Different Micro-Jet Streams Number On Plastic Properties Of Welds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadryś D.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The main goal of that paper was analysing of plastic properties of welds made with micro-jet cooling. New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve plastic properties of welds. It allows to obtain welds with better properties in comparison to ordinary welding method. Moreover, it is possible to steering of weld structure and properties of the weld. During research Erichsen cupping tests and bending tests were carried out for welds made by MIG method with micro-jet cooling. Argon was cooling medium. Different numbers of micro-jet streams were used to weld cooling. Different plastic properties were obtained for different numbers of micro-jet streams. In this research welds made by new method of welding (welding with micro-jet cooling were compared with welds made by ordinary welding method.
Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET
Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Corrigan, G.; Ferreira, J.; Giroud, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A.G.; Solomon, W. M.; Strintzi, D.; Tsalas, M.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Zastrow, K. D.
2011-01-01
Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density
The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, G. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China)
2014-01-29
Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.
Formation Criterion for Axisymmetric Synthetic Jets at High Stokes Numbers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trávníček, Zdeněk; Broučková, Zuzana; Kordík, Jozef
2012-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 9 (2012), s. 2012-2017 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * power spectral density * hot-wire anemometry Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2012 http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/1.J051649
Formation of free round jets with long laminar regions at large Reynolds numbers
Zayko, Julia; Teplovodskii, Sergey; Chicherina, Anastasia; Vedeneev, Vasily; Reshmin, Alexander
2018-04-01
The paper describes a new, simple method for the formation of free round jets with long laminar regions by a jet-forming device of ˜1.5 jet diameters in size. Submerged jets of 0.12 m diameter at Reynolds numbers of 2000-12 560 are experimentally studied. It is shown that for the optimal regime, the laminar region length reaches 5.5 diameters for Reynolds number ˜10 000 which is not achievable for other methods of laminar jet formation. To explain the existence of the optimal regime, a steady flow calculation in the forming unit and a stability analysis of outcoming jet velocity profiles are conducted. The shortening of the laminar regions, compared with the optimal regime, is explained by the higher incoming turbulence level for lower velocities and by the increase of perturbation growth rates for larger velocities. The initial laminar regions of free jets can be used for organising air curtains for the protection of objects in medicine and technologies by creating the air field with desired properties not mixed with ambient air. Free jets with long laminar regions can also be used for detailed studies of perturbation growth and transition to turbulence in round jets.
Esenwein, Fred T; Schueller, Carl F
1952-01-01
An analysis of inlet-turbojet-engine matching for a range of Mach numbers up to 2.0 indicates large performance penalties when fixed-geometry inlets are used. Use of variable-geometry inlets, however, nearly eliminates th The analysis was confirmed experimentally by investigating at Mach numbers of 0, 0.63, and 1.5 to 2.0 two single oblique-shock-type inlets of different compression-ramp angles, which simulated a variable-geometry configuration. The experimental investigation indicated that total-pressure recoveries comparable withose attainable with well designed nose inlets were obtained with the side inlets when all the boundary layer ahead of the inlets was removed. Serious drag penalties resulted at a Mach number of 2.0 from the use of blunt-cowl leading edges. However, sharp-lip inlets produced large losses in thrust for the take-off condition. These thrust penalties which are associated with the the low-speed operation of the sharp-lip inlet designs can probably be avoided without impairing the supersonic performance of the inlet by the use of auxiliary inlets or blow-in doors.
Unsteady behavior of a confined jet in a cavity at moderate Reynolds numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, G; Climent, E
2012-01-01
Self-sustained oscillations in the sinuous mode are observed when a jet impinges on a rigid surface. Confined jet instability is experimentally and numerically investigated here at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the Reynolds number is varied, the dynamic response of the jet is unusual in comparison with that of similar configurations (hole-tone, jet edge, etc). Modal transitions are clearly detected when the Reynolds number is varied. However, these transitions result in a reduction of the frequency, which means that the wavelength grows with Reynolds number. Moreover, the instability that sets in at low Reynolds number, as a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, disappears only 25% above the threshold. Then, the flow becomes steady again and symmetric. This atypical behavior is compared with our previous study on a submerged fountain (Bouchet et al 2002 Europhys. Lett. 59 826). (paper)
Definition of invariants in 3-D application: study of the number of jets in e+e- events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proriol, J.
1993-01-01
In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. The usual method to tag the number of jets is the clusterization using classical algorithms. A set of invariants is defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to study the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 5 refs.; 2 figs
Novel methods for evaluation of the Reynolds number of synthetic jets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kordík, Jozef; Broučková, Zuzana; Vít, T.; Pavelka, Miroslav; Trávníček, Zdeněk
2014-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 6 (2014), 1757_1-1757_16 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P556 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * Reynolds number Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00348-014-1757-x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Bingxu; Yu Jiyang; Senechal, Dorothee; Mechitoua, Namane; Min Jiesheng; Chen Guofei
2015-01-01
During CFD simulations of the flows at low Mach number regime, the classical assumption which neglects the dilatable effect of gas is no longer applicable when the temperature variation or the concentration variation of the mixture's components is too large in the fluid domain. To be able to correctly predict the flow at such a regime, some authors have recourse to a Low Mach number algorithm. This algorithm is based on the well-known pressure-based algorithm or elliptic solver for incompressible flows, SIMPLE, with a modification for the treatment of the pressure which is split into two parts (the hydrodynamic pressure and the thermodynamic pressure) and a dilatable term added in the mass equation. This algorithm has been implemented in the CFD code, Code_—Saturne, developed by EDF R and D, and applied for the CFD simulations of the erosion phenomena of light gas stratification by air injection. This paper is devoted to the analytical work with the Low Mach number algorithm based on the ST1 series of the SETH-2 campaign provided by the OECD project on the PANDA test facility of PSI. The first part is focused on a mesh sensitivity analysis, which is a common procedure for CFD codes validation. The second part of the paper presents a comparison between the CFD results obtained with the standard algorithms used for incompressible flows and the Low Mach number algorithm. The third part is an analysis of the CFD results obtained on the reference mesh with both different Froude numbers corresponding to the tests ST1_—7 (Fr=6.04) and ST1_—10 (Fr=7.95) from the ST1 series. In the last part the authors perform the knowledge of the initial light gas distribution effect on the stratification erosion and the capability of the CFD codes to predict this phenomenon with an area governed by diffusion regime (at the top of the vessel) and another one by forced convection near the injection. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States)
2014-12-10
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Broučková Zuzana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study deals with a continuous jet issuing from a small narrow slot with a width of 0.36 mm. The experimental arrangement is based on the piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator studied previously for easy comparisons. The working fluid is water at room temperature. The experiments were performed using methods of particle image velocimetry (PIV and flow visualization (laser induced fluorescence, LIF. The time-mean volume flux through the exit nozzle was quantified using precise scales. The mean velocity and the Reynolds number were evaluated as Um = 0.12 m/s and Re = 90, respectively. The results of LIF and PIV techniques revealed the three-dimensional character of the flow field, namely the saddle-shape velocity profiles. This behavior is typical for steady jets from a rectangular nozzle. The obtained results were compared with previous measurements of the synthetic jet issuing from the same cavity and the slot nozzle.
Spearman, M. L.
1983-01-01
An investigation has been made to determine the effects of external stores on the stability and control characteristics of a delta wing fighter airplane model at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.01 for a Reynolds number of 3.0 X 1 million per foot. The angle-of-attack range was from about -4 degrees to 20 degrees at a sideslip angle of 0 degrees for the transonic tests, and from about -4 degrees to 10 degrees at sideslip angles of 0 degrees and 3 degrees for the supersonic tests. In general, the results of the tests indicated no seriously detrimental effects of the stores on the stability and control characteristics of the model but did show an increase in the minimum drag level throughout the Mach number range. However, the drag-due-to-lift was such that for subsonic/transonic speeds, the drag at higher lifts was essentially unaffected and the indications are that the maneuvering capability may not be impaired by the stores.
Mack, Robert J.
1988-01-01
A wind-tunnel study was conducted to determine the capability of a method combining linear theory and shock-expansion theory to design optimum camber surfaces for wings that will fly at high-supersonic/low-hypersonic speeds. Three force models (a flat-plate reference wing and two cambered and twisted wings) were used to obtain aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching-moment data. A fourth pressure-orifice model was used to obtain surface-pressure data. All four wing models had the same planform, airfoil section, and centerbody area distribution. The design Mach number was 4.5, but data were also obtained at Mach numbers of 3.5 and 4.0. Results of these tests indicated that the use of airfoil thickness as a theoretical optimum, camber-surface design constraint did not improve the aerodynamic efficiency or performance of a wing as compared with a wing that was designed with a zero-thickness airfoil (linear-theory) constraint.
Pittman, J. L.
1979-01-01
Aerodynamic predictions from supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact theory were compared with experimental data for three hypersonic research airplane concepts over a Mach number range from 1.10 to 2.86. The linear theory gave good lift prediction and fair to good pitching-moment prediction over the Mach number (M) range. The tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone/tangent-wedge method gave the least accurate prediction of lift and pitching moment. The zero-lift drag was overestimated, especially for M less than 2.0. The linear theory drag prediction was generally poor, with areas of good agreement only for M less than or equal to 1.2. For M more than or equal to 2.), the tangent-cone method predicted the zero-lift drag most accurately.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Seung Min [GyeongBuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
In the present study, the effects of non-equilibrium condensation on the drag divergence Mach number with the angle of attack in a transonic 2D moist air flow of NACA0012 are investigated using the TVD finite difference scheme. For the same α, the maximum upstream Mach number of the shock wave, Mmax, and the size of supersonic bubble decrease with the increase in Φ{sub 0}. For the same M{sub ∞}, Φ{sub 0}, and T{sub 0}, the length of the non-equilibrium condensation zone Δ{sub z} decreases with increasing Φ{sub 0}. On the other hand, because of the attenuating effect of non-equilibrium condensation on wave drag, which is related to the interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer, the drag coefficient C{sub D} decreases with an increase in Φ{sub 0} for the same M{sub ∞} and α. For the same α, M{sub D} increases with increasing Φ{sub 0}, while M{sub D} decreases with an increase in α.
Nason, Martin L.; Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Rock, Rupert S.
1955-01-01
A linear stability analysis and flight-test investigation has been performed on a rolleron-type roll-rate stabilization system for a canard-type missile configuration through a Mach number range from 0.9 to 2.3. This type damper provides roll damping by the action of gyro-actuated uncoupled wing-tip ailerons. A dynamic roll instability predicted by the analysis was confirmed by flight testing and was subsequently eliminated by the introduction of control-surface damping about the rolleron hinge line. The control-surface damping was provided by an orifice-type damper contained within the control surface. Steady-state rolling velocities were at all times less than 1 radian per second between the Mach numbers of 0.9 to 2.3 on the configurations tested. No adverse longitudinal effects were experienced in flight because of the tendency of the free-floating rollerons to couple into the pitching motion at the low angles of attack and disturbance levels investigated herein after the introduction of control-surface damping.
A Sweeping Jet Application on a High Reynolds Number Semispan Supercritical Wing Configuration
Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Chan, David T.; Melton, Latunia; Goodliff, Scott L.; Cagle, C. Mark
2017-01-01
The FAST-MAC circulation control model was modified to test an array of unsteady sweeping-jet actuators at realistic flight Reynolds numbers in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two types of sweeping jet actuators were fabricated using rapid prototype techniques, and directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for low-speed high-lift testing with flap deflections of 30 deg and 60 deg, and a transonic cruise configuration having a 0 deg flap deflection. For the 30 deg flap high-lift configuration, the sweeping jets achieved comparable lift performance in the separation control regime, while reducing the mass flow by 54% as compared to steady blowing. The sweeping jets however were not effective for the 60 deg flap. For the transonic cruise configuration, the sweeping jets reduced the drag by 3.3% at an off-design condition. The drag reduction for the design lift coefficient for the sweeping jets offer is only half the drag reduction shown for the steady blowing case (6.5%), but accomplished this with a 74% reduction in mass flow.
Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Fell, Jared S.; Webb, Sandy R.; Cagle, C. Mark
2016-01-01
The application of a sweeping jet actuator to a circulation control system was initiated by a risk reduction series of experiments to optimize the authority of a single sweeping jet actuator. The sweeping jet design was integrated into the existing Fundamental Aerodynamic Subsonic Transonic- Modular Active Control (FAST-MAC) model by replacing the steady blowing system with an array of thirty-nine sweeping jet cartridges. A constant slot height to wing chord ratio was similar to the steady blowing configuration resulting in each actuator having a unique in size for the sweeping jet configuration. While this paper will describe the scaling and optimization of the actuators for future high Reynolds number applications, the major focus of this effort was to target the transonic flight regime by increasing the amplitude authority of the actuator. This was accomplished by modifying the diffuser of the sweeping jet actuator, and this paper highlights twelve different diffuser designs. The experimental portion of this work was completed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility.
Sojka, Paul E.; Rodrigues, Neil S.
2015-11-01
The current study investigates the drop characteristics of three Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sprays produced by the impingement of two liquid jets. The three water-based solutions used in this work (0.5 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.8 wt.-% CMC-7MF, and 1.4 wt.-% CMC-7MF) exhibited strong shear-thinning, non-Newtonian behavior - characterized by the Bird-Carreau rheological model. A generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number was used as the primary parameter to characterize the drop size and the drop velocity, which were measured using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). PDA optical configuration enabled a drop size measurement range of approximately 2.3 to 116.2 μm. 50,000 drops were measured at each test condition to ensure statistical significance. The arithmetic mean diameter (D10) , Sauter mean diameter (D32) , and mass median diameter (MMD) were used as representative diameters to characterize drop size. The mean axial drop velocity Uz -mean along with its root-mean square Uz -rms were used to characterize drop velocity. Incredibly, measurements for all three CMC liquids and reference DI water sprays seemed to follow a single curve for D32 and MMD drop diameters in the high generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number range considered in this work (9.21E +03
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fasel, Hermann
2000-01-01
... out. For low subsonic Mach numbers, we have found that zero-mass jets that are generated by high-frequency forcing can have a significant effect on the flow structures that develop downstream of the base...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Core, X.
2002-02-01
The isobar approximation for the system of the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species is a suitable approximation to represent low Mach number reactive flows. In this approximation, which neglects acoustics phenomena, the mixture is hydrodynamically incompressible and the thermodynamic effects lead to an uniform compression of the system. We present a novel numerical scheme for this approximation. An incremental projection method, which uses the original form of mass balance equation, discretizes in time the Navier-Stokes equations. Spatial discretization is achieved through a finite volume approach on MAC-type staggered mesh. A higher order de-centered scheme is used to compute the convective fluxes. We associate to this discretization a local mesh refinement method, based on Flux Interface Correction technique. A first application concerns a forced flow with variable density which mimics a combustion problem. The second application is natural convection with first small temperature variations and then beyond the limit of validity of the Boussinesq approximation. Finally, we treat a third application which is a laminar diffusion flame. For each of these test problems, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed numerical scheme, notably for the density spatial variations. We analyze the gain in accuracy obtained with the local mesh refinement method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barigozzi, Giovanna; Armellini, Alessandro; Mucignat, Claudio; Casarsa, Luca
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Flow visualization and PIV documented the presence of large coherent structures. ► The presence of coherent structures is documented up to the vane trailing edge. ► Shape and direction of rotation of vortices change with injection conditions. ► Vortices morphology influences the film cooling effectiveness distributions. ► A Mach number increase moves vortices closer to the wall. - Abstract: The present paper shows the results of an experimental investigation into the unsteadiness of coolant ejection at the trailing edge of a highly loaded nozzle vane cascade. The trailing edge cooling scheme features a pressure side cutback with film cooling slots, stiffened by evenly spaced ribs in an inline configuration. Cooling air is also ejected through two rows of cylindrical holes placed upstream of the cutback. Tests were performed with a low inlet turbulence intensity level (Tu 1 = 1.6%), changing the cascade operating conditions from low speed (M 2is = 0.2) up to high subsonic regime (M 2is = 0.6), and with coolant to main stream mass flow ratio varied within the 0.5–2.0% range. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualizations were used to investigate the unsteady mixing process taking place between coolant and main flow downstream of the cutback, up to the trailing edge. For all the tested conditions, the results show the presence of large coherent structures, which presence is still evident up to the trailing edge. Their shape and direction of rotation change with injection conditions, as a function of coolant to mainstream velocity ratio, strongly influencing the thermal protection capability of the injected coolant flow. The Mach number increase is only responsible for a positioning of such vortical structures closer to the wall, while the Strouhal number almost remains unchanged.
Carlson, H. W.
1979-01-01
A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, A. M.; Zingale, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B. [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-08-10
The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar-mass, double-detonation model for SNe Ia, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes, including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and convective runaway. Our results suggest that the double-detonation progenitor model is promising and that 3D dynamic convection plays a key role.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-01-01
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
An experimental setup for visualizations and measurements on free hypersonic jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tordella Daniela
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The free hypersonic jets can be found in several technological applications and even in astrophysical observations. This article is mainly devoted to explain an experiment about visualizations and measurements on free hypersonic jets extending on length scales in the order of hundreds of initial diameters and traveling in a medium not necessarily made of the same gas of the jets. The experiments are performed by means of special facilities where the jet Mach numbers and the jetto-ambient density ratios can be set independently of each other, what permits the investigation of a wide parameters range in the relevant physics. The Mach number of the jets ranges from 5 to 20 and the jet-to ambient density ratio, which plays an important role in the jets morphology, can be set from 0.1 up to values exceeding 100. The present setup produces the jets by means of a fast piston system (for high Mach numbers or injection valves (for low Mach numbers, both coupled with de Laval nozzles. The visualizations and measurements are based on the electron beam technique: the jets are weakly ionized, then a fast CMOS camera captures images that are analyzed by image processing techniques. A sample of the results obtained by this experimental system is included at the end of this work.
Loposer, J. Dan; Rumsey, Charles B.
1954-01-01
Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.
A Quantitative Analysis of Starting Jet Vortex Ring Entrainment at Low Reynolds Number
2007-05-07
or underwater travel , would be restricted by their very nature and design to operation in the low Reynolds numbers regimes of a few thousand or below...differences in this regime, suggested by natural trends in Figure 1 and Figure 2, would be to use a jet-type propulsor, as does a squid or salp ...Selasphorus scintilla) and salps (Salpa thompsoni), indicate pulsatile propulsion schemes as a possible alternative for motive power of small UAVs
Large scale Direct Numerical Simulation of premixed turbulent jet flames at high Reynolds number
Attili, Antonio; Luca, Stefano; Lo Schiavo, Ermanno; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Creta, Francesco
2016-11-01
A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed jet flames at different Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers is presented. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with 16 species and 73 reactions and up to 22 Billion grid points. The jet consists of a methane/air mixture with equivalence ratio ϕ = 0 . 7 and temperature varying between 500 and 800 K. The temperature and species concentrations in the coflow correspond to the equilibrium state of the burnt mixture. All the simulations are performed at 4 atm. The flame length, normalized by the jet width, decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. This is consistent with an increase of the turbulent flame speed due to the increased integral scale of turbulence. This behavior is typical of flames in the thin-reaction zone regime, which are affected by turbulent transport in the preheat layer. Fractal dimension and topology of the flame surface, statistics of temperature gradients, and flame structure are investigated and the dependence of these quantities on the Reynolds number is assessed.
On two distinct Reynolds number regimes of a turbulent square jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minyi Xu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The effects of Reynolds number on both large-scale and small-scale turbulence properties are investigated in a square jet issuing from a square pipe. The detailed velocity fields were measured at five different exit Reynolds numbers of 8×103≤Re≤5×104. It is found that both large-scale properties (e.g., rates of mean velocity decay and spread and small-scale properties (e.g., the dimensionless dissipation rate constant A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 are dependent on Re for Re≤3×104 or Reλ≤190, but virtually become Re-independent with increasing Re or Reλ. In addition, for Reλ>190, the value of A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 in the present square jet converges to 0.5, which is consistent with the observation in direct numerical simulations of box turbulence, but lower than that in circular jet, plate wake flows, and grid turbulence. The discrepancies in critical Reynolds number and A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 among different turbulent flows most likely result from the flow type and initial conditions.
Fisher, D. F.; Saltzman, E. J.
1973-01-01
Boundary-layer and local friction data for Mach numbers up to 2.5 and Reynolds numbers up to 3.6 x 10 to the 8th power were obtained in flight at three locations on the XB-70-1 airplane: the lower forward fuselage centerline (nose), the upper rear fuselage centerline, and the upper surface of the right wing. Local skin friction coefficients were derived at each location by using (1) a skin friction force balance, (2) a Preston probe, and (3) an adaptation of Clauser's method which derives skin friction from the rake velocity profile. These three techniques provided consistent results that agreed well with the von Karman-Schoenherr relationship for flow conditions that are quasi-two-dimensional. At the lower angles of attack, the nose-boom and flow-direction vanes are believed to have caused the momentum thickness at the nose to be larger than at the higher angles of attack. The boundary-layer data and local skin friction coefficients are tabulated. The wind-tunnel-model surface-pressure distribution ahead of the three locations and the flight surface-pressure distribution ahead of the wing location are included.
Berry, S. A.
1986-01-01
An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.
Scalar transport across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in jets: Schmidt number effects
Silva, Tiago S.; B. da Silva, Carlos; Idmec Team
2016-11-01
The dynamics of a passive scalar field near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) is analysed through direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 142 <= Reλ <= 246 , and Schmidt numbers from 0 . 07 <= Sc <= 7 . The steepness of the scalar gradient, as observed from conditional profiles near the TNTI, increases with the Schmidt number. Conditional scalar gradient budgets show that for low and moderate Schmidt numbers a diffusive superlayer emerges at the TNTI, where the scalar gradient diffusion dominates, while the production is negligible. For low Schmidt numbers the growth of the turbulent front is commanded by the molecular diffusion, whereas the scalar gradient convection is negligible. The authors acknowledge the Laboratory for Advanced Computing at University of Coimbra for providing HPC, computing, consulting resources that have contributed to the research results reported within this paper. URL http://www.lca.uc.pt.
Driver, Cornelius
1956-01-01
Tests have been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01 to determine the static longitudinal stability and control characteristics of various arrangements of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane. Tests were made of the complete model and various combinations of its component parts and, in addition, the effects of various body modifications, a revised vertical tail, and wing fences on the longitudinal characteristics were determined. The results indicate that for a horizontal-tail incidence of -10 deg the trim lift coefficient varied from 0.29 at a Mach number of 1.61 to 0.23 at a Mach number of 2.01 with a corresponding decrease in lift-drag trim from 3.72 to 3.15. Stick-position instability was indicated in the low-supersonic-speed range. A photographic-type nose modification resulted in slightly higher values of minimum drag coefficient but did not significantly affect the static stability or lift-curve slope. The minimum drag coefficient for the complete model with the production nose remained essentially constant at 0.047 throughout the Mach number range investigated.
Sinclair, Archibald R; Mace, William D
1956-01-01
A limited calibration of a combined pitot-static tube and vane-type flow-angularity indicator has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01. The results indicated that the angle-of-yaw indications were affected by unsymmetric shock effects at low angles of attack.
Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis
1950-01-01
As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.
Ferri, Antonio; Nucci, Louis M
1954-01-01
Contains theoretical and experimental analysis of circular inlets having a central body at Mach numbers of 3.30, 2.75, and 2.45. The inlets have been designed in order to have low drag and high pressure recovery. The pressure recoveries obtained are of the same order of magnitude as those previously obtained by inlets having very large external drag.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Bauer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.
Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.
Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura
2011-09-21
The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Re<10. Similarly, the work required to generate the pulsing motion increases significantly for Re<10. When compared to actual organisms, the swimming velocities and vortex separation patterns for the model prolate agree with those observed in Nemopsis bachei. The forward swimming velocities of the model oblate jellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as
Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet
Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.
2017-06-01
The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S
2011-01-01
The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of its propulsion system with squid. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and dimensionless frequency (St L ) in the range 0.2-0.6 in a glycerin-water mixture. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses from the velocity and vorticity fields of the jet flow to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency, and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 37 and 60. The current results for propulsive efficiency were compared to the previously published results in water where Re ranged between 1300 and 2700. The results showed that the average propulsive efficiency decreased by 26% as the average Re decreased from 2000 to 50 while the ratio of pulsed-jet to steady jet efficiency (η P /η P,ss ) increased up to 0.15 (26%) as the Re decreased over the same range and for similar pulsing conditions. The improved η P /η P,ss at lower Re suggests that pulsed-jet propulsion can be used as an efficient propulsion system for millimeter-scale propulsion applications. The Re = 37-60 conditions in the present investigation, showed a reduced dependence of η P and η P /η P,ss on L/D compared to higher Re results. This may be due to the lack of clearly observed vortex ring pinch-off as L/D increased for this Re regime.
Bond, Aleck C.; Swanson, Andrew G.
1953-01-01
A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.
Toward Active Control of Noise from Hot Supersonic Jets
2012-11-15
et al. (2011a), the Mach number chosen for this study is not typical of commercial or military aircraft engines, and bears little relevance to most...CHRISTOPHER K. W., VISWANATHAN, K., AHUJA, K. K. & PANDA , J. 2008 The sources of jet noise: experimental evidence. J. Fluid Mech. 615, 253-292. TANNA, H. K
Effect of outer stagnation pressure on jet structure in supersonic coaxial jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Myoung Jong; Woo, Sang Woo; Lee, Byeong Eun; Kwon, Soon Bum
2001-01-01
The characteristics of dual coaxial jet which composed of inner supersonic nozzle of 26500 in constant expansion rate with 1.91 design Mach number and outer converging one with 40 .deg. C converging angle with the variation of outer nozzle stagnation pressure are experimentally investigated in this paper. In which the stagnation pressure for the inner supersonic nozzle is 750kPa thus, the inner jet leaving the nozzle is slightly underexpanded. The plenum pressure of outer nozzle are varied from 200 to 600kPa. Flow visualizations by shadowgraph method, impact pressure and centerline static pressure measurements of dual coaxial jet are presented. The results show that the presence of outer jet affects significantly the structures and pressure distributions of inner jet. And outer jet causes Mach disk which does not appear for the case of single jet stream. As the stagnation pressure of outer jet increases, impact pressure undulation is severe, but the average impact pressure keeps high far downstream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardenas, Camilo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe (Germany); Convenio Andres Bello, Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Educativas para la Integracion, La Paz (Bolivia); Denev, Jordan A.; Bockhorn, Henning [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engler-Bunte-Institute, Combustion Division, Karlsruhe (Germany); Suntz, Rainer [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2012-10-15
Investigation of the mixing process is one of the main issues in chemical engineering and combustion and the configuration of a jet into a cross-flow (JCF) is often employed for this purpose. Experimental data are gained for the symmetry plane in a JCF-arrangement of an air flow using a combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The experimental data with thoroughly measured boundary conditions are complemented with direct numerical simulations, which are based on idealized boundary conditions. Two similar cases are studied with a fixed jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of 3.5 and variable cross-flow Reynolds numbers equal to 4,120 and 8,240; in both cases the jet issues from the pipe at laminar conditions. This leads to a laminar-to-turbulent transition, which depends on the Reynolds number and occurs quicker for the case with higher Reynolds number in both experiments and simulations as well. It was found that the Reynolds number only slightly affects the jet trajectory, which in the case with the higher Reynolds number is slightly deeper. It is attributed to the changed boundary layer shape of the cross-flow. Leeward streamlines bend toward the jet and are responsible for the strong entrainment of cross-flow fluid into the jet. Velocity components are compared for the two Reynolds numbers at the leeward side at positions where strongest entrainment is present and a pressure minimum near the jet trajectory is found. The numerical simulations showed that entrainment is higher for the case with the higher Reynolds number. The latter is attributed to the earlier transition in this case. Fluid entrainment of the jet in cross-flow is more than twice stronger than for a similar flow of a jet issuing into a co-flowing stream. This comparison is made along the trajectory of the two jets at a distance of 5.5 jet diameters downstream and is based on the results from the direct numerical simulations and recently published
Montoya, L. C.; Economu, M. A.; Cissell, R. E.
1974-01-01
The use of a pitot-static probe to determine wing section drag at speeds from Mach 0.5 to approximately 1.0 was evaluated in flight. The probe unit is described and operational problems are discussed. Typical wake profiles and wing section drag coefficients are presented. The data indicate that the pitot-static probe gave reliable results up to speeds of approximately 1.0.
PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Broučková, Zuzana; Hsu, S.S.; Wang, A. B.; Trávníček, Zdeněk
2016-01-01
Roč. 114, March (2016), č. článku 02007. ISSN 2101-6275. [International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics /10./. Praha, 17.11.2015-20.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : continuous jet * slot jet * particle image velocimetry Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts
A Whitham-Theory Sonic-Boom Analysis of the TU-144 Aircraft at a Mach Number of 2.2
Mack, Robert J.
1999-01-01
. Therefore, an analysis of the Tu-144 was made to obtain predictions of pressure signature shape and shock strengths at cruise conditions so that the range and characteristics of the required pressure gages could be determined well in advance of the tests. Cancellation of the sonic-boom signature measurement part of the tests removed the need for these pressure gages. Since CFD methods would be used to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the Tu-144 and make similar pressure signature predictions, the relatively quick and simple Whitham-theory pressure signature predictions presented in this paper could be used for comparisons. Pressure signature predictions of sonic-boom disturbances from the Tu- 144 aircraft were obtained from geometry derived from a three-view description of the production aircraft. The geometry was used to calculate aerodynamic performance characteristics at supersonic-cruise conditions. These characteristics and Whitham/Walkden sonic-boom theory were employed to obtain F-functions and flow-field pressure signature predictions at a Mach number of 2.2, at a cruise altitude of 61000 feet, and at a cruise weight of 350000 pounds.
Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection
Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.;
2016-01-01
We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.
Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces
Mccain, W. E.
1984-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.
Graves, E. B.; Fournier, R. H.
1979-01-01
The tests were performed at a Mach number of 2.50 and at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 32 deg. The results indicate that increasing nose bluntness increases zero lift drag and decreases both the maximum lift-drag ratio and the level of directional stability. The center of pressure generally moves forward with increasing nose size; however, small nose radii on the modified elliptical configurations move the center of pressure rearward. The circular bodied configurations exhibit the greatest longitudinal stability and the least directional stability. Concepts with the variable geometry afterbody contour display the most directional stability and the greatest zero lift drag.
Brown, Clarence A , Jr
1957-01-01
A full- scale rocket-powered model of a cruciform canard missile configuration with a low- aspect - ratio wing and blunt nose has been flight tested by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division. Static and dynamic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of this interdigitated canard-wing missile configuration were determined by using the pulsed- control technique at low angles of attack and for a Mach number range of 1.2 to 2.1. The lift - curve slope showed only small nonlinearities with changes in control deflection or angle of attack but indicated a difference in lift- .curve slope of approximately 7 percent for the two control deflections of delta = 3.0 deg and delta= -0.3 deg . The large tail length of the missile tested was effective in producing damping in pitch throughout the Mach number range tested. The aerodynamic- center location was nearly constant with Mach number for the two control deflections but was shown to be less stable with the larger control deflection. The increment of lift produced by the controls was small and positive throughout the Mach number range tested, whereas the pitching moment produced by the controls exhibited a normal trend of reduced effectiveness with increasing Mach number.The effectiveness of the controls in producing angle of attack, lift, and pitching moment was good at all Mach numbers tested.
Spatial stability of jets - the nonaxisymmetric fundamental and reflection modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardee, P.E.
1987-01-01
A spatial stability analysis of the relativistic dispersion relation governing the growth and propagation of harmonic components comprising a perturbation to the surface of a cylindrical jet is performed. The spatial growth of harmonic components associated with the nonaxisymmetric fundamental solution and reflection solutions of several Fourier modes are analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions describing resonant frequencies and wavelengths, and maximum growth rates at resonance applicable to relativistic jets are found from the dispersion relation, and the nature of the resonances is explored. On transonic jets there is only a fundamental solution for each Fourier mode with no resonance or maximum growth rate. On supersonic jets there is a fundamental solution and reflection solutions for each Fourier mode, and each solution contains a resonance at which the growth rate is a maximum. A numerical analysis of the fundamental and first three reflection solutions of the axisymmetric and first three nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes is performed. The numerical analysis is restricted to nonrelativistic flows but otherwise covers a broad range of Mach numbers and jet densities. The numerical results are used along with the analytical results to obtain accurate expressions for resonant frequencies, wavelengths, and growth rates as a function of Mach numnber and jet density. In all cases the fastest spatial growth rate at a given frequency is of harmonic components associated with the fundamental solution of one of the nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes. The application of these results to jet structure and implication of these results for jet structure in extragalactic radio sources are considered. 23 references
Crabill, Norman L.
1956-01-01
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted a flight test of a model approximating the McDonnell F3H-lN airplane configuration to determine its pitch-up and buffet boundaries, as well as the usual longitudinal stability derivatives obtainable from the pulsed- tail technique. The test was conducted by the freely flying rocket- boosted model technique developed at the Langley Laboratory; results were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.27 at corresponding Reynolds numbers of 2.6 x 10(exp 6) and 9.0 x 10(exp 6). The phenomena of pitch-up, buffet, and maximum lift were encountered at Mach numbers between 0.42 and 0.85. The lift-curve slope and wing-root bending-moment slope increased with increasing angle of attack, whereas the static stability decreased with angle of attack at subsonic speeds and increased at transonic speeds. There was little change in trim at low lift at transonic speeds.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kegalj, Martin
2013-11-01
In axial turbines tip leakage forms a large portion of the overall losses. Applying a shroud is very aerodynamically useful, but the higher mechanical loads of the revolving rotor blading exposed to a high thermal load and the higher costs suggest a shroudless configuration is better. The main parameter in the tip leakage loss is the tip gap height, which cannot be reduced arbitrarily as a running gap is necessary due to thermal expansion and vibration of the jet engine. The pressure ratio between pressure and suction of the rotor blade forces the fluid over the blade tip and leads to the formation of the tip leakage vortex. Reduced turning and losses caused by vortices and subsequent mixing are responsible for the reduced efficiency. Using a squealer cavity on the flat blade tip is a feasible way to reduce the aerodynamic losses. A portion of the kinetic energy of the tip leakage flow is dissipated while entering the cavity; the flow exiting the cavity enters the passage with reduced momentum and reduced tip gap mass flow. A 1(1)/(2) stage low mach number turbine was used to investigate the influence of tip geometry. Aerodynamic measurements, performed with five-hole probes, two-component hot-wire anemometer, unsteady wall pressure sensors, stereo and borescopic particle-image-velocimetry setups and oil and dye flow visualization, found small differences in the flow velocities and angles between the flat and squealer tip configuration in the measurement planes downstream of the rotor. The measurement uncertainty proves the difficulty of determining the influence of the squealer cavity on the blade row outflow with global measurement data. To gather information on the flow close to the casing inside the rotor passage is only possible with non-intrusive laser measurement techniques. Comparison of the different tip geometries is still difficult due to the small differences in the absolute flow data. The use of the {lambda}{sub 2} vortex criterion enables an objective
Ernst Mach a deeper look : documents and new perspectives
1992-01-01
Ernst Mach -- A Deeper Look has been written to reveal to English-speaking readers the recent revival of interest in Ernst Mach in Europe and Japan. The book is a storehouse of new information on Mach as a philosopher, historian, scientist and person, containing a number of biographical and philosophical manuscripts publihsed for the first time, along with correspondence and other matters published for the first time in English. The book also provides English translations of Mach's controversies with leading physicists and psychologists, such as Max Planck and Carl Stumpf, and offers basic evidence for resolving Mach's position on atomism and Einstein's theory of relativity. Mach's scientific, philosophical and personal influence in a number of countries -- Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Yugoslavia among them -- has been carefully explored and many aspects detailed for the first time. All of the articles are eminently readable, especially those written by Mach's sister. They are deeply researched, new interpre...
Deviation of a Jet at a T junction at low Reynolds number
Panizza, Pascal; Engl, Wilfried; Ohata, Kouske; Colin, Annie
2006-03-01
We study the hydrodynamic behaviour of a laminar jet flowing through a channel when it reaches a junction. We observe the existence of two possible flow regimes, namely the splitting and deviation of a jet in the most simple microfluidic configuration, namely a T junction. The transition between the two regimes is not monitored by the shape of the T junction nor by capillary effects, but can be easily anticipated in terms of the hydrodynamic properties of the flow. We present a simple hydrodynamic model which is in very good agreement with observed experimental jet behaviour. The transition between both regime acts as a flow or viscosity comparator. We show how this effect can be used for the design of digital and integrated microfluidic devices
The Effect Of Different Micro-Jet Streams Number On Plastic Properties Of Welds
Hadryś D.; Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.
2015-01-01
The main goal of that paper was analysing of plastic properties of welds made with micro-jet cooling. New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve plastic properties of welds. It allows to obtain welds with better properties in comparison to ordinary welding method. Moreover, it is possible to steering of weld structure and properties of the weld. During research Erichsen cupping tests and bending tests were carried out for welds made by MIG method with micro-...
Igoe, William B.; Re, Richard J.; Cassetti, Marlowe
1961-01-01
An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and supersonic body indentation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body configuration at transonic speeds. Wing aspect ratio was 3.0, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord line sweepback was 52.5 deg with airfoil sections of 0.03 thickness ratio. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at various Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 14 deg. The cambered-wing configuration achieved higher lift-drag ratios than a similar plane-wing configuration. The camber also reduced the effects of wing-tip flow separation on the aerodynamic characteristics. In general, no stability or trim changes below wing-tip flow separation resulted from the use of camber. The use of supersonic body indentation improved the lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers from 0.96 to 1.05.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samir, U.; Wildman, P.J.; Rich, F.; Brinton, H.C.; Sagalyn, R.C.
1981-01-01
Measurements of ion current, electron temperature, and density and values of satellite potential from the U.S. Air Force Satellite S3-2 together with ion composition measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) satellite were used to examine the variation of the ratio α = [I/sub +/(wake)]/[I/sub +/(ambient)] (where I/sub +/ is the ion current) with altitude and to examine the significance of the parametric interplay between ionic Mach number, normalized body size R/sub D/( = R0/lambda/sub D/, where R 0 is the satellite radius and lambda/sub D/ is the ambient debye length) and normalized body potenital phi/sub N/( = ephis/KT/sub e/, where phi/sub s/ is the satellite potential, T/sub e/ is the electron temperature, and e and K are constants). It was possible to separate between the influence of R/sub D/ and phi/sub N/ on α for a specific range parameters. Uncertainty, however, remains regarding the competiton between R/sub D/ and S(H + ) and S(O + ) are oxygen and hydrogen ionic Mach numbers, respectively) in determining the ion distribution in the nearest vicincity to the satellite surface. A brief discussion relevant to future experiments in the area of body plasma flow interactions to be conducted on board the Shuttle/Spacelab facility, is also included
Application of low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulence models to the study of turbulent wall jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kechiche, Jamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, route de Ouardanine, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60, rue Joliot-Curie, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 13453 cedex 13, Marseille (France)
2004-02-01
In this work, we use closure models called ''low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models'', which are self-adapting ones using different damping functions, in order to explore the computed behavior of a turbulent plane two-dimensional wall jets. In this study, the jet may be either isothermal or submitted to various wall boundary conditions (uniform temperature or a uniform heat flux) in forced convection regime. A finite difference method, using a staggered grid, is employed to solve the coupled governing equations with the inlet and the boundary conditions. The predictions of the various low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models with standard or modified C{sub {mu}} adopted in this work were presented and compared with measurements and numerical results found in the literature. (authors)
Direct Computation of Sound Radiation by Jet Flow Using Large-scale Equations
Mankbadi, R. R.; Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Povinelli, L. A.
1995-01-01
Jet noise is directly predicted using large-scale equations. The computational domain is extended in order to directly capture the radiated field. As in conventional large-eddy-simulations, the effect of the unresolved scales on the resolved ones is accounted for. Special attention is given to boundary treatment to avoid spurious modes that can render the computed fluctuations totally unacceptable. Results are presented for a supersonic jet at Mach number 2.1.
Ansari, Abtin; Chen, Kevin K.; Burrell, Robert R.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.
2018-04-01
The opposed-jet counterflow configuration is widely used to measure fundamental flame properties that are essential targets for validating chemical kinetic models. The main and key assumption of the counterflow configuration in laminar flame experiments is that the flow field is steady and quasi-one-dimensional. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the behavior and controlling parameters of counterflowing isothermal air jets for various nozzle designs, Reynolds numbers, and surrounding geometries. The flow field in the jets' impingement region was analyzed in search of instabilities, asymmetries, and two-dimensional effects that can introduce errors when the data are compared with results of quasi-one-dimensional simulations. The modeling involved transient axisymmetric numerical simulations along with bifurcation analysis, which revealed that when the flow field is confined between walls, local bifurcation occurs, which in turn results in asymmetry, deviation from the one-dimensional assumption, and sensitivity of the flow field structure to boundary conditions and surrounding geometry. Particle image velocimetry was utilized and results revealed that for jets of equal momenta at low Reynolds numbers of the order of 300, the flow field is asymmetric with respect to the middle plane between the nozzles even in the absence of confining walls. The asymmetry was traced to the asymmetric nozzle exit velocity profiles caused by unavoidable imperfections in the nozzle assembly. The asymmetry was not detectable at high Reynolds numbers of the order of 1000 due to the reduced sensitivity of the flow field to boundary conditions. The cases investigated computationally covered a wide range of Reynolds numbers to identify designs that are minimally affected by errors in the experimental procedures or manufacturing imperfections, and the simulations results were used to identify conditions that best conform to the assumptions of
Bogey , Christophe; Bailly , Christophe
2007-01-01
International audience; Noise generation is investigated in subsonic isothermal round jets at Mach numbers M =0.6 and M =0.9, with Reynolds numbers ReD =1700 and ReD 105, using causality methods on data provided by large-eddy simulations. The correlations between broadband sound pressure signals and broadband turbulence signals along the jet axis and the shear layer are calculated. The normalized correlations are found to be significant between the pressure emitted in the downstream direction...
Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.
1993-01-01
A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angle-of-attack and sideslip regions studied.
Production of radiatively cooled hypersonic plasma jets and links to astrophysical jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, S V; Ciardi, A; Ampleford, D J; Bland, S N; Bott, S C; Chittenden, J P; Hall, G N; Rapley, J; Jennings, C; Sherlock, M; Frank, A; Blackman, E G
2005-01-01
We present results of high energy density laboratory experiments on the production of supersonic radiatively cooled plasma jets with dimensionless parameters (Mach number ∼30, cooling parameter ∼1 and density contrast ρ j /ρ a ∼ 10) similar to those in young stellar objects jets. The jets are produced using two modifications of wire array Z-pinch driven by 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse of MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. In the first set of experiments the produced jets are purely hydrodynamic and are used to study deflection of the jets by the plasma cross-wind, including the structure of internal oblique shocks in the jets. In the second configuration the jets are driven by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field and this configuration is relevant to the astrophysical models of jet launching mechanisms. Modifications of the experimental configuration allowing the addition of the poloidal magnetic field and angular momentum to the jets are also discussed. We also present three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiments and discuss the scaling of the experiments to the astrophysical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-06-17
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Bruner, N.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.
2011-01-01
We describe a new particle-based two-fluid fully electromagnetic algorithm suitable for modeling high density (n i ∼ 10 17 cm -3 ) and high Mach number laboratory plasma jets. In this parameter regime, traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques are challenging due to electron timescale and lengthscale constraints. In this new approach, an implicit field solve allows the use of large timesteps while an Eulerian particle remap procedure allows simulations to be run with very few particles per cell. Hall physics and charge separation effects are included self-consistently. A detailed equation of state (EOS) model is used to evolve the ion charge state and introduce non-ideal gas behavior. Electron cooling due to radiation emission is included in the model as well. We demonstrate the use of these new algorithms in 1D and 2D Cartesian simulations of railgun (parallel plate) jet accelerators using He and Ar gases. The inclusion of EOS and radiation physics reduces the electron temperature, resulting in higher calculated jet Mach numbers in the simulations. We also introduce a surface physics model for jet accelerators in which a frictional drag along the walls leads to axial spreading of the emerging jet. The simulations demonstrate that high Mach number jets can be produced by railgun accelerators for a variety of applications, including high energy density physics experiments.
Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)
2011-10-15
We describe a new particle-based two-fluid fully electromagnetic algorithm suitable for modeling high density (n{sub i} {approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and high Mach number laboratory plasma jets. In this parameter regime, traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques are challenging due to electron timescale and lengthscale constraints. In this new approach, an implicit field solve allows the use of large timesteps while an Eulerian particle remap procedure allows simulations to be run with very few particles per cell. Hall physics and charge separation effects are included self-consistently. A detailed equation of state (EOS) model is used to evolve the ion charge state and introduce non-ideal gas behavior. Electron cooling due to radiation emission is included in the model as well. We demonstrate the use of these new algorithms in 1D and 2D Cartesian simulations of railgun (parallel plate) jet accelerators using He and Ar gases. The inclusion of EOS and radiation physics reduces the electron temperature, resulting in higher calculated jet Mach numbers in the simulations. We also introduce a surface physics model for jet accelerators in which a frictional drag along the walls leads to axial spreading of the emerging jet. The simulations demonstrate that high Mach number jets can be produced by railgun accelerators for a variety of applications, including high energy density physics experiments.
Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows
Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2011-01-01
Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.
Influence of low atomic number plasma component on the formation of laser-produced plasma jets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 11 (2010), s. 114505 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Composed laser targets * target material * laser produced-plasma jets * PALS laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2010 http://pop.aip.org/ resource /1/phpaen/v17/i11/p114505_s1
Mach-Like Structure in a Patronic-Hadronic Transport Model at RHIC Energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Y.G.; Ma, G.L.; Zhang, S.
2008-01-01
Recent RHIC experimental results indicated an exotic partonic matter may be created in central Au + Au collisions at dollars sqrt (s ( NN))dollars =200 GeV. When a parton with high transverse momentum (jet) passes through the new matter, jet will quench. The lost energy will be redistributed into the medium. Experimentally the soft scattered particles which carry the lost energy have been reconstructed via di-hadron angular correlations of charged particles and a hump structure on away side in di-hadron $ Delta phi$ correlation has been observed in central Au + Au collisions [1,2]. Some interpretations, such as Mach-cone shock wave and gluon Cherenkov-like radiation mechanism etc, have been proposed to explain the splitting behavior of the away side peaks. However, quantitative understanding of the experimental observation has yet to be established. In this work, we use a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model to make a detailed simulation for di-hadron or tri-hadron azimuthal correlation for central Au + Au collisions at dollars sqrt(s ( NN)) dollars =200 GeV. The hump structure on away side (we called Mach-like structure later) in the di-hadron and tri-hadron azimuthal correlations has been observed [3,4,5]. Furthermore, the time evolution of Mach-like structure is presented [6]. With the increasing of the lifetime of partonic matter, Mach-like structure develops by strong parton cascade process. Not only the splitting parameter but also the number of associated hadrons (dollarsN ( h) (assoc)dollars) increases with the lifetime of partonic matter and partonic interaction cross section. Both the explosion of dollarsN ( h) (assoc)dollars following the formation of Mach-like structure and the corresponding results of three-particle correlation support that a partonic Mach-like behavior can be produced by a collective coupling of partons because of the strong parton cascade mechanism. Therefore, the studies about Mach-like structure may give us some critical information
Hollinger, James A.; Mitcham, Grady L.
1955-01-01
A flight test of a rocket-propelled model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane was conducted to determine the lateral stability and control characteristics, The 0.133-scale model had windmilling propellers for this test, which covered a Mach number range of O.70 to 1.12. The center of gravity was located at 13.9 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The methods of analysis included both a solution by vector diagrams and simple one- and two-degree-of-freedom methods. The model was both statically and dynamically stable throughout the speed range of the testa The roll damping was good, and the slope of the side-force curve varied little with speed. The rudder was effective throughout the test speed range, although it was reduced to about 43 percent of its subsonic value at supersonic speeds.
Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael
2017-07-01
We propose a new arbitrary high order accurate semi-implicit space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the solution of the two and three dimensional compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured curved meshes. The method is pressure-based and semi-implicit and is able to deal with all Mach number flows. The new DG scheme extends the seminal ideas outlined in [1], where a second order semi-implicit finite volume method for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a general equation of state was introduced on staggered Cartesian grids. Regarding the high order extension we follow [2], where a staggered space-time DG scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was presented. In our scheme, the discrete pressure is defined on the primal grid, while the discrete velocity field and the density are defined on a face-based staggered dual grid. Then, the mass conservation equation, as well as the nonlinear convective terms in the momentum equation and the transport of kinetic energy in the energy equation are discretized explicitly, while the pressure terms appearing in the momentum and energy equation are discretized implicitly. Formal substitution of the discrete momentum equation into the total energy conservation equation yields a linear system for only one unknown, namely the scalar pressure. Here the equation of state is assumed linear with respect to the pressure. The enthalpy and the kinetic energy are taken explicitly and are then updated using a simple Picard procedure. Thanks to the use of a staggered grid, the final pressure system is a very sparse block five-point system for three dimensional problems and it is a block four-point system in the two dimensional case. Furthermore, for high order in space and piecewise constant polynomials in time, the system is observed to be symmetric and positive definite. This allows to use fast linear solvers such as the conjugate gradient (CG) method. In
Garland, Benjamine J.; Chauvin, Leo T.
1957-01-01
Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made along the hemisphere and cylinder of a hemisphere-cylinder rocket-propelled model in free flight up to a Mach number of 3.88. The test Reynolds number based on free-stream condition and diameter of model covered a range from 2.69 x l0(exp 6) to 11.70 x 10(exp 6). Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were obtained. The laminar data along the body agreed with laminar theory for blunt bodies whereas the turbulent data along the cylinder were consistently lower than that predicted by the turbulent theory for a flat plate. Measurements of heat transfer at the stagnation point were, in general, lower than the theory for stagnation-point heat transfer. When the Reynolds number to the junction of the hemisphere-cylinder was greater than 6 x l0(exp 6), the transitional Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x l0(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6); however, than 6 x l(exp 6) when the Reynolds number to the junction was less, than the transitional Reynolds number varied from 7.0 x l0(exp 6) to 24.7 x 10(exp 6).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-01-01
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.
1957-01-01
A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of an inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model which was flight tested at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. Results indicate that the combined effects of the modified inlet and fully extended rocket racks on the trim lift coefficient and trim angle of attack were small between Mach numbers of 0.94 and 1.57. Between Mach numbers of 1.10 and 1.57 there was an average increase in drag coefficient of about o,005 for the model with modified inlet and extended rocket racks. The change in drag coefficient due to the inlet modification alone is small between Mach numbers of 1.59 and 1.64
Hofstetter, William R.
1957-01-01
The static longitudinal and lateral stability charaetefistics of an 0 .065-scale model of the XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach number range of 1.6 to 2.0 at a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0(exp 8)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.J. Luo
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the triple jets interaction with a hypersonic external flow on a revolution body. The experimental model is a ogive-cylinder body with three supersonic nozzles, which are aligned along the flow direction. The freestream Mach numbers are 5 and 6. The spatial and surface flow characteristics are illustrated by the schlieren photographs and the typical pressure distribution. The results show that there are multi-wave system, separation, reattachment, multi-peak pressure, high-pressure and low-pressure zone boundaries obvious distinction in tri-jets interference flowfield. The present paper also analyzes how do the pressure ratio, the angle of attack, and Mach number effect on tri-jets interaction characteristics.
Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.
1957-01-01
A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model between Mach Numbers of 0.81 and 1.64. This paper presents the changes in trim angle of attack, trim lift coefficient, and low-lift drag caused by the modified inlets alone over a small part of the test Mach number range and by a combination of the modified inlets and extended rocket racks throughout the remainder of the test.
Photodensitometric tracing of Mach bands and its significance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Shi Joon; Cho, Kyung Sik; Kang, Heung Sik; Cho, Byung Jae
1984-01-01
Mach bands, a visual phenomenon resulting from lateral inhibitory impulses in the retina, are recognized as lucent or dense lines at the borders of different radiographic densities. A number of clinical situations have been described in which Mach bands may cause difficulty in radiographic diagnosis. Photodensitometric measurement of the film can differentiate the true change in film density from the Mach band which is an optical illusion. Authors present several examples of photodensitometric tracings of Mach bands, with the brief review of the mechanism of their production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rylatt, D I; O'Donovan, T S
2014-01-01
Heat transfer to three configurations of ducted jet and un-ducted semiconfined jets is investigated experimentally. The influence of the jet operating parameters, stroke length (L 0 /D) and Reynolds (Re) number on the heat transferred to the jet is of particular interest. Heat transfer distributions to the jet are reported at H/D = 1 for a range of experimental parameters Re (1000 to 4000) and L 0 /D (5 to 20). Secondary and tertiary peaks are discernable in the heat transfer distributions across the range of parameters tested. It is shown that for a fixed Re varying the L 0 /D has little effect on the magnitude of the stagnation region heat transfer but does effect the position and magnitude of the secondary and tertiary peaks in the heat transfer distribution. It is also shown that for a fixed L 0 /D increasing the Re has a significant effect on the magnitude of the stagnation region heat transfer but has little impact on the position of the secondary and tertiary peaks in the heat transfer distributions. Ducting is added to the configuration to improve heat transfer by drawing cold air from a remote location into the jet flow. Ducting is shown to increase stagnation region and area averaged heat transfer across the range of jet parameters tested when compared with an un-ducted jets of equal confinement. Increasing the stroke length from L 0 /D = 5 to 20 for a Reynolds number of 2000 reduces the enhancement in stagnation region heat transfer provided by the ducting from 35% to 10%; the area averaged heat transfer provided by the ducting also changes from a 42% to a 21% enhancement. This is shown to be partly due to relative magnitude of the peaks in heat transfer outwith the stagnation region; at low stroke lengths, the difference in the magnitude of these peaks is large and reduces with increasing L 0 /D. It is also shown that as L 0 /D is increased the stagnation region heat transfer to the un-ducted jets increases while for the ducted jets stagnation region
Stevens, Joseph E.
1955-01-01
Low-lift drag data are presented herein for one 1/7.5-scale rocket-boosted model and three 1/45.85-scale equivalent-body models of the Grumman F9F-9 airplane, The data were obtained over a Reynolds number range of about 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord for the rocket model and total body length for the equivalent-body models. The rocket-boosted model showed a drag rise of about 0,037 (based on included wing area) between the subsonic level and the peak supersonic drag coefficient at the maximum Mach number of this test. The base drag coefficient measured on this model varied from a value of -0,0015 in the subsonic range to a maximum of about 0.0020 at a Mach number of 1.28, Drag coefficients for the equivalent-body models varied from about 0.125 (based on body maximum area) in the subsonic range to about 0.300 at a Mach number of 1.25. Increasing the total fineness ratio by a small amount raised the drag-rise Mach number slightly.
Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.
1961-01-01
An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Two-step simulation of velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Schmidt number in turbulent jets
Rah, K. Jeff; Blanquart, Guillaume
2016-11-01
Simulation of passive scalar in the high Schmidt number turbulent mixing process requires higher computational cost than that of velocity fields, because the scalar is associated with smaller length scales than velocity. Thus, full simulation of both velocity and passive scalar with high Sc for a practical configuration is difficult to perform. In this work, a new approach to simulate velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Sc is suggested to reduce the computational cost. First, the velocity fields are resolved by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Then, by extracting the velocity information from LES, the scalar inside a moving fluid blob is simulated by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). This two-step simulation method is applied to a turbulent jet and provides a new way to examine a scalar mixing process in a practical application with smaller computational cost. NSF, Samsung Scholarship.
Hastings, Earl E., Jr.; Mitcham, Grady L.
1954-01-01
A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control,characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane without propellers for the Mach number range between 0.73 and 1.19.
Baber, Hal T , Jr; Moul, Martin T
1955-01-01
Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle - of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 50 remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near 0 deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of 0 deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle -of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.
Baber, H. T., Jr.; Moul, M. T.
1955-01-01
Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle-of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg ). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 5 deg remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near O deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of O deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle-of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.
High and Low Reynolds number Measurements in a Room with an Impinging Isothermal Jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovgaard, M.; Hyldgaard, C. E.; Nielsen, Peter V.
The present paper, which is within the work of the lEA - annex 20, presents a series of full-scale velocity measurements in a room with isothermal mixing ventilation. The measurements are in the Reynolds number range 1000 - 7000 based on inlet dimensions. This means that a transition from laminar...
Time-Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets
Wernet, Mark P.
2007-01-01
Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is being used to characterize the decay of turbulence in jet flows a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A TR-PIV system, developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center, is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 10 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number.
Fluorescence Imaging of Underexpanded Jets and Comparison with CFD
Wilkes, Jennifer A.; Glass, Christopher E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Nowak, Robert J.
2006-01-01
An experimental study of underexpanded and highly underexpanded axisymmetric nitrogen free jets seeded with 0.5% nitric oxide (NO) and issuing from a sonic orifice was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. Reynolds numbers based on nozzle exit conditions ranged from 770 to 35,700, and nozzle exit-to-ambient jet pressure ratios ranged from 2 to 35. These flows were non-intrusively visualized with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.14 mm x 0.14 mm x 1 mm thick and a temporal resolution of 1 s using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of NO, with the laser tuned to the strongly-fluorescing UV absorption bands of the Q1 band head near 226.256 nm. Three laminar cases were selected for comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The cases were run using GASP (General Aerodynamic Simulation Program) Version 4. Comparisons of the fundamental wavelength of the jet flow showed good agreement between CFD and experiment for all three test cases, while comparisons of Mach disk location and Mach disk diameter showed good agreement at lower jet pressure ratios, with a tendency to slightly underpredict these parameters with increasing jet pressure ratio.
Aeroacoustic computation of low mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skriver Dahl, K. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-12-31
The possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines is explored. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound fields are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the charcteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solution for the problem of the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. (au)
Mach's principle and rotating universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, D.H.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero
The energetics of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei with various kinetic powers
Musoke, Gibwa Rebecca; Young, Andrew; Molnar, Sandor; Birkinshaw, Mark
2018-01-01
Numerical simulations are an important tool in understanding the physical processes behind relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. In such simulations different combinations of intrinsic jet parameters can be used to obtain the same jet kinetic powers. We present a numerical investigation of the effects of varying the jet power on the dynamic and energetic characteristics of the jets for two kinetic power regimes; in the first regime we change the jet density whilst maintaining a fixed velocity, in the second the jet density is held constant while the velocity is varied. We conduct 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of bipolar jets propagating through an isothermal cluster atmosphere using the FLASH MHD code in pure hydrodynamics mode. The jets are simulated with kinetic powers ranging between 1045 and 1046 erg/s and internal Mach numbers ranging from 5.6 to 21.5.As the jets begin to propagate into the intracluster medium (ICM), the injected jet energy is converted into the thermal, kinetic and gravitational potential energy components of the jet cocoon and ICM. We explore the temporal evolution of the partitioning of the injected jet energy into the cocoon and the ICM and quantify the importance of entrainment process on the energy partitioning. We investigate the fraction of injected energy transferred to the thermal energy component of the jet-ICM system in the context of heating the cluster environments, noting that the jets simulated display peak thermalisation efficiencies of least 65% and a marked dependence on the jet density. We compare the efficiencies of the energy partitioning between the cocoon and ICM for the two kinetic power regimes and discuss the resulting efficiency-power scaling relations of each regime.
The Reynolds number dependence of the velocity field in the BNL Jet-in-Pool water experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szczepura, R.T.
1981-02-01
The water Jet-in-Pool experiment at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories consists of an axisymmetric sudden expansion. A series of measurements was performed in this rig, using a single-channel Laser/Doppler Anemometer system, over a Reynolds number range of 1.4 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 4 to determine any dependence in the flow. The mean axial velocity data showed a slight variation, but the root-mean-square fluctuations of the axial velocity had a far more pronounced dependence. This was attributed to upstream conditions in the rig, specifically the nozzle used for injecting the central portion of the flow. The variations in the mean velocity data are sufficiently small for one set of data to act as a basis for calculations at any Reynolds number when a simple closure scheme such as a prescribed effective viscosity is used. However the variation in turbulence parameters will complicate the use of second-order closure schemes and this will be examined further. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length L ND = L 1 . • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length L SD . • Total length, L ND + L SD = L 2 , is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, L U . • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length L CV . • Total length, L ND + L SD + L CV = L 3 , is in agreement with average Potential core, L P . - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length L CIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio L CIH /H equal to L CIH /H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to L CIH /H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U ‾ 0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U ‾ 0 , remain below ±4% for a length L CIV , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio L CIV /H increases from L CIV /H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to L CIV /H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to L CIH /H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length L CIT , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio L CIT /H is equal to L CIV /H
An experimental study of the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Bae; Lee, Jun Hee; Woo, Sun Hoon; Kim, Heuy Dong
2002-01-01
The impinging supersonic jets have been applied for rocket launching system, thrust control, gas turbine blade cooling, etc. Recently the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets are being extensively used in many diverse fields of industrial processes since they lead to more improved performance, compared with the conventional supersonic jets impinging on an object. In the present study, experimentation is carried out to investigate the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate. A convergent-divergent nozzle with a design Mach number of 2.0 and annular sonic nozzle are used to make the dual, coaxial jet flows. The angle of the impinging flat plate is varied from 30 .deg. to 60 .deg. and the distance between the dual coaxial nozzle and flat plate is also varied. Detailed pressures on the impinging plate are measured to analyze the flow fields, which are also visualized using Schlieren optical method
Analysis of gas jetting and fumarole acoustics at Aso Volcano, Japan
McKee, Kathleen; Fee, David; Yokoo, Akihiko; Matoza, Robin S.; Kim, Keehoon
2017-06-01
The gas-thrust region of a large volcanic eruption column is predominately a momentum-driven, fluid flow process that perturbs the atmosphere and produces sound akin to noise from jet and rocket engines, termed ;jet noise;. We aim to enhance understanding of large-scale volcanic jets by studying an accessible, less hazardous fumarolic jet. We characterize the acoustic signature of 2.5-meter wide vigorously jetting fumarole at Aso Volcano, Japan using a 5-element infrasound array located on the nearby crater. The fumarole opened on 13 July 2015 on the southwest flank of the partially collapsed pyroclastic cone within Aso Volcano's Naka-dake crater and had persistent gas jetting, which produced significant audible jet noise. The array was 220 m from the fumarole and 57.6° from the vertical jet axis, a recording angle not typically feasible in volcanic environments. Array processing is performed to distinguish fumarolic jet noise from wind. Highly correlated periods are characterized by sustained, low-amplitude signal with a 7-10 Hz spectral peak. Finite difference time domain method numerical modeling suggests the influence of topography near the vent and along the propagation path significantly affects the spectral content, complicating comparisons with laboratory jet noise. The fumarolic jet has a low estimated Mach number (0.3 to 0.4) and measured temperature of 260 °C. The Strouhal number for infrasound from volcanic jet flows and geysers is not known; thus we assume a peak Strouhal number of 0.19 based on pure-air laboratory jet experiments. This assumption leads to an estimated exit velocity of the fumarole of 79 to 132 m/s. Using published gas composition data from 2003 to 2009, the fumarolic vent area estimated from thermal infrared images, and estimated jet velocity, we estimate total volatile flux at 160-270 kg/s (14,000-23,000 t/d).
Graham, John B., Jr.
1958-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.
Transonic Performance Characteristics of Several Jet Noise Suppressors
Schmeer, James W.; Salters, Leland B., Jr.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the transonic performance characteristics of several noise-suppressor configurations has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The models were tested statically and over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.05 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. The primary jet total-pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 4.5. The effect of secondary air flow on the performance of two of the configurations was investigated. A hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was used to supply the hot-jet exhaust. An 8-lobe afterbody with centerbody, short shroud, and secondary air had the highest thrust-minus-drag coefficients of the six noise-suppressor configurations tested. The 12-tube and 12-lobe afterbodies had the lowest internal losses. The presence of an ejector shroud partially shields the external pressure distribution of the 8-lobe after-body from the influence of the primary jet. A ring-airfoil shroud increased the static thrust of the annular nozzle but generally decreased the thrust minus drag at transonic Mach numbers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiaoyi, E-mail: lixy2@utrc.utc.com; Soteriou, Marios C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States)
2016-08-15
Recent advances in numerical methods coupled with the substantial enhancements in computing power and the advent of high performance computing have presented first principle, high fidelity simulation as a viable tool in the prediction and analysis of spray atomization processes. The credibility and potential impact of such simulations, however, has been hampered by the relative absence of detailed validation against experimental evidence. The numerical stability and accuracy challenges arising from the need to simulate the high liquid-gas density ratio across the sharp interfaces encountered in these flows are key reasons for this. In this work we challenge this status quo by presenting a numerical model able to deal with these challenges, employing it in simulations of liquid jet in crossflow atomization and performing extensive validation of its results against a carefully executed experiment with detailed measurements in the atomization region. We then proceed to the detailed analysis of the flow physics. The computational model employs the coupled level set and volume of fluid approach to directly capture the spatiotemporal evolution of the liquid-gas interface and the sharp-interface ghost fluid method to stably handle high liquid-air density ratio. Adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian droplet models are shown to be viable options for computational cost reduction. Moreover, high performance computing is leveraged to manage the computational cost. The experiment selected for validation eliminates the impact of inlet liquid and gas turbulence and focuses on the impact of the crossflow aerodynamic forces on the atomization physics. Validation is demonstrated by comparing column surface wavelengths, deformation, breakup locations, column trajectories and droplet sizes, velocities, and mass rates for a range of intermediate Weber numbers. Analysis of the physics is performed in terms of the instability and breakup characteristics and the features of downstream
Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Aasen, Nicole; Jarvis, Gary
2015-12-01
Rotational atherectomy with the use of the JetStream XC device is indicated for treatment of infrainguinal arterial obstructive disease. The number of blades-up (BU) runs needed for optimal tissue debulking in femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (ISR) is unknown. In the present series, 6 patients (15 lesions) were treated for femoropopliteal ISR with the JetStream XC device. Minimal luminal diameter or percent stenosis improved significantly from baseline after 2 BU runs, but no further gain was seen between 2 and 4 BU runs (P > .05). However, adjunctive balloon angioplasty reduced percent stenosis significantly following BU runs. In conclusion, the JetStream XC device achieved optimal acute angiographic results in treating femoropopliteal ISR following 2 BU runs and adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guanglong Chen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized deq in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Duca, V.
1992-11-01
Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons
Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.
1975-01-01
The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.
High resolution 3D gas-jet characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landgraf, Bjoern; Kaluza, Malte C.; Spielmann, Christian; Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander
2011-01-01
We present a tomographic characterization of gas jets employed for high-intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments where the shape can be non-symmetrically. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measured the phase shift for different directions through the neutral density distribution of the gas jet. From the recorded interferograms it is possible to retrieve 3-dimensional neutral density distributions by tomographic reconstruction based on the filtered back projections. We report on criteria for the smallest number of recorded interferograms as well as a comparison with the widely used phase retrieval based on an Abel inversion. As an example for the performance of our approach, we present the characterization of nozzles with rectangular openings or gas jets with shock waves. With our setup we obtained a spatial resolution of less than 60 μm for an Argon density as low as 2 x 10 17 cm -3 .
Controlling the development of coherent structures in high speed jets and the resultant near field
Speth, Rachelle
This work uses Large-Eddy Simulations to examine the effect of actuator parameters and jet exit properties on the evolution of coherent structures and their impact on the near-acoustic field without and with control. For the controlled cases, Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are considered, and modeled with a simple heating approach that successfully reproduces the main observations and trends of experiments. A parametric study is first conducted, using the flapping mode (m = +/-1), to investigate the sensitivity of the results to various actuator parameters including: actuator model temperature, actuator duty cycle, and excitation frequency. It is shown by considering a Mach 1.3 jet at Reynolds number of 1 x 106 that the response of the jet is relatively insensitive to actuator model temperature within the limits of the experimentally measured temperature values. Furthermore, duty cycles in the range of 20%--90% were observed to be effective in reproducing the characteristic coherent structures of the flapping mode. Next, jet flow parameters were explored to determine the control authority under different operating conditions. To begin, the effect of the laminar nozzle exit boundary layer thickness was examined by varying its value from essentially uniform flow to 25% of the diameter. In the absence of control, the distance between the nozzle lip and the initial appearance of breakdown is proportional to the boundary-layer thickness, which is consistent with theory and previous results obtained by other researchers at Mach 0.9. The second flow parameter studied was the effect of Reynolds number on a Mach 1.3 jet controlled by the flapping mode at an excitation Strouhal number of 0.3. The higher Reynolds number (Re=1,100,000) jet exhibited reduced control authority compared to the Re=100,000 jet. Like the effect of increasing the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness, increasing the Reynolds number cause a reduction in spreading on the flapping plane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fortin, T
2006-05-15
This work deals with the discretization of Navier-Stokes equations using different finite element methods adapted to the problem of two-phase flows. These methods must be of high order to limit the presence of spurious flows (which contradict the establishment of a physical equilibrium) and to verify energy conservation properties. Several solutions are proposed which seem to fulfill these expectations. A reformulation of the six-equation system adapted to low Mach two-phase flows has been also proposed. These methods have been implemented into the Trio-U code of CEA Grenoble, but have been tested only on simple 'academic' configurations. (J.S.)
Gyro precession and Mach's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eby, P.
1979-01-01
The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)
Numerical Experiments of Counterflowiing Jet Effects on Supersonic Slender-Body Configurations
Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Mullane, Michael; Cheng, Gary C.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2015-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of counterflowing jets can greatly reduce the drag and heat loads on blunt-body geometries, especially when the long penetration mode jet condition can be established. Previously, the authors had done some preliminary numerical studies to determine the ability to establish long penetration mode jets on a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration, and study its impact on the boom signature. The results indicated that a jet with a longer penetration length was required to achieve any impact on the boom signature of a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration. This paper focuses on an in-depth parametric study, done using the space-time conservation element solution element Navier-Stokes flow solver, for investigating the effect of various counterflowing jet conditions/configurations on two supersonic slender-body models (cone-cylinder and quartic body of revolution). The study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the relationship between the shock penetration length and reduction of drag and boom signature for these two supersonic slender-body configurations. Different jet flow rates, Mach numbers, nozzle jet exit diameters and jet-to-base diameter ratios were examined. The results show the characteristics of a short-to-long-to-short penetration-mode pattern with the increase of jet mass flow rates, observed across various counterflowing jet nozzle configurations. Though the optimal shock penetration length for potential boom-signature mitigation is tied to the long penetration mode, it often results in a very unsteady flow and leads to large oscillations of surface pressure and drag. Furthermore, depending on the geometry of the slender body, longer jet penetration did not always result in maximum drag reduction. For the quartic geometry, the maximum drag reduction corresponds well to the longest shock penetration length, while this was not the case for the cone-cylinder-as the geometry was already optimized for
Investigating the Feedback Path in a Jet-Surface Resonant Interaction
Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Bridges, James; Brown, Cliff
2015-01-01
A resonant interaction between an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet and flat-plates, placed parallel to the jet, is addressed in this study. For certain relative locations of the plates, the resonance takes place with accompanying audible tones. Even when the tone is not audible the sound pressure level spectra is often marked by conspicuous peaks. The frequencies of the spectral peaks, as functions of the streamwise length of the plate and its relative location to the jet as well as the jet Mach number, are explored in an effort of understand the flow mechanism. It is demonstrated that the tones are not due to a simple feedback between the plates trailing edge and the nozzle exit; the leading edge also comes into play in determining the frequency. An acoustic feedback path, involving diffraction from the leading edge, appears to explain the frequencies of some of the spectral peaks.
Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise
Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.
2016-04-01
We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.
Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H.
1990-01-01
An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.
Application of Time-resolved PIV to Supersonic Hot Jets
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2007-01-01
This presentation lays out the ground-breaking work at bringing high-speed (25kHz) particle image velocimetry (PIV) to bear on measurements of noise-producing turbulence in hot jets. The work is still in progress in that the tremendous amount of data obtained are still be analyzed, but the method has been validated and initial results of interest to jet noise modeling have been obtained. After a brief demonstration of the validation process used on the data, results are shown for hot jets at different temperatures and Mach numbers. Comparisons of first order statistics show the relative indifference of the turbulence to the presence of shocks and independence to jet temperature. What does come out is that when the shock-containing jets are in a screech mode the turbulence is highly elevated, showing the importance of removing screech phenomena from model-scale jets before applying findings to full-scale aircraft which typically do not contain shocks.
Blob Formation and Ejection in Coronal Jets due to the Plasmoid and Kelvin–Helmholtz Instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Qing-Min [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Murphy, Nicholas A., E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-05-20
We perform 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal jets driven by flux emergence along the lower boundary. The reconnection layers are susceptible to the formation of blobs that are ejected in the jet. Our simulation with low plasma β (Case I) shows that magnetic islands form easily and propagate upward in the jet. These islands are multithermal and thus are predicted to show up in hot channels (335 Å and 211 Å) and the cool channel (304 Å) in observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The islands have maximum temperatures of 8 MK, lifetimes of 120 s, diameters of 6 Mm, and velocities of 200 km s{sup −1}. These parameters are similar to the properties of blobs observed in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets by AIA. The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability develops in our simulation with moderately high plasma β (Case II) and leads to the formation of bright vortex-like blobs above the multiple high magnetosonic Mach number regions that appear along the jet. These vortex-like blobs can also be identified in the AIA channels. However, they eventually move downward and disappear after the high magnetosonic Mach number regions disappear. In the lower plasma β case, the lifetime for the jet is shorter, the jet and magnetic islands are formed with higher velocities and temperatures, the current-sheet fragments are more chaotic, and more magnetic islands are generated. Our results show that the plasmoid instability and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability along the jet are both possible causes of the formation of blobs observed at EUV wavelengths.
Low, Kerwin; Elhadidi, Basman; Glauser, Mark
2009-11-01
Understanding the different noise production mechanisms caused by the free shear flows in a turbulent jet flow provides insight to improve ``intelligent'' feedback mechanisms to control the noise. Towards this effort, a control scheme is based on feedback of azimuthal pressure measurements in the near field of the jet at two streamwise locations. Previous studies suggested that noise reduction can be achieved by azimuthal actuators perturbing the shear layer at the jet lip. The closed-loop actuation will be based on a low-dimensional Fourier representation of the hydrodynamic pressure measurements. Preliminary results show that control authority and reduction in the overall sound pressure level was possible. These results provide motivation to move forward with the overall vision of developing innovative multi-mode sensing methods to improve state estimation and derive dynamical systems. It is envisioned that estimating velocity-field and dynamic pressure information from various locations both local and in the far-field regions, sensor fusion techniques can be utilized to ascertain greater overall control authority.
Towards numerical simulations of supersonic liquid jets using ghost fluid method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A ghost fluid method based solver is developed for numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows. • The performance of the numerical tool is validated via several benchmark problems. • Emergence of supersonic liquid jets in quiescent gaseous environment is simulated using ghost fluid method for the first time. • Bow-shock formation ahead of the liquid jet is clearly observed in the obtained numerical results. • Radiation of mach waves from the phase-interface witnessed experimentally is evidently captured in our numerical simulations. - Abstract: A computational tool based on the ghost fluid method (GFM) is developed to study supersonic liquid jets involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities with high density ratios. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method and is capable of switching between the exact and approximate Riemann solvers to increase the robustness. The numerical methodology is validated through several benchmark test problems; these include one-dimensional multiphase shock tube problem, shock–bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, and underwater-explosion. A comparison between our results and numerical and experimental observations indicate that the developed solver performs well investigating these problems. The code is then used to simulate the emergence of a supersonic liquid jet into a quiescent gaseous medium, which is the very first time to be studied by a ghost fluid method. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. Also some of the famous flow characteristics, like the propagation of pressure-waves from the liquid jet interface and dependence of the Mach cone structure on the inlet Mach number, are reproduced numerically. The numerical simulations conducted here suggest that the ghost fluid method is an affordable and reliable scheme to study complicated interfacial evolutions in complex multiphase systems such as supersonic liquid
In situ acceleration in extragalactic radio jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicknell, G.V.; Melrose, D.B.
1982-01-01
We have examined the energy dissipated by large-scale turbulence in an extragalactic jet. The turbulence is driven by a shear instability which does not disrupt the jet. Fluid theory should be used to treat the evolution of the turbulence, and this allows us to estimate the rate of dissipation without detailed knowledge of the dissipation process. Dissipation occurs due to Fermi acceleration at a scale length approx.10 -3 R and that resonant acceleration plays no role. The Alfvenic component in the turbulent spectrum is dissipated by first being converted into magneto-acoustic waves. An alternative dissipation process due to formation of weak shocks is shown to be equivalent in some respects to Fermi acceleration. Dissipation in the thermal gas should not exceed that due to Fermi acceleration. The effect of Fermi acceleration, adiabatic losses, and radiative losses on an initial power-law distribution with an upper cutoff is studied. Radio emission extending to at least 100 GHz is shown to be possible, and no spectral index gradients are introduced by the acceleration. The upper cutoff can increase due to the acceleration alone or when the acceleration is balanced by radiative losses. The northern jet in NGC 315 is studied in detail. Using our model for the acceleration, we estimate a jet velocity > or approx. =5000 km s -1 with Mach number not much greater than 1, and a density -4 f -1 cm -3 at the turn-on of the jet at 6 cm, where 0.05 5 yr, and it is predicted that the radius of the jet at the turn-on point should vary with frequency either as ν/sup 2/3/ or as ν/sup 3/2/, or there may be no frequency dependence, contingent upon the details of the acceleration
Mach's predictions and relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1989-01-01
Deep methodological insight of Ernst Mach into the structure of the Newtonian mechanics allowed him to ask questions, the importance of which can be appreciated only today. Three such Mach's ''predictions'' are briefly presented, namely: the possibility of the existence of an allpervading medium which could serve as an universal frame of reference and which has actually been discovered in the form of the microwave background radiation, a certain ''smoothness'' of the Universe which is now recognized as the Robertson-Walker symmetries and the possibility of the experimental verification of the mass anisotropy. 11 refs. (author)
Karabasov, S A
2010-08-13
Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Těšínská, Emilie; Landa, Ivan; Drahoš, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 66, č. 3 (2016), s. 167-174 ISSN 0009-0700 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 ; RVO:68378114 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Ernst Mach * pedagogy * experiments * general education * ballistics * Doppler principle Subject RIV: AB - History; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)
Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles
1994-01-01
The design and development of an airborne flight-test experiment to study nonreacting gas jets injected transversely into transonic and supersonic crossflows is presented. Free-stream/crossflow Mach numbers range from 0.8 to 2.0. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of an iodine-seeded nitrogen jet is used to visualize the jet flow. Time-dependent images are obtained with a high-speed intensified video camera synchronized to the laser pulse rate. The entire experimental assembly is configured compactly inside a unique flight-test-fixture (FTF) mounted under the fuselage of the F-104G research aircraft, which serves as a 'flying wind tunnel' at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft is flown at predetermined speeds and altitudes to permit a perfectly expanded (or slightly underexpanded) gas jet to form just outside the FTF at each free-stream Mach number. Recorded gas jet images are then digitized to allow analysis of jet trajectory, spreading, and mixing characteristics. Comparisons will be made with analytical and numerical predictions. This study shows the viability of applying highly sophisticated groundbased flow diagnostic techniques to flight-test vehicle platforms that can achieve a wide range of thermo/fluid dynamic conditions. Realistic flow environments, high enthalpies, unconstrained flowfields, and moderate operating costs are also realized, in contrast to traditional wind-tunnel testing.
Time Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets
Wernet, Mark P.
2007-01-01
Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is the newest and most exciting tool recently developed to support our continuing efforts to characterize and improve our understanding of the decay of turbulence in jet flows -- a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A new TR-PIV system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center which is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 25 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number
Nattrass, Christine
2016-01-01
The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions
Flow Field and Acoustic Predictions for Three-Stream Jets
Simmons, Shaun Patrick; Henderson, Brenda S.; Khavaran, Abbas
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze a three-stream nozzle parametric design space. The study varied bypass-to-core area ratio, tertiary-to-core area ratio and jet operating conditions. The flowfield solutions from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code Overflow 2.2e were used to pre-screen experimental models for a future test in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Flowfield solutions were considered in conjunction with the jet-noise-prediction code JeNo to screen the design concepts. A two-stream versus three-stream computation based on equal mass flow rates showed a reduction in peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the three-stream jet relative to that for the two-stream jet which resulted in reduced acoustic emission. Additional three-stream solutions were analyzed for salient flowfield features expected to impact farfield noise. As tertiary power settings were increased there was a corresponding near nozzle increase in shear rate that resulted in an increase in high frequency noise and a reduction in peak TKE. As tertiary-to-core area ratio was increased the tertiary potential core elongated and the peak TKE was reduced. The most noticeable change occurred as secondary-to-core area ratio was increased thickening the secondary potential core, elongating the primary potential core and reducing peak TKE. As forward flight Mach number was increased the jet plume region decreased and reduced peak TKE.
A systematic study of supersonic jet noise.
Louis, J. F.; Letty, R. P.; Patel, J. R.
1972-01-01
The acoustic fields for a rectangular and for an axisymmetric nozzle configuration are studied. Both nozzles are designed for identical flow parameters. It is tried to identify the dominant noise mechanisms. The other objective of the study is to establish scaling laws of supersonic jet noise. A shock tunnel is used in the investigations. Measured sound directivity, propagation direction of Mach waves obtained by shadowgraphs, and the slight dependence of the acoustic efficiency on the level of expansion indicate that Mach waves contribute significantly to the noise produced by a rectangular jet.
Elementary physical approach to Mach's principle and its observational basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horak, Z.
1979-01-01
It is shown that Mach's principle and the general principle of relativity are logical consequences of a 'materialistic postulate' and that general relativity implies the validity of Mach's principle for a static (or quasistatic) homogeneous and isotropic universe, spatially self-enclosed. The finite velocity of propagation of gravitational field does not imply a retardation of inertial forces due to the distant masses and therefore does not exclude the validity of Mach's principle. Similarly, the experimentally verified isotropy of inertia is compatible with this principle. The recent observational evidence of very high isotropy of the actual universe proves that the 'anti-Machian' Godel world model must be rejected as a nonphysical one. This suggests the possibility of a renaissance of Einstein's first cosmological model by considering-in the spirit of an older idea of Herbert Dingle-a superlarge-scale quasistatic universe consisting of an unknown number of statistically oscillating regions similar to our own, momentarily expanding, metagalaxy. (author)
Local flow measurements at the inlet spike tip of a Mach 3 supersonic cruise airplane
Johnson, H. J.; Montoya, E. J.
1973-01-01
The flow field at the left inlet spike tip of a YF-12A airplane was examined using at 26 deg included angle conical flow sensor to obtain measurements at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0. Local flow angularity, Mach number, impact pressure, and mass flow were determined and compared with free-stream values. Local flow changes occurred at the same time as free-stream changes. The local flow usually approached the spike centerline from the upper outboard side because of spike cant and toe-in. Free-stream Mach number influenced the local flow angularity; as Mach number increased above 2.2, local angle of attack increased and local sideslip angle decreased. Local Mach number was generally 3 percent less than free-stream Mach number. Impact-pressure ratio and mass flow ratio increased as free-stream Mach number increased above 2.2, indicating a beneficial forebody compression effect. No degradation of the spike tip instrumentation was observed after more than 40 flights in the high-speed thermal environment encountered by the airplane. The sensor is rugged, simple, and sensitive to small flow changes. It can provide accurate imputs necessary to control an inlet.
Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise
Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.
2015-11-01
We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.
A new method of thermal protection by opposing jet for a hypersonic aeroheating strut
Qin, Jiang; Ning, Dongpo; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Junlong; Feng, Shuo; Bao, Wen
2017-06-01
This paper presents the numerical investigation of thermal protection of scramjet strut by opposing jet in supersonic stream of Mach number 6 with a hydrogen fueled scramjet strut model using CFD software. Simulation results indicate that when a small amount of fuel is injected from the nose of the strut, the bow shock is pushed away from the strut, and the heat flux is reduced in the strut, especially at the leading edge. Opposing jet forms a recirculation region near the nozzle so that the strut is covered with low temperature fuel and separated from free stream. An appropriate total pressure ratio can be used to reduce not only aerodynamic heating but also the drag of strut. It is therefore concluded that thermal protection of scramjet strut by opposing jet is one of the promising ways to protect scramjet strut in high enthalpy stream.
ePLAS Development for Jet Modeling and Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, Rodney J.
2011-01-01
Plasma jets provide an alternate approach to the creation of high energy density laboratory plasmas (HEDLP). For the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX), typically 30 partially ionized argon jets, produced with mini-rail guns, will be focused into a central volume for subsequent magnetic compression into high density plasma liners that can reach high (0.1 Mbar) peak pressures upon stagnation. The jets are typically 2.5 cm in radius traveling at Mach number 30. Ultimate success will require optimized tuning of the rail configurations, the nozzles injecting the gases, and the careful implementation of pre-ionization. The modeling of plasma jet transport is particularly challenging, due the large space (100 sq cm) and time scales (microseconds) involved. Even traditional implicit methods are insufficient, due to the usual need to track electrons explicitly on the mesh. Wall emission and chemistry must be managed, as must ionization of the jet plasma. Ions in the jets are best followed as particles to account properly for collisions upon jet merger. This Phase I Project developed the code ePLAS to attack and successfully surmount many of these challenges. It invented a new 'super implicit' electromagnetic scheme, using implicit electron moment currents that allowed for modeling of jets over multi-cm and multi-picoseconds on standard, single processor 2 GHz PCs. It enabled merger studies of two jets, in preparation for the multi-jet merger problem. The Project explored particle modeling for the ions, and prepared for the future addition of a grid-base jet ion collision model. Access was added to tabular equations of state for the study of ionization effects in merging jets. The improved code was discussed at the primary plasma meetings (IEEE and APS) during the Project period. Collaborations with National Laboratory and industrial partners were nurtured. Code improvements were made to facilitate code use. See: http://www.researchapplicationscorp.com. The ePLAS code enjoys EAR
Molecular beams with extremely narrow velocity spreads from free jet expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buck, U.; Dueker, M.; Pauly, H.; Pust, D.
1974-01-01
Velocity distributions in molecular beams from free jets of light gases (He, H 2 and mixtures of 1% Xe in H 2 ) were studied as a function of the source Knudsen number. They were found to be narrower than what would be expected from previous studies. Mach numbers of 50 were observed for helium at a source temperature of T=85 deg K. The speed ratio for sources at room temperature was found to be S=29 for pure H 2 and 35 for a 1% Xe-99% H 2 mixture
Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard
2014-01-01
We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re D = 18 100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data
Diffusive wave in the low Mach limit for non-viscous and heat-conductive gas
Liu, Yechi
2018-06-01
The low Mach number limit for one-dimensional non-isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes system without viscosity is investigated, where the density and temperature have different asymptotic states at far fields. It is proved that the solution of the system converges to a nonlinear diffusion wave globally in time as Mach number goes to zero. It is remarked that the velocity of diffusion wave is proportional with the variation of temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes system also has the same phenomenon when Mach number is suitably small.
Robert Musil versus Ernst Mach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jalón, Mauricio
2010-06-01
Full Text Available On Mach’s Theories (DT of R. Musil rejects that the scientific representation tends to build a clear and complete inventory of facts. Mach finds himself obliged to presuppose constant relationships in nature; but this regularity of phenomena implies that the law is something more than a «table», that its mere dependencies are pushed into the background, and that a theoretical relationship in Physics is much more than an order relationship. His conception of scientific economy as a «natural adaptation» implies a biological monism opposed to the characteristic dualities of an empiricist.
Sobre las teorías de Mach (TD de R. Musil rebate que la representación científica tienda a construir un claro y completo inventario de hechos. Pues Mach se ve obligado a presuponer relaciones constantes en la naturaleza; pero esta regularidad de los fenómenos implica que la ley es algo más que cierto «cuadro», que las meras dependencias que defiende están en un segundo plano y que una relación teórica en física es mucho más que una relación de orden. Su concepción de la economía científica como «adaptación natural» significa un monismo biológico opuesto a las dualidades propias de un empirista.
Rotating detectors and Mach's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F.
2000-08-01
In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton s bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)
Spectroscopic validation of the supersonic plasma jet model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selezneva, S.E.; Sember, V.; Gravelle, D.V.; Boulos, M.I.
2002-01-01
Optical emission spectroscopy is applied to validate numerical simulations of supersonic plasma flow generated by induction torch with a convergent-divergent nozzle. The plasmas exhausting from the discharge tube with the pressure 0.4-1.4 atm. through two nozzle configurations (the outlet Mach number equals 1.5 and 3) into low-pressure (1.8 kPa) chamber are compared. Both modelling and experiments show that the effect of the nozzle geometry on physical properties of plasma jet is significant. The profiles of electron number density obtained from modeling and spectroscopy agree well and show the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Analysis of intercoupling between different sorts of nonequilibrium processes is performed. The results reveal that the ion recombination is more essential in the nozzle with the higher outlet number than in the nozzle with the lower outlet number. It is demonstrated that in the jets the axial electron temperature is quite low (3000-8000 K). For spectroscopic data interpretation we propose a method based on the definition of two excitation temperatures. We suppose that in mildly under expanded argon jets with frozen ion recombination the electron temperature can be defined by the electronic transitions from level 5p (the energy E=14.5 eV) to level 4p (E=13.116 eV). The obtained results are useful for the optimization of plasma reactors for plasma chemistry and plasma processing applications. (author)
Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5
Brinich, Paul F.
1961-01-01
Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.
Nonlinear interaction of instability waves and vortex-pairing noise in axisymmetric subsonic jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Xing-Chen; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Sun, De-Jun [Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Zhou, Lin, E-mail: wanzh@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 623100 (China)
2016-10-15
A direct simulation with selected inflow forcing is performed for an accurate description of the jet flow field and far-field noise. The effects of the Mach number and heating on the acoustic field are studied in detail. The beam patterns and acoustic intensities are both varied as the change of the Mach number and temperature. The decomposition of the source terms of the Lilley–Goldstein (L–G) equation shows that the momentum and thermodynamic components lead to distinctly different beam patterns. Significant cancellation is found between the momentum and thermodynamic components at low polar angles for the isothermal jet and large polar angles for the hot jet. The cancellation leads to the minimum values of the far-field sound. Based on linear parabolized stability equation solutions, the nonlinear interaction model for sound prediction is built in combination with the L–G equation. The dominant beam patterns and their original locations predicted by the nonlinear model are in good agreement with the direct simulation results, and the predictions of sound pressure level (SPL) by the nonlinear model are relatively reasonable. (paper)
Nonlinear interaction of instability waves and vortex-pairing noise in axisymmetric subsonic jets
Yang, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xing-Chen; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Sun, De-Jun
2016-10-01
A direct simulation with selected inflow forcing is performed for an accurate description of the jet flow field and far-field noise. The effects of the Mach number and heating on the acoustic field are studied in detail. The beam patterns and acoustic intensities are both varied as the change of the Mach number and temperature. The decomposition of the source terms of the Lilley-Goldstein (L-G) equation shows that the momentum and thermodynamic components lead to distinctly different beam patterns. Significant cancellation is found between the momentum and thermodynamic components at low polar angles for the isothermal jet and large polar angles for the hot jet. The cancellation leads to the minimum values of the far-field sound. Based on linear parabolized stability equation solutions, the nonlinear interaction model for sound prediction is built in combination with the L-G equation. The dominant beam patterns and their original locations predicted by the nonlinear model are in good agreement with the direct simulation results, and the predictions of sound pressure level (SPL) by the nonlinear model are relatively reasonable.
Large Eddy Simulation of Film-Cooling Jets
Iourokina, Ioulia
2005-11-01
Large Eddy Simulation of inclined jets issuing into a turbulent boundary layer crossflow has been performed. The simulation models film-cooling experiments of Pietrzyk et al. (J. of. Turb., 1989), consisting of a large plenum feeding an array of jets inclined at 35ÃÂ° to the flat surface with a pitch 3D and L/D=3.5. The blowing ratio is 0.5 with unity density ratio. The numerical method used is a hybrid combining external compressible solver with a low-Mach number code for the plenum and film holes. Vorticity dynamics pertinent to jet-in-crossflow interactions is analyzed and three-dimensional vortical structures are revealed. Turbulence statistics are compared to the experimental data. The turbulence production due to shearing in the crossflow is compared to that within the jet hole. The influence of three-dimensional coherent structures on the wall heat transfer is investigated and strategies to increase film- cooling performance are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lalizel, Gildas; Sultan, Qaiser; Fénot, Matthieu; Dorignac, Eva
2012-01-01
In actual gas turbine system, unsteadiness of the mainstream flow influences heat transfer and surface pressure distribution on the blade. In order to simulate these conditions, an experimental film cooling study with externally imposed pulsation is performed with purpose of characterizing both effects of turbine unsteadiness on film cooling (with frequency ranges typical to actual turbine), and also to figure out the range of Strouhal number pulsation under various blowing conditions, which could possibly deliver a performance improvement in film cooling. Influence of injection flow pulsation on adiabatic effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficient are determined from IR-thermography of the wall for distances to the hole exit between 0 and 30 D.
Dietz, Robert O.; Kuenzig, John K.
1947-01-01
Investigations were conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XS-1 turbojet engines. One objective was to determine the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and tail-pipe-nozzle area on the performance characteristics of the six-stage and ten-stage axial-flow compressors of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 engines, respectively, The data were obtained over a range of simulated altitudes and flight Mach numbers. At each simulated flight condition the engine was run over its full operable range of speeds. Performance characteristics of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 compressors for the range of operation obtainable in the turboJet-engine installation are presented. Compressor characteristics are presented as functions of air flow corrected to sea-level conditions, compressor Mach number, and compressor load coefficient. For the range of compressor operation investigated, changes in Reynolds number had no measurable effect on the relations among compressor Mach number, corrected air flow, compressor load coefficient, compressor pressure ratio, and compressor efficiency. The operating lines for the 19B-8 compressor lay on the low-air-flow side of the region of maximum compressor efficiency; the 19B-8 compressor operated at higher average pressure coefficients per stage and produced a lower over-all pressure ratio than did the 19XB-1 compressor.
Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?
Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel
2009-06-30
The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.
Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian
2018-01-01
Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.
Dark matter versus Mach's principle.
von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.
1998-02-01
Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory up to global Lorentz rotations the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus one is led to a "Riemannian space with teleparallelism" realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms where the existence of hidden matter is inferred safely from its gravitational effects. It is argued that in the nonrelativistic mechanical approximation they provide an inertia-free mechanics where the inertial mass of a body is induced by the gravitational action of the comic masses. Interpreted form the Newtonian point of view this mechanics shows that the effective gravitational mass of astrophysical objects depends on r such that one expects the existence of dark matter.
Jet Substructure Without Trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP
2011-08-19
We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.
Jet observables without jet algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2014-04-02
We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogey, Christophe; Bailly, Christophe
2006-01-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) of round free jets at Mach number M = 0.9 with Reynolds numbers over the range 2.5 x 10 3 ≤ Re D ≤ 4 x 10 5 are performed using explicit selective/high-order filtering with or without dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM). Features of the flows and of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets in the turbulent jets are reported. The contributions of molecular viscosity, filtering and DSM to energy dissipation are also presented. Using filtering alone, the results are independent of the filtering strength, and the effects of the Reynolds number on jet development are successfully calculated. Using DSM, the effective jet Reynolds number is found to be artificially decreased by the eddy viscosity. The results are also not appreciably modified when subgrid-scale kinetic energy is used. Moreover, unlike filtering which does not significantly affect the larger computed scales, the eddy viscosity is shown to dissipate energy through all the turbulent scales, in the same way as molecular viscosity at lower Reynolds numbers
Time-Accurate Simulations of Synthetic Jet-Based Flow Control for An Axisymmetric Spinning Body
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sahu, Jubaraj
2004-01-01
.... A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady jet-interaction flow field for a spinning projectile at a subsonic speed, Mach...
Determining integral density distribution in the mach reflection of shock waves
Shevchenko, A. M.; Golubev, M. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, Al. A.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Shmakov, A. S.
2017-05-01
We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.
The prediction of noise and installation effects of high-subsonic dual-stream jets in flight
Saxena, Swati
Both military and civil aircraft in service generate high levels of noise. One of the major contributors to this noise generated from the aircraft is the jet engine exhaust. This makes the study of jet noise and methods to reduce jet noise an active research area with the aim of designing quieter military and commercial aircraft. The current stringent aircraft noise regulations imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other international agencies, have further raised the need to perform accurate jet noise calculations for more reliable estimation of the jet noise sources. The main aim of the present research is to perform jet noise simulations of single and dual-stream jets with engineering accuracy and assess forward flight effects on the jet noise. Installation effects such as caused by the pylon are also studied using a simplified pylon nozzle configuration. Due to advances in computational power, it has become possible to perform turbulent flow simulations of high speed jets, which leads to more accurate noise predictions. In the present research, a hybrid unsteady RANS-LES parallel multi-block structured grid solver called EAGLEJet is written to perform the nozzle flow calculations. The far-field noise calculation is performed using solutions to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. The present calculations use meshes with 5 to 11 million grid points and require about three weeks of computing time with about 100 processors. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9, which is similar to the operating conditions for commercial aircraft engines. A parallel flow gives the flight effect, which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0.0 to 0.28. The grid resolution effects, statistical properties of the turbulence and the heated jet effects
Dowling, Tim
2018-05-01
Jet streams, "jets" for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet's global circulation, and have been an enigma since the belts and zones of Jupiter were discovered in the 1600s. The study of jets, including what processes affect their size, strength, direction, shear stability, and predictability, are active areas of research in geophysical fluid dynamics. Jet research is multidisciplinary and global, involving collaborations between observers, experimentalists, numerical modelers, and applied mathematicians. Jets in atmospheres have strong analogies with shear instability in nonneutral plasmas, and these connections are highlighted throughout the article. The article begins with a description of four major challenges that jet researchers face: nonlinearity, non-intuitive wave physics, non-constant-coefficients, and copious nondimensional numbers. Then, two general fluid-dynamical tenets, the practice of rendering expressions dimensionally homogeneous (nondimensional), and the universal properties of shocks are applied to the open question of what controls the on-off switch of shear instability. The discussion progresses to how the physics of jets varies in equatorial, midlatitude, and polar regions, and how jets are observed to behave in each of these settings. The all-in-one conservation law of potential vorticity (PV), which combines the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and thermal energy into a single expression, is the common language of jet research. Earth and Uranus have weak retrograde equatorial jets, but most planets exhibit super-rotating equatorial jets, which require eddies to transport momentum up gradient in a non-intuitive manner. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit multiple alternating jets in their midlatitudes. The theory for why jets are invariably zonal (east-west orientated) is reviewed, and the particular challenges that Jupiter's sharp westward jets present to existing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)
2010-04-15
Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)
Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation
Upadhyay, Puja
Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current
Effect of a transverse plasma jet on a shock wave induced by a ramp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyu WANG
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We conducted experiments in a wind tunnel with Mach number 2 to explore the evolution of a transverse plasma jet and its modification effect on a shock wave induced by a ramp with an angle of 24Â°. The transverse plasma jet was created by arc discharge in a small cylindrical cavity with a 2â¯mm diameter orifice. Three group tests with different actuator arrangements in the spanwise or streamwise direction upstream from the ramp were respectively studied to compare their disturbances to the shock wave. As shown by a time-resolved schlieren system, an unsteady motion of the shock wave by actuation was found: the shock wave was significantly modified by the plasma jet with an upstream motion and a reduced angle. Compared to spanwise actuation, a more intensive impact was obtained with two or three streamwise actuators working together. From shock wave structures, the control effect of the plasma jet on the shock motion based on a thermal effect, a potential cause of shock modification, was discussed. Furthermore, we performed a numerical simulation by using the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES method to simulate the evolution of the transverse plasma jet plume produced by two streamwise actuators. The results show that flow structures are similar to those identified in schlieren images. Two streamwise vortices were recognized, which indicates that the higher jet plume is the result of the overlap of two streamwise jets. Keywords: Flow control, Improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method, Plasma synthetic jet, Shock wave/boundary layer interaction, Time resolved schlieren system
Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto
1990-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)
Identity physics experiment on internal transport barriers in JT-60U and JET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Vries, P C; Beurskens, M N A; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Hawkes, N C; Parail, V [EURATOM/UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sakamoto, Y; Fujita, T; Hayashi, N; Matsunaga, G; Oyama, N; Shinohara, K; Suzuki, T; Takechi, M [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Litaudon, X; Joffrin, E [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Mantica, P [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, EURATOM/ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100 (Finland); Strintzi, D, E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.u [National Technical University of Athens, EURATOM Association, GR-15773, Athens (Greece)
2009-12-15
A series of experiments have been carried out in 2008 at JT-60U and JET to find common characteristics and explain differences between internal transport barriers (ITBs). The identity experiments succeeded in matching the profiles of most dimensionless parameters at the time ITBs were triggered. Thereafter the q-profile development deviated due to differences in non-inductive current density profile, affecting the ITB. Furthermore, the ITBs in JET were more strongly influenced by the H-mode pedestal or edge localized modes. It was found to be difficult to match the plasma rotation characteristics in both devices. However, the wide range of Mach numbers obtained in these experiments shows that the rotation has little effect on the triggering of ITBs in plasmas with reversed magnetic shear. On the other hand the toroidal rotation and more specifically the rotational shear had an impact on the subsequent growth and allowed the formation of strong ITBs.
Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets
Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.
2017-06-01
In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Masamichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toru
2014-01-01
The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marc O Delchini; Jean E. Ragusa; Ray A. Berry
2015-07-01
We present a new version of the entropy viscosity method, a viscous regularization technique for hyperbolic conservation laws, that is well-suited for low-Mach flows. By means of a low-Mach asymptotic study, new expressions for the entropy viscosity coefficients are derived. These definitions are valid for a wide range of Mach numbers, from subsonic flows (with very low Mach numbers) to supersonic flows, and no longer depend on an analytical expression for the entropy function. In addition, the entropy viscosity method is extended to Euler equations with variable area for nozzle flow problems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using various 1-D and 2-D benchmark tests: flow in a converging–diverging nozzle; Leblanc shock tube; slow moving shock; strong shock for liquid phase; low-Mach flows around a cylinder and over a circular hump; and supersonic flow in a compression corner. Convergence studies are performed for smooth solutions and solutions with shocks present.
Mach cones in space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K
2004-07-01
We present a rigorous theoretical investigation on the possibility for the formation of Mach cones in both space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas. We find the parametric regimes for which different types of Mach cones, such as dust acoustic Mach cones, dust magneto-acoustic Mach cones, oscillonic Mach cones, etc. are formed in space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas. We also identify the basic features of such different classes of Mach cones (viz. dust- acoustic, dust magneto-acoustic, oscillonic Mach cones, etc.), and clearly explain how they are relevant to space and laboratory dusty manetoplasmas. (author)
THE TOPOLOGY OF CANONICAL FLUX TUBES IN FLARED JET GEOMETRY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavine, Eric Sander; You, Setthivoine, E-mail: Slavine2@uw.edu, E-mail: syou@aa.washington.edu [University of Washington, 4000 15th Street, NE Aeronautics and Astronautics 211 Guggenheim Hall, Box 352400, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
2017-01-20
Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species’ canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regimes beyond MHD. A flared, current-carrying magnetic flux tube in an ion-electron plasma with finite ion momentum is thus equivalent to either a pair of electron and ion flow flux tubes, a pair of electron and ion canonical momentum flux tubes, or a pair of electron and ion canonical vorticity flux tubes. We examine the morphology of all these flux tubes for increasing electrical currents, different radial current profiles, different electron Mach numbers, and a fixed, flared, axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Calculations of gauge-invariant relative canonical helicities track the evolution of magnetic, cross, and kinetic helicities in the system, and show that ion flow fields can unwind to compensate for an increasing magnetic twist. The results demonstrate that including a species’ finite momentum can result in a very long collimated canonical vorticity flux tube even if the magnetic flux tube is flared. With finite momentum, particle density gradients must be normal to canonical vorticities, not to magnetic fields, so observations of collimated astrophysical jets could be images of canonical vorticity flux tubes instead of magnetic flux tubes.
Emergent gravity of fractons: Mach's principle revisited
Pretko, Michael
2017-07-01
Recent work has established the existence of stable quantum phases of matter described by symmetric tensor gauge fields, which naturally couple to particles of restricted mobility, such as fractons. We focus on a minimal toy model of a rank 2 tensor gauge field, consisting of fractons coupled to an emergent graviton (massless spin-2 excitation). We show how to reconcile the immobility of fractons with the expected gravitational behavior of the model. First, we reformulate the fracton phenomenon in terms of an emergent center of mass quantum number, and we show how an effective attraction arises from the principles of locality and conservation of center of mass. This interaction between fractons is always attractive and can be recast in geometric language, with a geodesiclike formulation, thereby satisfying the expected properties of a gravitational force. This force will generically be short-ranged, but we discuss how the power-law behavior of Newtonian gravity can arise under certain conditions. We then show that, while an isolated fracton is immobile, fractons are endowed with finite inertia by the presence of a large-scale distribution of other fractons, in a concrete manifestation of Mach's principle. Our formalism provides suggestive hints that matter plays a fundamental role, not only in perturbing, but in creating the background space in which it propagates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kherbouche, E.F.
1987-09-01
When a quark or a gluon (Partons) are produced in a reaction, they become indirectly observable through their hadron recombination. When the energy of the quark or the gluon is very important with regard to the parton mass, hadrons are produced with a jet structure. This detected and correctly recreated jet allows us to get up to the initial Parton, and thus to the process which created it, in order to study the QCD predictions on the production of this initial parton. We used several methods of jet events analysis (geometrical methods, cluster methods...). We suggest a mathematical method on Shape Recognition, and already used in other fields. This method is based on PEANO-HILBERT scanning. This method applied to jet events generated by high-energy Monte Carlo method in LUND is less efficient than the LUCLUS method. However the jet reconstruction is relatively correct. The poor results of the P-H method are due to: the choice of space where hadrons are to be found, the definition of the surrounding of the scanning hypercubes. Another chosen space of the hadronic state might improve the results by changing the notion of surrounding of the scanning hypercubes. However this method can be applied to other fields in Physics when elements have to be gathered [fr
Comparison of Theory with Rotation Measurements in JET ICRH Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.V. Budny; C.S. Chang; C. Giroud; R.J. Goldston; D. McCune; J. Ongena; F.W. Perkins; R.B. White; K.-D. Zastrow; and contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme
2001-01-01
Plasma rotation appears to improve plasma performance by increasing the E x B flow shearing rate, thus decreasing radial correlations in the microturbulence. Also, plasma rotation can increase the stability to resistive MHD modes. In the Joint European Torus (JET), toroidal rotation rates omega (subscript ''tor'') with high Mach numbers are generally measured in NBI-heated plasmas (since the neutral beams aim in the co-plasma current direction). They are considerably lower with only ICRH (and Ohmic) heating, but still surprisingly large considering that ICRH appears to inject relatively small amounts of angular momentum. Either the applied torques are larger than naively expected, or the anomalous transport of angular momentum is smaller than expected. Since ICRH is one of the main candidates for heating next-step tokamaks, and for creating burning plasmas in future tokamak reactors, this paper attempts to understand ICRH-induced plasma rotation
Analysis of screeching in a cold flow jet experiment
Wang, M. E.; Slone, R. M., Jr.; Robertson, J. E.; Keefe, L.
1975-01-01
The screech phenomenon observed in a one-sixtieth scale model space shuttle test of the solid rocket booster exhaust flow noise has been investigated. A critical review is given of the cold flow test data representative of Space Shuttle launch configurations to define those parameters which contribute to screech generation. An acoustic feedback mechanism is found to be responsible for the generation of screech. A simple equation which permits prediction of screech frequency in terms of basic testing parameters such as the jet exhaust Mach number and the separating distance from nozzle exit to the surface of model launch pad is presented and is found in good agreement with the test data. Finally, techniques are recommended to eliminate or reduce the screech.
Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model
Gibbons, Michael D.
1996-01-01
Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.
Dunbar, William R; Wentworth, Carl B; Crowl, Robert J
1957-01-01
The performance of a control system designed for variable thrust applications was determined in an altitude free-jet facility at various Mach numbers, altitudes and angles of attack for a wide range of engine operation. The results are presented as transient response characteristics for step disturbances in fuel flow and stability characteristics as a function of control constants and engine operating conditions. The results indicate that the control is capable of successful operation over the range of conditions tested, although variations in engine gains preclude optimum response characteristics at all conditions with fixed control constants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxon, D.H.
1985-10-01
The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)
Statistical analysis of the hydrodynamic pressure in the near field of compressible jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camussi, R.; Di Marco, A.; Castelain, T.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Statistical properties of pressure fluctuations retrieved through wavelet analysis • Time delay PDFs approximated by a log-normal distribution • Amplitude PDFs approximated by a Gamma distribution • Random variable PDFs weakly dependent upon position and Mach number. • A general stochastic model achieved for the distance dependency - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the statistical characterization of the pressure fluctuations measured in the near field of a compressible jet at two subsonic Mach numbers, 0.6 and 0.9. The analysis is focused on the hydrodynamic pressure measured at different distances from the jet exit and analyzed at the typical frequency associated to the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Statistical properties are retrieved by the application of the wavelet transform to the experimental data and the computation of the wavelet scalogram around that frequency. This procedure highlights traces of events that appear intermittently in time and have variable strength. A wavelet-based event tracking procedure has been applied providing a statistical characterization of the time delay between successive events and of their energy level. On this basis, two stochastic models are proposed and validated against the experimental data in the different flow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soni, Rahul Kumar; De, Ashoke De [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India)
2017-03-15
The strut-based injector has been found to be one of the most promising injector designs for a supersonic combustor, offering enhanced mixing of fuel and air. The mixing and flow field characteristics of the straight (SS) and Tapered strut (TS), with fixed ramp angle and height at free stream Mach number 2 in conjunction with fuel injection at Mach 2.3 have been investigated numerically and reported. In the present investigation, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are injected in oncoming supersonic flow from the back of the strut, where jet to free stream momentum ratio is maintained at 0.79 and 0.69 for H2 and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, respectively. The predicted wall static pressure and species mole fractions at various downstream locations are compared with the experimental data for TS case with 0.6 mm jet diameter and found to be in good agreement. Further, the effect of jet diameter and strut geometry on the near field mixing in strut ramp configuration is discussed for both the fuels. The numerical results are assessed based on various parameters for the performance evaluation of different strut ramp configurations. The SS configuration for both the injectant has been found to be an optimum candidate; also it is observed that for higher jet diameter larger combustor length is required to achieve satisfactory near field mixing.
Low Mach number limit for a model of accretion disk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka
2018-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 7 (2018), s. 3239-3268 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S; GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * magnetohydrodynamics * radiating transfer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/article/doi/10.3934/dcds.2018141
Low Mach number limit for a model of accretion disk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka
2018-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 7 (2018), s. 3239-3268 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S; GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * magnetohydrodynamics * radiating transfer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/ article /doi/10.3934/dcds.2018141
Miscellaneous: Various Low-Mach-Number Fluid Problems and Motions
Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh.
In this last chapter, we consider, first, in Sect. 7.1, mainly the asymptotic derivation of the KZK equation of nonlinear acoustics, which generalizes the well-known Burgers' unsteady one-dimensional dissipative model equation (Burgers 1948) to an equation with a diffraction and parabolic effect.
Modelling of high-enthalpy, high-Mach number flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degrez, G; Lani, A; Panesi, M; Chazot, O; Deconinck, H
2009-01-01
A review is made of the computational models of high-enthalpy flows developed over the past few years at the von Karman Institute and Universite Libre de Bruxelles, for the modelling of high-enthalpy hypersonic (re-)entry flows. Both flows in local thermo-chemical equilibrium (LTE) and flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) are considered. First, the physico-chemical models are described, i.e. the set of conservation laws, the thermodynamics, transport phenomena and chemical kinetics models. Particular attention is given to the correct modelling of elemental (LTE flows) and species (chemical non-equilibrium-CNEQ-flows) transport. The numerical algorithm, based on a state-of-the-art finite volume discretization, is then briefly described. Finally, selected examples are included to illustrate the capabilities of the developed solver. (review article)
Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.
2013-08-08
AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John
Oscillating acoustic streaming jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul
2014-01-01
The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)
Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer
Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.
Mach's principle and space-time structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raine, D.J.
1981-01-01
Mach's principle, that inertial forces should be generated by the motion of a body relative to the bulk of matter in the universe, is shown to be related to the structure imposed on space-time by dynamical theories. General relativity theory and Mach's principle are both shown to be well supported by observations. Since Mach's principle is not contained in general relativity this leads to a discussion of attempts to derive Machian theories. The most promising of these appears to be a selection rule for solutions of the general relativistic field equations, in which the space-time metric structure is generated by the matter content of the universe only in a well-defined way. (author)
Wavepacket models for supersonic jet noise
Sinha, Aniruddha; Rodríguez, Daniel; Brès, Guillaume A.; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
Gudmundsson and Colonius (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 97–128) have recently shown that the average evolution of low-frequency, low-azimuthal modal large-scale structures in the near field of subsonic jets are remarkably well predicted as linear instability waves of the turbulent mean flow using parabolized stability equations. In this work, we extend this modelling technique to an isothermal and a moderately heated Mach 1.5 jet for which the mean flow fields are obtained from a high-f...
Effects of the shear layer growth rate on the supersonic jet noise
Ozawa, Yuta; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukushima, Naoya; Yamamoto, Makoto
2017-11-01
Strong acoustic waves emitted from rocket plume might damage to rocket payloads because their payloads consist of fragile structure. Therefore, understanding and prediction of acoustic wave generation are of importance not only in science, but also in engineering. The present study makes experiments of a supersonic jet flow at the Mach number of 2.0 and investigates a relationship between growth rate of a shear layer and noise generation of the supersonic jet. We conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) and acoustic measurements for three different shaped nozzles. These nozzles were employed to control the condition of a shear layer of the supersonic jet flow. We applied single-pixel ensemble correlation method (Westerweel et al., 2004) for the PIV images to obtain high-resolution averaged velocity profiles. This correlation method enabled us to obtain detailed data of the shear layer. For all cases, acoustic measurements clearly shows the noise source position at the end of a potential core of the jet. In the case where laminar to turbulent transition occurred in the shear layer, the sound pressure level increased by 4 dB at the maximum. This research is partially supported by Presto, JST (JPMJPR1678) and KAKENHI (25709009 and 17H03473).
Mach's principle in spatially homogeneous spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipler, F.J.
1978-01-01
On the basis of Mach's Principle it is concluded that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations is flat space. It is shown that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations which is spatially homogeneous and globally hyperbolic is in fact suitably identified Minkowski space. (Auth.)
Flow of supersonic jets across flat plates: Implications for ground-level flow from volcanic blasts
Orescanin, Mara M.; Prisco, David; Austin, Joanna M.; Kieffer, Susan W.
2014-04-01
We report on laboratory experiments examining the interaction of a jet from an overpressurized reservoir with a canonical ground surface to simulate lateral blasts at volcanoes such as the 1980 blast at Mount St. Helens. These benchmark experiments test the application of supersonic jet models to simulate the flow of volcanic jets over a lateral topography. The internal shock structure of the free jet is modified such that the Mach disk shock is elevated above the surface. In elevation view, the width of the shock is reduced in comparison with a free jet, while in map view the dimensions are comparable. The distance of the Mach disk shock from the vent is in good agreement with free jet data and can be predicted with existing theory. The internal shock structures can interact with and penetrate the boundary layer. In the shock-boundary layer interaction, an oblique shock foot is present in the schlieren images and a distinctive ground signature is evident in surface measurements. The location of the oblique shock foot and the surface demarcation are closely correlated with the Mach disk shock location during reservoir depletion, and therefore, estimates of a ground signature in a zone devastated by a blast can be based on the calculated shock location from free jet theory. These experiments, combined with scaling arguments, suggest that the imprint of the Mach disk shock on the ground should be within the range of 4-9 km at Mount St. Helens depending on assumed reservoir pressure and vent dimensions.
Jet disruption in wide-angle tailed radio galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, J.O.; Norman, M.L.; Clarke, D.A.
1986-01-01
The mechanisms responsible for the bending of the jets and tails of wide-angle tailed (WAT) radio galaxies in clusters are investigated theoretically, with a focus on sharp bends and rapid jet disruption. Large (1 Mpc) and small (200 kpc) WATs are differentiated, and it is suggested that the jet-tail transition in large WATs is due to collisions between the jet and cool clouds of the intracluster medium (ICM). The transition in small WATs is attributed to the passage of the jet through a planar Mach disk perpendicular to the jet flow direction. Such a disk is shown in numerical simulations to form when there is a shocklike jump in ambient pressure at the ISM/ICM interface; the origins of such a jump are explored. 14 references
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Broučková, Zuzana; Šafařík, P.; Trávníček, Zdeněk
68-69, February (2016), s. 620-623 ISSN 0888-3270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : commentary * synthetic jet * formation criterion Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0888327015003635/1-s2.0-S0888327015003635-main.pdf?_tid=2ad12d9c-98fb-11e5-aaab-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1449064202_d27a8dad56437138b58c2a09ffaa8635
Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig
Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.
Active control of continuous air jet with bifurcated synthetic jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dančová Petra
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The synthetic jets (SJs have many significant applications and the number of applications is increasing all the time. In this research the main focus is on the primary flow control which can be used effectively for the heat transfer increasing. This paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of two SJs worked in the bifurcated mode used for control of an axisymmetric air jet. First, the control synthetic jets were measured alone. After an adjustment, the primary axisymmetric jet was added in to the system. For comparison, the primary flow without synthetic jets control was also measured. All experiments were performed using PIV method whereby the synchronization between synthetic jets and PIV system was necessary to do.
A Design of Experiments Investigation of Offset Streams for Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction
Henderson, Brenda; Papamoschou, Dimitri
2014-01-01
An experimental investigation into the noise characteristics of a dual-stream jet with four airfoils inserted in the fan nozzle was conducted. The intent of the airfoils was to deflect the fan stream relative to the core stream and, therefore, impact the development of the secondary potential core and noise radiated in the peak jet-noise direction. The experiments used a full-factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) approach to identify parameters and parameter interactions impacting noise radiation at two azimuthal microphone array locations, one of which represented a sideline viewing angle. The parameters studied included airfoil angle-of-attack, airfoil azimuthal location within the fan nozzle, and airfoil axial location relative to the fan-nozzle trailing edge. Jet conditions included subsonic and supersonic fan-stream Mach numbers. Heated jets conditions were simulated with a mixture of helium and air to replicate the exhaust velocity and density of the hot jets. The introduction of the airfoils was shown to impact noise radiated at polar angles in peak-jet noise direction and to have no impact on noise radiated at small and broadside polar angles and to have no impact on broadband-shock-associated noise. The DoE analysis showed the main effects impacting noise radiation at sideline-azimuthal-viewing angles included airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils on the lower side of the jet near the sideline array and airfoil trailing edge distance (with airfoils located at the nozzle trailing edge produced the lowest sound pressure levels). For an array located directly beneath the jet (and on the side of the jet from which the fan stream was deflected), the main effects impacting noise radiation included airfoil angle-of-attack and airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils located on the observation side of the jet as well and trailing edge distance. Interaction terms between multiple configuration parameters were shown to have significant impact on the radiated
Alkandry, Hicham
Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness
Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloor, Michael, E-mail: gloor@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35{sup ∘}. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for r{sub mic} > 40R{sub 1}, where r{sub mic} is the distance from the end of the potential core and R{sub 1} is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/r{sub mic} decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.
PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets
Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.
2012-01-01
While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.
Advanced thermally stable jet fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schobert, H.H.
1999-01-31
The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume
Properties of Supersonic Impinging Jets
Alvi, F. S.; Iyer, K. G.; Ladd, J.
1999-11-01
A detailed study examining the behavior of axisymmetric supersonic jets impinging on a ground plane is described. Our objective is to better understand the aeroacoustics governing this complex flowfield which commonly occurs in the vicinity of STOVL aircraft. Flow issuing through a Mach 1.5 C-D and a converging sonic nozzle is examined over a wide parametric range. For some cases a large diameter circular 'lift' plate, with an annular hole through which the jet is issued, is attached at the nozzle exit to simulate a generic airframe. The impinging jet flowfield was examined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which provides the velocity field for the entire region and shadowgraph visualization techniques. Near-field acoustic, as well as, mean and unsteady pressure measurements on the ground and lift plate surfaces were also obtained. The velocity field data, together with the surface flow measurements have resulted in a much better understanding of this flow from a fundamental standpoint while also identifying critical regions of interest for practical applications. Some of these findings include the presence of a stagnation bubble with recirculating flow; a very high speed (transonic/supersonic) radial wall jet; presence of large, spatially coherent turbulent structures in the primary jet and wall jet and high unsteady loads on the ground plane and lift plates. The results of a companion CFD investigation and its comparison to the experimental data will also be presented. Very good agreement has been found between the computational and experimental results thus providing confidence in the development of computational tools for the study of such flows.
All-optical negabinary adders using Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Cherri, A. K.
2011-02-01
In contrast to optoelectronics, all-optical adders are proposed where all-optical signals are used to represent the input numbers and the control signals. In addition, the all-optical adders use the negabinary modified signed-digit number representation (an extension of the negabinary number system) to represent the input digits. Further, the ultra-speed of the designed circuits is achieved due to the use of ultra-fast all-optical switching property of the semiconductor optical amplifier and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI). Furthermore, two-bit per digit binary encoding scheme is employed to represent the trinary values of the negabinary modified signed-digits.
Fluidic Vectoring of a Planar Incompressible Jet Flow
Mendez, Miguel Alfonso; Scelzo, Maria Teresa; Enache, Adriana; Buchlin, Jean-Marie
2018-06-01
This paper presents an experimental, a numerical and a theoretical analysis of the performances of a fluidic vectoring device for controlling the direction of a turbulent, bi-dimensional and low Mach number (incompressible) jet flow. The investigated design is the co-flow secondary injection with Coanda surface, which allows for vectoring angles up to 25° with no need of moving mechanical parts. A simple empirical model of the vectoring process is presented and validated via experimental and numerical data. The experiments consist of flow visualization and image processing for the automatic detection of the jet centerline; the numerical simulations are carried out solving the Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier- Stokes (URANS) closed with the k - ω SST turbulence model, using the PisoFoam solver from OpenFOAM. The experimental validation on three different geometrical configurations has shown that the model is capable of providing a fast and reliable evaluation of the device performance as a function of the operating conditions.
An implicit turbulence model for low-Mach Roe scheme using truncated Navier-Stokes equations
Li, Chung-Gang; Tsubokura, Makoto
2017-09-01
The original Roe scheme is well-known to be unsuitable in simulations of turbulence because the dissipation that develops is unsatisfactory. Simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 show that, with the 'low-Mach-fix for Roe' (LMRoe) proposed by Rieper [J. Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 5263-5287], the Roe dissipation term potentially equates the simulation to an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) at low Mach number. Thus inspired, a new implicit turbulence model for low Mach numbers is proposed that controls the Roe dissipation term appropriately. Referred to as the automatic dissipation adjustment (ADA) model, the method of solution follows procedures developed previously for the truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equations and, without tuning of parameters, uses the energy ratio as a criterion to automatically adjust the upwind dissipation. Turbulent channel flow at two different Reynold numbers and the Taylor-Green vortex were performed to validate the ADA model. In simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 at Mach number of 0.05 using the ADA model, the mean velocity and turbulence intensities are in excellent agreement with DNS results. With Reτ = 950 at Mach number of 0.1, the result is also consistent with DNS results, indicating that the ADA model is also reliable at higher Reynolds numbers. In simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex at Re = 3000, the kinetic energy is consistent with the power law of decaying turbulence with -1.2 exponents for both LMRoe with and without the ADA model. However, with the ADA model, the dissipation rate can be significantly improved near the dissipation peak region and the peak duration can be also more accurately captured. With a firm basis in TNS theory, applicability at higher Reynolds number, and ease in implementation as no extra terms are needed, the ADA model offers to become a promising tool for turbulence modeling.
Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory
Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig
2011-01-01
This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juknevich, J.
2014-01-01
We present a study of the substructure of jets high transverse momentum at hadron colliders. A template method is introduced to distinguish heavy jets by comparing their energy distributions to the distributions of a set of templates which describe the kinematical information from signal or background. As an application, a search for a boosted Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying W boson is presented as well. (author)
Numerical study of jet noise radiated by turbulent coherent structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastin, F.
1995-08-01
a numerical approach of jet mixing noise prediction is presented, based on the assumption that the radiated sound field is essentially due to large-scale coherent turbulent structures. A semi-deterministic turbulence modelling is used to obtain the flow coherent fluctuations. This model is derived from the k-{epsilon} model and validated on the 2-D compressible shear layer case. Three plane jets at Mach 0.5, 1.33 and 2 are calculated. The semi-deterministic modelling yields a realistic unsteady representation of plane jets but not appropriate for axisymmetric jet computations. Lighthill`s analogy is used to estimate the noise radiated by the flow. Three integral formulations of the theory are compared and the most suitable one is expressed in space-time Fourier space. This formulation is associated to a geometrical interpretation of acoustic computations in (k, {omega}) plane. The only contribution of coherent structures cannot account for the high-frequency radiation of a subsonic jet and thus, the initial assumption is not verified in the subsonic range. The interpretation of Lighthill`s analogy in (k, {omega}) plane allows to conclude that the missing high-frequency components are due to the inner structure of the coherent motion. For supersonic jets, full acoustic spectra are obtained, at least in the forward arc where the dominant radiation is emitted. For the fastest jet (M = 2), no Mach waves are observed, which may be explained by a ratio of the structures convection velocity to the jet exit velocity lower in plane than in circular jets. This point is confirmed by instability theory calculations. Large eddy simulations (LES) were performed for subsonic jets. Data obtained in the plane jet case show that this technique allows only a slight improvement of acoustic results. To obtain a satisfactory high-frequency radiation, very fine grids should be considered, and the 2-D approximation could not be justified anymore. (Abstract Truncated)
Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas
2015-01-01
In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2015-02-15
In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel
2015-02-01
In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.
Investigations of needle-free jet injections.
Schramm-Baxter, J R; Mitragotri, S
2004-01-01
Jet injection is a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers drugs. Although a number of jet injectors are commercially available, especially for insulin delivery, they have a low market share compared to needles possibly due to occasional pain associated with jet injection. Jets employed by the traditional jet injectors penetrate deep into the dermal and sub-dermal regions where the nerve endings are abundantly located. To eliminate the pain associated with jet injections, we propose to utilize microjets that penetrate only into the superficial region of the skin. However, the choice of appropriate jet parameters for this purpose is challenging owing to the multiplicity of factors that determine the penetration depth. Here, we describe the dependence of jet injections into human skin on the power of the jet. Dermal delivery of liquid jets was quantified using two measurements, penetration of a radiolabeled solute, mannitol, into skin and the shape of jet dispersion in the skin which was visualized using sulforhodamine B. The dependence of the amount of liquid delivered in the skin and the geometric measurements of jet dispersion on nozzle diameter and jet velocity was captured by a single parameter, jet power.
Supersonic and transonic Mach probe for calibration control in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandru Marius PANAIT
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A supersonic and high speed transonic Pitot Prandtl is described as it can be implemented in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel for calibration and verification of Mach number precision. A new calculation method for arbitrary precision Mach numbers is proposed and explained. The probe is specially designed for the Trisonic wind tunnel and would greatly simplify obtaining a precise Mach calibration in the critical high transonic and low supersonic regimes, where typically wind tunnels exhibit poor performance. The supersonic Pitot Prandtl combined probe is well known in the aerospace industry, however the proposed probe is a derivative of the standard configuration, combining a stout cone-cylinder probe with a supersonic Pitot static port which allows this configuration to validate the Mach number by three methods: conical flow method – using the pressure ports on a cone generatrix, the Schlieren-optical method of shock wave angle photogrammetry and the Rayleigh supersonic Pitot equation, while having an aerodynamic blockage similar to that of a scaled rocket model commonly used in testing. The proposed probe uses an existing cone-cylinder probe forebody and support, adding only an afterbody with a support for a static port.
Combustion-Powered Actuation for Dynamic Stall Suppression - Simulations and Low-Mach Experiments
Matalanis, Claude G.; Min, Byung-Young; Bowles, Patrick O.; Jee, Solkeun; Wake, Brian E.; Crittenden, Tom; Woo, George; Glezer, Ari
2014-01-01
An investigation on dynamic-stall suppression capabilities of combustion-powered actuation (COMPACT) applied to a tabbed VR-12 airfoil is presented. In the first section, results from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 are presented. Several geometric parameters are varied including the slot chordwise location and angle. Actuation pulse amplitude, frequency, and timing are also varied. The simulations suggest that cycle-averaged lift increases of approximately 4% and 8% with respect to the baseline airfoil are possible at Mach numbers of 0.4 and 0.3 for deep and near-deep dynamic-stall conditions. In the second section, static-stall results from low-speed wind-tunnel experiments are presented. Low-speed experiments and high-speed CFD suggest that slots oriented tangential to the airfoil surface produce stronger benefits than slots oriented normal to the chordline. Low-speed experiments confirm that chordwise slot locations suitable for Mach 0.3-0.4 stall suppression (based on CFD) will also be effective at lower Mach numbers.
Kennedy, Thomas L.
1956-01-01
A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effect of jet exhaust on the drag, trim characteristics, and afterbody pressures on a 0.125-scale rocket model of the McDonnell F-101A airplance. Power-off data were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.04 to 1.9 and power-on data were obtained at a Mach number of about 1.5. The data indicated that with power-on the change in external drag coefficient was within the data accuracy and there was a decrease in trim angle of attack of 1.27 degrees with a corresponding decrease of 0.07 in lift coefficient. Correspondingly, pressure coefficients on the side and bottom of the fuselage indicated a positive increment near the jet exit. As the distance downstream of the jet exit increased, the increment on the bottom of the fuselage increased, whereas the increments on the side decreased to a negative peak.
Tickling a high speed round jet
Arakeri, Vijay; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Siddavaram, Vikram; Alkislar, Mehmet
2001-11-01
We have experimentally studied the effect of tickling a Mach 0.9 round jet with a set of microjets.Two dimensional velocity field measurements with PIV show a significant reduction in the turbulent intensities in the developing region of the jet with the activation of the microjets.Quantitatively,the axial and normal turbulence intensities are reduced by about 15respectively;even a larger effect is found on the magnitude of the correlation of axial and normal fluctuation intensities with a reduction of almost 40possible with a mass flow rate of the microjets being only about one percent of the main jet mass flow rate and hence justifying the use of the term `tickling`.The above findings are difficult to explain on the basis of stability considerations since there is very little change in the mean profile.Physically,the observed effect could be due to the alteration of the large eddy structures,which are so natural to a round jet,by the presence of the microjets.Exact nature of this interaction may be clarified with three dimensional PIV studies.It is expected that the tickling of the jet done as presently could have a favourable reflection in the aeroacoustics characteristics of the main jet.
Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data
Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.
2014-01-01
A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.
MODELING SUPERSONIC-JET DEFLECTION IN THE HERBIG–HARO 110-270 SYSTEM WITH HIGH-POWER LASERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Dawei; Li, Yutong; Lu, Xin; Yin, Chuanlei; Su, Luning; Liao, Guoqian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Junfeng; Wang, Lifeng; He, Xiantu; Zhong, Jiayong; Wei, Huigang; Zhang, Kai; Han, Bo; Zhao, Gang; Jiang, Shaoen; Du, Kai; Ding, Yongkun; Zhu, Jianqiang
2015-01-01
Herbig–Haro (HH) objects associated with newly born stars are typically characterized by two high Mach number jets ejected in opposite directions. However, HH 110 appears to only have a single jet instead of two. Recently, Kajdi et al. measured the proper motions of knots in the whole system and noted that HH 110 is a continuation of the nearby HH 270. It has been proved that the HH 270 collides with the surrounding mediums and is deflected by 58°, reshaping itself as HH 110. Although the scales of the astrophysical objects are very different from the plasmas created in the laboratory, similarity criteria of physical processes allow us to simulate the jet deflection in the HH 110/270 system in the laboratory with high power lasers. A controllable and repeatable laboratory experiment could give us insight into the deflection behavior. Here we show a well downscaled experiment in which a laser-produced supersonic-jet is deflected by 55° when colliding with a nearby orthogonal side-flow. We also present a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation with the Euler program, LARED-S, to reproduce the deflection. Both are in good agreement. Our results show that the large deflection angle formed in the HH 110/270 system is probably due to the ram pressure from a flow–flow collision model
Quark vs Gluon Jet Tagging at ATLAS
Rubbo, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Distinguishing quark-initiated from gluon-initiated jets is useful for many measurements and searches at the LHC. We present a quark-initiated versus gluon-initiated jet tagger from the ATLAS experiment using the number of reconstructed charged particles inside the jet. The measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity inside jets from Run 1 is used to derive uncertainties on the tagger performance for Run 2. With an efficiency of 60% to select quark-initiated jets, the efficiency to select gluon-initiated jets is between 10 and 20% across a wide range in jet pT up to 1.5 TeV with about an absolute 5% systematic uncertainty on the efficiencies. In addition, we also present preliminary studies on a tagger for the ATLAS experiment using the full radiation pattern inside a jet processed as images in deep neural network classifiers.
Henderson, Brenda
2016-01-01
The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.
Simulation of Plasma Jet Merger and Liner Formation within the PLX- α Project
Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin-Chiang; Shih, Wen; Hsu, Scott
2015-11-01
Detailed numerical studies of the propagation and merger of high Mach number argon plasma jets and the formation of plasma liners have been performed using the newly developed method of Lagrangian particles (LP). The LP method significantly improves accuracy and mathematical rigor of common particle-based numerical methods such as smooth particle hydrodynamics while preserving their main advantages compared to grid-based methods. A brief overview of the LP method will be presented. The Lagrangian particle code implements main relevant physics models such as an equation of state for argon undergoing atomic physics transformation, radiation losses in thin optical limit, and heat conduction. Simulations of the merger of two plasma jets are compared with experimental data from past PLX experiments. Simulations quantify the effect of oblique shock waves, ionization, and radiation processes on the jet merger process. Results of preliminary simulations of future PLX- alpha experiments involving the ~ π / 2 -solid-angle plasma-liner configuration with 9 guns will also be presented. Partially supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program.
Numerical studies of the Kelvin-Hemholtz instability in a coronal jet
Zhao, Tian-Le; Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Ziegler, Udo
2018-04-01
Kelvin-Hemholtz (K-H) instability in a coronal EUV jet is studied via 2.5D MHD numerical simulations. The jet results from magnetic reconnection due to the interaction of the newly emerging magnetic field and the pre-existing magnetic field in the corona. Our results show that the Alfvén Mach number along the jet is about 5–14 just before the instability occurs, and it is even higher than 14 at some local areas. During the K-H instability process, several vortex-like plasma blobs with high temperature and high density appear along the jet, and magnetic fields have also been rolled up and the magnetic configuration including anti-parallel magnetic fields forms, which leads to magnetic reconnection at many X-points and current sheet fragments inside the vortex-like blob. After magnetic islands appear inside the main current sheet, the total kinetic energy of the reconnection outflows decreases, and cannot support the formation of the vortex-like blob along the jet any longer, then the K-H instability eventually disappears. We also present the results about how the guide field and flux emerging speed affect the K-H instability. We find that a strong guide field inhibits shock formation in the reconnecting upward outflow regions but helps secondary magnetic islands appear earlier in the main current sheet, and then apparently suppresses the K-H instability. As the speed of the emerging magnetic field decreases, the K-H instability appears later, the highest temperature inside the vortex blob gets lower and the vortex structure gets smaller.
Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2015-01-01
Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.
Scramjet Combustor Characteristics at Hypervelocity Condition over Mach 10 Flight
Takahashi, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Kodera, M.; Tanno, H.; Itoh, K.
2009-01-01
To investigate possibility of reduction of a scramjet combustor size without thrust performance loss, a two-dimensional constant-area combustor of a previous engine model was replaced with the one with 23% lower-height. With the application of the lower-height combustor, the pressure in the combustor becomes 50% higher and the combustor length for the optimal performance becomes 43% shorter than the original combustor. The combustion tests of the modified engine model were conducted using a large free-piston driven shock tunnel at flow conditions corresponding to the flight Mach number from 9 to 14. CFD was also applied to the engine internal flows. The results showed that the mixing and combustion heat release progress faster to the distance and the combustor performance similar to that of the previous engine was obtained with the modified engine. The reduction of the combustor size without the thrust performance loss is successfully achieved by applying the lower-height combustor.
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.
2010-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure
Effect of ELMs on rotation and momentum confinement in H-mode discharges in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Versloot, T.W.; de Vries, P.C.; Giroud, C.
2010-01-01
. An increase in profile peaking of ion temperature and angular frequency is observed. At the same time the plasma confinement is reduced while the ratio of confinement times (Rτ = τE/τ) increases noticeably with ELM frequency. This change could be explained by the relatively larger ELM induced losses......The loss of plasma toroidal angular momentum and thermal energy by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in JET. The analysis shows a consistently larger drop in momentum in comparison with the energy loss associated with the ELMs. This difference originates from the large reduction...... in angular frequency at the plasma edge, observed to penetrate into the plasma up to r/a ~ 0.65 during large type-I ELMs. As a result, the time averaged angular frequency is lowered near the top of the pedestal with increasing ELM frequency, resulting in a significant drop in thermal Mach number at the edge...
Fluorescence Imaging Study of Impinging Underexpanded Jets
Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Nowak, Robert J.; Alderfer, David W.
2008-01-01
An experiment was designed to create a simplified simulation of the flow through a hole in the surface of a hypersonic aerospace vehicle and the subsequent impingement of the flow on internal structures. In addition to planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) flow visualization, pressure measurements were recorded on the surface of an impingement target. The PLIF images themselves provide quantitative spatial information about structure of the impinging jets. The images also help in the interpretation of impingement surface pressure profiles by highlighting the flow structures corresponding to distinctive features of these pressure profiles. The shape of the pressure distribution along the impingement surface was found to be double-peaked in cases with a sufficiently high jet-exit-to-ambient pressure ratio so as to have a Mach disk, as well as in cases where a flow feature called a recirculation bubble formed at the impingement surface. The formation of a recirculation bubble was in turn found to depend very sensitively upon the jet-exit-to-ambient pressure ratio. The pressure measured at the surface was typically less than half the nozzle plenum pressure at low jet pressure ratios and decreased with increasing jet pressure ratios. Angled impingement cases showed that impingement at a 60deg angle resulted in up to a factor of three increase in maximum pressure at the plate compared to normal incidence.
Centrifuge pellet injector for JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Jacobi, D.; Lackner, E.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.
1983-08-01
An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)
Gas jet structure influence on high harmonic generation
Grant-Jacob, James; Mills, Benjamin; Butcher, Thomas J.; Chapman, Richard T.; Brocklesby, William S.; Frey, Jeremy G.
2011-01-01
Gas jets used as sources for high harmonic generation (HHG) have a complex three-dimensional density and velocity profile. This paper describes how the profile influences the generation of extreme-UV light. As the position of the laser focus is varied along the jet flow axis, we show that the intensity of the output radiation varies by approximately three times, with the highest flux being observed when the laser is focused into the Mach disc. The work demonstrated here will aid in the optimi...
A general algorithm for the reconstruction of jet events in e+e- annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goddard, M.C.
1981-01-01
A general method is described to reconstruct a predetermined number of jets. It can reconstruct the jet axes as accurately as any existing algorithm and is up to one hundred times faster. Results are shown from the reconstruction of 2-jet, 3-jet and 4-jet Monte Carlo events. (author)
Numerical simulation of the gas-liquid interaction of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow
Li, Peibo; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Hongbo
2017-05-01
The gas-liquid interaction process of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow with a Mach number of 1.94 was investigated numerically using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) breakup model was used to calculate the droplet stripping process, and the secondary breakup process was simulated by the competition of RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) breakup model and TAB (Taylor Analogy Breakup) model. A correction of drag coefficient was proposed by considering the compressible effects and the deformation of droplets. The location and velocity models of child droplets after breakup were improved according to droplet deformation. It was found that the calculated spray features, including spray penetration, droplet size distribution and droplet velocity profile agree reasonably well with the experiment. Numerical results revealed that the streamlines of air flow could intersect with the trajectory of droplets and are deflected towards the near-wall region after they enter into spray zone around the central plane. The analysis of gas-liquid relative velocity and droplet deformation suggested that the breakup of droplets mainly occurs around the front region of the spray where gathered a large number of droplets with different sizes. The liquid trailing phenomenon of jet spray which has been discovered by the previous experiment was successfully captured, and a reasonable explanation was given based on the analysis of gas-liquid interaction process.
Heated water jet in coflowing turbulent stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirazi, M.A.; McQuivey, R.S.; Keefer, T.N.
1974-01-01
Effects of ambient turbulence on temperature and salinity distributions of heated water and neutrally buoyant saltwater jets were studied for a wide range of densimetric jet Froude numbers, jet discharge velocities, and ambient turbulence levels in a 4-ft-wide channel. Estimates of vertical and lateral diffusivity coefficients for heat and for salt were obtained from salinity and temperature distributions taken at several stations downstream of the injection point. Readily usable correlations are presented for plume center-line temperature, plume width, and trajectory. The ambient turbulence affects the gross behavior characteristics of the plume. The effects vary with the initial jet Froude number and the jet to ambient velocity ratio. Heat and salinity are transported similarly and the finite source dimensions and the initial jet characteristics alter the numerical value of the diffusivity
Numerical simulation of the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones
Li, X. D.; Gao, J. H.
2005-08-01
In this paper an axisymmetric computational aeroacoustic procedure is developed to investigate the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones. The axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the two equations standard k-ɛ turbulence model modified by Turpin and Troyes ["Validation of a two-equation turbulence model for axisymmetric reacting and non-reaction flows," AIAA Paper No. 2000-3463 (2000)] are solved in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system. A generalized wall function is applied in the nozzle exit wall region. The dispersion-relation-preserving scheme is applied for space discretization. The 2N storage low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. Much attention is paid to far-field boundary conditions and turbulence model. The underexpanded axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones are simulated over the Mach number from 1.05 to 1.2. Numerical results are presented and compared with the experimental data by other researchers. The simulated wavelengths of A0, A1, A2, and B modes and part of simulated amplitudes agree very well with the measurement data by Ponton and Seiner ["The effects of nozzle exit lip thickness on plume resonance," J. Sound Vib. 154, 531 (1992)]. In particular, the phenomena of modes jumping have been captured correctly although the numerical procedure has to be improved to predict the amplitudes of supersonic jet screech tones more accurately. Furthermore, the phenomena of shock motions are analyzed. The predicted splitting and combination of shock cells are similar with the experimental observations of Panda ["Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets," J. Fluid. Mech. 363, 173 (1998)]. Finally, the receptivity process is numerically studied and analyzed. It is shown that the receptivity zone is associated with the initial thin shear layer, and the incoming and reflected sound waves.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...
2015-06-23
crackle is correlated to signals with intermittent periods of steepened shock-like waves followed by weaker, longer, rounded rarefaction regions, but to...turbulence is concentrated in a weakly curved (for a typical round jet) shear layer between the high-speed potential core flow and the surrounding co-flow...decreases into the acoustic field. The effect of varying dc between −0.1 and −0.003δm(t)/∆U causes the Nδm/Lx curves to shift downward as fewer waves
On the universality of quark jet fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias de Deus, J.; Jadach, S.
1977-01-01
Universality of inclusive fragmentation density functions in lepton induced processes (ep, γp, e + e - ) and purely hadronic processes is discussed from the point of view of the Topological Expansion/Dual Unitarization Scheme. It is shown that planar, single jet dominated processes have universal inclusive distributions and average multiplicities. In multi-jet processes, treated in a simple approximation, is inversely proportional to the number N of jets and the magnitude of the seagull effect increases as N 2 . (Auth.)
Numerical analysis of jet breakup behavior using particle method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Kazuya; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki
2002-01-01
A continuous jet changes to droplets where jet breakup occurs. In this study, two-dimensional numerical analysis of jet breakup is performed using the MPS method (Moving Particle Semi-implicit Method) which is a particle method for incompressible flows. The continuous fluid surrounding the jet is neglected. Dependencies of the jet breakup length on the Weber number and the Froude number agree with the experiment. The size distribution of droplets is in agreement with the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution which has been widely used as an experimental correlation. Effects of the Weber number and the Froude number on the size distribution are also obtained. (author)
Effect of chevron nozzle penetration on aero-acoustic characteristics of jet at M = 0.8
Nikam, S. R.; Sharma, S. D.
2017-12-01
Aero-acoustic characteristics of a high-speed jet with chevron nozzles are experimentally investigated at a Mach number of 0.8. The main focus is to examine the effects of the extent of chevron penetration and its position in the mixing layer. Chevron nozzles with three different levels of penetration employed at three different longitudinal locations from the nozzle lip are tested, and the results are compared with those of a plain baseline nozzle. The chevrons are found to produce a lobed shear layer through the notched region, thereby increasing the surface area of the jet, particularly in the close vicinity of the nozzle, which increases the mixing and reduces the potential core length. This effect becomes more prominent with increasing penetration closer to the nozzle lip in the thinner mixing layer. Near field and far field noise measurements show distinctly different acoustic features due to chevrons. The chevrons are found to effectively shift the dominant noise source upstream closer to the nozzle. Present investigation proposes a simpler method for locating the dominant noise source from the peak of the centerline velocity decay rate. The overall noise levels registered along the jet edge immediately downstream of the chevrons are higher, but further downstream they are reduced in comparison with the plain baseline nozzle. Also, the chevrons beam the noise towards higher polar angles at higher frequencies. At shallow polar angles with respect to the jet axis in the far field, chevrons suppress the noise at low frequencies with increasing penetration, but for higher polar angles, while they continue to suppress the low frequency noise, at higher frequencies the trend is found to reverse. The noise measured in the near field close to the jet edge is composed of two components: acoustic and hydrodynamic. Of these two components, the chevrons are found to reduce the hydrodynamic component in comparison with the acoustic one.
Effect of chevron nozzle penetration on aero-acoustic characteristics of jet at M = 0.8
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikam, S R [K. J. Somaiya college of Engineering, Mumbai (India); Sharma, S D, E-mail: srnikam12@gmail.com [I.I.T. Bombay, Mumbai (India)
2017-12-15
Aero-acoustic characteristics of a high-speed jet with chevron nozzles are experimentally investigated at a Mach number of 0.8. The main focus is to examine the effects of the extent of chevron penetration and its position in the mixing layer. Chevron nozzles with three different levels of penetration employed at three different longitudinal locations from the nozzle lip are tested, and the results are compared with those of a plain baseline nozzle. The chevrons are found to produce a lobed shear layer through the notched region, thereby increasing the surface area of the jet, particularly in the close vicinity of the nozzle, which increases the mixing and reduces the potential core length. This effect becomes more prominent with increasing penetration closer to the nozzle lip in the thinner mixing layer. Near field and far field noise measurements show distinctly different acoustic features due to chevrons. The chevrons are found to effectively shift the dominant noise source upstream closer to the nozzle. Present investigation proposes a simpler method for locating the dominant noise source from the peak of the centerline velocity decay rate. The overall noise levels registered along the jet edge immediately downstream of the chevrons are higher, but further downstream they are reduced in comparison with the plain baseline nozzle. Also, the chevrons beam the noise towards higher polar angles at higher frequencies. At shallow polar angles with respect to the jet axis in the far field, chevrons suppress the noise at low frequencies with increasing penetration, but for higher polar angles, while they continue to suppress the low frequency noise, at higher frequencies the trend is found to reverse. The noise measured in the near field close to the jet edge is composed of two components: acoustic and hydrodynamic. Of these two components, the chevrons are found to reduce the hydrodynamic component in comparison with the acoustic one. (paper)
Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC
2011-08-12
A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.
Lezberg, Erwin A.; Metzler, Allen J.; Pack, William D.
1993-01-01
Results of in-stream combustion measurements taken during Mach 5 to 7 true simulation testing of the Hypersonic Research Engine/Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE/AIM) are presented. These results, the instrumentation techniques, and configuration changes to the engine installation that were required to test this model are described. In test runs at facility Mach numbers of 5 to 7, an exhaust instrumentation ring which formed an extension of the engine exhaust nozzle shroud provided diagnostic measurements at 10 circumferential locations in the HRE combustor exit plane. The measurements included static and pitot pressures using conventional conical probes, combustion gas temperatures from cooled-gas pyrometer probes, and species concentration from analysis of combustion gas samples. Results showed considerable circumferential variation, indicating that efficiency losses were due to nonuniform fuel distribution or incomplete mixing. Results using the Mach 7 facility nozzle but with Mach 6 temperature simulation, 1590 to 1670 K, showed indications of incomplete combustion. Nitric oxide measurements at the combustor exit peaked at 2000 ppmv for stoichiometric combustion at Mach 6.
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Co-Axial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
Baurle, R. A.; Edwards, J. R.
2009-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The baseline value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was noted when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid simulation results showed the same trends as the baseline Reynolds-averaged predictions. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions are suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Comparisons between resolved second-order turbulence statistics and their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts were also performed.
Monta, William J.
1992-01-01
A pitot-rake survey of the simulated exhaust of a half-span scramjet nozzle model was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel to provide an additional data set for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code comparisons. A wind-tunnel model was tested with a 26-tube pitot rake that could be manually positioned along the mid-semispan plane of the model. The model configuration had an external expansion surface of 20 degrees and an internal cowl expansion of 12 degrees; tests were also performed with a flow fence. Tests were conducted at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot and a model angle of attack of -0.75 degrees. The two exhaust gas mediums that were tested were air and a Freon 12-argon mixture. Each medium was tested at two jet total pressures at approximately 28 and 14 psia. This document presents the flow-field survey results in graphical as well as tabular form, and several observations concerning the results are discussed. The surveys reveal the major expected flow-field characteristics for each test configuration. For a 50-percent freon 12 and 50-percent argon mixture by volume (Fr-Ar), the exhaust jet pressures were slightly higher than those for air. The addition of a flow fence slightly raised the pitot pressure for the Fr-Ar mixture, but it produced little change for air. For the Fr-Ar exhaust, the plume was larger and the region between the shock wave and plume was smaller.
Bifurcation in a buoyant horizontal laminar jet
Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Das, Debopam; Srinivasan, J.
2000-06-01
The trajectory of a laminar buoyant jet discharged horizontally has been studied. The experimental observations were based on the injection of pure water into a brine solution. Under certain conditions the jet has been found to undergo bifurcation. The bifurcation of the jet occurs in a limited domain of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The regions in which the bifurcation occurs has been mapped in the Reynolds number Grashof number plane. There are three regions where bifurcation does not occur. The various mechanisms that prevent bifurcation have been proposed.
Characteristics and generation of secondary jets and secondary gigantic jets
Lee, Li-Jou; Huang, Sung-Ming; Chou, Jung-Kung; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chen, Alfred B.; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Frey, Harald U.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Lee, Lou-Chuang
2012-06-01
Secondary transient luminous events (TLEs) recorded by the ISUAL-FORMOSAT2 mission can either be secondary jets or secondary gigantic jets (GJs), depending on their terminal altitudes. The secondary jets emerge from the cloud top beneath the preceding sprites and extend upward to the base of the sprites at ˜50 km. The secondary jets likely are negative electric discharges with vertically straight luminous columns, morphologically resembling the trailing jet of the type-I GJs. The number of luminous columns in a secondary jet seems to be affected by the size of the effective capacitor plate formed near the base of the preceding sprites and the charge distribution left behind by the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges. The secondary GJs originate from the cloud top under the shielding area of the preceding sprites, and develop upward to reach the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. The observed morphology of the secondary GJs can either be the curvy shifted secondary GJs extending outside the region occupied by the preceding sprites or the straight pop-through secondary GJs developing through the center of the preceding circular sprites. A key factor in determining the terminal height of the secondary TLEs appears to be the local ionosphere boundary height that established by the preceding sprites. The abundance and the distribution of the negative charge in the thundercloud following the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges may play important role in the generation of the secondary TLEs.
Zhao, Fa-Ming; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Li, Long-Fei
2018-05-01
The air chemical non-equilibrium effect (ACNEE) on hydrogen-air combustion flow fields at Mach number of 10 is numerically analyzed for a semi-sphere with a sonic opposing-hydrogen jet. The 2D axisymmetric multi-components N-S equations are solved by using the central scheme with artificial dissipation and the S-A turbulence model. Numerical results show that as compared to the result without ACNEE, the ACNEE has little influence on the structure of flow field, but has a considerable impact on fluid characteristics which reduces the maximum value of mass fraction of water in the flow field and increases the maximum value of mass fraction of water on solid surface, as well as the maximum surface temperature.
Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.
2018-03-01
The paper presents the results of numerical modeling of a transonic region formation in the flat channel. Hydrogen flows into the channel through the holes in the wall. The jet of compressed air is localized downstream the holes. The transonic region formation is formed by the burning of heterogeneous hydrogen-air mixture. It was considered in the framework of the simplified chemical kinetics. The interesting feature of the regime obtained is the following: the distribution of the Mach numbers is qualitatively similar to the case of pulse-periodic energy sources. This mode is a favorable prerequisite for the effective fuel combustion in the expanding part of the channel when injecting fuel into this part.
Jet noise reduction via dispersed phase injection
Greska, Brent; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Arakeri, Vijay
2001-11-01
A recently developed hot jet aeroacoustics facility at FMRL,FAMU-FSU College of Engineering has been used to study the far field noise characteristics of hot supersonic jets as influenced by the injection of a dispersed phase with low mass loading.The measured SPL from a fully expanded Mach 1.36 hot jet shows a peak value of about 139 dB at 40 deg from the jet axis.By injecting atomized water,the SPL are reduced in the angular region of about 30 deg to 50 deg with the maximum reduction being about 2 dB at 40 deg.However,with the use of non atomized aqueous polymer solution as a dispersed phase the noise levels are reduced over all angular positions by at least 1 dB with the maximum reduction being about 3 dB at 40 deg.The injection of a dispersed phase readily kills the screech; the initial results show promise and optimization studies are underway to find methods of further noise reduction.
A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.
1989-04-01
A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs
Krypton tagging velocimetry in a turbulent Mach 2.7 boundary layer
Zahradka, D.; Parziale, N. J.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.
2016-05-01
The krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) technique is applied to the turbulent boundary layer on the wall of the "Mach 3 Calibration Tunnel" at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) White Oak. Profiles of velocity were measured with KTV and Pitot-pressure probes in the Mach 2.7 turbulent boundary layer comprised of 99 % {N}2/1 % Kr at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers of {Re}_{\\varTheta }= 800, 1400, and 2400. Agreement between the KTV- and Pitot-derived velocity profiles is excellent. The KTV and Pitot velocity data follow the law of the wall in the logarithmic region with application of the Van Driest I transformation. The velocity data are analyzed in the outer region of the boundary layer with the law of the wake and a velocity-defect law. KTV-derived streamwise velocity fluctuation measurements are reported and are consistent with data from the literature. To enable near-wall measurement with KTV (y/δ ≈ 0.1-0.2), an 800-nm longpass filter was used to block the 760.2-nm read-laser pulse. With the longpass filter, the 819.0-nm emission from the re-excited Kr can be imaged to track the displacement of the metastable tracer without imaging the reflection and scatter from the read-laser off of solid surfaces. To operate the Mach 3 AEDC Calibration Tunnel at several discrete unit Reynolds numbers, a modification was required and is described herein.
Tagging and suppression of pileup jets
The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total mo- mentum of tracks in the jet which is associated to the primary vertex. Imposing a minimum on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event ($N_{Vtx}$). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of $N_{Vtx}$. A multivariate combina- tion of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger is constructed. In addition, it is shown that jet-vertex association can be applied to large-R jets, providing a track-based grooming technique that is as powerful as calorimeter-based trimming but based on complementary trackin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George William Kent Moore
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.
Numerical simulation of stage separation of a multi-stage flying object with brake jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzaei, M.; Shadaram, A.; Nia, B.N.
2005-01-01
In this paper, separation maneuver of a two-stage supersonic flying object is numerically simulated and the influences of supersonic brake jets on separation process are discussed. The finite volume approach is used for solution of unsteady three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations on a moving boundary domain. In this simulation, air has considered as a calorically perfect gas and since the flow field is turbulent, two equations κ-ε model has been adopted for turbulence modeling. Shocks, expansions and their reflections have major role on flow pattern between two stages during the separation process and the maneuver is dominantly affected by the main flow and braking jets. The separation process has an unsteady nature and the separation of stages at high Mach numbers induces some aerodynamic problems that may lead to fail the next stage flight. The purpose of this research is to compute the aerodynamic loads on separated stage and, consequently, the relative distance of body components with a good accuracy. The simulation of moving boundary problem is based on moving grid strategy using remeshing method. To validate the simulation, some of the results are compared with experimental data. (author)
Numerical Study of Controlling Jet Flow and Noise using Pores on Nozzle Inner Wall
Lin, Jian; Shi, Zhixiao; Lai, Huanxin
2018-04-01
In this paper, the feasibility of controlling the subsonic jet flow and its noise using pores of blind holes added on the nozzle inner wall is explored numerically. These pores are intended to introduce disturbances to the shear layer so as to change the flow mixing. This passive strategy has not been attempted so far. A convergent nozzle with a cylindrical extension is selected as the baseline case. Three nozzles with pores on the inner wall are set up. Validations of the numerical settings are carried out, then the compressible turbulent jets at the exit Mach number M j = 0.6 in the four nozzles are calculated by large eddy simulations (LES), while the radiated sounds are predicted by the FW-H acoustic analogy. The results show that the blind holes have produced some effects on weakening the turbulence intensity in the shear layer. Comparison reveals that both temporal and spatial correlations of the turbulent fluctuations in the modified cases are suppressed to some extent. Meanwhile, the porous nozzles are shown to suppress the pairing of vortices and enhance the flow mixing, and therefore, the development of shear layer and the fragmentation of large scale vortices are accelerated.
Jet joint undertaking progress report 1988 volume I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-06-01
The 1988 progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. It covers the fifth year of JET's operation and provides an overview of the scientific and technical advances made on JET. The JET most important articles, published during 1988, are included. The background of JET project, the main objectives and design aspects of the machine are summarized. Most of 1988 was devoted to machine operations: the number of pulses was 4673. The introduction, commissioning and operation of the JET second beam injector is reported. Planned developments on enhancements in the machine for future operations are included
Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets
2016-03-15
Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0747 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ayers, Bradley...ANSI Std. Z39.18 CONTROL OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES USING TRANSVERSE JETS Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract N00014-13-1...fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle model using the thrust of the zero-net-mass-flux device. The experiments were conducted in NUWC Newport’ s
Mitcham, Grady L.; Blanchard, Willard S.; Hastings, Earl C., Jr.
1952-01-01
At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, an investigation at transonic and low supersonic speeds of the drag and longitudinal trim characteristics of the Douglas XF4D-1 airplane is being conducted by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division. The Douglas XF4D-1 is a jet-propelled, low-aspect-ratio, swept-wing, tailless, interceptor-type airplane designed to fly at low supersonic speeds. As a part of this investigation, flight tests were made using rocket- propelled 1/10- scale models to determine the effect of the addition of 10 external stores and rocket packets on the drag at low lift coefficients. In addition to these data, some qualitative values of the directional stability parameter C(sub n beta) and duct total-pressure recovery are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.
1988-07-01
The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)
Flow Mapping of a Jet in Crossflow with Stereoscopic PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Westergaard, C. H.
2002-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to make a three-dimensional flow mapping of a jet in crossflow. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the jet diameter was nominally 2400. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3.3 was used. Details of the formation...
The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1981-01-01
These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)
Flowfield Behavior of Supersonic Impinging Jets
Iyer, K. G.; Alvi, F. S.
1998-11-01
A detailed study is being conducted which examines the behavior of normally impinging, supersonic jets, issuing from axisymmetric a Mach 1.5 C-D and a sonic nozzle. Our goal is to understand the physics of this flowfield (commonly observed in STOVL aircraft) and its influence on the acoustic and aerodynamic loading on the ground plane and the airframe. The airframe is simulated by a circular disc ('lift' plate) with an annular hole from which the jet is issued. Tests are carried out for a wide range of pressure ratios and the ground plane distance is varied from 1.5 to 60 nozzle diameters. Flowfield measurements include Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and schlieren/shadowgraph visualization. Surface measurements on the ground and lift plates include mean and unsteady surface pressure distributions and the surface streamline visualization. Near-field acoustic measurements using a microphone are also obtained. For certain cases, the PIV measurements -- first of their kind, to our knowledge -- clearly show the presence of large-scale coherent turbulent structures which, upon jet impingement, propagate into the resulting wall jet. These structures are believed to generate very high unsteady pressure loads on the ground plane thus leading to ground erosion. They are also suspected to be the source of acoustic waves which lead to a feedback loop causing violent oscillations of the primary jet and can result in increased acoustic loading and subsequent damage to the aircraft. As a result of this detailed study over a wide parametric space, we hope to gain a much better understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this complex flow.
Breakup of free liquid jets influenced by external mechanical vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lad, V N; Murthy, Z V P, E-mail: vnl@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm@ched.svnit.ac.in, E-mail: zvpm2000@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology—Surat, Surat—395007, Gujarat (India)
2017-02-15
The breakup of liquid jets has been studied with various test liquids using externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Images of the jets were captured by a high speed camera up to the speed of 1000 frames per second, and analyzed to obtain the profile of the jet and breakup length. The dynamics of the jets have also been studied to understand the effects of additives—a surfactant and polymer—incorporating externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Different types of breakup modes have been explored with respect to the Weber number and Ohnesorge number. The introduction of mechanical vibrations have caused jet breakup with separated droplets at a comparatively lower Weber number. The region of jet breakup by neck formation at constant jet velocities also contracted due to mechanical vibrations. (paper)
Heat transfer to surface and gaps of RSI tile arrays in turbulent flow at Mach 10.3
Throckmorton, D. A.
1974-01-01
Heat transfer to gap walls and surface of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array are presented. The data were obtained in the thick, turbulent tunnel wall boundary layer of the Langley Continuous Flow Hypersonic Tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 10.3 and a freestream unit Reynolds number of one million. Pertinent test variables were: (1) tile array orientation (staggered and in-line), (2) gap width, (3) flow angularity, and (4) tile mismatch.
Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitev Ivan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.
Computation of Mach reflection from rigid and yielding surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.; Wilson, S.S.
1976-01-01
The present discussion centers on a theoretical description of one aspect of the irregular or Mach reflection from solid surfaces. The discussion is restricted to analytical considerations and some preliminary results using model approximations to the surface interaction phenomena. Currently, full numerical simulations of the irregular reflection surface interaction dynamics have not been obtained since the method is still under development. Discussion of the numerical method is, therefore, restricted to some special procedures for the gas-solid surface boundary dynamics. The discussion is divided into an introductory section briefly describing a particular Mach reflection process. Subsequently, some of the considerations on boundary conditions are submitted for numerical treatment of the gas-solid interface. Analysis and discussion of a yielding solid surface subjected to impulsive loading from an intense gas shock wave follows. This is used as a guide for the development of the numerical procedure. Mach reflection processes are then briefly reviewed with special attention for similitude and singular perturbation features
Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS
Cerci, Salim
2018-01-01
The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.
Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet
Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.
2011-08-01
In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.
Pedestal width and ELM size identity studies in JET and DIII-D; implications for ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beurskens, M N A; Lomas, P; Saarelma, S; Balboa, I; Flanagan, J; Giroud, C; Kempenaars, M [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Sc. Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Osborne, T H; Groebner, R; Leonard, A; Snyder, P B; Bray, B [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Horton, L D [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Frassinetti, L [Association EURATOM-VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Nunes, I [Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Associacao EURATOM-IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Giovannozzi, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX Padova (Italy); Kohen, N [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Loarte, A [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, F-13067 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Loennroth, J, E-mail: Marc.Beurskens@jet.u [Association EURATOM-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)
2009-12-15
The dependence of the H-mode edge transport barrier width on normalized ion gyroradius (rho* = rho/a) in discharges with type I ELMs was examined in experiments combining data for the JET and DIII-D tokamaks. The plasma configuration as well as the local normalized pressure (beta), collisionality (nu*), Mach number and the ratio of ion and electron temperature at the pedestal top were kept constant, while rho* was varied by a factor of four. The width of the steep gradient region of the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) pedestals normalized to machine size showed no or only a weak trend with rho*. A rho{sup 1/2} or rho{sup 1} dependence of the pedestal width, given by some theoretical predictions, is not supported by the current experiments. This is encouraging for the pedestal scaling towards ITER as it operates at lower rho* than existing devices. Some differences in pedestal structure and ELM behaviour were, however, found between the devices; in the DIII-D discharges, the n{sub e} and T{sub e} pedestal were aligned at high rho* but the n{sub e} pedestal shifted outwards in radius relative to T{sub e} as rho* decreases, while on JET the profiles remained aligned while rho* was scanned by a factor of two. The energy loss at an ELM normalized to the pedestal energy increased from 10% to 40% as rho* increased by a factor of two in the DIII-D discharges but no such variation was observed in the case of JET. The measured pedestal pressures and widths were found to be consistent with the predictions from modelling based on peeling-ballooning stability theory, and are used to make projections towards ITER
Focus talk on interactions between jets and medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruppert, Joerg
2006-01-01
The energy and momentum lost by a hard parton propagating through hot and dense matter has to be redistributed during the nuclear medium evolution. Apart from heating the medium, there is the possibility that collective modes are excited leading to the emergence of Mach cones or Cherenkov radiation. Recent two-particle correlation measurements by STAR [F. Wang [STAR Collaboration], J. Phys. G 30, S1299 (2004) [arXiv:nucl-ex/0404010]; C. Gagliardi, these proceedings] and PHENIX [S. S. Adler et al. [PHENIX Collaboration], arXiv:nucl-ex/0507004; N. Ajitanand, these proceedings] at RHIC indicate that such phenomena may play an important role in understanding the jet-medium interactions. Possible collective modes are discussed and it is demonstrated that Mach cones as created by colorless or colored sound are a possible explanation of the hardronic two-particle correlation data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I.V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S.V.; Pliavaka, F.V.
2010-01-01
Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow
Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction
Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.
Deep learning in jet reconstruction at CMS
Stoye, Markus
2017-01-01
Deep learning has led to several breakthroughs outside the field of high energy physics, yet in jet reconstruction for the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC it has not been used so far. This report shows results of applying deep learning strategies to jet reconstruction at the stage of identifying the original parton association of the jet (jet tagging), which is crucial for physics analyses at the LHC experiments. We introduce a custom deep neural network architecture for jet tagging. We compare the performance of this novel method with the other established approaches at CMS and show that the proposed strategy provides a significant improvement. The strategy provides the first multi-class classifier, instead of the few binary classifiers that previously were used, and thus yields more information and in a more convenient way. The performance results obtained with simulation imply a significant improvement for a large number of important physics analysis at the CMS experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konishi, K.
1980-01-01
The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)
The JET vacuum interspace system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orchard, J.; Scales, S.
1999-01-01
In the past JET has suffered from a number of vacuum leaks on components such as bellows, windows and feedthroughs due, in part, to the adverse conditions, including high mechanical forces, which may prevail during plasma operation. Therefore before the recent Tritium experiments on JET it was deemed prudent to manufacture and install items with a secondary containment or interspace in order to minimise the effect of failure of the primary vacuum barrier on both the leak integrity of the machine and the outcome of the experiments. This paper describes the philosophy, logistics, method and implementation of an integrated connection and monitoring system on the 330 interspaces currently in position on the JET machine. Using the JET leak database comparisons are drawn of leak failure rates of the components allied to the number of operational hours, prior to the system being present and after installation and commissioning, and the case of detection compared to the previous situation. An argument is also presented on the feasibility and adaptability of this system to any large complex machine and the benefits to be obtained in reduction of leaks and operational down time. (author)
Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments
Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason
2018-04-01
Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to z =3.9 . With stars, we achieved bit rates of ˜1 ×106Hz/m 2 , limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between ˜102 and 2 ×103Hz /m2 . For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.
Effect of emerging technology on a convertible, business/interceptor, supersonic-cruise jet
Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.
1986-01-01
This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of an eight-passenger, supersonic-cruise long range business jet aircraft that could be converted into a military missile carrying interceptor. The baseline passenger version has a flight crew of two with cabin space for four rows of two passenger seats plus baggage and lavatory room in the aft cabin. The ramp weight is 61,600 pounds with an internal fuel capacity of 30,904 pounds. Utilizing an improved version of a current technology low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, range is 3,622 nautical miles at Mach 2.0 cruise and standard day operating conditions. Balanced field takeoff distance is 6,600 feet and landing distance is 5,170 feet at 44,737 pounds. The passenger section from aft of the flight crew station to the aft pressure bulkhead in the cabin was modified for the interceptor version. Bomb bay type doors were added and volume is sufficient for four advanced air-to-air missiles mounted on a rotary launcher. Missile volume was based on a Phoenix type missile with a weight of 910 pounds per missile for a total payload weight of 3,640 pounds. Structural and equipment weights were adjusted and result in a ramp weight of 63,246 pounds with a fuel load of 30,938 pounds. Based on a typical intercept mission flight profile, the resulting radius is 1,609 nautical miles at a cruise Mach number of 2.0.
Sound Radiation from a Supersonic Jet Passing Through a Partially Open Exhaust Duct
Kandula, Max
2011-01-01
The radiation of sound from a perfectly expanded Mach 2.5 cold supersonic jet of 25.4 mm exit diameter flowing through a partially open rigid-walled duct with an upstream i-deflector has been studied experimentally. In the experiments, the nozzle is mounted vertically, with the nozzle exit plane at a height of 73 jet diameters above ground level. Relative to the nozzle exit plane (NEP), the location of the duct inlet is varied at 10, 5, and -1 jet diameters. Far-field sound pressure levels were obtained at 54 jet diameters above ground with the aid of acoustic sensors equally spaced around a circular arc of radius equal to 80 jet diameters from the jet axis. Data on the jet acoustic field for the partially open duct were obtained and compared with those with a free jet and with a closed duct. The results suggest that for the partially open duct the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) decreases as the distance between the NEP and the duct inlet plane decreases, while the opposite trend is observed for the closed duct. It is also concluded that the observed peak frequency in the partially open duct increases above the free jet value as the angle from the duct axis is increased, and as the duct inlet plane becomes closer to the NEP.
MACH MIT: Deutsches Wochenende am Karlsfluss (MACH MIT: a German Week-End on the Charles River).
Reizes, Sonia; Kramsch, Claire J.
1980-01-01
Describes a joint high school/college pilot program planned by Massachusetts foreign language teachers and hosted by M.I.T. The success of the program dubbed "MACH MIT Total Immersion German Weekend" is attributed to the concept of active involvement, which was implemented through games, seminars, shows, cooking and other activities.…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.
1987-06-01
The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)
Miller, David W
2011-01-01
Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.
Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign
Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy
2015-09-01
Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.
Experimental and Computational Study of Underexpanded Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
Rufer, Shann J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Picetti, Donald
2009-01-01
An experiment was performed to assess CFD modeling of a hypersonic-vehicle breach, boundary-layer flow ingestion and internal surface impingement. Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. Four simulated breaches were tested and impingement heat flux data was obtained for each case using both phosphor thermography and thin film gages on targets placed inside the model. A separate target was used to measure the surface pressure distribution. The measured jet impingement width and peak location are in good agreement with CFD analysis.
Toward Active Control of Noise from Hot Supersonic Jets
2014-04-21
Mechanisms AGARD - CP -131, 1974, pp. 13.1-13.12. [23] Goldstein, M.E., "On identifying the true sources of aerodynamic sound," Journal of Fluid Mechanics Vol...either constant or begins to decay. For the resampled data (1/8 inch microphones resampled at 100 kHz), the change in 7( 73 ) follows the originally...supersonic jet and their acoustic radiation," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 69, No.l, 1975, pp. 73 95. [5] Tain, C. K. W., "Mach wave radiation from high
Forward modeling of JET polarimetry diagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, Oliver; Svensson, J.; Boboc, A.; McDonald, D. C.
2008-01-01
An analytical Bayesian inversion of the JET interferometry line integrated densities into density profiles and associated uncertainty information, is demonstrated. These are used, with a detailed model of plasma polarimetry, to predict the rotation and ellipticity for the JET polarimeter. This includes the lateral channels, for over 45,000 time points over 1313 JET pulses. Good agreement with measured values is shown for a number of channels. For the remaining channels, the requirement of a more detailed model of the diagnostic is demonstrated. A commonly used approximation for the Cotton-Mouton effect on the lateral channels is also evaluated.
A cluster algorithm for jet studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daum, H.J.; Meyer, H.; Buerger, J.
1980-10-01
A procedure is described which determines the number of jets in hadronic final states by means of a cluster algorithm. In addition it yields a measurement of the energy and the direction of each jet. The properties of this method are studied using Monte Carlo simulations of different types of e + e - -annihilation final states. It is shown that in case of 3-jet events direct comparison with the underlying parton structure can be made. Possible further applications of this method are discussed. (orig.)
Nichols, M. E.
1976-01-01
The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.
DARK JETS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, Peter R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)
2015-03-10
A new solar feature termed a dark jet is identified from observations of an extended solar coronal hole that was continuously monitored for over 44 hr by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft in 2011 February 8–10 as part of Hinode Operation Plan No. 177 (HOP 177). Line of sight (LOS) velocity maps derived from the coronal Fe xii λ195.12 emission line, formed at 1.5 MK, revealed a number of large-scale, jet-like structures that showed significant blueshifts. The structures had either weak or no intensity signal in 193 Å filter images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, suggesting that the jets are essentially invisible to imaging instruments. The dark jets are rooted in bright points and occur both within the coronal hole and at the quiet Sun–coronal hole boundary. They exhibit a wide range of shapes, from narrow columns to fan-shaped structures, and sometimes multiple jets are seen close together. A detailed study of one dark jet showed LOS speeds increasing along the jet axis from 52 to 107 km s{sup −1} and a temperature of 1.2–1.3 MK. The low intensity of the jet was due either to a small filling factor of 2% or to a curtain-like morphology. From the HOP 177 sample, dark jets are as common as regular coronal hole jets, but their low intensity suggests a mass flux around two orders of magnitude lower.
Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes
Rodi, Wolfgang
The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami
Measurements of flows in the DIII-D divertor by Mach probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boedo, J.A.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Watkins, J.G.; Porter, G.D.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.
1998-06-01
First measurements of Mach number of background plasma in the DIII-D divertor are presented in conjunction with temperature T e and density n e using a fast scanning probe array. To validate the probe measurements, the authors compared the T e , n e and J sat data to Thomson scattering data and find good overall agreement in attached discharges and some discrepancy for T e and n e in detached discharges. The discrepancy is mostly due to the effect of large fluctuations present during detached plasmas on the probe characteristic; the particle flux is accurately measured in every case. A composite 2-D map of measured flows is presented for an ELMing H-mode discharge and they focus on some of the details. They have also documented the temperature, density and Mach number in the private flux region of the divertor and the vicinity of the X-point, which are important transition regions that have been little studied or modeled. Background parallel plasma flows and electric fields in the divertor region show a complex structure
Jet mixing long horizontal storage tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perona, J.J.; Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.
1994-12-01
Large storage tanks may require mixing to achieve homogeneity of contents for several reasons: prior to sampling for mass balance purposes, for blending in reagents, for suspending settled solids for removal, or for use as a feed tank to a process. At ORNL, mixed waste evaporator concentrates are stored in 50,000-gal tanks, about 12 ft in diameter and 60 ft long. This tank configuration has the advantage of permitting transport by truck and therefore fabrication in the shop rather than in the field. Jet mixing experiments were carried out on two model tanks: a 230-gal (1/6-linear-scale) Plexiglas tank and a 25,000-gal tank (about 2/3 linear scale). Mixing times were measured using sodium chloride tracer and several conductivity probes distributed through the tanks. Several jet sizes and configurations were tested. One-directional and two-directional jets were tested in both tanks. Mixing times for each tank were correlated with the jet Reynolds number. Mixing times were correlated for the two tank sizes using the recirculation time for the developed jet. When the recirculation times were calculated using the distance from the nozzle to the end of the tank as the length of the developed jet, the correlation was only marginally successful. Data for the two tank sizes were correlated empirically using a modified effective jet length expressed as a function of the Reynolds number raised to the 1/3 power. Mixing experiments were simulated using the TEMTEST computer program. The simulations predicted trends correctly and were within the scatter of the experimental data with the lower jet Reynolds numbers. Agreement was not as good at high Reynolds numbers except for single nozzles in the 25,000-gal tank, where agreement was excellent over the entire range
On jet substructure methods for signal jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Powling, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); CERN, PH-TH,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2015-08-17
We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p{sub T}. We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Nicola
2007-01-01
RHIC results on leading hadron suppression indicate that the jets produced in hard processes are strongly quenched by the dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Most of the energy lost by the leading parton remains within the jet cone, but several questions on the medium modification of the jet structure have not been addressed. These include the longitudinal and transverse structures of the quenched jet, the associated radiation observables, and the dependence on the parton flavor. These topics will be studied by ALICE thanks to both the robustness of its tracking and the charged particle identification system. Large medium effects are expected in both the low pt and in the high pt regions. To make ALICE better suited for jet physics, the performances on high p t particles and jets can be significantly improved by completing the present set-up with a large Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EmCal). This will significantly improve the resolution on the jet energy and on the particle composition (with the detection of both charged and neutral particles). It will also allow to calibrate the jet energy by measuring the high energy photon emitted in the opposite direction. EmCal will be used to trigger on the jet energy itself, thus allowing a significant improvement of the statistics achievable for jets of high energy. Finally, due too both the γ/π 0 and the electron/hadron discrimination, EmCal will enhance the ALICE capabilities at high p t for direct photons and heavy quarks measurements
Turbulence characteristics in cylindrical liquid jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.
1994-01-01
A study has been made of the flow patterns and turbulence characteristics in free liquid jets in order to determine the rate of decay of turbulence properties along the jet. Mean streamwise velocities and streamwise velocities and streamwise and cross-streamwise turbulence intensities were measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. The jet Reynolds number was varied between 1000 and 30 000, with the diameter of the liquid jet D=3.051 mm. Using a power law model for the time decay of turbulence kinetic energy, it was found that turbulence decays, on average with an exponent N=1, independent of the Reynolds number. A constant power for the decay implies Reynolds number similarity throughout this range. Substantial reductions in the degree of anisotropy occur downstream from the injector exit as the jet relaxes from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow profile to a flat profile. For the intermediate range of Reynolds numbers (10 000--20 000), the relaxation distance was 20D, almost independent of the Reynolds number. At high values of Reynolds number (20 000--30 000), the relaxation process was very fast, generally within three diameters from the injector exit
Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6
Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus
1996-01-01
Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys
Quantitative Global Heat Transfer in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel
Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, Steven P.; Liu, Tianshu; Rubal, Justin; Ward, Chris; Dussling, Joseph; Rice, Cody; Foley, Ryan; Cai, Zeimin; Wang, Bo;
2012-01-01
This project developed quantitative methods for obtaining heat transfer from temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue, which is a Ludwieg tube with a downstream valve, moderately-short flow duration and low levels of heat transfer. Previous difficulties with inferring heat transfer from TSP in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel were traced to (1) the large transient heat transfer that occurs during the unusually long tunnel startup and shutdown, (2) the non-uniform thickness of the insulating coating, (3) inconsistencies and imperfections in the painting process and (4) the low levels of heat transfer observed on slender models at typical stagnation temperatures near 430K. Repeated measurements were conducted on 7 degree-half-angle sharp circular cones at zero angle of attack in order to evaluate the techniques, isolate the problems and identify solutions. An attempt at developing a two-color TSP method is also summarized.
Direct numerical simulation of free and forced square jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gohil, Trushar B.; Saha, Arun K.; Muralidhar, K.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Free square jet at Re = 500–2000 is studied using DNS. • Forced square jet at Re = 1000 subjected to varicose perturbation is also investigated at various forcing frequencies. • Vortex interactions within the jet and jet spreading are affected both for free and forced jets. • Perturbation at higher frequency shows axis-switching. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible, spatially developing square jets in the Reynolds number range of 500–2000 is reported. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier–Stokes equations are solved using high order spatial and temporal discretization. The objective of the present work is to understand the evolution of free and forced square jets by examining the formation of large-scale structures. Coherent structures and related interactions of free jets suggest control strategies that can be used to achieve enhanced spreading and mixing of the jet with the surrounding fluid. The critical Reynolds number for the onset on unsteadiness in an unperturbed free square jet is found to be 875–900 while it reduces to the range 500–525 in the presence of small-scale perturbations. Disturbances applied at the flow inlet cause saturation of KH-instability and early transition to turbulence. Forced jet calculations have been carried out using varicose perturbation with amplitude of 15%, while frequency is independently varied. Simulations show that the initial development of the square jet is influenced by the four corners leading to the appearance hairpin structures along with the formation of vortex rings. Farther downstream, adjacent vortices strongly interact leading to their rapid breakup. Excitation frequencies in the range 0.4–0.6 cause axis-switching of the jet cross-section. Results show that square jets achieve greater spreading but are less controllable in comparison to the circular ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, T.F.
1980-05-01
The basic idea of these lectures is very simple. Quarks and gluons - the elementary quanta of quantum chromodynamics or QCD - are produced with perturbarively calculable rates in short distance processes. This is because of asymptotic freedom. These quanta produced at short distances are, in a sense, 'visible' as jets of hadrons. (The jets do not contain the colored QCD quanta if - as we will assume - color is confined. The jets contain only colorless hadrons.) The distribution of these jets is the distribution of the original quanta, apart from fluctuations generated in the (long distance) jet formation process. The distribution of the jets can thus thest QCD in a particularly clear way at the parton level, at distance of order 5 x 10 -16 cm (PETRA/PEP energies). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahn, F.D.
1983-01-01
A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)
Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.
1976-06-01
This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change
Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets
Brady, Parrish Clawson
the background magnetic fields. The Euler number for the laboratory jet was 9 compared with an estimate of 40 for young stellar object jets [135] which demonstrated adequate scaling between the two frames. A second experiment was performed concerning laboratory simulations of magnetospheres with plasma winds impinging on permanent magnetic dipoles. The ratio of the magnetopause measured with ICCD photography to the calculated magnetopause standoff distance was ~2.
Banfi, Andrea
2016-01-01
Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keen, B.E.
1988-03-01
The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)
Optimization of OT-MACH Filter Generation for Target Recognition
Johnson, Oliver C.; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin
2009-01-01
An automatic Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter generator for use in a gray-scale optical correlator (GOC) has been developed for improved target detection at JPL. While the OT-MACH filter has been shown to be an optimal filter for target detection, actually solving for the optimum is too computationally intensive for multiple targets. Instead, an adaptive step gradient descent method was tested to iteratively optimize the three OT-MACH parameters, alpha, beta, and gamma. The feedback for the gradient descent method was a composite of the performance measures, correlation peak height and peak to side lobe ratio. The automated method generated and tested multiple filters in order to approach the optimal filter quicker and more reliably than the current manual method. Initial usage and testing has shown preliminary success at finding an approximation of the optimal filter, in terms of alpha, beta, gamma values. This corresponded to a substantial improvement in detection performance where the true positive rate increased for the same average false positives per image.
Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Brueckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Farh, A.B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D.M.; Joensson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kaestli, H.K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koehne, J.H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Kuepper, A.; Kuester, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, S.; Lueke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovsky, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Newman, P.R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poeschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schroeder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Stamen, R.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Ste llberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wittek, C.; Wittmann, E.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wuensch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.
1999-01-01
Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies E T,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k perpendicular and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 2 2 and Bjorken-x values 2 -4 Bj -3 , jet shapes and subjet multiplicities are measured as a function of a resolution parameter. Distributions of both observables are corrected for detector effects and presented as functions of the transverse jet energy and jet pseudo-rapidity. Dependences of the jet shape and the average number of subjets on the transverse energy and the pseudo-rapidity of the jet are observed. With increasing transverse jet energies and decreasing pseudo-rapidities, i.e. towards the photon hemisphere, the jets are more collimated. QCD models give a fair description of the data
XCone. N-jettiness as an Exclusive Cone Jet Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, Iain W.; Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Vermilion, Christopher K.
2015-08-01
We introduce a new jet algorithm called XCone, for eXclusive Cone, which is based on minimizing the event shape N-jettiness. Because N-jettiness partitions every event into N jet regions and a beam region, XCone is an exclusive jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets. We use a new ''conical geometric'' measure for which well-separated jets are bounded by circles of radius R in the rapidity-azimuth plane, while overlapping jet regions automatically form nearest-neighbor ''clover jets''. This avoids the split/merge criteria needed in inclusive cone algorithms. A key feature of XCone is that it smoothly transitions between the resolved regime where the N signal jets of interest are well separated and the boosted regime where they overlap. The returned value of N-jettiness also provides a quality criterion of how N-jet-like the event looks. We also discuss the N-jettiness factorization theorems that occur for various jet measures, which can be used to compute the associated exclusive N-jet cross sections. In a companion paper, the physics potential of XCone is demonstrated using the examples of dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, K.
1987-01-01
The properties of gluon jets are reviewed, and the measured characteristics are compared to the theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, in general the agreement between experiment and theory is remarkable. There are some intriguing differences. Since the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, K.
1988-01-01
The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on understanding of QCD. The future prospects are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lillethun, E.
1976-09-01
Based on the results of high energy proton-proton collisions obtained at the CERN ISR in 1972-73, the production of 'jets' is discussed. Jets in e + e - collisions are also discussed and the parameters 'sphericity' and 'rapidity' are used in analysis of the data. The jets studied have been defined as having at least one particle of high transverse momentum. It is not clear whether the jets represent new physics or are another way of stating that resonances (rho,K*, Δ, N* etc.) are produced with high p(sub T), and that in such production the high transverse momentum must be balanced essentially locally in the collision. (JIW)
Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan, E-mail: aravinds@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: erath@iitk.ac.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)
2017-04-15
The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)
Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan
2017-01-01
The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)
Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wierman, R.W.
1979-04-01
Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamb, D.Q.; Donaghy, T.Q.; Graziani, C.
2005-01-01
One third of all HETE-2-localized bursts are X-Ray Flashes (XRFs), a class of events first identified by Heise in which the fluence in the 2-30 keV energy band exceeds that in the 30-400 keV energy band We summarize recent HETE-2 and other results on the properties of XRFs. These results show that the properties of XRFs, X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and GRBs form a continuum, and thus provide evidence that all three kinds of bursts are closely related phenomena. As the most extreme burst population, XRFs provide severe constraints on burst models and unique insights into the structure of GRB jets, the GRB rate, and the nature of Type Ib/Ic supernovae. We briefly mention a number of the physical models that have been proposed to explain XRFs. We then consider two fundamentally different classes of phenomenological jet models: universal jet models, in which it is posited that all GRBs jets are identical and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due entirely to differences in the viewing angle; and variable-opening angle jet models, in which it is posited that GRB jets have a distribution of jet opening angles and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due to differences in the emissivity and spectra of jets having different opening angles. We consider three shapes far the emissivity as a function of the viewing angle θ ν from the axis of the jet: power law, top hat (or uniform) , and Gaussian (or Fisher). We then discuss the effect of relativistic beaming on each of these models. We show that observations can distinguish between these various models
Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2013-02-01
The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.
Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
2013-02-15
The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.
Performance Analysis of a Multiple Micro-Jet Impingements Cooling Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Husain
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the thermal performance of a multiple micro-jet impingements model for electronics cooling. The fluid flow and heat transport characteristics were investigated for steady incompressible laminar flow by solving three-dimensional (3D Navier-Stokes equations. Several parallel and staggered micro-jet configurations (ie. inline 2 Å~ 2, 3 Å~ 3 and 4 Å~ 4 jets, and staggered five-jet and 13-jet arrays with the jet diameter to the channel height ratios from 0.25–0.5 were analyzed at various flow rates for the maximum temperature rise, pressure drop, heat-transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and pumping power characteristics. The parametric investigation was carried out based on the number of jets and the jet diameters at various mass flow rates and jet Reynolds numbers. Temperature uniformity and coefficient of performance were evaluated to find out the trade-off among the various designs investigated in the present study. The maximum temperature rise and the pressure drop decreased with an increase in the number of jets except in the case of staggered five-jet array. A higher temperature uniformity was observed at higher flow rates with a decrease in the coefficient of performance. The performance parameters, such as thermal resistance and pumping power, showed a conflicting nature with respect to design variables (viz. jet diameter to stand-off ratio and interjet spacing or number of jets at various Reynolds numbers within the laminar regime.
Trimpi, Robert L
1956-01-01
From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author)
Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets
Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume
2015-11-01
A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCullen, P.A.; Farthing, J.W.
1998-01-01
The complex nature of the JET machine requires a large amount of control parameter preparation, selection and validation before a pulse may be started. Level-1 is defined as the centralized, cross-subsystem control of JET. Before it was introduced over 10 years ago, the Session Leader (SL) who is responsible for specifying the parameter settings for a JET pulse, had virtually no software available to help him except for a simple editor used for the creation of control waveforms. Most of the required parameter settings were calculated by hand and then passed on either verbally or via hand-written forms. These parameters were then set by a large number of people - Local Unit Responsible Officers (LUROs) and CODAS Duty Officers (CDOs) using a wide selection of dedicated software. At this time the Engineer in Charge (EiC) would largely depend on the LUROs to inform him that conditions were ready. He never set control parameters personally and had little or no software available to him to see what many of the settings were. The first implementation of Level-1 software went some way towards improving the task of pulse schedule preparation in that the SL could specify his requirements via a computer interface and store them in a database for later use. At that time the maximum number of parameters that could be handled was 500. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loizides, C.A.
2005-01-01
The ALICE experiment is one of the experiments currently prepared for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, starting operation end of 2007. ALICE is dedicated to the research on nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, which addresses the properties of strongly interacting matter under varying conditions of high density and temperature. The conditions provided at the LHC allow significant qualitative improvement with respect to previous studies. In particular, energetic probes, light quarks and gluons, will be abundantly produced. These probes might be identified by their fragmentation into correlated particles, so called jets, of high enough energy to allow full reconstruction of jet properties; even in the underlying heavy-ion environment. Understanding the dependence of high-energy jet production and fragmentation influenced by the dense medium created in the collision region is an open field of active research. Generally, one expects energy loss of the probes due to medium-induced gluon radiation. It is suggested that hadronization products of these, rather soft gluons may be contained within the jet emission cone, resulting in a modification of the characteristic jet fragmentation, as observed via longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions with respect to the direction of the initial parton, as well as of the multiplicity distributions arising from the jet fragmentation. Particle momenta parallel to the jet axis are softened (jet quenching), while transverse to it increased (transverse heating). The present thesis studies the capabilities of the ALICE detectors to measure these jets and quantifies obtainable rates and the quality of jet reconstruction, in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In particular, it is addressed whether modification of the jet fragmentation can be detected within the high-particle-multiplicity environment of central lead-lead collisions. (orig.)
Paruchuri, Srinivas
This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.
Nonlinear stability of supersonic jets
Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Bhat, T. R. S. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
The stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations are presented. In this analysis the large scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.
Quark jets, gluon jets and the three-gluon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.
1989-11-01
Using hadronic jets in electron-positron annihilation, we suggest a simple and model-independent method to see the differences between quark and gluon jets. We define and analyse special energy dependent moments of jets and choose those which are the most characteristic to the jet type. The method handles the energy of a jet in an adequate way. We discuss new methods using jet flavor tagging, ordinary flavor tagging of a definite quark jet or discrimination between quark and gluon jets, to test the triple-gluon vertex in electron-positron annihilation. An enriched sample of gluon jets, jets with the smallest energy in four-jet events, as well as a continuous tagging variable are also studied. 21 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keen, B.E.
1987-03-01
The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elander, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-08-04
NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melese, P.
1997-05-01
We present high E T jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at √s = 1800 GeV with ∼ 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The summation E T cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at √s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with √s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.
Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio
2009-03-13
We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake "holograms" produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N_{c}-->infinity supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium "neck" zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio
2009-01-01
We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake 'holograms' produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N c →∞ supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium 'neck' zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence
Ignition and Flame Stabilization of a Strut-Jet RBCC Combustor with Small Rocket Exhaust
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jichao Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A Rocket Based Combined Cycle combustor model is tested at a ground direct connected rig to investigate the flame holding characteristics with a small rocket exhaust using liquid kerosene. The total temperature and the Mach number of the vitiated air flow, at exit of the nozzle are 1505 K and 2.6, respectively. The rocket base is embedded in a fuel injecting strut and mounted in the center of the combustor. The wall of the combustor is flush, without any reward step or cavity, so the strut-jet is used to make sure of the flame stabilization of the second combustion. Mass flow rate of the kerosene and oxygen injected into the rocket is set to be a small value, below 10% of the total fuel when the equivalence ratio of the second combustion is 1. The experiment has generated two different kinds of rocket exhaust: fuel rich and pure oxygen. Experiment result has shown that, with a relative small total mass flow rate of the rocket, the fuel rich rocket plume is not suitable for ignition and flame stabilization, while an oxygen plume condition is suitable. Then the paper conducts a series of experiments to investigate the combustion characteristics under this oxygen pilot method and found that the flame stabilization characteristics are different at different combustion modes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Colin Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-01-15
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.
Supersonic impinging jet noise reduction using a hybrid control technique
Wiley, Alex; Kumar, Rajan
2015-07-01
Control of the highly resonant flowfield associated with supersonic impinging jet has been experimentally investigated. Measurements were made in the supersonic impinging jet facility at the Florida State University for a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded jet. Measurements included unsteady pressures on a surface plate near the nozzle exit, acoustics in the nearfield and beneath the impingement plane, and velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Both passive control using porous surface and active control with high momentum microjet injection are effective in reducing nearfield noise and flow unsteadiness over a range of geometrical parameters; however, the type of noise reduction achieved by the two techniques is different. The passive control reduces broadband noise whereas microjet injection attenuates high amplitude impinging tones. The hybrid control, a combination of two control methods, reduces both broadband and high amplitude impinging tones and surprisingly its effectiveness is more that the additive effect of the two control techniques. The flow field measurements show that with hybrid control the impinging jet is stabilized and the turbulence quantities such as streamwise turbulence intensity, transverse turbulence intensity and turbulent shear stress are significantly reduced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James A. Parsons
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in twin channels was studied. Impinging jet flows were in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the direction of rotation in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on the smooth, heated target wall in each channel. The spent air exited the channels through extraction holes in each target wall, which eliminates cross flow on other jets. Jet rotation numbers and jet Reynolds numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and 5000 to 10,000, respectively. For the target walls with jet flow in the direction of rotation (or opposite to the direction of rotation, as rotation number increases heat transfer decreases up to 25% (or 15% as compared to corresponding results for non-rotating conditions. This is due to the changes in flow distribution and rotation induced Coriolis and centrifugal forces.
High Mach Number Scramjet Test Flows in the X3 Expansion Tube
Gildfind, D. E.; Sancho, J.; Morgan, R. G.
The University of Queensland (UQ) has two free-piston driven expansion tube facilities; X2 has a total length of 23 m and was originally commissioned in 1995 [1]; X3 is much longer at 62 m, and was commissioned in 2001 [2].
ASYMPTOTIC STEADY-STATE SOLUTION TO A BOW SHOCK WITH AN INFINITE MACH NUMBER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re’em [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel)
2016-08-01
The problem of a cold gas flowing past a stationary obstacle is considered. We study the bow shock that forms around the obstacle and show that at large distances from the obstacle the shock front forms a parabolic solid of revolution. The profiles of the hydrodynamic variables in the interior of the shock are obtained by solution of the hydrodynamic equations in parabolic coordinates. The results are verified with a hydrodynamic simulation. The drag force on the obstacle is also calculated. Finally, we use these results to model the bow shock around an isolated neutron star.
Stability with respect to domain of the low Mach number limit of compressible viscous fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Kreml, Ondřej; Stebel, Jan
2013-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 13 (2013), s. 2465-2493 ISSN 0218-2025 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : incompressible limit * domain dependence * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2013 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218202513500371
On the low Mach number limit of compressible flows in exterior moving domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej; Mácha, Václav; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 705-722 ISSN 1424-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * incompressible limit * moving domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00028-016-0338-2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Jacobsen, Finn; Svendsen, Christian
2013-01-01
-compact surfaces are involved. Here the generation of noise is dominated by the interaction of the flow with a surface whose maximum dimension is shorter than the wavelength of interest. The analysis is based on the surface-source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The acoustic source data of the flow...
Investigation of Shock Diffusers at Mach Number 1.85. 1 - Projecting Single Shock Cones
1947-06-17
cylindrical simulated combustion chamber was used to vary the outlet area of the flow through the diffuser. The pitot -static rake, located as shown in the...and II. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), ser. A, vol. 139, no 838, Feb. 1, 1933, pp. 278-311. 5. Wyatt, DeMarquis D., and Hunczak, Henry R.: An...Simulated combustion u chamber A 90° W •—Conical damper S Static-pressure orifice ps pitot -static ""rake’ NATIONAL ADVISORY
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Numbers Centrifugal Blowers
1987-11-01
Lang, V Manager of the IBM Poughkeepsie Acoustics Laboratory, for his understanding and support. I would also like to express my gratitude to the IBM...ficl.l. Knowlede p of these quantities provides important information on the relative strength of thL :cro- a dynamic noise sources on the blade... manageability . The model blower design was thus determined by scaling all of the linear dimensions of the reference device by 2.0 and by maintaining • all of
High Angle of Attack Missile Aerodynamics at Mach Numbers 0.30 to 1.5
1980-11-01
I AFWAL-TR-80-3070 I 45~//1° 4. N3B2 Cn 3d . 35 10 -2 36 30 37 50 2- S Cy ’ -1I __- 40 0 45 CAh ------ 50 -555 70- * 6C 50 504 40 ZS 8 9 LO R*N a 4. 5...Continued) 36. Drescher, H., "Messung Der Auf Querange-Sti"mte Zylinder Ausgeubten Zeitlich Verabderten Druck ," Z.F. Flugwss, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, 1956
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Kobera, M.; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, Č. 245 (2016), s. 1-31 ISSN 1072-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * radiation transfer * compressible magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2016 http://ejde. math .txstate.edu/Volumes/2016/245/abstr.html
Turbulent boundary layer noise : direct radiation at Mach number 0.5
Gloerfelt , Xavier; Berland , Julien
2013-01-01
International audience; Boundary layers constitute a fundamental source of aerodynamic noise. A turbulent boundary layer over a plane wall can provide an indirect contribution to the noise by exciting the structure, and a direct noise contribution. The latter part can play a significant role even if its intensity is very low, explaining why it is hardly measured unambiguously. In the present study, the aerodynamic noise generated by a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is computed ...
Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number Effects on Test Quality in a Hypersonic Expansion Tube
Rossmann, Tobias; Devin, Alyssa; Shi, Wen; Verhoog, Charles
2017-11-01
Reynolds number effects on test time and the temporal and spatial flow quality in a hypersonic expansion tube are explored using high-speed pressure, infrared optical, and Schlieren imaging measurements. Boundary layer models for shock tube flows are fairly well established to assist in the determination of test time and flow dimensions at typical high enthalpy test conditions. However, the application of these models needs to be more fully explored due to the unsteady expansion of turbulent boundary layers and contact regions separating dissimilar gasses present in expansion tube flows. Additionally, expansion tubes rely on the development of a steady jet with a large enough core-flow region at the exit of the acceleration tube to create a constant velocity region inside of the test section. High-speed measurements of pressure and Mach number at several locations within the expansion tube allow for the determination of an experimental x-t diagram. The comparison of the experimentally determined x-t diagram to theoretical highlights the Reynolds number dependent effects on expansion tube. Additionally, spatially resolved measurements of the Reynolds number dependent, steady core-flow in the expansion tube viewing section are shown. NSF MRI CBET #1531475, Lafayette College, McCutcheon Foundation.
SparkJet characterizations in quiescent and supersonic flowfields
Emerick, T.; Ali, M. Y.; Foster, C.; Alvi, F. S.; Popkin, S.
2014-12-01
The aerodynamic community has studied active flow control actuators for some time, and developments have led to a wide variety of devices with various features and operating mechanisms. The design requirements for a practical actuator used for active flow control include reliable operation, requisite frequency and amplitude modulation capabilities, and a reasonable lifespan while maintaining minimal cost and design complexity. An active flow control device called the SparkJet actuator has been developed for high-speed flight control and incorporates no mechanical/moving parts, zero net mass flux capabilities and the ability to tune the operating frequency and momentum throughput. This actuator utilizes electrical power to deliver high-momentum flow with a very fast response time. The SparkJet actuator was characterized on the benchtop using a laser-based microschlieren visualization technique and maximum blast wave and jet front velocities of ~400 and ~310 m/s were, respectively, measured in the flowfield. An increase in jet front velocity from 240 to 310 m/s during subatmospheric (60 kPa) testing reveals that the actuator may have greater control authority at lower ambient pressures, which correspond to high-altitude flight conditions for air vehicles. A SparkJet array was integrated into a flat plate and tested in a Mach 1.5 crossflow. Phase-conditioned shadowgraph results revealed a maximum flow deflection angle of 5° created by the SparkJet 275 µs after the actuator was triggered in single-shot mode. Burst mode operation of frequencies up to 700 Hz revealed similar results during wind tunnel testing. Following these tests, the actuator trigger mechanism was improved and the ability of the actuator to be discharged in burst mode at a frequency of 1 kHz was achieved.
Rotating detectors and Mach's principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F
2000-08-01
In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton{sup s} bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)
Evaluation of Cetane Improver Additive in Alternative Jet Fuel Blends
2016-07-01
3 EVALUATION AND DATA ANALYSIS ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation and Data Analysis Derived Cetane Number (DCN) DCN was tested IAW ASTM D6890...100 ppm CI #2 0.00 1 n/a SIP/Jet A + 500 ppm CI #2 0.00 >4 n/a Jet A 0.66 ə n/a Jet A + 100 ppm CI #1 100.23 ə 105 Jet A + 500 ppm CI #1 100.09 > 4P
Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, D.; Arce, A.; Asquith, L.; Backovic, M.; Barillari, T.; Menke, S.; Berta, P.; Bertolini, D.; Buckley, A.; Ferrando, J.; Pollard, C.; Butterworth, J.; Cooper, B.; Camacho Toro, R.C.; Picazio, A.; Caudron, J.; El Hedri, S.; Masetti, L.; Chien, Y.T.; Hornig, A.; Lee, C.; Cogan, J.; Nachman, B.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Strauss, E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Curtin, D.; Debenedetti, C.; Dolen, J.; Rappoccio, S.; Eklund, M.; Embry, T.; Johns, K.; Lampl, W.; Leone, R.; Loch, P.; O'Grady, F.T.; Rutherfoord, J.; Veatch, J.; Ellis, S.D.; Ferencek, D.; Fleischmann, S.; Freytsis, M.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D.; Giulini, M.; Sosa Corral, D.E.; Han, Z.; Soper, D.; Hare, D.; Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V.; Harris, P.; Potter-Landua, B.; Potter, C.; Thomas, C.; Young, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoing, R.; Kogler, R.; Marchesini, I.; Usai, E.; Jankowiak, M.; Kasieczka, G.; Larkoski, A.J.; Marzani, S.; Thaler, J.; Lou, H.K.; Low, M.; Miller, D.W.; Maksimovic, P.; McCarthy, R.; Ovcharova, A.; Rojo, J.; Tseng, J.; Salam, G.P.; Schabinger, R.M.; Shuve, B.; Sinervo, P.; Spannowsky, M.; Thompson, E.; Valery, L.; Vos, M.; Waalewijn, W.; Wacker, J.
2015-01-01
Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging. (orig.)
Visualization of conventional and combusting subsonic jet instabilities
Kozlov, Victor; Litvinenko, Yury
2016-01-01
Based on new information obtained on free microjets, this book explains the latest phenomena in flame evolution in the presence of a transverse acoustic field with round and plane propane microjet combustion. It gives an overview of recent experimental results on instability and dynamics of jets at low Reynolds numbers and provides the reader, step by step, with the milestones and recent advances in jet flow stability and combustion. Readers will also discover a clarification of the differences between top-hat and parabolic round and plane jet instability. Chapters demonstrate features of the interaction between jet and crossflow, and how experimental data testify to similarities of the perturbed flow patterns of laminar and turbulent round jets. A similar response of the jets to external acoustic oscillations is shown, as well as the peculiarities of the effect of a transverse acoustic field on downstream evolution of round and plane macro- and microjets. Basic features of round and plane, macro and micro je...
Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Arce, A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Asquith, L. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Backovic, M. [CP3, Universite catholique du Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Barillari, T.; Menke, S. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Berta, P. [Charles University in Prague, FMP, Prague (Czech Republic); Bertolini, D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, A.; Ferrando, J.; Pollard, C. [University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Butterworth, J.; Cooper, B. [University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Camacho Toro, R.C.; Picazio, A. [University of Geneva, Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Caudron, J.; El Hedri, S.; Masetti, L. [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Chien, Y.T.; Hornig, A.; Lee, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cogan, J.; Nachman, B.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Strauss, E.; Swiatlowski, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Curtin, D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Debenedetti, C. [University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Dolen, J.; Rappoccio, S. [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Eklund, M.; Embry, T.; Johns, K.; Lampl, W.; Leone, R.; Loch, P.; O' Grady, F.T.; Rutherfoord, J.; Veatch, J. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ellis, S.D. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ferencek, D. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Fleischmann, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Freytsis, M.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Giulini, M.; Sosa Corral, D.E. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Han, Z.; Soper, D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Hare, D.; Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Harris, P.; Potter-Landua, B.; Potter, C.; Thomas, C.; Young, C. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hinzmann, A. [Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hoing, R.; Kogler, R.; Marchesini, I.; Usai, E. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Jankowiak, M. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Kasieczka, G. [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Larkoski, A.J.; Marzani, S.; Thaler, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lou, H.K. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Low, M.; Miller, D.W. [University of Chicago, Zurich, IL (United States); Maksimovic, P. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McCarthy, R. [YITP, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ovcharova, A. [University of California, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rojo, J.; Tseng, J. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salam, G.P. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 and CNRS UMR, Paris (France); Schabinger, R.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Shuve, B. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, ON (Canada); Sinervo, P. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Spannowsky, M. [University of Durham, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); Thompson, E. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Valery, L. [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere Cedex (France); Vos, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, IFIC/CSIC-UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Waalewijn, W. [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wacker, J. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-09-15
Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Kramer, G.
2010-12-01
The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-12-15
The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)
Jet angularity measurements for single inclusive jet production
Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lee, Kyle; Ringer, Felix
2018-04-01
We study jet angularity measurements for single-inclusive jet production at the LHC. Jet angularities depend on a continuous parameter a allowing for a smooth interpolation between different traditional jet shape observables. We establish a factorization theorem within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) where we consistently take into account in- and out-of-jet radiation by making use of semi-inclusive jet functions. For comparison, we elaborate on the differences to jet angularities measured on an exclusive jet sample. All the necessary ingredients for the resummation at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy are presented within the effective field theory framework. We expect semiinclusive jet angularity measurements to be feasible at the LHC and we present theoretical predictions for the relevant kinematic range. In addition, we investigate the potential impact of jet angularities for quark-gluon discrimination.
Reflected rarefactions, double regular reflection, and mach waves in aluminum and beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neal, T.
1975-01-01
A number of shock techniques which can be used to obtain high-pressure equation-of-state information between the principal Hugoniot and the principal adiabat are illustrated. A rarefaction wave in aluminum shocked to 27.7 GPa [277 kbar] is examined with radiographic techniques and the bulk sound speed is determined. The two stage compression which occurs in a double shock may be attained by colliding two shocks and observing regular reflection. A radiographic method which uses this phenomenon to measure a three-stage compression of aluminum to a density of 4.7 Mg/m 3 and beryllium to a density of 3.1 Mg/m 3 is presented. The results of a Mach reflection experiment in aluminum are found to disagree substantially with the simple three-shock model. A modified model, consistent with observations, is discussed. In all cases the Gruneisen parameter is determined. (U.S.)
Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach
Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.
2016-09-01
The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.
Intermediate PT jet spectrometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.
1988-01-01
A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bickerton, R.J.
1989-01-01
The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large tokamak designed with the essential objective of obtaining and studying plasmas with parameters close to those envisaged for an eventual power-generating, nuclear-fusion reactor. JET is situated on a site near Abingdon, Oxon, UK. JET is the largest single project of the nuclear fusion research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The tokamak started operation in mid 1983 after a five year construction period. The scientific and technical results achieved so far are summarised in this article. (orig.)
Measurement of air entrainment in plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Rodriquez, R.; Pentecost, C.G.
1990-01-01
The concentration and temperature of air entrained into argon and helium plasma jets has been measured using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The argon plasma flow field is characterized by a short region of well behaved laminar flow near the nozzle exit followed by an abrupt transition to turbulence. Once the transition of turbulence occurs, air is rapidly mixed into the jet core. The location of the transition region is determined by the rapid cooling of the jet and the resulting increase in Reynolds number. In contrast, the helium plasma flow field never exceeds a Reynolds number of 200 and remains laminar. The entrainment process in this case is controlled by molecular diffusion rather than turbulent mixing. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Iodine Tagging Velocimetry in a Mach 10 Wake
Balla, Robert Jeffrey
2013-01-01
A variation on molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) [1] designated iodine tagging velocimetry (ITV) is demonstrated. Molecular iodine is tagged by two-photon absorption using an Argon Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. A single camera measures fluid displacement using atomic iodine emission at 206 nm. Two examples ofMTVfor cold-flowmeasurements areN2OMTV [2] and Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging [3]. These, like most MTV methods, are designed for atmospheric pressure applications. Neither can be implemented at the low pressures (0.1- 1 Torr) in typical hypersonic wakes. Of all the single-laser/singlecamera MTV approaches, only Nitric-Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence-based MTV [4] has been successfully demonstrated in a Mach 10 wake. Oxygen quenching limits transit times to 500 ns and accuracy to typically 30%. The present note describes the photophysics of the ITV method. Off-body velocimetry along a line is demonstrated in the aerothermodynamically important and experimentally challenging region of a hypersonic low-pressure near-wake in a Mach 10 air wind tunnel. Transit times up to 10 µs are demonstrated with conservative errors of 10%.
Jet arrays in supersonic crossflow — An experimental study
Ali, Mohd Yousuf; Alvi, Farrukh
2015-12-01
Jet injection into a supersonic crossflow is a classical fluid dynamics problem with many engineering applications. Several experimental and numerical studies have been taken up to analyze the interaction of a single jet with the incoming crossflow. However, there is a dearth of the literature on the interaction of multiple jets with one another and with the crossflow. Jets in a supersonic crossflow are known to produce a three-dimensional bow-shock structure due to the blockage of the flow. Multiple jets in a streamwise linear array interact with both one another and the incoming supersonic flow. In this paper, a parametric study is carried out to analyze the effect of microjet (sub-mm diameter) injection in a Mach 1.5 supersonic crossflow using flow visualization and velocity field measurements. The variation of the microjet orifice diameter and spacing within an array is used to study the three-dimensional nature of the flow field around the jets. The strength of the microjet-generated shock, scaling of the shock wave angle with the momentum coefficient, averaged streamwise, spanwise, and cross-stream velocity fields, and microjet array trajectories are detailed in the paper. It was found that shock angles of the microjet-generated shocks scale with the momentum coefficient for the three actuator configurations tested. As the microjets issue in the crossflow, a pair of longitudinal counter-rotating vortices (CVPs) are formed. The vortex pairs remain coherent for arrays with larger spanwise spacing between the micro-orifices and exhibit significant three-dimensionality similar to that of a single jet in crossflow. As the spacing between the jets is reduced, the CVPs merge resulting in a more two-dimensional flow field. The bow shock resulting from microjet injection also becomes nearly two-dimensional as the spacing between the micro-orifices is reduced. Trajectory estimations yield that microjets in an array have similar penetration as single jets. A notional
Characteristics of strongly-forced turbulent jets and non-premixed jet flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakshminarasimhan, K.; Ezekoye, O.A. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Austin, TX (United States); Clemens, N.T. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Austin, TX (United States)
2006-10-15
Previous researchers have demonstrated that strong pulsations of the fuel flow rate can significantly reduce the flame length and luminosity of laminar/transitional non-premixed jet flames. The physical mechanisms responsible for these changes are investigated experimentally in acoustically-forced jet flows where the peak velocity fluctuations are up to eight times the mean flow velocity. Both reacting and non-reacting flows were studied and Reynolds numbers, based on the mean flow properties, ranged from 800 to 10,000 (corresponding to peak Reynolds numbers of 1,450-23,000), and forcing frequencies ranged from 290 to 1,140 Hz. Both the first and second organ-pipe resonance modes of the fuel delivery tube were excited to obtain these frequencies. An analysis of the acoustic forcing characteristics within the resonance tube is provided in order to understand the source of the high amplitude forcing. Flow visualization of jets with first resonant forcing confirms the presence of large-scale coherent vortices and strong reverse flow near the exit of the fuel tube. With second-resonant forcing, however, vortices are not emitted from the tube as they are drawn back into the fuel tube before they can fully form. Increased fine-scale turbulence is associated with both resonant cases, but particularly at second resonance. The power spectra of the velocity fluctuations for a resonantly pulsed jet show the presence of an inertial subrange indicating that the flow becomes fully turbulent even for mean-Reynolds-number jets that are nominally laminar. It is shown that these pulsed jet flows exhibit strong similarities to synthetic jets and that the Strouhal number, based on the maximum velocity at the fuel tube exit, is the dominant parameter for scaling these flows. The Strouhal number determines the downstream location where the coherent vortices breakdown, and is found to provide better collapse of flame length data (both current and previous) than other parameters that have
Neutron activation studies on JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loughlin, M.J.; Forrest, R.A.; Edwards, J.E.G.
2001-01-01
Extensive neutron transport calculations have been performed to determine the neutron spectrum at a number of points throughout the JET torus hall. The model has been bench-marked against a set of foil activation measurements which were activated during an experimental campaign with deuterium/tritium plasmas. The model can predict the neutron activation of the foils on the torus hall walls to within a factor of three for reactions with little sensitivity to thermal neutrons. The use of scandium foils with and without a cadmium thermal neutron absorber was a useful monitor of the thermal neutron flux. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of other foils for benchmarking the calculations are also given
... lose time. Symptoms of jet lag include: Trouble falling asleep or waking up Tiredness during the day ... at your destination. For longer trips, before you leave, try to adapt to the time schedule of ...
Intermonsoonal equatorial jets
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Muraleedharan, P.M.
, respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...
LES of turbulent jet in cross-flow: Part 1 – A numerical validation study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik
2012-01-01
The paper presents results of a LES based numerical simulation of the turbulent jet-in-cross-flow (JICF) flowfield, with Reynolds number based on cross-flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of R=3.3. The JICF flow case has been investigated in great detail...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.
1989-01-01
The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.
1981-09-01
Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)
Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias
2009-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...
Jet supercooling and molecular jet spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wharton, L.; Levy, D.
1979-01-01
The marriage of the laser and the seeded supersonic jet has generated a family of new optical spectroscopic results. We shall discuss the essential features of the technique and some results. The results will include structural and dynamical views of NO 2 , NaAr, and I 2 -noble gas complexes. The extension of the method to heavier systems is illustrated with free base phthalocyanine
Characterization of high speed synthetic jet actuators
Pikcilingis, Lucia
, having a 160 mm cavity diameter, yielded jet velocities greater than 300 m/s. Altering the clamping conditions, at which the disks are clamped, showed that increasing the number of clamping points where the disks are clamped, improved the performance of the jet. Coupling this with a flexible clamping boundary condition yielded the best performing jets. Fatigue tests were conducted for both apparatuses using several different disk designs. These tests showed that there is a degradation of the disks that causes the jet performance to decay and eventually cause a fracture in the disk. It is apparent from this work that, though the conditions at which the disks are manufactured have a small effect on performance, the disks do exhibit a threshold where beyond it the performance decays. Though desired jet velocities and momentums are achievable, the abnormality of the disks needs to be addressed before applying the actuator to practical situations. As this research continues, the synthetic jet actuator will become more robust and reliable to be an effective and reliable source of active flow control.
Tagging and suppression of pileup jets with the ATLAS detector
The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total momentum of tracks in the jet which is associated with the primary vertex. Imposing a lower limit on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event (NVtx). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of NVtx. A multivariate combination of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger (JVT) is constructed. The modeling of JVT is tested in Z(→ μμ)+jets as well as in semileptonic ttbar events. The efficiencies of different JVT criteria are measured in data and compared to simulation. In addition, it is shown that j...
Propulsive efficiency of a biomorphic pulsed-jet underwater vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S
2010-01-01
The effect of the velocity program and duty cycle (St L ) on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of essential elements of its propulsion system with squid jet propulsion. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and St L in the range 0.2-0.6 with jet velocity programs commanded to be triangular or trapezoidal. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 1300 and 2700 for the conditions tested. The results indicated better propulsive efficiency of the trapezoidal velocity program (up to 20% higher) compared to the triangular velocity program. Also, an increase in the ratio of the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency to the equivalent steady jet propulsive efficiency (η P /η P,ss ) was observed as St L increased and L/D decreased. For cases of short L/D and high St L , η P /η P,ss was found to be as high as 1.2, indicating better performance of pulsed jets. This result demonstrates a case where propulsion using essential elements of a biological locomotion system can outperform the traditional mechanical system equivalent in terms of efficiency. It was also found that changes in St L had a proportionately larger effect on propulsive efficiency compared to changes in L/D. A simple model is presented to explain the results in terms of the contribution of over-pressure at the nozzle exit plane associated with the formation of vortex rings with each jet pulse.
Jetting from impact of a spherical drop with a deep layer
Zhang, Li; Toole, Jameson; Fazzaa, Kamel; Deegan, Robert; Deegan Group Team; X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source Collaboration
2011-11-01
We performed an experimental study of jets during the impact of a spherical drop with a deep layer of same liquid. Using high speed optical and X-ray imaging, we observe two types of jets: the so-called ejecta sheet which emerges almost immediately after impact and the lamella which emerges later. For high Reynolds number the two jets are distinct, while for low Reynolds number the two jets combine into a single continuous jet. We also measured the emergence time, speed, and position of the ejecta sheet and found simple scaling relations for these quantities.
Quantum Anatomy of the Classical Interference of n-Photon States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramírez-Cruz, N; Velázquez, V; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M A
2016-01-01
In this work we present the theory for the quantum interference of states with an arbitrary number of photons in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We express the mathematical description of the interference in an algebraic way. We show the interference pattern of an average of a n photons input state corresponds to the classical interference pattern, which tells us the last comes from a quantum interference statistical average. Then, we propose to use this scheme to study the statistical transition from quantum to classical interference. (paper)
Ernst Mach, George Sarton and the Empiry of Teaching Science Part I
Siemsen, Hayo
2012-01-01
George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's "Mechanics" when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many…
3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.
Wolfe, George
Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…
Germanium on silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Malik, A.; Muneeb, M.; Shimura, Y.; Campenhout, van J.; Loo, van de R.; Roelkens, G.C.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe Ge-on-Si waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating in the 5.2 - 5.4 µm wavelength range. 3dB/cm waveguide losses and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 20dB extinction ratio are presented.
Sub-shot-noise phase sensitivity with a Bose-Einstein condensate Mach-Zehnder interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pezze, L.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L.A.; Berman, G.P.; Bishop, A.R.
2005-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), with their coherence properties, have attracted wide interest for their possible application to ultraprecise interferometry and ultraweak force sensors. Since condensates, unlike photons, are interacting, they may permit the realization of specific quantum states needed as input of an interferometer to approach the Heisenberg limit, the supposed lower bound to precision phase measurements. To this end, we study the sensitivity to external weak perturbations of a representative matter-wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer whose input are two Bose-Einstein condensates created by splitting a single condensate in two parts. The interferometric phase sensitivity depends on the specific quantum state created with the two condensates, and, therefore, on the time scale of the splitting process. We identify three different regimes, characterized by a phase sensitivity Δθ scaling with the total number of condensate particles N as (i) the standard quantum limit Δθ∼1/N 1/2 (ii) the sub shot-noise Δθ∼1/N 3/4 , and the (iii) the Heisenberg limit Δθ∼1/N. However, in a realistic dynamical BEC splitting, the 1/N limit requires a long adiabaticity time scale, which is hardly reachable experimentally. On the other hand, the sub-shot-noise sensitivity Δθ∼1/N 3/4 can be reached in a realistic experimental setting. We also show that the 1/N 3/4 scaling is a rigorous upper bound in the limit N→∞, while keeping constant all different parameters of the bosonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames
Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry
2018-01-01
A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.
Estimation of k-ε parameters using surrogate models and jet-in-crossflow data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lefantzi, Sophia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arunajatesan, Srinivasan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-11-01
We demonstrate a Bayesian method that can be used to calibrate computationally expensive 3D RANS (Reynolds Av- eraged Navier Stokes) models with complex response surfaces. Such calibrations, conditioned on experimental data, can yield turbulence model parameters as probability density functions (PDF), concisely capturing the uncertainty in the parameter estimates. Methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimate the PDF by sampling, with each sample requiring a run of the RANS model. Consequently a quick-running surrogate is used instead to the RANS simulator. The surrogate can be very difficult to design if the model's response i.e., the dependence of the calibration variable (the observable) on the parameter being estimated is complex. We show how the training data used to construct the surrogate can be employed to isolate a promising and physically realistic part of the parameter space, within which the response is well-behaved and easily modeled. We design a classifier, based on treed linear models, to model the "well-behaved region". This classifier serves as a prior in a Bayesian calibration study aimed at estimating 3 k - ε parameters ( C _{μ}, C _{ε2} , C _{ε1} ) from experimental data of a transonic jet-in-crossflow interaction. The robustness of the calibration is investigated by checking its predictions of variables not included in the cal- ibration data. We also check the limit of applicability of the calibration by testing at off-calibration flow regimes. We find that calibration yield turbulence model parameters which predict the flowfield far better than when the nomi- nal values of the parameters are used. Substantial improvements are still obtained when we use the calibrated RANS model to predict jet-in-crossflow at Mach numbers and jet strengths quite different from those used to generate the ex- perimental (calibration) data. Thus the primary reason for poor predictive skill of RANS, when using nominal
Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary
2016-10-01
Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.
Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.
1975-01-01
The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out
On-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer for OCT systems
van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Akca, Imran B.; Angelou, Nikolaos; Weiss, Nicolas; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene G.
2018-04-01
By using integrated optics, it is possible to reduce the size and cost of a bulky optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. One of the OCT components that can be implemented on-chip is the interferometer. In this work, we present the design and characterization of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the wavelength-independent splitters and an on-chip reference arm. The Si3N4 was chosen as the material platform as it can provide low losses while keeping the device size small. The device was characterized by using a home-built swept source OCT system. A sensitivity value of 83 dB, an axial resolution of 15.2 μm (in air) and a depth range of 2.5 mm (in air) were all obtained.
How the mach phenomenon and shape affect the radiographic appearance of skeletal structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papageorges, M.
1991-01-01
The shape of skeletal structures and their position relative to the x-ray beam have a considerable effect on their radiographic appearance. Depending on the thickness of the cortical or subchondral bone, skeletal structures display the characteristics of either homogeneous or compound lamellar structures. Convex homogeneous structures are associated with a negative Mach line, and concave homogeneous structures are associated with a positive Mach line. Convex compound lamellar structures are associated with a negative Mach band and visualization of the lamina (subchondral or cortical bone) is reduced. Concave compound lamellar structures are associated with a positive Mach band and visualization of the lamina is enhanced. The combined effect of Mach phenomenon, shape, and thickness enhances visualization of some skeletal surfaces and make others imperceptible. These principles are very useful to correctly identify complex skeletal structures and avoid misinterpretations
[Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].
Wulz, Monika
2015-03-01
Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.