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Sample records for macerate potato tuber

  1. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-01-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that en...

  2. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-07-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that encode endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, and endo-polygalacturonase, caused limited maceration. The pectolytic proteins associated with one of these plasmids, pDR1, have been described previously (D. P. Roberts, P. M. Berman, C. Allen, V. K. Stromberg, G. H. Lacy, and M. S. Mount, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 8:17-27, 1986) and include two secreted endo-pectate lyases. The second plasmid, pDR30, contains a 2.1-kilobase EC14 DNA insert that mediates the production of an exo-pectate lyase and an endo-polygalacturonase. These enzymes are similar in physicochemical properties to those produced by EC14. Our results suggest that the concerted activities of endo-pectate lyases with endo-polygalacturonase or exo-pectate lyase or both cause maceration.

  3. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  4. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  5. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  6. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  7. Fusarium growth on culture media made of tissue juice from irradiated and unirradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fusarium Sulphureum Schlecht is one of the tuber pathogens causing potato storage disease knowing as dry rot. Because irradiation can disturb the tissue defence mechanism against the pathogen, it was decided to carry out experiments on influence of the treatment on subsequent tuber tissue reaction to a maceration process. The maceration as a physical stress was a substitute for the pathogen activity. Tubers of two potato varieties were tested: Mila -a resistant variety to Fusarium and Atol - susceptible one. Tubers of both varieties were irradiated with a dose of 105 kGy. Unirradiated tubers were taken as a control. A day after irradiation the cortex tissue was macerated using an ordinary rasper and the resulted tissue pulp was strained through medical gauze to obtain crude juice. The juice was clarified by centrifugation and then added to dissolved PDA. The volume ratio of juice to PDA was 1:1. The prepared media were dispensed into Petri dishes. Small pieces of the Fusarium culture were put on the surface of the medium at the centre of each Petri dish. Subsequent growth of the fungus was assessed by measurement of culture diameters every 24 hours. Linear functions of the Fusarium growth were obtained for Mila control and Atol control. In the case of Mila, the Fusarium found more favourable conditions for its growth in the presence of juice from irradiated tubers than from the control ones. Making the same comparison for Atol, no difference was detected. (author)

  8. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  10. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  11. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the potato tubers rotting during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Z.; Fiszer, W.

    1991-01-01

    The potato tubers subjected to irradiation in autumn were found dry and soft rotting more numerous than non-irradiated ones for the whole period of storage and especially in April and May. The above mentioned phenomenon brought about a little quicker elimination of tubers naturally infected by pectinolytic bacteria. Susceptibility of both kinds of tubers was similar to Fusarium sulphureum introduced under a cover tissue. The irradiation of potato tubers in autumn 1986 led to the appearance of some hard tubers with brown ring spots in spring 1987

  13. The three-dimensional distribution of minerals in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nithya K.; White, Philip J.; Broadley, Martin R.; Ramsay, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The three-dimensional distributions of mineral elements in potato tubers provide insight into their mechanisms of transport and deposition. Many of these minerals are essential to a healthy human diet, and characterizing their distribution within the potato tuber will guide the effective utilization of this staple foodstuff. Methods The variation in mineral composition within the tuber was determined in three dimensions, after determining the orientation of the harvested tuber in the soil. The freeze-dried tuber samples were analysed for minerals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Minerals measured included those of nutritional significance to the plant and to human consumers, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. Key Results The concentrations of most minerals were higher in the skin than in the flesh of tubers. The potato skin contained about 17 % of total tuber zinc, 34 % of calcium and 55 % of iron. On a fresh weight basis, most minerals were higher in tuber flesh at the stem end than the bud end of the tuber. Potassium, however, displayed a gradient in the opposite direction. The concentrations of phosphorus, copper and calcium decreased from the periphery towards the centre of the tuber. Conclusions The distribution of minerals varies greatly within the potato tuber. Low concentrations of some minerals relative to those in leaves may be due to their low mobility in phloem, whereas high concentrations in the skin may reflect direct uptake from the soil across the periderm. In tuber flesh, different minerals show distinct patterns of distribution in the tuber, several being consistent with phloem unloading in the tuber and limited onward movement. These findings have implications both for understanding directed transport of minerals in plants to stem-derived storage organs and for the dietary implications of different food preparation methods for potato tubers

  14. Mini Tuber Production in Potato Via Aeroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdullah Ahmed AHMED

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aeroponic production system is one of the new applications in soilless agriculture. This system is also an alternative seed production system for mini-tuber production of potato in terms of providing optimum growth conditions, enabling potato production to be free from diseases and pests and to make economic use of agricultural inputs. This system, which is independent of climatic conditions, has the advantage of improving the vegetative growth, delaying tuber formation, prolonging the vegetative period, increasing the tuber yield per plant and total tuber yield while decreasing the tuber weight. Due to the problems experienced in potato seedling tuber production in recent years, it emerged as an alternative production system for our country.

  15. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  16. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    One way to study the function of plant mitochondria is to extract them from plant tissues in an uncontaminated, intact and functional form. The reductionist assumption is that the components present in such a preparation and the in vitro measurable functions or activities reliably reflect...... the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...... the mitochondria are only exposed to strong shearing forces once. After removal of starch and large tissue pieces by filtration, differential centrifugation is used to remove residual starch as well as larger organelles. The crude mitochondria are then first purified by using a step Percoll gradient...

  17. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  18. Potato tuber wounding induces responses associated with various healing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wounding induces an avalanche of biological responses involved in the healing and protection of internal tuber tissues exposed by mechanical damage and seed cutting. Collectively, our studies have framed a portrait of the mechanisms and regulation of potato tuber wound-healing, but much more is req...

  19. Biological and biochemical studies on irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.F.M

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study and overcome two important diseases which attacks potato plant, using some chemical and physical treatments. The first disease was pre harvest brown rot caused by ralstonia solanacearum and the second was post harvest dry rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. The results are summarized as follows: firstly brown rot : 1- Foliar treatment of salicylic acid or calcium chloride on potato plants leads to increasing in plant height and number of potato tubers, since salicylic acid give the highest value of plant height and also calcium chloride give the highest number of potato tubers. Also, this treatment leads to insignificant decreasing in number of potato tubers infected by brown rot. 2- The bacteria ralstonia solanacearum isolated from infected tubers obtained from the project of brown rot, Ministry of agriculture, Egypt, added with irrigate water to the pots this bacteria could infect healthy potato plant and the symptoms of brown rot observed on tubers also pathogenicity test was carried out using seedling of tomato cultivar Gs plants and wilting of tomato plant observed after 10-15 days from injection with R.solanacearum. 3- Concerning D 10 -value determined from the relation between dose rate of gamma ray (k-rad) and log count of bacterial number it was found that the D 10 -value for R.solanacearum was 0.25 kGy

  20. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  1. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  2. Distribution of radionuclides in potato tubers. Implication for dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.; Poultney, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the distribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, Pu and Am in potato tubers has been carried out. Cesium-137 was essentially uniformly distributed throughout the tuber, whereas up to about 50% of the 90 Sr activity was found in the peel. Results for actinides indicated that most of the activity would be found in the peel and of this more than half would be located in the thin outermost skin. When account is taken of the form in which potatoes are consumed in the UK, the values of soil-plant transfer factors currently assumed in the NRPB model FARMLAND are reasonable for general assessment purposes. (author)

  3. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  4. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  5. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  6. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Heather A.; Wright, Kathryn M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Chapman, Sean N.; Morris, Wayne L.; Hancock, Robert D.; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A.; James, Euan K.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture m...

  7. Supplemental calcium nutrition improves tuber yield and quality of native potatoes in the Peruvian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tubers are known to be calcium deficient. This is because calcium moves with water and most water is transported to leaves and tubers being in soil do not have the draw for water and calcium. Calcium fertilizers are now routinely used to improve tuber quality and production in the US. Potatoe...

  8. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Changes of endogenous hormones in irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Saeid, H.M.; Abou-Hadid, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Potato tubers Solatum tuberosum L. cv. Alpha were irradiated with 0.12 kgy and stored at room temperature. The endogenous hormones were extracted and determined using bioassay at dormant, budding and sprouting stages. The studied promoters were IAA, IAN, GA3 and Gibberellin like substances besides the inhibitors which included ABA and B-inhibitors. The results indicated that IAA was more sensitive to irradiation than IAN, GA3 but ABA was more stable than B-inhibitors during the dormancy. Irradiation decreased IAA and Gibberellin like substances and B-inhibitors but no change was observed in ABA content at dormant period. Irradiation caused a balance between promoters inhibitors at the end of tuber storage and after tubers sprouting

  10. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  11. Impact of selenium enrichment on seed potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TURAKAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se enrichment on the growth of sprouts and growth vigour of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. stored for 2 to 8 months. Our results showed that Se did not affect the duration of dormancy. At the high addition levels (0.075 and 0.9 mg kg-1 quartz sand, Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts. The peak sprouting capacity was reached after 8 months of storage. The highest Se enrichment of tubers had some positive effect on the free putrescine content in sprouts. However, the better growth of sprouts was not consistent with the growth vigour of the seed tubers and yield produced. Selenium had no significant effect on the malondialdehyde (MDA or on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch. No significant effect of added Se on the early growth, stem and tuber numbers and yield parameters was observed. Irrespective of the level of Se added, the highest yield was harvested from plants produced with seed tubers stored for 6 months. Our results indicate that Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts, but it had no consistent effect on the growth vigour of seed tubers.;

  12. Measurements of potato tubers gamma-ray irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Dohmaru, Takaaki; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Furuta, Jun-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    In this report the respiration of the potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas was studied. Potato tubers of common Japanese variety, ''Danshaku'' were used for the examination. Potato tubers of about 2kg were put into each of Triple-Nylon bags and the bags were sealed after replacement of air in bags with nitrogen or carbondioxide gases. More than 16 hours after sealing of bags, the γ-dose ( 60 Co) of 150 Gy or 250 Gy were given to the potato tubers in bags at the dose rate of 10 4 R/h. After irradiation, all bags were opened in air and amounts of CO 2 released by respiration of tubers were measured with Hitachi gas chromatograph analyser Type 023. The amounts of CO 2 released from the potato tubers irradiated in open air is shown in Fig. 2. The results show that there is an initial lag period of several hours, followed by a rapid increase in the respiration, after which the CO 2 release was gradually decreased. Potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas show a similar release of CO 2 on time scale to the potato tubers irradiated in open air, but the total amounts of CO 2 are approximately half of those of the potato tubers irradiated in open air (Figs. 3 and 4). (J.P.N.)

  13. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment. (Author) 39 refs

  14. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during a storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment.(author) [es

  15. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation and formulated essential oils on stored potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Sarhan, M.M.; Galal, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Potato tubers were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 K-Gy. Irradiated and non-irradiated tubers were soaked in biocides formulated from essential oils of fennel, peppermint and caraway oil. All treated and non-treated tubers were stored at room temperature (20 ±1 degree C) for period of 150 days. Samples were taken every 30 days for different quality determinations. Results showed that non-treated tubers were decayed and appear to be sprouted continuously alongside the different storage periods. However, exposing the studied tubers to gamma radiation induced a promising effect for retarding this decay and sprouting. Moreover, soaking potato tubers in the formulated biocides induced further interruption for tubers decay and sprouting. In addition, the applied treatment exhibited other positive effects for keeping the good quality of the studied tubers during storage.

  17. Effect of potato plants grown from tubers irradiated with low doses of gamma radiation on feeding and reproductive behaviours of potato tuber moth Phtorimaea Operculella (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.; Al-Oudat, M.

    1997-09-01

    The feeding behavior of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea Operculella (Lep., Gelechiidae) larvae reared on leaves and tubers of potato plants, which its seeds had been irradiated with low doses of gamma irradiation (1, 3, 5, 10, Gy) has been studied. Significant differences in the larval developmental time, pupae developmental time, pupae weight, mortality, fecundity and percentage of egg hatch, was observed between insects fed on plants grown from the irradiated seeds and the control. It appears that leaves of potato plants grown from the irradiated seeds, particularly those of 3 Gy, became more favourable for the larvae, whilst the resulted tubers, except tubers of the dose of 10 Gy, which could have repellent properties became more resistant to potato tuber moth. Plant development stage and tubers storage at ambient temperatures condition affect the degree of sensitivity of the larvae. Leaves and tubers of 10 Gy irradiated seeds became more suitable for insect development, indicating that the later dose may inhibit the production of secondary plant metabolites chemical compounds. (author)

  18. Determining Specific Window Period for Common Scab Disease Infection in Potato Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Khatri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted under glasshouse and hydroponic conditions to determine the specific window period for common scab disease infection in potato tubers. The study was performed in a glasshouse system where separate tubers from the root zone were inoculated at different intervals during plant growth along with a novel hydroponic system to inoculate individual tubers at specific times of development growth allowing non-destructive observations of common scab symptoms developing. The window of tuber susceptibility to common scab disease infection was shown to vary with the season or conditions under which the plants were grown. Different internodes on tubers were found susceptible to infection at different times during tuber development. Basal internodes, which are the first sections of the tuber to expand, were susceptible to infection in the beginning of tuber development, whereas apical internodes only became susceptible later in tuber growth when the basal internodes were no longer susceptible.

  19. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Wright, Kathryn M; McDougall, Gordon J; Roberts, Alison G; Chapman, Sean N; Morris, Wayne L; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties.

  20. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  1. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  3. Some cytologic aspects of ionizing radaiation and electron treatment effect of potatoes tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totadze, L.Eh.; Svanidze, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation and electron treatment on the microstructure of potatoe tubers of the Majestic sort has been studied. The potatoe is subjected to alternating current and Co 60 gamma-radiation treatment (with the doses 5000 rad, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000 and 30000 rad). A supposition is made that the pass of alternating current at the voltage of 60 V, current intensity 1 mA and the exposure of 5 min through potatoe tuber causes certain cytoplasmatic changes in somatic cells manifested in the increase of tuber rest period. During potatoe tuber treatment with Co 60 γ-radiation a direct correlation between irradiation doses and degradation of somatic cells is observed

  4. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  6. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  7. Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.

    2017-01-01

    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.

  8. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  9. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  10. Enhancement of DNA polymerase activity in potato tuber slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1977-01-01

    DNA polymerase was extracted from potato (Soleum tuberosum L.) tuber discs and the temporal correlation of its activity change to DNA synthesis in vivo was examined during aging of the discs. Most of the DNA polymerase was recovered as a bound form in the 18,000 x g precipitate. Reaction with the bound-form enzyme was dependent on the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg 2+ , and a template. ''Activated'' DNA and heat-denatured DNA, but not native DNA, were utilized as templates. The polymerase activity was sensitive to SH reagents. Fresh discs, which do not synthesize DNA in vivo, contained a significant amount of DNA polymerase and its activity increased linearly with time until 48 hr after slicing and became four times that of fresh discs after 72 hr, whereas the activity of DNA synthesis in vivo increased with time and decreased after reaching a maximum at 30 hr. Cycloheximide inhibited the enhancement of polymerase activity. DNA polymerase from aged and fresh discs had identical requirements for deoxynucleotides and a template in their reactions, sensitivity to SH reagent, and affinity to thymidine triphosphate. (auth.)

  11. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  12. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  13. Assessing potato tuber diel growth by means of X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Pfeifer, Johannes; Walter, Achim

    2015-11-01

    The formation and development of belowground organs is difficult to study. X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides the possibility to analyse and interpret subtle volumetric changes of belowground organs such as tubers, storage roots and nodules. Here, we report on the establishment of a method based on a voxel dimension of 240 μm and precision (standard deviation) of 30 μL that allows interpreting growth differences among potato tubers happening within 3 h. Plants were not stressed by the application of X-ray radiation, which was shown both by morphological comparison with control plants and by analysis of lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxidative stress. Diel (24 h) tuber growth fluctuations of three potato genotypes were monitored in soil-filled pots of 10 L. In contrast to the results from previous reports, most tubers grew at similar rates during day and night. Tuber growth was not related to the developmental stage of plants and tubers. Pronounced differences were observed between average growth rates in different tubers within a plant. These results are discussed in the context of restrictions of past methods to study tuber growth and in the context of their potential for the characterization of the formation and development of other belowground plant organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  15. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber

  16. Multiple alleles for tuber shape in diploid potato detected by qualitative and quantitative genetic analysis using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Stam, P.; Ton, J.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Tuber shape in potato is commonly regarded as displaying continuous variation, yet at the diploid level phenotypes can be discerned visually, having round or long tubers. Inheritance of qualitative tuber shape can be explained by a single locus Ro, round being dominant to long. With restriction

  17. The Role of Iron and Zinc on Tuber Yield and Yield Components of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The soils of potato production fields in Ardabil due to alkalinity and not having a proper crop rotations are deficient in micronutrients. To evaluate the effect of these micronutrients on the yield and some traits affecting potato tubers an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications in Ardabil during 2012. Micronutrient treatments used were the various concentrations of iron and zinc (0.002, 0.004 and 0.008 concentrations of these elements as Fe1Zn1, Fe1Zn2, Fe1Zn3, Fe2Zn1, Fe2Zn2, Fe2Zn3, Fe3Zn1 and Fe3Zn2 and a control treatment (Fe0Zn0. Analysis of variance of traits under study showed statistically significant differences among treatments in terms of tuber yield, number of tubers per plant, tuber size, skin thickness and volumetric weight and dry weight of tubers. The highest tuber yield (48.10 t.ha-1 and maximum skin thickness were obtained from Fe1Zn3 treatment. The highest tuber number belonged to Fe2Zn1 (0.004 and 0.002 concentrations of iron and zinc and Fe1Zn3 (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations of iron and zinc. Tuber weights higher than 35 grams and higest volumetric tuber weight were produced by using Fe3Zn2. The conclusion is this that using Fe1Zn3 traetment (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations resulted in highest tuber yield and thickness of tuber skin.

  18. Quantitative determination of chlorogenic acid in γ-ray-irradiated potato tubers by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Makoto; Chonan, Takao; Yamagishi, Takashi; Ando, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) in lyophilized potato tubers were quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the changes in CGA contents of γ-ray-irradiated potato tubers (100 Gy) during storage at 25 0 C were studied. The CGA contents of the irradiated potato tubers slightly increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased gradually after 29th day and reached the same level as that in the beginning of storage on the 73rd day after irradiation. However, the CGA contents of the unirradiated potato tubers increased steadily with increasing days of storage period, and reached twice that in the beginning of storage on the 73rd day after irradiation. The CGA contents in potato tubers determined by Diazo and Folin-Denis methods were shown to be two - eight times higher than those by HPLC method, and there appeared to be no significant relation between the CGA contents determined by HPLC method and by colorimetrical methods. (author)

  19. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquim A F; Madeira, Vítor M C; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2004-12-01

    Dehydrogenase activities of potato tuber mitochondria and corresponding phosphorylation rates were measured for the dependence on external and mitochondrial matrix Mg2+. Magnesium stimulated state 3 and state 4 respiration, with significantly different concentrations of matrix Mg2+ required for optimal activities of the several substrates. Maximal stimulation of respiration with all substrates was obtained at 2-mM external Mg2+. However, respiration of malate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate requires at least 4-mM Mg2+ inside mitochondria for maximization of dehydrogenase activities. The phosphorylation system, requires a low level of internal Mg2+ (0.25 mM) to reach high activity, as judged by succinate-dependent respiration. However, mitochondria respiring on citrate or alpha-ketoglutarate only sustain high levels of phosphorylation with at least 4-mM matrix Mg2+. Respiration of succinate is active without external and matrix Mg2+, although stimulated by the cation. Respiration of alpha-ketoglutarate was strictly dependent on external Mg2+ required for substrate transport into mitochondria, and internal Mg2+ is required for dehydrogenase activity. Respiration of citrate and malate also depend on internal Mg2+ but, unlike alpha-ketoglutarate, some activity still remains without external Mg2+. All the substrates revealed insensitive to external and internal mitochondrial Ca2+, except the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, which requires either external Ca2+ or Mg2+ for detectable activity. Calcium is more efficient than Mg2+, both having cumulative stimulation. Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+.

  20. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  1. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  2. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  3. Evaluation of Hail Simulated Damage on Marketable Tuber Yield of Potato Agria Cultivar in Ardabil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hassanpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during the year of 2010. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications and two factors were used to evaluate the effect of simulated hail damage to foliage at different growth stages of potato Agria cultivar on marketable tuber yield. The first factor consisted of six levels of foliar damage (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent and the second factor of five levels of plant growth stages (2, 5, 8, 11 and 15 weeks after the growing. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among plants for levels and times of hail damage and their interactions in terms of marketable tuber yield. Percentage of marketable yield reduction at early stages of vegetative growth (2 weeks after growing was minimal. Occurrence of hail damage at the tuberization and bulking stages (5, 8 and 11 weeks after growing severely reduced marketable tuber yield. While, its damage at late growing stages of (14 weeks after growing on tuber yield was not appreciable. Times of hail damage on marketable tuber yield reduction was calculated through the regression. Relative reduction of marketable tuber yield at the early stages of vegetative growth, due to hail damage, against non-marketable tuber yield was higher than of bulking stage.

  4. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on

  5. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified (GM) to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes ...

  6. Response of stored potato seed tubers from contrasting cultivars to accumulated day-degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Caldiz, D.O.; Scholte, K.

    2006-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), the accumulated day-degrees (temperature sum, calculated by accumulating the daily temperatures) from dormancy break until seed tuber use has been suggested as an indicator of the physiological status of the seed. We tested whether similar temperature sums differing

  7. Role of citric acid in the after-cooking darkening of γ-irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Adam, S.; Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    With the aim of exploring the reasons for radiation-induced after-cooking darkening of potato tubers, organic acids from a naturally darkening (Irmgard) and a nondarkening cultivar (Hansa) were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and quantified by gas--liquid chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives. Citric, malic, and pyroglutamic acids were the main components, citric acid forming 70 to 80% of the total acids. Major differences in citric and malic acid content were observed between the darkening and nondarkening cultivars. A significant decrease in citric acid content accompanied by increases in malic and pyroglutamic acids were noted in irradiated tubers during storage. The induction of after-cooking darkening in irradiated potatoes is attributed to decreased citric acid levels and enhanced polyphenols in the tuber tissues, both changes favoring the formation of iron--phenolic complexes responsible for the discoloration

  8. Identification of irradiated food. III. Identification of irradiated potato tubers by means of a test based on the cellular proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the formation of the wound periderm in potato tubers cut in halves and on the proliferation of the potato parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro'' is studied. Doses of 3 Krad and higher ones completely inhibit the formation of the wound periderm and the growth of protuberances in the fragments of the parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro''. In the control and IPC treated tubers the proliferation was normal and abundant, in the tubers as well as in the potato parenchyma tissues cultivated ''in vitro''.(author) [es

  9. Tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes, the present research was carried out in the Experimental area of the Plant Genetic Breeding Sector of the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Alagoas (SMGP/CECA/UFAL. Were evaluated 44 new clones originated from progenies of half-siblings and germanic siblings, in addition to the cultivar Sergipana Vermelha, in lines of 5 m in length, spacing 1.0 mx 0.5 m, totaling a total area of 5 m²/clone. The harvest was done at 120 days after planting the branches, in which the production of non-commercial tuberous roots (PRTNC was evaluated, production of commercial tuberous roots (PRTC, production of tuberous roots (PTRT, total number of tuberous roots (NTRT, average weight of commercial tuberous roots (PMRTC, predominant color of tuberous root skin (CPPERT and predominant color of the tuberosal root pulp (CPPORT. Descriptive statistics, correlation technique and principal component analysis were used. It was observed that clones 23, 36, 17 and 37 presented interesting agronomic characteristics, being recommended for the cultivation and in the analysis of main components, the variables PTRT and PRTC presented greater importance, reflecting that they discriminate the clones satisfactorily.

  10. Identification of irradiated food. II. Identification of irradiated potato tubers by means of a test based on the variations of electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of potato tubers is described. By means of this method irradiated tubers can be distinguished from IPC treated tubers and control tubers. The values of conductivity in the control and INC treated tubers were about 0,2 millimhos/cm, while those in the irradiated tubers oscillated about 0,17 millimhos/cm. (author) [es

  11. Disinfestation of different varieties of potato naturally or artificially infested by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimea Operculella Zell. In the storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of potato tuber varieties of Alpha, Spunta, Cara and escort to radiation dose level of 150 Gy could be used to disinfest the potatoes from their natural attacked pest, Phthorimaea Operculella, after the harvest and before storage. Escort variety exhibited somewhat resistance to the natural infestation if compared with the others. The irradiation of the potato tubers did not protect them from the re infestation, during the storage. Also, there were significant changes in some biological properties of the resulted pests, among the four potato varieties, whether the potatoes were non-irradiated or irradiated. The feeding of the artificial infested larvae on the treated tubers gave some malformed adults. 3 tabs

  12. Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Jørgensen, Malene

    that the path is via the Golgi apparatus. However, the vacuolar targeting signal has never been identified for this storage and defence protein, which amounts to 25-40% of tuber protein. We propose that a six-residue ct-propeptide, -ANKASY-COO- composes this signal. The crystallographic structure...... the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production, and grant 2052-03-0022 from the Danish Research Agency.   Reference Welinder KG, Jørgensen M (2009) Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import. J. Biol. Chem., Feb 2009; doi:10.1074/jbc.M809674200....

  13. Effect of genetic modification of potato starch on decomposition of leaves and tubers and on fungal decomposer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannula, S.E.; De Boer, W.; Baldrian, P.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a risk evaluation of growing genetically modified crops, we investigated the effects of a genetic modification of starch quality (increased level of amylopectin) in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L.) on the decomposition of tissues (tubers and leaves) as well as on the associated fungal

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  15. Identification of irradiated food. I.-A test established on the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds to identify the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (author)

  16. Identification of irradiated food. I.- A test established on the in vitro culture of potato buds to identified the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the in vitro culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Biolistic transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) populations to weeds frequently grown on potato fields and PSTVd pathogenesis on cultured Chamomilla recutita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Orctová, Lidmila; Ptáček, J.; Dědič, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2009), s. 43-55 ISSN 1802-940X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : potato fields * weed plants * potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  18. Detection of DNA specific sequences of Spongospora subterranea in soil and potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oswaldo Saavedra Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A test has been developed for early identification of the casual agent for potato powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea fs subterranea. Identification was carried out in seeds and soil where this tuber is grown. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR was set up for detecting 372, 390 and 391 bp ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS in the S. subterraneagenome. A method for extracting and purifying DNA from infected plant material (potato root nodes and pustules on the potato was standardised. Plant tissue was obtained by potato tuber propagation using an inoculum from the pathogen in greenhouse conditions. After the PCR had been optimised and its sensitivity determined, a molecular methodology was validated by examining plant material infected with S. subterranea and soil samples infested with the pathogen obtained from the departments of Cundinamarca and Nariño. The PCR detected S. subterranea DNA from infected material and soil samples (all thirty samples from the experimental area analysed proved PCR positive. These results show that this molecular method was not just useful for the early detection of the pathogen in soil samples but as a tool for detecting or determining the possible presence of this micro-organism in places that have been declared f ree of S. subterranea and an effective form of quality control in producing the certif ied potato seed. Key words: Powdery scab, cystosori, internal transcribed spacer, PCR, plasmodiophorid.

  19. Rapid differentiation between gamma-irradiated and non irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jona, R.; Fronda, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation as commercial method for the preservation of fruits and vegetables calls for methods of differentiation between irradiated and non-irradiated foodstuffs. In a previous research, the polysaccharidic content of cell walls of irradiated tissue has been investigated, but it required rather long time to reach the result. A method devised to ascertain the vitality of cells has been applied to distinguish irradiated from non-irradiated potato tubers. 500 mg of tissue excised from tubers have been infiltrated with tetrazolium chloride 0.6% in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. After 15 hrs of incubation at 30 0 C the treated tissues have been extracted with 95% ethanol whose O.D. has been measured at 530 mμ wavelength. The colour intensity of the alcohol allowed a very clearcut recognition of the irradiated tubers. (author)

  20. In vitro antagonistic activity of fungi isolated from sclerotia on potato tubers against Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, Erkol; DANE, Elif; EKEN, Cafer

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates were obtained from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani on potato tubers in Erzurum, Turkey. The interaction between fungal isolates and R. solani was studied in dual culture technique. Some fungal isolates affected R. solani by antibiosis and/or parasitism. Results of the antagonism tests showed that Acremonium sp., Gliocladium viride, Paecilomyces marquandii, Paecilomyces sulphurellus, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium frequentans (ME-50), Penic...

  1. Detection of Irradiated Tubers (Ginger and Potato) Using Photostimulated Luminescence Technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2016-01-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement was conducted to detect irradiated gingers (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) after dark storage for 1 week, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all the samples were correctly distinguished between non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 50, 150 and 500 Gy based on photon count values. The PSL signal stability of irradiated samples (150 and 500 Gy) appeared to fade upon 6 months storage but remained well above upper threshold values of 5000 photon counts/ 60 s (PCs) for irradiated gingers and potatoes. The PCs of irradiated tubers showed a general trend of increase with the increase in doses up to 500 Gy. Samples showed highest intensity after irradiation. The differences in intensity to irradiation are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each tuber sample. Tubers irradiated at doses higher than 150 Gy, showed sensitivity index ratio of less than 10. Sensitivity Index was suggested for irradiated samples at doses slightly above 150 Gy. Irradiated samples at doses less than 150 Gy should be subjected for further investigation using thermoluminescence (TL) analysis. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated tubers. (author)

  2. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Pérombelon, M.C.M.; Jafra, S.; Lojkowska, E.; Potrykus, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Sledz, W.

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in

  3. Effect of source and level of potash on yield and quality of potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Akhtar, M.E.; Mahmood, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at NARC potato research area Islamabad, Pakistan, to study comparative effect of source, levels and methods of K fertilization on yield and quality of potato produce. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 250 and 125 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively whereas three K/sub 2/O levels, 0, 150 and 225 kg ha/sup -1/ from two sources of potash (SOP and MOP) were tested. Potassium was also applied as foliar spray at 1% K/sub 2/O solution at 30, 45 and 60 days after germination (DAG) and soil was also amended by 150 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/. A significant increase in tuber yield with K application at 150 kg ha/sup -1/ as K/sub 2/O from both the K sources over NP treatment was recorded. Increase in tuber yield with K/sub 2/O at the rate of 225 kg ha/sup -1/ was statistically nonsignificant compared to 150 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/. A positive interaction between soil applied P and K with N in plant system was observed. Potassium treatments not only increased K concentration but also affected N and P contents in potato tubers. The quality parameters like dry matter, specific gravity, starch contents, vitamin-C and ash contents were also affected with P and K fertilization. (author)

  4. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  5. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    in each plot in 2011. At the harvest time tuber yield and also percent and severity of infection was determined. All data was analyzed statistically and Duncan test was used for comparison of means. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance results showed that, potato tuber yield was affected by the crop rotation, the rate of returning residues, and also interaction between rotation × returning residues statistically (P≤0.01.When 1000 tuber was considered, analysis of variance results showed, crop rotation had a very significant effect (P≤0.01 on number and percent of infected tubers to wireworm and its holes. The most infected tubers ie.42.34 and holed i.e. 61.4 and totally 4.24% of tubers were belonged to the rotation 2, where in the rapeseed crop was preceding plant. The least one was achieved in rotation 1, with the rates of 27, 37 and 2.8% where in potato crop was not planted previously. The most infection to wireworm was found in 100% residue returning to the soil with 3.8% and the least one in no residue returning to the soil, i.e. 3.4 %. Results showed with increasing residue returning to the soil, the damage of wireworms is increased too. Conclusion: Generally applying crop rotation using different crops and residue returning to the soil is resulted in higher potato tuber yield. This increasing rate for tuber yield was 116% and 57 % when the preceding crops were wheat and rapeseed respectively compared to the mean of rotations 3 and 4. For the aim of sustainable production of potato and reducing of wireworm damage it is necessary we focus on other crop rotation and the importance of C:N ratio and the rate of residue returning to the soil. So we need to conduct new experiments with these purposes.

  6. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.J.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining

  7. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  8. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a potato collection with contrasting tuber carotenoid content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sulli

    Full Text Available After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2 gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP recessive allele. Novel CHY2 and ZEP alleles were identified in the collection. Multivariate analysis identified several groups of co-regulated non-polar compounds, and resulted in the grouping of the genotypes according to flesh color, suggesting that extensive cross-talk exists between the carotenoid pathway and other metabolite pathways in tubers. Postharvest traits like tuber dormancy and weight loss during storage showed little correlation with tuber carotenoid content, with the exception of zeaxanthin and its esters. Other tuber metabolites, such as glucose, monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (a glycolipid, or suberin precursors, showed instead significant correlations with both traits.

  9. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a potato collection with contrasting tuber carotenoid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulli, Maria; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Sturaro, Monica; Onofri, Chiara; Diretto, Gianfranco; Parisi, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele. Novel CHY2 and ZEP alleles were identified in the collection. Multivariate analysis identified several groups of co-regulated non-polar compounds, and resulted in the grouping of the genotypes according to flesh color, suggesting that extensive cross-talk exists between the carotenoid pathway and other metabolite pathways in tubers. Postharvest traits like tuber dormancy and weight loss during storage showed little correlation with tuber carotenoid content, with the exception of zeaxanthin and its esters. Other tuber metabolites, such as glucose, monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (a glycolipid), or suberin precursors, showed instead significant correlations with both traits. PMID:28898255

  10. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  11. PROTEINS OF POTATOES IN RELATION TO THE CONTENT OF CADMIUM IN THEIR TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work the influence of cadmium in soil on the range of cumulating in tubers of potatoes and in proteins of potatoes grown under model conditions of pot trial experiment and under the real conditions of locality Imeľ in Danube Lowland was surveyed. Under conditions of pot trial the increased contents in tubers positively correlated with contents of cadmium applied into soil; the highest content of Cd was assessed in variety Junior (from 0.211 mg.kg-1 FM in 1st variant to 0.715 mg.kg-1 FM in 4th variant. The influence of increased content of Cd was manifested statistically significant in the content of proteins also in the content of Cd in protein fractions (1st var. 0.026 (Asterix – 0.045 (Agria mg.kg-1 FM; 2nd var. 0.047 (Livera – 0.085 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM; 3rd var. 0.06 (Livera – 0.117 (Junior mg.kg-1 FM; 4th var. 0.068 (Livera – 0.142 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM. Contents of Cd in potatoes from locality Imeľ did not exceed the value 0.1 mg.kg-1 FM defined in PK SR. The average contents of proteins were in range from 1.19 % (Victoria to 1.489 % (Adora, the average content of Cd cumulated in proteins was the highest in variety Vivaldi (1.317 μg.kg-1 FM. Positive correlation was confirmed between the content of Cd in potato tubers and in proteins only in Livera variety. doi:10.5219/74

  12. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fogliatto Mariot

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3 and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A. According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  13. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  14. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  15. Bacterial diversity on the surface of potato tubers in soil and the influence of the plant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Nicole; Meincke, Remo; Gottwald, Christine; Heuer, Holger; Schloter, Michael; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-10-01

    The surface of tubers might be a reservoir for bacteria that are disseminated with seed potatoes or that affect postharvest damage. The numbers of culturable bacteria and their antagonistic potential, as well as bacterial community fingerprints were analysed from tubers of seven field-grown potato genotypes, including two lines with tuber-accumulated zeaxanthin. The plant genotype significantly affected the number of culturable bacteria only at one field site. Zeaxanthin had no effect on the bacterial plate counts. In dual culture, 72 of 700 bacterial isolates inhibited at least one of the potato pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium dahliae or Phytophthora infestans, 12 of them suppressing all three. Most of these antagonists were identified as Bacillus or Streptomyces. From tubers of two plant genotypes, including one zeaxanthin line, higher numbers of antagonists were isolated. Most antagonists showed glucanase, cellulase and protease activity, which could represent mechanisms for pathogen suppression. PCR-DGGE fingerprints of the 16S rRNA genes of bacterial communities from the tuber surfaces revealed that the potato genotype significantly affected the Pseudomonas community structure at one site. However, the genotypes showed nearly identical fingerprints for Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacillus and Streptomycetaceae. In conclusion, tuber-associated bacteria were only weakly affected by the plant genotype. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  17. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers; Variaciones quimica observadas en tuberculos de patata irradiados, tratados con IPC y testigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  19. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  20. The effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and soaking of potato strips in water on density differences of intermediates for French-fry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and immersing of potato strips in water on differences in density of intermediate products for French-fry production. The density difference used for description of the experiment was defined as a relationship between the post-treatment density and pre-treatment density. The study was conducted on tubers of the Innovator variety. The studies of density changes induced by absorption of water involved measurements of the mass of potato strips in air and in water. Potato strips measured 10 × 10 mm and 60 mm in length. The strips were cut lengthwise along the longest tuber axis set between the proximal and distal tuber end. Water absorption was investigated by immersing strips in water (1 at a temperature of 20°C for 15 min and (2 at 40°C for 20 min. In addition, the study included the group (3 where strips were blanched at a temperature of 90°C for 2 min and a control group (0 which was not immersed in water. Potato tubers were irradiated by UV-C in the following ways: (1 irradiation on one side for 30 min, (2 irradiation on both sides for 15 min each, (0 control group (no irradiation. The studies were conducted at two dates: (0 after harvest and (1 after 3-month storage. Laboratory and storage experiments were conducted in 2016-2017. The density difference was statistically significantly influenced by storage time, UV-C stimulation and immersion conditions of potato strips. The density difference increased with the increase in storage duration of tubers, immersion duration of strips, water temperature (up to starch gelification temperature and UV-C stimulation.

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Brown Rot- and Soft Rot-Causing Bacterial Pathogens from Potato Tubers Through Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R K; Singh, Dinesh; Baranwal, V K

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) are the two major bacterial pathogens of potato causing brown rot (wilt) and soft rot diseases, respectively, in the field and during storage. Reliable and early detection of these pathogens are keys to avoid occurrence of these diseases in potato crops and reduce yield loss. In the present study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection of R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora from potato tubers. A set of oligos targeting the pectatelyase (pel) gene of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and the universal primers based on 16S r RNA gene of R. solanacearum were used. The standardized multiplex PCR protocol could detect R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora up to 0.01 and 1.0 ng of genomic DNA, respectively. The protocol was further validated on 96 stored potato tuber samples, collected from different potato-growing states of India, viz. Uttarakhand, Odisha, Meghalaya and Delhi. 53.1 % tuber samples were positive for R. solanacearum, and 15.1 % of samples were positive for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and both the pathogens were positive in 26.0 % samples when BIO-PCR was used. This method offers sensitive, specific, reliable and fast detection of two major bacterial pathogens from potato tubers simultaneously, particularly pathogen-free seed certification in large scale.

  2. Changes in anthocyanidin levels during the maturation of color-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miloslav; Kotíková, Zora; Paznocht, Luboš; Pivec, Vladimír; Hamouz, Karel; Lachman, Jaromír

    2017-12-15

    Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones. Neither cyanidin nor delphinidin were found in any of the cultivars. The anthocyanidin levels observed were as high as 78mg/100g FW during tuber growth; however, fully matured tubers contained only 10-39mg anthocyanidins/100gFW. Anthocyanidin levels were moderately correlated with global solar irradiation (r<0.6252) but not with rainfall or daily temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lethal Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and its Effect on Certain Physicochemical Properties of Potato Tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, G.M.; Rizk, S. A.; Abdalla, R.S.; Sobeiha, A.M.K.; Dahroug, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of 4-day-old eggs of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) to a dose level of 800 Gy of gamma radiation caused complete mortality and prevent egg hatching after 4 days from exposure to radiation. This dose level was considered as the lethal dose for the egg stage. The dose levels of 700 and 2800 Gy were considered lethal for the full grown larvae after periods of 9 and 1 days elapsed respectively from exposure to gamma radiation .The percent larval mortality increased with the increase of both the dose level applied and the time elapsed after exposure to gamma radiation. Irradiation of full grown pupae at the dose level 1900 Gy resulted in a complete reduction of adult emergence, reached 100 % . It could be concluded that gamma irradiation with a dose level 2800 Gy caused complete mortality to different stages of Phthorimaea operculella. Moreover, the physical and chemical properties of irradiated potato tubers did not significantly differ as compared to unirradiated tubers .This obtained, fatal irradiation dose did not exceed the safe limits recommended by the international organization FAO/WHO.

  4. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  5. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  6. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author) [es

  8. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by fours different methods of preservation, and stored during five months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Aguirre Alfaro, A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic aminoacids of the potato tubers stored during five months. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from tubers control without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the aminoacids from the tubers treated by different methods, but they do exist significant differences when compared with the non treated controls. (Author) 46 refs

  9. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by four different methods of preservation, and stored during five months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Aguirre Alfaro, A.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic amino acids of the potato tubers stored during five months are studied. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from control tubers without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the amino acids from the tubers treated by different methods, but significant differences do exist when compared with the untreated controls

  10. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  11. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  12. Effect of antibrowning agents on fresh-cut potato tubers using frequency filtering of biospeckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minz, Preeti D; Ansari, Md Zaheer; Nirala, A K

    2015-01-01

    Our present work aims to study the physiological changes of chemically treated fresh-cut potato tubers and then to correlate such changes with the results of the non destructive and non invasive laser biospeckle technique. The effect of chemically treated (citric acid (CA-0.5% and 1.0%) and citric acid + sodium chloride (CS-0.5% and 1.0%)) fresh-cut potato tubers on physiological activities such as the respiration rate and weight loss at cold storage has been studied for eight consecutive days. In addition, biospeckle recording has been carried out for eight consecutive days for all the chemically treated samples and from captured images, and the numerical results (inertia moment (IM)) with and without frequency filtering have been obtained. A comparatively higher respiration rate and lower weight loss is observed for CS treated samples than that of CA treated samples. The results of the IM obtained with the exclusion of the higher frequency show a similar nature to the respiration rate and also, separations of the respiration curves at two concentrations for both the treated samples were well correlated with the IM curves. The concentration effect for both the treatments on the IM value with the exclusion of lower frequencies has also been presented. Thus the IM method with filtration of particular bands is able to separate the different physiological phenomena with one another and is also able to differentiate the chemical effect on the samples. (paper)

  13. Visualisation of plastid outgrowths in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers by carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Wojciech; Bederska, Magdalena; Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena

    2015-05-01

    We describe two types of plastid outgrowths visualised in potato tubers after carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining. Probable esterase activity of the outgrowths has been demonstrated for the first time ever. Plastid outgrowths were observed in the phelloderm and storage parenchyma cells of red potato (S. tuberosum L. cv. Rosalinde) tubers after administration of carboxyfluorescein diacetate stain. Endogenous esterases cleaved off acetic groups to release membrane-unpermeable green fluorescing carboxyfluorescein which accumulated differentially in particular cell compartments. The intensive green fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein exhibited highly branched stromules (stroma-filled plastid tubular projections of the plastid envelope) and allowed distinguishing them within cytoplasmic strands of the phelloderm cells. Stromules (1) were directed towards the nucleus or (2) penetrated the whole cells through the cytoplasmic bands of highly vacuolated phelloderm cells. Those directed towards the nucleus were flattened and adhered to the nuclear envelope. Stromule-like interconnections between two parts of the same plastids (isthmuses) were also observed. We also documented the formation of another type of the stroma-filled plastid outgrowths, referred to here as protrusions, which differed from previously defined stromules in both morphology and esterase activity. Unlike stromules, the protrusions were found to be associated with developmental processes leading to starch accumulation in the storage parenchyma cells. These results strongly suggest that stromules and protrusions exhibit esterase activity. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Morphological and biochemical features as well as possible functions of stromules and protrusions are discussed below.

  14. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 ("Dickeya solani"). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue. [KEYWORDS: biovar 3

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 (“Dickeya solani”). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue

  17. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  18. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  19. Breaking continuous potato cropping with legumes improves soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Cao, Li; Zhang, Junlian; Shi, Shangli; Liu, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato–Common vetch (P–C), Potato–Black medic (P–B) and Potato–Longdong alfalfa (P–L) in a semi–arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P–C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P–C (0.218), followed by P–L (0.184) and then P–B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4–year (0.4067) and 7–year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1–year (0.3041), 2–year (0.2545) and 3–year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P–L>P–C>P–B. The P–L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2–year (by 26% and 18%) and 4–year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P–C and P–B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P–C (55.77 mg g–1) and (27.71 mg g–1), followed by P–B (50.72 mg mg–1) and (25.64 mg g–1) and then P–L (41.61 mg g–1) and (23.26 mg g–1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P–B rotation significantly increased (p improve soil biology environment, alleviate continuous cropping obstacle and increase potato tuber yield in semi–arid region. PMID:28463981

  20. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and plant oils on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, A.I.A.

    2012-01-01

    1- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to plant oil and gamma- irradiation. 2- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to powder of some plants and gamma irradiation.-selection of the suitable concentration of plant oils. - effect on male fertility. -effect on female fecundity. -effect on adult survival. 3- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sterile dose. 4- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sub sterile dose. 5- The effects of gamma- irradiation and plant oil on the pest when the potato tubers store for different periods. 6- Some biochemical studies. o Determine the adult total protein content of treated pupae. Determine the effect of plant oils and gamma- irradiation on the activity of some enzymes as proteinase, ATPase, keitenase cholinesterase.

  1. Trafficking of the potato spindle tuber viroid between tomato and Orobanche ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachev, T; Ivanova, D; Minkov, I; Tsagris, M; Gozmanova, M

    2010-04-10

    Viroids, small RNA pathogens capable of infecting flowering plants, coexist in the field with parasitic plants that infest many crops. The ability of viroids to be exchanged between host and parasitic plants and spread in the latter has not yet been investigated. We studied the interaction between the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Branched bromrape (Orobanche ramosa) using the tomato, Solanum lycopersicon, as a common host. We report the long distance trafficking of PSTVd RNA via the phloem from tomato to O. ramosa, but not vice versa. Furthermore, we identify O. ramosa as a novel host with the ability to facilitate the replication and processing of PSTVd. Finally, molecular variants of PSTVd with single nucleotide substitutions that replicate with different efficiencies in tomato were isolated from O. ramosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of potato spindle tuber viroid in reproductive organs of petunia during its developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shinya

    2014-09-01

    Embryo infection is important for efficient seed transmission of viroids. To identify the major pattern of seed transmission of viroids, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in each developmental stage of petunia (flowering to mature seed stages). In floral organs, PSTVd was present in the reproductive tissues of infected female × infected male and infected female × healthy male but not of healthy female × infected male before embryogenesis. After pollination, PSTVd was detected in the developed embryo and endosperm in all three crosses. These findings indicate that PSTVd is indirectly delivered to the embryo through ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis but not directly through maternal tissues as cell-to-cell movement during embryogenesis.

  3. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  4. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT-PCR (qPCR. Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox

  5. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  6. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  7. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  8. Nuclear targeting by fragmentation of the Potato spindle tuber viroid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraitiene, Asta; Zhao Yan; Hammond, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    Transient expression of engineered reporter RNAs encoding an intron-containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a Potato virus X-based expression vector previously demonstrated the nuclear targeting capability of the 359 nucleotide Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome. To further delimit the putative nuclear-targeting signal, PSTVd subgenomic fragments were embedded within the intron, and recombinant reporter RNAs were inoculated onto Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Appearance of green fluorescence in leaf tissue inoculated with PSTVd-fragment-containing constructs indicated shuttling of the RNA into the nucleus by fragments as short as 80 nucleotides in length. Plant-to-plant variation in the timing of intron removal and subsequent GFP fluorescence was observed; however, earliest and most abundant GFP expression was obtained with constructs containing the conserved hairpin I palindrome structure and embedded upper central conserved region. Our results suggest that this conserved sequence and/or the stem-loop structure it forms is sufficient for import of PSTVd into the nucleus

  9. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  10. Metabolic engineering of potato carotenoid content through tuber-specific overexpression of a bacterial mini-pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Diretto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the creation of "Golden Rice", biofortification of plant-derived foods is a promising strategy for the alleviation of nutritional deficiencies. Potato is the most important staple food for mankind after the cereals rice, wheat and maize, and is extremely poor in provitamin A carotenoids. METHODOLOGY: We transformed potato with a mini-pathway of bacterial origin, driving the synthesis of beta-carotene (Provitamin A from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Three genes, encoding phytoene synthase (CrtB, phytoene desaturase (CrtI and lycopene beta-cyclase (CrtY from Erwinia, under tuber-specific or constitutive promoter control, were used. 86 independent transgenic lines, containing six different promoter/gene combinations, were produced and analyzed. Extensive regulatory effects on the expression of endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis are observed in transgenic lines. Constitutive expression of the CrtY and/or CrtI genes interferes with the establishment of transgenosis and with the accumulation of leaf carotenoids. Expression of all three genes, under tuber-specific promoter control, results in tubers with a deep yellow ("golden" phenotype without any adverse leaf phenotypes. In these tubers, carotenoids increase approx. 20-fold, to 114 mcg/g dry weight and beta-carotene 3600-fold, to 47 mcg/g dry weight. CONCLUSIONS: This is the highest carotenoid and beta-carotene content reported for biofortified potato as well as for any of the four major staple foods (the next best event being "Golden Rice 2", with 31 mcg/g dry weight beta-carotene. Assuming a beta-carotene to retinol conversion of 6ratio1, this is sufficient to provide 50% of the Recommended Daily Allowance of Vitamin A with 250 gms (fresh weight of "golden" potatoes.

  11. In vitro development of buds from tubers of potato (Solanum tuUerosum L.) subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradication is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (author) [es

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2002-12-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively; however no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-instar stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2003-01-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively. However no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-in star stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  14. Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases play crucial roles in controlling cold-induced sweetening and apical dominance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengfei; Fang, Hui; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Hou, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tian, Zhendong; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-12-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here, we identified 4 putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome and demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3, which are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers, encode active cytosolic GAPDHs. Cosuppression of these 3 GAPC genes resulted in low tuber GAPDH activity, consequently the accumulation of reducing sugars in cold stored tubers by altering the tuber metabolite pool sizes favoring the sucrose pathway. Furthermore, GAPCs-silenced tubers exhibited a loss of apical dominance dependent on cell death of tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem). It was also confirmed that StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3 interacted with the autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), implying that the occurrence of cell death in TAB-meristem could be induced by ATG3 associated events. Collectively, the present research evidences first that the GAPC genes play crucial roles in diverse physiological and developmental processes in potato tubers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Validation of candidate gene markers for marker-assisted selection of potato cultivars with improved tuber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Draffehn, Astrid M; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits that are important for industrial uses and food processing of potato. Chip color depends on the quantity of reducing sugars glucose and fructose in the tubers, which are generated by starch degradation. Reducing sugars accumulate when tubers are stored at low temperatures. Early and efficient selection of cultivars with superior yield, starch yield and chip color is hampered by the fact that reliable phenotypic selection requires multiple year and location trials. Application of DNA-based markers early in the breeding cycle, which are diagnostic for superior alleles of genes that control natural variation of tuber quality, will reduce the number of clones to be evaluated in field trials. Association mapping using genes functional in carbohydrate metabolism as markers has discovered alleles of invertases and starch phosphorylases that are associated with tuber quality traits. Here, we report on new DNA variants at loci encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and the invertase Pain-1, which are associated with positive or negative effect with chip color, tuber starch content and starch yield. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and marker validation were performed in tetraploid breeding populations, using various combinations of 11 allele-specific markers associated with tuber quality traits. To facilitate MAS, user-friendly PCR assays were developed for specific candidate gene alleles. In a multi-parental population of advanced breeding clones, genotypes were selected for having different combinations of five positive and the corresponding negative marker alleles. Genotypes combining five positive marker alleles performed on average better than genotypes with four negative alleles and one positive allele. When tested individually, seven of eight markers showed an effect on at least one quality trait. The direction of effect was as expected. Combinations of two to three marker alleles were

  16. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts in the left terminal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolonko, Nadine; Bannach, Oliver; Aschermann, Katja; Hu, Kang-Hong; Moors, Michaela; Schmitz, Michael; Steger, Gerhard; Riesner, Detlev

    2006-01-01

    Viroids are single-stranded, circular RNAs of 250 to 400 bases, that replicate autonomously in their host plants but do not code for a protein. Viroids of the family Pospiviroidae, of which potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type strain, are replicated by the host's DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. To analyze the initiation site of transcription from the (+)-stranded circles into (-)-stranded replication intermediates, we used a nuclear extract from a non-infected cell culture of the host plant S. tuberosum. The (-)-strands, which were de novo-synthesized in the extract upon addition of circular (+)-PSTVd, were purified by affinity chromatography. This purification avoided contamination by host nucleic acids that had resulted in a misassignment of the start site in an earlier study. Primer-extension analysis of the de novo-synthesized (-)-strands revealed a single start site located in the hairpin loop of the left terminal region in circular PSTVd's secondary structure. This start site is supported further by analysis of the infectivity and replication behavior of site-directed mutants in planta

  17. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  18. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation with Protecto on Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.M.; Haiba, I.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Youssef, L.A.; Zahran, N.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella was studied. Five day old pupae were irradiated with sub sterilizing dose (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 Gy). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of bacterial commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis (Protecto) on the newly hatched larvae of Ph. operculella at four concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 g/100 ml water). LC 50 value was calculated for protecto, significant positive relationship between dose levels and the percentage of adult emergence was obtained. The number of egg per female and the percentage of egg hatch of emerged adults were significantly decreased by the increase of gamma rays. In addition, dose levels of 50 and 100 Gy were completely inhibited the larval development. The larval mortality percentages were increased with the increase of concentrations as well as the period after the treatment of Protecto. The percentage of survived larvae to adult stage was reduced as the irradiation dose and Protecto concentrations increased, while larval and pupal durations were relatively longer. The longevity of adults was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation and concentration of Protecto. The percentage of malformation among adults was increased by increasing gamma rays doses and concentration of the Protecto

  19. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control

  1. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  2. Peptidomics of Peptic Digest of Selected Potato Tuber Proteins: Post-Translational Modifications and Limited Cleavage Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C K Rajendran, Subin R; Mason, Beth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-03-23

    Bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting bioactive peptides from food proteins. This study was focused on using bioinformatics and peptidomics to evaluate the specificity of peptide release and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptic digest of potato protein isolate. Peptides in the protein hydrolysate were identified by LC-MS/MS and subsequently aligned to their parent potato tuber proteins. Five major proteins were selected for further analysis, namely, lipoxygenase, α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, annexin, patatin, and polyubiquitin, based on protein coverage, abundance, confidence levels, and function. Comparison of the in silico peptide profile generated with ExPASy PeptideCutter and experimental peptidomics data revealed several differences. The experimental peptic cleavage sites were found to vary in number and specificity from PeptideCutter predictions. Average peptide chain length was also found to be higher than predicted with hexapeptides as the smallest detected peptides. Moreover, PTMs, particularly Met oxidation and Glu/Asp deamidation, were observed in some peptides, and these were unaccounted for during in silico analysis. PTMs can be formed during aging of potato tubers, or as a result of processing conditions during protein isolation and hydrolysis. The findings provide insights on the limitations of current bioinformatics tools for predicting bioactive peptide release from proteins, and on the existence of structural modifications that can alter the peptide bioactivity and functionality.

  3. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  4. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  5. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  6. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

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    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  7. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  8. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, McM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, Jm; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

  9. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  10. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Push-Pull Effects of Three Plant Secondary Metabolites on Oviposition of the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.F.; Xiao, C.

    2013-01-01

    The push-pull effects of three plant secondary metabolites, azadirachtin, eucalyptol, and heptanal, on the oviposition choices of potato tubers by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were tested in the laboratory. Azadirachtin at concentrations from 1.5 to 12 mg/L had a significant repellent effect on oviposition. Eucalyptol at concentrations from 3 to 12 mg/L promoted oviposition. Heptanal promoted oviposition at low concentrations from 0.1875 to 3.0 mg/L but repelled it at higher concentrations from 12 to 24 mg/L. The combination of azadirachtin (12 mg/L) with eucalyptol (3.0 mg/L) resulted in a significant pushpull effect of 56.3% on oviposition. The average maximum push-pull effects occurred with the combinations of azadirachtin with heptanal (12 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 38.7% push-pull effect), heptanal with eucalyptol (12 and 6 mg/L, respectively; 31.4% push-pull effect), and heptanal (high concentration) with heptanal (low concentration) (12.0 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 25% push-pull effect). PMID:24786822

  12. Study of genetic variation at the level of DNA between normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males (phthorimaea operculella, zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 μg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  13. Study Of Genetic Variation At The Level Of DNA Between Normal And Steriled Potato Tuber Moth Males (Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilize males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 Mg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  14. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  15. Natural losses in tuber weight during storage as a predictor of susceptibility to post-wounding blackspot in advanced potato breeding materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Barbaś, Piotr

    2017-08-01

    In potatoes, mechanical damage and the formation of black spots in the tuber flesh cause substantial economic losses and degradation of quality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of new potato genotypes (178 elite breeding lines) to blackspot damage after 7 months' storage at 5 and 8 °C, and to examine whether this susceptibility correlated with natural losses. The lowest index of blackspot damage after harvest was found in genotypes from the mid-late group of earliness and low-susceptibility group, and after storage in genotypes from the early group of earliness and low-susceptibility group. After storage at 5 °C tubers were characterized by a lower susceptibility to bruising compared with tubers stored at 8 °C. The storage temperature significantly affected the natural losses in advanced potato breeding materials after storage in the case of all earliness and susceptibility groups. The highest susceptibility to blackspot damage and natural losses occurred in potatoes stored at 8 °C (r = 0.85-0.91). Such a relationship was not observed in potatoes stored at 5 °C. For potato tubers susceptible to the formation of after-wounding blackspot, the natural losses arising as a result of storage at 8 °C can be used as a subjective method to evaluate the susceptibility of potatoes to the formation of black spots in the flesh. However, this observation needs further studies and stronger proof of this theory. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of CO2 enrichment and drought pretreatment on metabolite responses to water stress and subsequent rehydration using potato tubers from plants grown in sunlit SPAR chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed using naturally sunlit Soil–Plant–Atmosphere-Research chambers that provided ambient or elevated CO2. Potato plants were grown in pots that were water sufficient (W), water insufficient for 12 to 18 days during both vegetative and tuber development stages (VR), or water i...

  17. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety accessions of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae were screened for (i) resistance to and (ii) stimulatory effect on juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes, and (iii) their growth under temperate climatic conditions. All plant species belonging to the genus Solanum tested induced hatching but this

  18. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Pobereżny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn, 0.3 (spring, and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period. The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron. The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW. The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  19. Creation of initial breeding material of potato with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight

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    В. В. Гордієнко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select the initial breeding material with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight among the created potato of secondary interspecific hyb­rids. Methods. Interspecific hybridization, laboratory test, analytical approach. Results. Based on the interspecific hybridization, the initial breeding material was created and the degree of its resistance to the above pathogens was determined by way of artificial infection of tubers with the inoculum of such fungi as Fusarium sambucinum Fuck and Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary. During interspecific hybridization based on schemes of saturating and enriching crosses, using forms of various species with a high phenotypic expression of resistance to Fusarium dry rot, the result of the cumulative effect of genes that control resistance to the pathogen was observed. Crossing combinations differed significantly for the degree of population average manifestation of resistance to the diseases. Conclusions. Combinations В54, В53, В61 with a mean resistance (above 7 grades to Fusarium dry rot have been selected. Such combinations as B52, B50 and B54 had increased resistance to tuber late blight. It was found that the combination В54 is characterized by complex resistance to both diseases. For further work, the following samples with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight (7 grades or more were selected: В59с42, В59с43, В50с16, В50с19, В50с44, В51с1, В51с26, В51с28, В52с11, В52с23, В52с24, В52с29, В53с1, В53с11, В53с17 , В53с23, В54с13, В54с14.

  20. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourazari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field. The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N economy of two genetically modified (GM potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%, N uptake efficiency (+53%, tuber N content (+20%, and N accumulation (+120% compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly

  1. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazari, Fereshteh; Andersson, Mariette; Weih, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field). The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N) economy of two genetically modified (GM) potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%), N uptake efficiency (+53%), tuber N content (+20%), and N accumulation (+120%) compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly increased

  2. Verticillium dahliae disease resistance and the regulatory pathway for maturity and tuberization in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tai, Helen H.; De Koyer, David; Sønderkær, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a pathogenic fungus causing wilting, chlorosis and early dying in potato. Genetic mapping of resistance to V. dahliae was done using a diploid population of potato. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Verticillium resistance was found on chromosome 5. The St...

  3. Analysis of small RNA production patterns among the two potato spindle tuber viroid variants in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the production of small RNA (sRNA by viroids upon infecting the plants, the tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Rutgers were inoculated with the variants of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd. After 21-days of postinoculation, total RNA was extracted and subjected for deep-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The primers were trimmed and only 21- to 24-nt long sRNAs were filtered after quality check of the raw data. The filtered sRNA population was then mapped against both the genomic (+ and antigenomic (− strands of the respective PSTVd variants using standard pattern-matching algorithm. The profiling of viroid derived sRNA (vd-sRNA revealed that the viroids are susceptible to host RNA silencing mechanism. High-throughput sequence data linked to this project have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69225.

  4. STUDY OF BORER PEST CONTROL POTATO TUBER IN WAREHOUSES SEEDLINGS (With fungus Beauveria bassiana and Leaf of Tagetes erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of borer pest control potato tuber (Phthorimaea operculella Zell in warehouses seedlings with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo and leaf Tagetes erecta was conducted in Kutagadung village, district of Brand, Karo District, starting in October until December 2010. The draft that is in use is completely randomized (CRD comprised of seven treatments with three replications. Treatment at Kaji is: Control (no treatment, the density of conidia 106 per ml, 105 per ml, 104 per ml, leaf thickness Tegetes two cm, three cm, and four cm. Observations were P. operculella and intensity of attacks healthy seedlings. In the final analysis, the intensity of attacks in 100 percent control treatment, the density of conidia.

  5. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. Copyright © 2014 Schreiber et al.

  6. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  8. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  9. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  10. Major Proteins of the Amyloplast of Agar and Soil - Grown Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Simon; Blennow, Andreas; Stensballe, Allan

    and total tuber extracts by SDS-PAGE and the specific activities of marker enzymes for amyloplast, cytosol, mitochondria and the vacuole. SDS-PAGE separated amyloplast and starch granule proteins were in-gel digested with trypsin, analyzed by mass spectrometry, and identified by searches against presently...

  11. MAPA distinguishes genotype-specific variability of highly similar regulatory protein isoforms in potato tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Hummel, Jan; Egelhofer, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; van Dongen, Joost T; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-07-01

    Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment is a fast and flexible method for comparative proteome analysis that allows the comparison of unprecedented numbers of shotgun proteomics analyses on a personal computer in a matter of hours. We compared 183 LC-MS analyses and more than 2 million MS/MS spectra and could define and separate the proteomic phenotypes of field grown tubers of 12 tetraploid cultivars of the crop plant Solanum tuberosum. Protein isoforms of patatin as well as other major gene families such as lipoxygenase and cysteine protease inhibitor that regulate tuber development were found to be the primary source of variability between the cultivars. This suggests that differentially expressed protein isoforms modulate genotype specific tuber development and the plant phenotype. We properly assigned the measured abundance of tryptic peptides to different protein isoforms that share extensive stretches of primary structure and thus inferred their abundance. Peptides unique to different protein isoforms were used to classify the remaining peptides assigned to the entire subset of isoforms based on a common abundance profile using multivariate statistical procedures. We identified nearly 4000 proteins which we used for quantitative functional annotation making this the most extensive study of the tuber proteome to date.

  12. Repression of a novel isoform of disproportionating enzyme (stDPE2) in potato leads to inhibition of starch degradation in leaves but not tubers stored at low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, J.R.; Blennow, A.; Burhenne, K.

    2004-01-01

    and tubers. Transgenic potato plants were made in which its presence was almost completely eliminated. It could be demonstrated that starch degradation was repressed in leaves of the transgenic plants but that cold-induced sweetening was not affected in tubers stored at 4degreesC. No evidence could be found...

  13. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Development of the system nematode, Ditylenchus Dipsaci (Kuehn) Filipjev, and the potato tuber nematode, D. Destructor thore, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Karnkowski, W.

    1996-01-01

    Juvenile and adult nematodes emerged from onion and garlic samples on the 3 rd week after irradiation with doses up to 0.5 kGy and from potato treated with doses up to 2.0 kGy. However, irradiation of onion infected with Ditylenchus dipsaci caused the inhibition of the development and growth of juvenile nematodes to mature forms. Doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy had only a slight effect, if any, on the development and growth of D. dipsaci nematodes infecting garlic, but they increased juvenile mortality. Gamma radiation at doses up to 2.0 kGy induced increased mortality of nematode juveniles of the potato tuber nematode, D. destructor but less so inhibited their development to mature forms. Nematodes were found to be resistant to irradiation treatment. Therefore the use of gamma irradiation for nematode disinfestation of agricultural products seems to be impractical, if the aim of the treatment is to kill these pests within a few weeks. The level of radiation required to kill nematodes in infected plants would damage plant tissues so that the further storage of vegetables will be impossible. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Identification of irradiated food. I.- A test established on the in vitro culture of potato buds to identified the irradiated tubers; Identificacion de alimentos irradiados. I. Test basado en el cultivo de yemas in vitro para la identificacion de tuberculos de patatas irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    A method based upon the in vitro culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (Author) 9 refs.

  16. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative

  17. Proteome analysis of potato juice and tuber vacuoles from cv. Kuras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene

    %), Kunitz protease inhibitors (KPI, 30 %) and lipoxygenases (10 %). The large amount of lipoxygenase indicates that lipoxygenase also function as a storage protein. The tetraploid nature of most potatoes seems to give rise to a huge complexity of the proteome. The KPI superfamily was found to be represented...

  18. Identification of alleles of carotenoid pathway genes important for zeaxanthin accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.M.A.; Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L.; Kloosterman, B.A.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the genetics and molecular biology of orange flesh colour in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To this end the natural diversity in three genes of the carotenoid pathway was assessed by SNP analyses. Association analysis was performed between SNP haplotypes and flesh colour

  19. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  20. The impact of R1and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight of the potato breeding clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoteyeva Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato breeding clones were evaluated for resistance to late blight (agent Phytophthora infestans using tuber inoculation tests and for presence of the resistance alleles of R1 and R3a genes in polymerase chain reaction tests. Among clones tested those expressing high, moderate and low resistance were identified. The data were analysed for the impact of R1 and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight in tested plant material. In previous evaluations performed on smaller amount of clones the tuber resistance levels significantly depended on presence/absence of the resistance allele of R3a gene and did not depend on presence of R1 gene allele. In the current study the statistical analyses did not prove the significant difference in resistance levels depending on presence of the resistance alleles, neither of R1 gene, nor of R3a gene. Tuber resistant clones bearing R3a gene resistance alleles still noticeably prevailed over the clones bearing the alleles of R1 gene as well as over the clones bearing the no resistance alleles of both genes. In several cases the resistance of clones with detected resistance allele of R1 gene was higher compared to those derived from the same crosses and showing amplification of the allele of R3a gene or those with no resistance alleles. Clones accumulating the resistance alleles of both (R1 and R3a genes expressed high tuber resistance accompanied by necrotic reaction.

  1. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  4. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Midgut Epithelial Cells of Female Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, I.M.; Abd El-Meguid, A.A.; Yousef, H.A.A.; Mahmoud, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the histological studies of the midgut in non- irradiated 4-day-old potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella and after the exposure of 5-day-old pupae to sub sterilizing and sterilizing doses 50 and 150 Gy, respectively. Anatomically, the midgut was a wide straight tube, the proximal part was marked by the connection to the crop and the distal part was determined by the connection of the Malpighian tubules. The arrangement of the Malpighian tubules around the midgut tube took a special pattern symmetrically on each side. Histologically, the midgut was subdivided into three main subdivisions, anterior, middle and posterior regions. The epithelial cells differed in shape and size according to the regions in the midgut. Exposure to gamma-irradiation showed various forms of changes, there was direct relationship between the dose levels and the observed effects. At dose level 150 Gy, the effects were more advanced than those at 50 Gy dose level. The effects of radiation could be summarized as: appearance of vacuoles and vesicles in the cytoplasm, nuclei in some cells were pyknotic or karyolysed, reduction in the cell number, enlargement in nuclei, absence of regenerative cells from some parts and the epithelial cells suffered from hydropic degeneration

  5. Tamanho do tubérculo-semente de batata não interfere na manifestação da murcha bacteriana Potato seed tuber size does not interfere with the incidence of potato bacterial wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata-semente é comercializada no Brasil em diferentes tamanhos, conforme determinação do MAPA, variando do tipo 0 (zero, com tubérculos acima de 60 mm, até o tipo V, com tubérculos menores que 23 mm. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do tamanho do tubérculo da batata-semente na manifestação da murcha bacteriana nas cultivares Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix e Bintje, em campo naturalmente infestado com Ralstonia solanacearum, em Brasília-DF. Foram usados tubérculos pequenos, médios e grandes, com aproximadamente 30, 50 e 90 mm em média, tamanhos correspondentes respectivamente aos tipos IV, II e 0 das normas do MAPA. Diferenças significativas quanto à incidência da doença foram encontradas entre cultivares: BRS Ana e Asterix não diferiram entre si e foram mais resistentes que Agata e Bintje que, por sua vez, tampouco diferiram entre si. As diferenças entre tamanhos de tubérculos e as interações entre cultivar e tamanho de tubérculos não foram significativas. Portanto concluiu-se que o tamanho de tubérculos dentro dos limites avaliados neste trabalho, não interferiu na manifestação da doença em testes de avaliação para resistência à murcha bacteriana.Potato seed tubers in Brazil are commercialized in different sizes as determined by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The sizes are classified in types, which vary from type 0 (zero, tubers above 60 mm, up to type V, tubers below 23 mm. In this work, we evaluated the influence of seed tuber size on the incidence of bacterial wilt on cultivars Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix, and Bintje, grown in a field naturally infested with Ralstonia solanacearum, in Brasilia, Brazil. We used small, medium and large tubers, measuring in average 30, 50 and 90 mm, which correspond respectively to types IV, II and 0 according to the Brazilian legislation. Significant differences in bacterial wilt incidences were detected among cultivars: BRS Ana and Asterix did not

  6. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  7. The effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato tuber yield and quality on a sandy soil in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Christian Martin Bugge; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Autumn ridging is a modified version of the ridge tillage system. Instead of setting up ridges during the growing season, they are established in autumn and left for the winter. Previous studies have documented positive effects of autumn ridging on potato yield and we hypothesized that subsoiling...... could enhance these effects. To determine the effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato yield and quality a field experiment was conducted on sandy soil from 2001 to 2003. Autumn ridging resulted in an average total and marketable tuber yield of 25.6 and 9.2 t ha1, which...... was not significantly different from the average total and marketable yield of 25.6 and 8.9 t ha1 with ploughing. However, autumn ridging significantly reduced the incidence of black scurf from 2.5% to 2.2%. Inter-row subsoiling in the growing season significantly increased marketable potato tuber yield from 8.4 to 9...

  8. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  10. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  11. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.): A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingwang; Geng, Jinfeng; Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin

    2016-10-18

    Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests). The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity) was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression), respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  12. Characterization of films made with chayote tuber and potato starches blending with cellulose nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aila-Suárez, Selene; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana I; Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize chayotextle starch films reinforced with cellulose (C) and cellulose nanoparticle (CN) (at concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2%), using thermal, mechanical, physicochemical, permeability, and water solubility tests. C was acid-treated to obtain CN. The films were prepared by casting; potato starch and C were used as the control. The solubility of the starch films decreased with the addition of C and CN compared with its respective film without C and CN. No statistical difference (α=0.05) was found in the films added with different concentrations of C and CN. In general, the mechanical properties were improved with the addition of C and CN, and higher values of tensile strength and elastic modulus were determined in the films reinforced with CN. The melting temperature and enthalpy increased with the addition of C and CN, and the values of both thermal parameters were higher in the films with CN than with C; the enthalpy value of the film decreased when the concentration of C or CN increased in the composite. Low concentration of C and CN is better distributed in the matrix film. The addition of C and CN in the starch films improved some mechanical, barrier, and functional properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    in potato tuber cells.

  14. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by fours different methods of preservation, and stored during five months; Estudio del contenido en aminoacidos libre y proteicos en tuberculos de patata tratados por cuatro metodos de conservacion y almacenados durante cinco meses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Aguirre Alfaro, A

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic aminoacids of the potato tubers stored during five months. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from tubers control without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the aminoacids from the tubers treated by different methods, but they do exist significant differences when compared with the non treated controls. (Author) 46 refs.

  16. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  17. Analysis of protein amino acids, non-protein amino acids and metabolites, dietary protein, glucose, fructose, sucrose, phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidative properties of potato tubers, peels, and cortexes (pulps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and antioxidative activity of whole potato tubers from five Korean cultivars, three peels from one cultivar, and eight pulps (cortexes) after peeling from six different cultivars were evaluated. The following characteristics were determined: the dimensions and water content of whole...

  18. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  19. Characterizing zebra chip symptom severity and identifying spectral signatures associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infected potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes, which is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ZC reduces yield and quality, as it results in discoloration of the vascular ...

  20. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  1. Effect of partially purified components of zoospores and mycelia of phytophthora infestans on uptake of 3H-leucine by potato tuber disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1980-01-01

    The zoosporial component of Phytophthora infestans, which was previously reported to cause reduction of 3 H-leucine uptake by potato tuber disks, was partially purified. Precipitate (A-fraction) was obtained by homogenizing zoospores with acetate buffer at pH 4.5 and centrifuging at 20,000 x g, and the A-fraction was suspended in borate buffer at pH 8.8, boiled for 1 hr and then centrifuged at 20,000 x g, giving the precipitate (B-fraction) and supernatant (C-fraction). Ten ml of 10 mM tris-HCl buffer containing 1 mM CaCl 2 at pH 7.4 was used to suspend A and B-fraction. The buffer was used as a control. A, B and C fractions obtained from 5 - 6 x 10 6 zoosprores reducted uptake of 3 H-leucine by the tuber disks of potato cv. Rishiri, but the inhibition rates caused by these fractions differed markedly. However, very high correlation was found between inhibition rates of 3 H-leucine uptake and sugar contents of these fractions. There was no difference in the inhibition rates between the zoosporial components of incompatible and compatible races, when the activities were expressed in terms of the sugar contents. The mycelial components of P. infestans extracted by the modified method of Lisker and Kuc which was used to extract phytoalexin elicitor from that of P. infestans, also had the same effect as the zoosporial components (A, B, and C-fraction) on 3 H-leucine uptake by the disks. C-fraction containing 15 μg of sugar per ml sufficed to inhibit 3 H-leucine uptake at the maximum rate, and the maximum rate of inhibition was attained within 2 hr after the zoosporial component (C-fraction containing 30 μg sugar/ml) was administered to the disks. (author)

  2. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans and treatment with its zoosporial components on uptake of 3H-leucine and protein synthesis potato tuber tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1978-01-01

    Both sides of aged disks of potato tubers were inoculated with incompatible race 0 or compatible race 1 of P. infestans. The uptake of radioactivity from 3 H-leucine into the disks was greatly reduced by the infection with the incompatible race, but the ratio of incorporated radioactivity in the acid soluble fraction of the disks to total radioactivity in the 20,000 x g supernatant was increased by the infection with the incompatible race 0. In case of the compatible race 1, the infection had less effect on the incorporation ratio of the radioactivity into the acid insoluble fraction than the case of the race 0. The results suggested that the reduction in 3 H-leucine uptake may be due to alteration of the physiological activity of host plasma membrane, instead of the reduction of metabolic activity. The treatment of tuber disks with the insoluble fraction of the zoosporial homogenate of race 0 or race 1 greatly reduced the uptake of 3 H-leucine by the disks. The supernatant fraction of the zoosporial homogenate also reduced the uptake, but the effect was lost by dialysis. The results suggest that some substances in the insoluble components of the zoosporial homogenate of P. infestans may be at least one cause of the reduction in the uptake of 3 H-leucine which begins to occur at very early period of the inoculation with race 0 or race 1 while penetration has not yet occurred. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Metabolic flux analysis of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wound-healing potato tuber tissue using stable isotope-labeled tracer and LC-MS spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Morino, Keiko; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Department of Agriculture

    2003-05-01

    The metabolic flux of two phenylpropanoid metabolites, N-p-coumaroyloctopamine (p-CO) and chlorogenic acid (CGA), in the wound-healing potato tuber tissue was quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed method based upon the tracer experiment using stable isotope-labeled compounds and LC-MS. Tuber disks were treated with aqueous solution of L-phenyl-d{sub 5}-alanine, and the change in the ratio of stable isotope-labeled compound to non-labeled (isotope abundance) was monitored for p-CO and CGA in the tissue extract by LC-MS. The time-dependent change in the isotope abundance of each metabolite was fitted to an equation that was derived from the formation and conversion kinetics of each compound. Good correlations were obtained between the observed and calculated isotope abundances for both p-CO and CGA. The rates of p-CO formation and conversion (i.e. fluxes) were 1.15 and 0.96 nmol (g FW){sup -1}h{sup -1}, respectively, and for CGA, the rates 4.63 and 0.42 nmol (g FW){sup -1}h{sup -1}, respectively. This analysis enabled a direct comparison of the biosynthetic activity between these two compounds. (author)

  4. Distribution of rishitin and lubimin in potato-tuber tissue infected by an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans and the site where rishitin is synthesized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Kinukawa, Masaru

    1975-01-01

    Cut surface of potato tuber (R 1 -cultivar) was inoculated with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans. Then the slices prepared from the infected tissue were analyzed for their rishitin and lubimin content. Most of rishitin and lubimin was found in a zone in which the cells became brown with only a trace in the healthy tissue adjacent to the brown zone. However, the amount of lubimin was very low as compared with that of rishitin. In the inoculation fluid within the hole made in the tuber tissue, a large amount of rishitin and lubimin was found. In this case, lubimin was found in greater amount than rishitin during the early period of infection, but later the amount of rishitin exceeded that of lubimin. It was demonstrated by incorporation of acetate-2- 14 C into rishitin that rishitin was synthesized mostly in the adjacent healthy tissue which had not been invaded by the parasite. Rishitin synthesis was especially active in the first several healthy cell layers neighbouring the brown tissue. Since, at this time, hyphal development has already stopped, these cells were never invaded by the parasite and did never turn brown. Rishitin seemed not to be synthesized in the browned tissue. It is concluded that the rishitin sythesized in the adjacent healthy cells is transported to the brown cells and accumulates there. It also diffuses and accumulates outside the brown cells. (auth.)

  5. Natural DNA variation at candidate loci is associated with potato chip color, tuber starch content, yield and starch yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Paulo, M.J.; Strahwald, J.; Lubeck, J.; Hofferbert, H.R.; Tacke, E.; Junghans, H.; Wunder, J.; Draffehn, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complex characters of plants such as starch and sugar content of seeds, fruits, tubers and roots are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Understanding their molecular basis will facilitate diagnosis and combination of superior alleles in crop improvement programs (precision

  6. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  7. Physical mapping of QTL for tuber yield, starch content and starch yield in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by means of genome wide genotyping by sequencing and the 8.3 K SolCAP SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, Elske Maria; Ding, Jia; Ritter, Enrique; Paulo, Maria João; Cara, Nicolás; Tacke, Ekhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2017-08-22

    Tuber yield and starch content of the cultivated potato are complex traits of decisive importance for breeding improved varieties. Natural variation of tuber yield and starch content depends on the environment and on multiple, mostly unknown genetic factors. Dissection and molecular identification of the genes and their natural allelic variants controlling these complex traits will lead to the development of diagnostic DNA-based markers, by which precision and efficiency of selection can be increased (precision breeding). Three case-control populations were assembled from tetraploid potato cultivars based on maximizing the differences between high and low tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC) and starch yield (TSY, arithmetic product of TY and TSC). The case-control populations were genotyped by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and the 8.3 k SolCAP SNP genotyping array. The allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between cases and controls. RADseq identified, depending on data filtering criteria, between 6664 and 450 genes with one or more differential SNPs for one, two or all three traits. Differential SNPs in 275 genes were detected using the SolCAP array. A genome wide association study using the SolCAP array on an independent, unselected population identified SNPs associated with tuber starch content in 117 genes. Physical mapping of the genes containing differential or associated SNPs, and comparisons between the two genome wide genotyping methods and two different populations identified genome segments on all twelve potato chromosomes harboring one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TY, TSC and TSY. Several hundred genes control tuber yield and starch content in potato. They are unequally distributed on all potato chromosomes, forming clusters between 0.5-4 Mbp width. The largest fraction of these genes had unknown function, followed by genes with putative signalling and regulatory functions. The

  8. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three...... replicates. The results revealed that storage of potatoes at 25°C with rosemary leaves and branches resulted in the lowest sprout development and weight loss after 10 weeks. This was significantly different from either 4°C or 30°C. The findings indicated the potential of rosemary fresh leaves and branches...

  9. Conductimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathover pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.

    1996-01-01


    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is

  10. Effects of foliar and tuber sprout suppressants on shelf life of ware potatoes under tropical ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of dietary carbohydrate and cash income for farmers in the tropical highlands of Kenya. The feasibility for cold storage at the farm level is limited due to the high costs of maintaining such a facility and there is limited data on the long-term post...

  11. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  12. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  13. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O......, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy....... The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw....

  14. Ultraviolet light-induced crosslinking reveals a unique region of local tertiary structure in potato spindle tuber viroid and HeLa 5S RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, A.D.; Benenfeld, B.J.; Robertson, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The positions of intramolecular crosslinks induced by irradiation with ultraviolet light were mapped into potato spindle tuber viroid RNA and HeLa 5S rRNA. Crosslinking in each of these molecules occurred at a single major site, which was located by RNA fingerprinting and secondary analysis. Various lines of evidence suggest that these crosslinks identify a previously undescribed element of local tertiary structure common to these two widely divergent RNA molecules: (i) both crosslinks occur in an identical eight-base context, with the sequence 5 GGGAA 3 on one side and the sequence 5 UAC 3 on the other; (ii) both crosslinks connect bases that are not thought to be involved in conventional hydrogen bonding, within regions usually depicted as single-stranded loops flanked by short helical segments; and (iii) both crosslinks connect a purine and a pyrimidine residue, and both may generate the same G-U dimer. Furthermore, it is likely that the crosslinking site is of functional significance because it is located within the most highly conserved region of the viroid sequence and involves bases that are essentially invariant among eukaryotic 5S rRNA molecules

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G; Makee, H [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Mutation induction and isolation in potato through true seed and tuber mutagenesis and use of tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, M.D.; Abraham, M.J.; Dass, B.; Chandra, R.

    1982-01-01

    Advance MV generation clones from hydrazine-sulphate-treated 'O.T' cultures have been field evaluated and 12 cultures have been selected for yield trials. One culture, DN-31-3, has been found to be day-neutral in its tuberization behaviour. Four JL/RA clones have been selected after a large-scale field trial. These clones are the selections from gamma-irradiated self seeds of Kufri Lauvkar (A-7416) and hybrid A-2235. Similarly 15 MV 3 clones have been selected from the populations raised from EMS- and DES-treated self seeds of A-2235. Day-neutral mutants have been selected from the fourth to seventh sprouts taken from EMS-treated tuber halves of Kufri Jyoti. From the sixth sprout harvest from EMS-treated Kufri Jyoti halves, one mutant, BCN-6-2, has been isolated which showed less than 30 cysts of G. rostochiensis in the MV 2 generation. This clone has been multiplied and made disease-free through apical meristem culture. Through the use of a new medium, PM-32, the plating efficiency of mechanically isolated single callus cells of dihaploid PH-258 is 30-35%. Nitsch's medium has been modified to formulate a new medium for direct embryogenesis in single callus cells of Phulwa. All stages up to the globular stage could be observed after five to six weeks of culture. Efforts were continued for the enzymatic isolation of single-leaf mesophyll cells from dihaploid PH-258. A new cell separation medium has been formulated which gives 80% viable cells. The LD 50 and LD 100 doses of EMS for the single callus cells of dihaploid PH-255 were found to be 500 ppm and 1000 ppm respectively. (author)

  18. Technological quality and utilization of potato tubers Qualidade tecnológica e utilização de tubérculos de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Feltran

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns have been verified with regard to the quality factor of potato tubers and their correct form of use and consumption. The purpose of this research was to determine the technological quality of potato tuber cultivars and identify the best forms of use and consumption. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted with 18 treatments represented by cultivars Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana, and Solide, with four replications. Specific gravity showed a positive correlation with starch content, texture, pulp pH, and soluble solids, and was negatively correlated with reducing sugars. The technological characteristics represented by specific gravity, dry matter content, texture, starch content, reducing sugars, pulp pH, titrable acidity, and soluble solids are influenced by genotype or cultivar. Cultivars Oscar, Itararé, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Clone IAC-6090, Aracy, Solide, Asterix, Santana, and Laguna were outstanding with best characteristics for frying, mashing and roasting. Mondial, Picasso, Novita, Dali, and Agata are appropriate for boiling, and more specifically for salads. In turn, potato cultivars Apuã, Remarka, Bintje, and Liseta are suitable for mashing and for roasting.Atualmente tem ocorrido crescente preocupação com o fator qualidade da batata e a forma correta de utilização para o consumo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade tecnológica dos tubérculos de cultivares de batata, visando identificar a melhor forma de utilização e consumo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 18 tratamentos, representados pelos cultivares Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana e Solide, com quatro

  19. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.

    1962-01-01

    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  20. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  1. Levels of Intra-specific AFLP Diversity in Tuber-Bearing Potato Species with Different Breeding Systems and Ploidy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn J. Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based marker analysis of plant genebank material has become a useful tool in the evaluation of levels of genetic diversity and for the informed use and maintenance of germplasm. In this study, we quantify levels of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP in representative accessions of wild and cultivated potato species of differing geographic origin, ploidy, and breeding system. We generated 449 polymorphic AFLP fragments in 619 plants, representing multiple plants (16–23 from 17 accessions of 14 potato taxa as well as single plants sampled from available accessions (from 3 to 56 of the same 14 taxa. Intra-accession diversities were compared to those of a synthetic ‘taxon-wide’ population comprising a single individual from a variable number of available accessions of each sampled taxon. Results confirm the expected considerably lower levels of polymorphism within accessions of self-compatible as compared to self-incompatible taxa. We observed broadly similar levels of ‘taxon-wide’ polymorphism among self-compatible and self-incompatible species, with self-compatible taxa showing only slightly lower rates of polymorphism. The most diverse accessions were the two cultivated potato accessions examined, the least diverse being the Mexican allohexaploids Solanum demissum and S. iopetalum. Generally allopolyploid self-compatible accessions exhibited lower levels of diversity. Some purported self-incompatible accessions showed relatively low levels of marker diversity, similar to the more diverse self-compatible material surveyed. Our data indicate that for self-compatible species a single plant is highly representative of a genebank accession. The situation for self-incompatible taxa is less clear, and sampling strategies used will depend on the type of investigation. These results have important implications for those seeking novel trait variation (e.g., disease resistance in gene banks as well as for the selection of individuals

  2. Alteration of cell wall polysaccharides through transgenic expression of UDP-Glc 4-epimerase-encoding genes in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Hong; Kortstee, Anne; Dees, Dianka C T; Trindade, Luisa M; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-01

    Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. Cell wall materials from the cv. Kardal (wild-type, background) and two UGE transgenic lines (UGE 45-1 and UGE 51-16) were isolated and fractionated. The galactose (Gal) content (mg/100g tuber) from UGE 45-1 transgenic line was 38% higher than that of wild-type, and resulted in longer pectin side chains. The Gal content present in UGE 51-16 was 17% lower than that of wild-type, although most pectin populations maintained the same level of Gal. Both UGE transgenic lines showed unexpectedly a decrease in acetylation and an increase in methyl-esterification of pectin. Both UGE transgenic lines showed similar proportions of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I within pectin backbone as the wild-type, except for the calcium-bound pectin fraction exhibiting relatively less rhamnogalacturonan I. Next to pectin modification, xyloglucan populations from both transgenic lines were altered resulting in different XSGG and XXGG proportion in comparison to wild-type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  4. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  5. Validation of a tuber blight (Phytophthora infestans) prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...

  6. The effect of urea with urease inhibitors and urea on yield and nitrate content in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Drápal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-year field trial was established on two localities – Žabčice and Valečov in 2010–2012. Seven variants of nitrogen fertilization in four replications have been involved in this experiment – 100% of urea (U, 80% of urea, 60% of urea, 100% of UreaStabil (US, 80% of UreaStabil and 60% of UreaStabil, whilst 100% corresponded to 90 kg N.ha−1 after subtracting the content of Nmin in the soil, and the control variant without fertilization by mineral nitrogen. The two varieties with different lengths of vegetation periods have been chosen for the experiment – the early variety Karin and the mid-early variety Red Anna. In all cases, samples for the yield and qualitative analyses have been taken according to the phenological phase – the beginning of physiological maturity. The obtained results show that the highest average yield has been achieved in the variant of 100% of urea – 40.95 t. ha−1, the yield of this variant was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the other variants of fertilization (P < 0.05. Variants treated by urea without the urease inhibitor reached an average yield of 37.62 t.ha−1. However, this yield was not statistically significantly higher when comparing to the urea with the urease inhibitor (P > 0.05. In regard to localities, a relatively high average yield (44.58 t.ha−1 has been achieved on a characteristically potato-growing locality Valečov. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the one attained on the Žabčice locality (P < 0.05. In respect to varieties, the mid-early variety Red Anna attained a higher average yield (39.65 t. ha−1. Likewise, this yield was statistically significantly higher than the one of the early variety Karin (P < 0.05. The best year was 2012, in which the average yield of 38.73 t.ha−1 was achieved. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the year 2010 (P < 0.05. As far as nitrates are concerned, the

  7. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  8. Potato carbohydrates: what’s in the middle counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is one of the world’s most important foods. Accumulation of starch in potato tubers depends on photosynthesis. Maintenance of 100% light capture per unit land area during the target growing season maximizes yields. Warm temperatures increase shoot and tuber respiration rates and depress tuber...

  9. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  10. Tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tuberous sclerosis has been described with a diagnostic triad, it is not present consistently in all cases. Variety of skin manifestations were reported in tuberous sclerosis. This studay was undertaken to assess the frequency of various skin changes in tuberous sclerosis. Ten consecutive cases of tuberous sclerosis were studied. Angiofibroma was the commonest cutaneous manifestation. Atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibroma and neurofibroma were also noticed as interesting associations.

  11. Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Schafleitner, Roland; Guignard, Cédric; Oufir, Mouhssin; Aliaga, Carlos Alberto Alvarado; Nomberto, Giannina; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2009-01-28

    The effects of drought stress on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in potato tubers were investigated using a selection of five native Andean cultivars. Both freshly harvested and 4 month-stored tubers were analyzed. Responses to drought stress were highly cultivar-specific. The antioxidant contents of the yellow tuber-bearing cultivars (Sipancachi and SS-2613) were weakly affected by the drought treatment, whereas the pigmented cultivars demonstrated highly cultivar-dependent variations. A drastic reduction of anthocyanins and other polyphenols was revealed in the red- (Sullu) and purple-fleshed (Guincho Negra) cultivars, whereas an increase was shown in the purple-skinned and yellow-fleshed cultivar (Huata Colorada). The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and H-oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays) was highly correlated with the polyphenol content and followed, therefore, the same behavior upon drought. Carotenoid contents, including beta-carotene, as well as vitamin E, tended to increase or remain stable following drought exposure, except for the cultivar Sullu, in which the level of these lipophilic antioxidants was decreased. Vitamin C contents were not affected by drought with the exception of Guincho Negra, in which the level was increased. These variations of health-promoting compounds were associated with increased or stable levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Storage at 10 degrees C for 4 months tended to decrease the concentrations of all dietary antioxidants, except those of vitamin E. This storage also reduced the drought-induced variations observed in freshly harvested tubers. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for human diet and health as well as in plant stress defense mechanisms.

  12. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas Expression of tuber traits as a function of pot size used to grow potato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.In potato breeding, the exclusion of inferior genotypes by selection in early generations provides more versatility and cost reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pot size on the expression of tuber traits in potato families grown as seedling generation. Ten potato families were planted in two pot sizes, large (1 L and small (250 ml, in the greenhouse. The following tuber traits were evaluated: color, roughness, depth of eye, eyebrow, shape, uniformity of shape, pointing, curvature, flattening, tuber general appearance, total mass per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers. The larger pot provided greater expression of genetic variation for the depth of eye, eyebrow, curvature

  13. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  14. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rotting potato tuber tissue showing antagonism to Dickeya sp. biovar 3 in vitro and in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities for biocontrol of biovar 3 Dickeya sp. in potato were investigated, using bacteria from rotting potato tissue isolated by dilution plating on nonselective agar media. In a plate assay, 649 isolates were screened for antibiosis against Dickeya sp. IPO2222 and for the production of

  15. Influence of altitude and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on tuber production, seed viability, leaf pigments and morphology in the wild potato species Solanum kurtzianum Bitter & Wittm collected from an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, V N; Berli, F J; Masuelli, R W; Bottini, R A; Marfil, C F

    2017-08-01

    Climate change could lead to an upward shift in plant distribution, exposing populations to higher levels of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. In the framework of an in situ strategy for conserving potato wild relatives, we evaluated the effect of high UV-B levels on natural population of Solanum kurtzianum. The hypothesis is that plants from naturally higher altitudes are more adapted to increased UV-B radiation. Two populations from low and high altitudes were field supplemented using UV-B-lamps (+UV-B) or excluded from it with plastic filters. Additionally, to assess in which extent the plant responses to these artificial experimental conditions are reproducible in natural conditions, three genotypes were cultivated in two mountain experimental gardens (EG) at different elevations. +UV-B treatment induced changes in leaf morphology and increases in phenolic compounds in both populations, indicating plant adaptation, since chlorophylls and reproductive structures were not negatively affected. These results indicate that this environmental factor may not limit the displacement of populations towards sites with higher UV-B levels. Meanwhile, in higher-altitude EG a tubers yield reduction, mainly through a decreased tuber number and a bigger accumulation of phenolic compounds than in +UV-B treatment were observed, suggesting that UV-B is not the only factor involved in plants adaptation to high altitude environments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Variação da composição química em cultivares de batata durante seu desenvolvimento Variation in the chemical composition of potato tubers of three cultivars during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho a dinâmica de acúmulo de substâncias de reserva e glicoalcalóides totais, durante o desenvolvimento de tubérculos de três cultivares de batata - Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-3551 e Teberê (IAC-4489 - criados e selecionados pela Seção de Raízes e Tubérculos do Instituto Agronômico, no ano agrícola 1982/83, em plantio "das águas" (novembro-janeiro. Os resultados obtidos são referentes às amostragens realizadas aos 64, 79 e 111 dias após o plantio (DAP, e mostraram que o cultivar Aracy acumulou maior quantidade de matéria seca, proteínas, cinzas, polissacarídeos totais e açúcares solúveis por tubérculo.In the rain season of 1982-1983 (November-January, it was studied the dynamics of accumulation of reserve substances and total glycoalkaloids in growing tubers of the Brazilian potato cultivars Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-355 1 and Teberê (IAC-4489. Data are related to three sampling dates, 64, 79 and 111 days after planting (DAP. Tubers of Aracy (IAC-2 had the highest dry matter, protein, ash, total polisacharides and soluble e sugar contenta.

  17. Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...

  18. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  19. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Filocrono em batateira afetado pelo tamanho do tubérculo-semente e pela época de cultivo Phyllocrono in potato affected by tuber-seed size and growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono de plantas de batata da cultivar Asterix oriundas de diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos-semente, em duas épocas de cultivo em campo utilizando o conceito de graus-dia para o cálculo do filocrono. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Santa Maria (RS, na primavera de 2003 e no outono de 2004. Foram usados quatro tamanhos de tubérculos-semente da cultivar de batata Asterix: entre 2 e 4 cm, 4 e 6 cm, 6 e 8 cm e 8 e 10 cm. O filocrono (ºC dia folha-1 foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da relação entre número de folhas na haste principal e a soma térmica calculada por três métodos: método 1 - considera apenas a temperatura base; método 2 - considera a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, e método 3 - considera a temperatura base, a temperatura ótima e a temperatura máxima. O tamanho do tubérculo-semente não afetou o filocrono, mas o método de cálculo da soma térmica e a época de cultivo afetaram o filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix. No método de cálculo da soma térmica a ser usado no filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix, recomenda-se usar a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, pois com este método, o filocrono foi similar entre as épocas de cultivo.The objective of this study was to estimate the phyllochron of the potato cultivar Asterix in plants derived from different tuber seed sizes in two field growing seasons using the concept of degrees-days for calculating the phyllochron. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, during Spring 2003 and Fall 2004. Four classes of tuber-seed diameter of the potato cultivar Asterix were used: 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-8 cm and 8-10 cm. The phyllochron was estimated as the inverse of the slope of the linear regression of main stem leaves number against the thermal time calculated with three methods: method 1 - considering only the base temperature, method 2 - considering the base temperature and the optimum

  1. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T; Platt, H W; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  2. Effect of synthetic and natural water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengtao; Zhang, Lei; McLaughlin, Neil B; Mi, Junzhen; Chen, Qin; Liu, Jinghui

    2016-02-01

    The effect of water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi-arid region in northern China in 2010-2012. Treatments included two synthetic water-absorbing amendments, potassium polyacrylate (PAA) and polyacrylamide (PAM), and one natural amendment, humic acid (HA), both as single amendments and compound amendments (HA combined with PAA or PAM), and a no amendment control. Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. They improved both dry biomass above ground and dry biomass underground in the whole growing season by 4.6-31.2 and 1.1-83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0-29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3-32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by 1.4-17.0, 5.1-45.9, 2.4-90.6 and 2.0-22.6% respectively and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration by 2.1-19.5% in all three years. Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always had the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among all amendment treatments and thus merits further research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations Child Neurology ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Definition Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) ...

  4. Tuber resistance and slow rotting characteristics of potato clones associated with the Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project to the US-24 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease on potato worldwide and new lineages of the pathogen continue to develop in the U.S. Breeding for resistance is important for economic and environmental purposes. The Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project (SolCAP) focuses ...

  5. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  6. Breeding and development of Globodera-resistant potato varieties with long tuber shape and russet skin for production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis, and G. pallida,) have been identified in the U.S. and are under quarantine regulations, with a third newly identified species (G. ellingtonae) not categorized as a quarantined pest. Management of G. rostochiensis in the state of New York...

  7. Testing properties of potato starch from different scales of isolations - A ringtest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Ahmt, T.; Bandsholm, O.

    2007-01-01

    and maceration of potato tubers followed by separation of starch and cell debris by sieving, filtration or sedimentation. The properties of the processed starch were analysed both in water-based systems of 10 mM NaCl as well as in a milk based food model, dutch vla. Analysis of chemical and physical properties...... included content of phosphate, protein, ash and dry weight, pH and amylopectin chain length distribution. Other analysis included starch granule size distribution, melting properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheological properties by small deformation testing, gel pasting characteristics...... by a rapid visco analyser (RVA) and freeze/thaw stability and retrogradation characteristics analysed by pulse-NMR. Various theological flow properties were included in the analysis of the starch samples in the food model. Only the sample of starch isolated in distilled water showed significant difference...

  8. O uso de substâncias inibidoras da brotação de tubérculos de batatinha Use op sprouting inhibiting substances on potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de tubérculos de batatinha para o consumo vem preocupando os pesquisadores em diferentes países, por se tratar de um produto fácilmente perecível. Além dos trabalhos sôbre frigorificação, já bem conhecidos, iniciou-se o emprêgo de substâncias químicas inibidoras da brotação e que impedem as podridões causadas por Fusarium. Dentre essas drogas sobressairam-se o éster metílico do ácido alfanaftaleno acético e o tetracloronitrobenzeno. Os resultados alcançados, embora contraditórios em alguns pontos, vieram demonstrar a viabilidade do seu uso, principalmente em países onde o inverno é rigoroso. Das experiências e observações feitas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas a partir de 1946, chegou-se à conclusão que as referidas drogas somente trouxeram bons resultados quando os tubérculos tratados foram conservados a baixa temperatura (4°C. Por outro lado, as batatinhas armazenadas a essa temperatura tornaram-se adocicadas e de má aceitação pelos consumidores, devido à formação de açúcares. Mantendo-se as temperaturas entre 18 e 26°C não houve, na maioria dos casos, influência nítida das drogas sôbre a redução da brotação, constatando--se, ao contrário, um aumento na porcentagem de tubérculos deteriorados devido à podridão mole causada por bactérias.Storage of Irish potato tubers under 3 to 5° C, with air moisture remaining between 70 and 90%, affords good results in preventing sprouting of the tubers. As this treatment enables sugar formation in the tubers, the latter should not be used for consumption due to their unpalatability. At temperatures above 8°C sprouting occurs with loss of weight and other disadvantages. In the experiments herein reported two hormonlike substances were used to prevent sprouting under different temperatures. The chemical used were the methyl ester of alphanaphtaleneacetic acid (MENA and 2, 3, 5, 6 tetrachloronitrobenzene (TCNB mixed with talc. Under room

  9. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  10. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  11. Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed ... Bacterial wilt is, after late blight, the most important ... with respect to tuber-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and those ... The potato crop was preceded by maize. Bacterial wilt ...

  12. Utilization of radiations in mutation breeding of tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the tuber crops are vegetatively propagated and their spontaneous mutations have been constructively utilized to practical farming. Significance of utilization of mutations to breeding should not be overlooked, since mutation can be articially induced by various mutagenic agents. In tuber crops, ionizing radiations are mostly applied to induce mutations. Radiosensitivity varies with species, genotypes and organs. For the purpose of mutation induction, 10-20 kR of gamma-rays is given to tubers and/or shoots in sweet potato and 2-10 kR in potato. It should be noted that radiation damage is more or less transmissible to later vegetative generations. A useful characters in practical agriculture, following mutations have been obtained so far: skin colour, short stemmed, changes in dry matter content, total sugars content and tuber yield, earlier maturity and sculf resistance in sweet potato. And, skin colour, changes in starch content and stolon length, day-neutral tuberization and cyst-nematode resistance in potato. Apart from mutations, radiation can be utilized for breaking down the incompatibility in sweet potato. Promising mutant clones with probable release in Japan are Kyushu 78 of sweet potato and Koniku 16 and Konkei 55 of potato. (author)

  13. Potato spindle tuber viroid infection triggers degradation of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like and Ribosomal protein S3a-like mRNAs in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Iyer, Pavithran Sridharan; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-21

    It is well established that viroid derived small RNA (vd-sRNA) induces RNA silencing of endogenous mRNA. However, it remains not clear how exactly viroid infections can lead to severe symptom induction given the fact that fewer vd-sRNAs binding the specific target mRNAs were recovered from the infected plants. To answer this question, the two least expressed (+) and (-) strand vd-sRNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) binding to both the 3' UTR and the coding region of tomato mRNAs were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. As products of these putative target mRNAs are involved in plant phenotype, the effect of this viroid on these genes were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. The direct interaction between the vd-sRNAs and putative mRNAs was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Parallel analysis of RNA ends of viroid infected plants revealed the widespread cleavage of the target mRNAs in locations other than the vd-sRNA binding site during the viroid infection implying the viroid-infection induced vd-sRNA independent degradation of endogenous mRNAs during viroid infection.

  14. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  15. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  16. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.R.; White, A.; Deegan, M.D.

    1986-02-01

    Individual macerals separated from some United Kingdom coals of Carboniferous age and bituminous rank were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In each case a specific morphology characteristic of the macerals studied could be recognized. Collinite (a member of the vitrinite maceral group) was recognizable in all samples by its angular shape and characteristic fracture patterns, the particles (30-200 ..mu..m) frequently showing striated or laminated surface. Sporinite particles had no well defined shape and were associated with more detrital material than were the other macerals studied. This detritus was shown by conventional light microscopy to be the maceral micrinite. Fusinite was remarkable in having a chunky needle form, with lengths of up to 200 ..mu..m. 8 references.

  19. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  20. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  1. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  2. Control of starch content in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, A.V.; Filippova, G.I.; Gaitova, N.A.; Kutovenko, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes and connections defining the starch accumulation in potato tubers are showed. Using the radioisotope C14O2 are analysed data on carbohydrates accumulation in leaves, speed of their movement in tubers, synthetic and decomposing enzyme activities in plant organs, the content of starch in tubers depending on the combination of fertilizers. The necessity for dose phosphorus application level not lower than nitrogen is reasoned. Recommendations on the optimal combination of macrofertilizers, ensuring compromise between yield and tuber starchiness for sod-podzoil sandy-loam and loamy, grey forest, peat, chernozem soils in dry-farming and irrigation are given [ru

  3. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1993-01-01

    The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)

  4. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  5. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  6. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  7. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  8. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BADO, Souleymane

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... In addition to high starch levels, potato tubers contain significant ... 2000; Li et al., 2005) modified histological and texture properties (Nayak et al., ..... transported or shipped over long distances and stored for over 6 months.

  9. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon,

  10. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  11. Seleção para duração do ciclo vegetativo em batata e relação com a produtividade de tubérculos Selection for vegetative growth period and its relationship to tuber yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel B Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de batata no Brasil geralmente apresentam ciclo vegetativo de 90 a 110 dias, sendo bem mais longo em países de clima temperado, podendo chegar até 150 dias. O ciclo vegetativo longo nestes países proporciona maior produtividade e constitui-se em alternativa para aumento da produção de tubérculos sob condições tropicais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o potencial da seleção para aumentar ou diminuir o ciclo vegetativo da batata e verificar a relação entre a duração do ciclo vegetativo e a produção de tubérculos em condições tropicais. Na primeira geração clonal foram avaliados a produção de tubérculos e o ciclo vegetativo de 1.561 genótipos oriundos de 22 famílias clonais. Na segunda geração clonal foram avaliadas as mesmas características em 320 genótipos selecionados para ciclo vegetativo precoce, intermediário e tardio. A seleção nas gerações iniciais foi eficiente, tanto para diminuir permitiu obter maior ganho do que a seleção entre famílias. Os genótipos mais tardios foram mais produtivos que os mais precoces.Potato cultivars in Brazil generally present a growth cycle duration ranging from 90 to 110 days, whereas in countries located in temperate climate it can reach up to 150 days. Longer vegetative growth cycle in these countries confer higher tuber yield and, in tropical countries it also could be an alternative to increase tuber yield. In this work we evaluated the selection potential for longer or shorter growth cycle duration of potato clones and we determined the relationship between growth cycle duration and tuber yield. In the first clonal generation tuber yield and growth cycle duration were evaluated on 1561 genotypes derived from 22 clonal families. In the second clonal generation, the same traits were evaluated on 320 genotypes selected for earliness, intermediate and late vegetative cycle. Selection in the initial generations was efficient both to decrease and to

  12. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  13. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    seven test compounds were chosen from different chemical classes such ... The test chemicals were diluted in paraffin ..... Jansens S, Cornelissen R, de Clercq R, Reynaerts A and ... Park K C, Zhu J, Harris J, Ocheing S A and Baker T C 2001.

  14. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  15. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  16. Effects of heat stress on the endogenous contents of hormones and related gene expression in developing axillary tubes of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are a cool season crop and optimum tuber initiation, development, yield, and quality require growing temperatures between 15 -20°C. At temperatures above 30°C, tuber initiation is delayed or prevented and developing tubers exhibit decreased starch content, increased malformation, chain-tube...

  17. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zayat, M.M.; Farahat, A.A.; Saad, N.H.; Shaarawy, N.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  18. Qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente tratados com paraquat e o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduo do herbicida Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Pereira

    1995-01-01

    concentração do produto aumenta. A metodologia simplificada desenvolvida permitiu detectar resíduos de paraquat ao nível de 0,06 ppm, indicando uma excelente aproximação, pois, o limite de tolerância do paraquat em tubérculos de batata é de 0,2 ppm, normalmente, determinado pelo método analítico completo, que apresenta limites de detecção em torno de 0,01 ppm e recuperação acima de 70%. Uma avaliação qualitativa da concentração residual de produto nas amostras foi possível através de leitura e comparações visuais entre os diferentes graus de cores desenvolvidas nas soluções visuais entre os diferentes graus de cores desenvolvidas nas soluções padrão e a cor desenvolvida na amostra, não necessitando, portanto, das leituras colorimétricas, podendo ser feita inclusive no campo. Observou-se que a maioria do paraquat permaneceu na região de casca até o período de 4 semanas após a aplicação do paraquat.Seed potatoes tubers (Solanum tuberosum of two cultivars (Achat and Baronesa were treated with paraquat solutions to evalute the internal tuber quality and to detect its residue by a simplified methodology. Two experiments were carried out at the National Research Center on Vegetables, Brasília, DF. In experiment one some tubers were immersed in 0 and 200 ppm of paraquat solutions and others were injected with 0,5 ml of 0 and 200 ppm solutions of the herbicide. Twelve tubers were used as plot in a complete randomized design with 8 replications. The internal tuber quality was evaluated after breaking dormancy and sprouting of ten tubers. Also, two tubers were sampled and put in 5 liter pots and grown under greenhouse conditions to observe if the herbicide would affect the growth of the new plant generation. The immersion treatments did not cause any internal damage to the tubers nor did they affect the new plant generation; however, tubers injected with paraquat were severely damaged (carbonization. Also, the next plant generation was affected

  19. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC1 population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum 1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum 2 × S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of α-solanine and α-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA...... and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for α-solanine and α-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were...

  20. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  1. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  2. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  3. Factors influencing gene silencing of granule-bound starch synthase in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilersig, H.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, antisense RNA technology was used to modify the composition of potato tuber starch. Potato starch comprises amylose and amylopectin, polymers of glucose. Amylose production in potato is completely dependent on the presence of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI). Inhibition of GBSSI

  4. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  5. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  6. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  7. Diversity and evolution of potato mop-top virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuch, Ulrike; Beuch, Sofia; Åkerblom, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Nearly complete sequences of RNA-CP and 3′-proximal RNA-TGB were determined for 43 samples of potato mop-top virus (PMTV) originating from potato tubers and field soil from Sweden, Denmark and the USA. The results showed limited diversity and no strict geographical grouping, suggesting only a few...

  8. Applicability of impedance measuring method to the detection of irradiation treatment of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Otobe, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Junnichi

    1993-01-01

    The incubation condition of potato tubers prior to impedance measurement greatly influenced the reliability of detection of irradiated potatoes; the impedance ratio at 5 kHz to 50 kHz (Z 5k /Z 50k ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radiation treatment of potatoes. The impedance ratio was dependent upon dose applied to potato tubers. Potatoes irradiated at 100 Gy could be distinguished from unirradiated potatoes for 10 cultivars of potatoes. The impedance ratio of potatoes irradiated at the same dose was little influenced by the planting locality if the cultivar was the same, although the ratio varied with potato cultivars. These results indicate that irradiated potatoes can be detected if the potato cultivar is known. Potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at the Shihiro Potato Irradiation Center could be differentiated from unirradiated 'Danshaku' at different planting localities; the impedance ratio was lower than 2.75 for the unirradiated potatoes and higher than 2.75 for the irradiated ones. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds; Efecto del parenquina irradiado sobre el desarrollo de las yemas de tuberculos de patata tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  11. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  12. Quantification of maceration changes using post mortem MRI in fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, P.; Addison, S.; Oliveira, V.; Lally, P. J.; Taylor, A. M.; Sebire, N. J.; Thayyil, S.; Arthurs, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens Avanto MR scanner (Erlangen, Germany). PMMR images were reported blinded to the clinical history and autopsy data using a numerical severity scale (0 = no maceration changes to 2 = severe maceration changes) for 6 different visceral organs (total 12). The degree of maceration at autopsy was categorized according to severity on a numerical scale (1 = no maceration to 4 = severe maceration). We also generated quantitative maps to measure the liver and lung T 2 . The mean PMMR maceration score correlated well with the autopsy maceration score (R 2 = 0.93). A PMMR score of ≥4.5 had a sensitivity of 91 %, specificity of 64 %, for detecting moderate or severe maceration at autopsy. Liver and lung T 2 were increased in fetuses with maceration scores of 3–4 in comparison to those with 1–2 (liver p = 0.03, lung p = 0.02). There was a good correlation between PMMR maceration score and the extent of maceration seen at conventional autopsy. This score may be useful in interpretation of fetal PMMR

  13. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  14. Efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven bacterial isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L. root-nodules were screened for their antagonistic activity against eight Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Two bacterial strains (designated as Kl.Fb14 and S8.Fb11 gave 50% in vitro inhibition of R. solani mycelial growth. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain Kl.Fb14 exhibited 99.5% identity with Pseudomonas moraviensis, and that S8.Fb11 exhibited 99.8% identity with Pseudomonas reinekei. Greenhouse trials in soil showed that strain S8.Fb11 reduced the percentage of sclerotia on potato tubers and amounts of tuber infection for the potato cultivars Spunta and Nicola. In a field trial conducted in South Tunisia, infection with R. solani reduced potato yield by approximately 40% for ‘Spunta’ and 17% for ‘Nicola’; about 20% of the total tuber production was severely infected. However, when potato tubers were treated with strain S8.Fb11 prior to sowing, disease incidence was reduced to 6% of total production with low infection levels; potato yield was enhanced by about 6 kg per 10 m row in comparison to R. solani infected plants. The second selected Pseudomonas sp. (strain Kl.Fb14 did not affect either the levels of sclerotia on tubers or potato yield.

  15. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  16. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  17. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  18. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  19. Transport of calcium in stolones of potato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.; Marschner, H.

    1974-01-01

    In hydroculture tests with potato plants, the 45 Ca displacement into the stolons depending on the growth rate and the degree of supply of Ca of the tuber as well as on the relative air humidity in the region of stolons and tubers was investigated. 45 Ca was either applied via the roots or via the stolon surface. With the 45 Ca supply via the root, only a small 45 Ca displacement into the stolon or tuber takes place if the stolon tip or the tubers were additionally supplied exagenously with Ca (CaSO 4 solution) or if the relative humidity of the air in the region of the stolons or tubers was high. At high relative air humidity around the tubers, there was no 'sink' effect of the tuber on the 45 Ca displacement in the stolon even if the Ca supply of the tuber was bad. 45 Ca applied via the stolon surface at high relative air humidity in the stolon region was practically exclusively displaced to the direction of the sprout. At low air humidity in the region of the stolen and tuber, on the other hand, the 45 Ca was well displaced into the stolon in the direction of the sprout or tuber after application via the root as well as via the stolon. (GSE/LH) [de

  20. Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Substancias con actividad citoquinínica estimulan la brotación de yemas en tubérculos de papa Substâncias com atividade citocinínica estimulam a brotação de gemas em tubérculos de batata Cytokinin-like substences activity promotes shoot sprouting in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Flórez

    2009-09-01

    ção coordenada de vários fitorreguladores. A presença de citocininas em S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia e em S. tuberosum L. variedades ICA-Única e Tuquerreña foi determinada em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento do tubérculo: 00 - tubérculo em estádio de dormência; 03 - tubérculo no final da dormência e brotos com 2 a 3 mm de comprimento; e 40 - início da tuberização, espessamento das extremidades dos estolões ao dobro do diâmetro inicial. As citocininas foram extraídas por cromatografia de camada delgada e sua detecção e quantificação observadas por meio do bioensaio da massa cotiledonar de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. Na espécie precoce S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia a presença de citocininas foi detectada em quantidades significativas nos estádios 00 e 03. Por outro lado, nas variedades de S. tuberosum L. as citocininas foram significativamente maiores no estádio 03 para 'ICA-Única' (variedade precoce, e a sua presença não foi detectada na var. Tuquerreña (variedade tardia. Demonstrou-se a relação direta entre a concentração de citocininas e a precocidade das variedades analisadas durante a tuberização: as citocininas estiveram presentes nas variedades precoces e ausentes na tardia.Before sprouting, potato tubers pass through a period of dormancy which has an specific time for each variety. When the conditions are suitable for tuberset, stolon elongation stops and swelling starts between two last nodes of each stolon. Many factors are involved in this process, but an important and coordinated action between hormones is proposed. Cytokinins levels in both S. tuberosum L. varieties ICA-Única and Tuquerreña and S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia were quantified during different stages of tuber development: 00 - potato tuber in stage of dormancy; 03 - tubers in break dormancy with buds between 2 to 3 mm of length; and 40 - initiation of tuber formation; swelling and duplicating initial diameter

  2. The synergistic effect between coal macerals during hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [CAS, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-01-15

    Using TGA technology, the volatile matter yields during hydropyrolysis of Chinese Shenmu coal and its derived high purity macerals under different heating rates and pressures were investigated. The {Delta}W, calculated by the difference between the volatile matter yield of parent coal and that of macerals, is used to evaluate the synergistic effect of macerals during hydropyrolysis. The results showed that with increasing pressure and decreasing heating rate, the Delta W increases. At temperature of 500{sup o}C and pressure of 3 MPa, the difference of volatile matter yield between parent coal and vitrinite reaches the maximum and the {Delta} W also occurs the highest value of 14.1%, suggesting the existence of the synergistic effect between macerals during hydropyrolysis. Based on the structural characteristics of macerals and the basic knowledge of hydropyrolysis, the possible explanation for the synergism are proposed.

  3. Improvement of root and tuber crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme is to breed cultivars which are more productive, more resistant to diseases and pests and which have better quality. Two Research Co-ordination Meetings in this programme were convened. They reviewed in detail the status and breeding research needs of the major root and tuber crops and other vegetatively propagated corps, viz. cassava, yam, sweet potato, potato and sugar cane. The participants presented their research achievements and difficulties, exchanged information, co-ordinated their future research and made recommendations

  4. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  5. Bioactive Potential of Andean Fruits, Seeds, and Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Chirinos, Rosana; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Pedreschi, Romina

    2018-01-01

    The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess. In this chapter, main Andean fruits, seeds, and roots and tubers have been selected and detailed nutritional and functional information is provided. In addition, traditional and current uses are provided and their bioactive potential is reported based on published scientific literature. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tuberous Sclerosis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starting. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic. How common is ... skin Tubers, or thickened areas, found in the brain Nodules (round growths) found in the brain Subependymal ...

  7. Heritability for Yield and Glycoalkaloid Content in Potato Breeding under Warm Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Manuel A. Gastelo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures affect potato production in the tropics, putting tuber yield and quality at risk and leading to increased glycoalkaloid concentration the cause of the bitter taste in potatoes and a cause for concern for human health. The International Potato Center (CIP, has developed new heat tolerant clones which are heat tolerant and also resistant to late blight. These clones offer an opportunity to evaluate yield and glycoalkaloid levels after growth under high temperature environments. We evaluated four sets of 16 full-sib families and 20 clones for tuber yield and glycoalkaloid content in order to estimate narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability respectively. We used a randomized complete block design replicated in three locations in Peru; San Ramon, La Molina and Majes At harvest, the number and weight of marketable and nonmarketable tubers were recorded. We analyzed samples of tubers from each clone for glycoalkaloid content using spectrophotometry. Narrow-sense heritability for tuber yield, tuber number and average tuber weight were 0.41, 0.50 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that further gains in breeding for heat tolerance will be possible. Broadsense heritability for glycoalkaloid content was 0.63 and correlation with tuber yield was weak, r=0.33 and R²=0.11 (P<0.01. High heritability and weak correlation will allow us to select clones with high tuber yield and low glycoalkaloid content, to serve as candidate varieties and parents in breeding programs.

  8. Effect of Transplanting Dates and Spacing on Yield Attributing Character, Productivity and Economics of Potato Cultivation Through True Potato Seed (TPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in split plot design was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Potato Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Anandapur,West Midnapore,West Bengal to study the effect of dates of transplanting and spacing on yield attributing character, productivity and economics of potato cultivation through true potato seed (TPS technology. The highest number of tubers per plant was recorded in early transplanted (December 3 crop, while, crop spacing did not produce any significant differences in recording tuber number per plant. Early established crop also produced significantly higher tuber weight per plant as compared to intermediate (December 11 and late (December 19 transplanted crops and widely spaced (60 x 15 cm crop recorded higher weight of tuber per plant as compared to the narrowly spaced crop. Early transplanting and wider spacing also showed its superiority in respect of recording harvest index of potato. As such, early transplanted and densely planted crops produced significantly higher yield of seedling tuber, marketable tuber and total tuber than their counterparts. Though cost of production of early transplanted and closely spaced crop was higher, but net profit and return per rupee investment was also higher in those cases.

  9. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Introducing potato cultivars with high yield, early maturing and desirable quality have a key role in food security, decreasing the fluctuation of the price and the store costs and also providing fresh crops throughout the year. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plant is one of leading agricultural products in the world with 365 million ton glands in year stands in fourth place after wheat, rice and corn. The main objective of the breeding program is yield. Increase in plant yield in the past due to the gradual elimination of defects visible by experts and today the new criteria for selection are based on principles of morphological and functional characteristics associated with the plant. Variety is one of the effective factors on plant growth and development on potato that yields components of potato is heavily dependent on it. Yield increasing in each variety affect the genetic and natural structure of variety. Nine clones of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec from sources in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the commercially grown clone, clone 1, which was imported from Vancouver, were multiplied from pathogen-tested seed and compared in 3 Victorian potato districts during 2 seasons. The results showed that differences exist in total and size grade yield and tuber number and appearance between clones of a cultivar. They further highlight the importance of selection work to maintain desirable characteristics of established cultivars and to remove mutants with undesirable characteristics. The results of the study, Hassanpanah and Hassanabadi (2012 showed that the clones 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100 and Savalan (check produced higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, main stem number per plant, tuber size average and stable tuber yield. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry in comparison

  10. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  11. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  12. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.

    This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato

  13. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to detect and quantify chlorophyll (Chl) and total glycoalkaloid concentrations (TGA) in potatoes. To create a set of tubers with different concentrations of Chl and TGA, potatoes of four varieties were wounded...

  14. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  15. Potentials for the production of industrial basic material from native tuber crops and perspectives for their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, S.; Dambroth, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper the potentials of native tuber crops for the production of raw material for the industry are discussed and the first results presented. The following points are especially important: Based on their high yield potential the potato and the Jerusalem artichoke are especially valuable as industrial crops. First breeding results with potato show that improvements in tuber yield, which are necessary for a better competitive ability are possible. To what extent hybrids between our cultivated potato and different primitive forms can be used as industrial potatoes has to be tested. In order to reduce production input the resistance against nematodes and lade blight is most important for the production of basic populations of potatoes for industrial purposes. The succes of breeding Jerusalem artichoke depends on solving the problems of bad seed set.

  16. Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) are chloride-sensitive: Is this dogma valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsch, Birgit W; Keipp, Katrin; Glaser, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K 2 SO 4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K 2 SO 4 or KCl). After exposure to salt stress in hydroponics (100 mmol L -1 NaCl, 50 mmol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 , 50 mmol L -1 CaCl 2 ) for 5 days, 3-week-old potato plants had significantly reduced shoot dry mass after NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 application. However, CaCl 2 treatment did not significantly affect shoot growth, although the chloride concentration reached 65 to 74 mg Cl - mg -1 dry matter, similar to the NaCl treatment. In contrast, growth reductions were closely related to sodium concentrations, thus plants suffered sodium toxicity and not chloride toxicity. Both potato cultivars are chloride-resistant and can be fertilised with KCl instead of K 2 SO 4 without the risk of depression in tuber yield or tuber quality. The statement that potatoes are chloride-sensitive and that chloride has negative effects on yield performance needs reconsideration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Fleisher, David; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States.......01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be improved using an ensemble approach....

  18. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  19. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.

  20. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs

  1. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  2. Assessment of recent outbreaks of Dickeya sp (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) slow wilt in potato crops in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsror, L.; Erlich, O.; Lebiush, S.; Hazanovsky, M.; Zig, U.; Slawiak, M.; Grabe, G.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Haar, van de J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Suspected Dickeya sp. strains were obtained from potato plants and tubers collected from commercial plots. The disease was observed on crops of various cultivars grown from seed tubers imported from the Netherlands during the spring seasons of 2004-2006, with disease incidence of 2-30% ( 10% in

  3. Mutation breeding techniques and behaviour of irradiated shoot apices of potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harten, A.M. van.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes part of the investigations being carried out at the Institute of Plant Breeding, Wageningen into mutation breeding in potato; in particular, efforts to produce a di(ha)ploid tester clone for reliable mutation frequency data are described, the formation of adventitious roots and shoots from potato leaves, leaflets and stem parts in vivo is studied, and damage and recovery of irradiated potato tuber eyes is investigated. (G.T.H.)

  4. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  7. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  8. Acrylamide in Japanese processed foods and factors affecting acrylamide level in potato chips and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Yada, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Mori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods sold in Japanese markets were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. Most potato chips and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentration higher than 1000 microg/kg. The concentrations in non-whole potato based Japanese snacks, including rice crackers and candied sweet potatoes, were less tha. 350 microg/kg. Those in instant precooked noodles were less than 100 microg/kg with only one exception. The effect of storage condition of potato tubers on acrylamide concentration in potato chips after frying was also investigated. Sugar content in the tubers increased during cold storage, and the acrylamide concentration increased accordingly. The concentrations of asparagine and other amino acids, however, did not change during the cold storage. High correlations were observed between the acrylamide content in the chips and glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. This fact indicated that the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in potato chips is reducing sugar, not asparagine content in the tubers. Effects of roasting time and temperature on acrylamide concentration in roasted green tea are also described.

  9. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  12. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  13. Looking ahead…how biotechnology may change potato storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been growing, harvesting, storing and characterizing tubers from transgenic potato plants for the past four years. The plants have low expression of the vacuolar invertase gene and were produced for research purposes by Jiming Jiang’s group at UW-Madison. We’ve analyzed sugars from over 2400...

  14. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N. Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N.; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60–80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17–20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95–105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300–3...

  15. Comparative storage studies of selected varieties of potatoes treated with CIPC and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Hossain, M.M.; Hossain, A.

    1990-01-01

    Three varieties of potatoes (Diamant, Kufri sinduri and Lal pakri) were treated with 8 Krad of gamma radiation and CIPC at the rate of 2 gm/kg of potatoes and were stored at 4 deg C, 15 deg. C and ambient temperature. The control, irradiated and CIPC treated potatoes at ambient temperature spoiled within 2 months of storage. Control potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost their market value due to sprouting and shrinkage after 6 months of storage. Irradiated potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost weight at a slower rate than CIPC treated samples stored at the same temperature and control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. All the potatoes in control samples sprouted within 3 months of storage at 15 deg. C whereas no sprouting was recorded in any variety of potatoes treated with radiation or CIPC and stored at 15 deg. C for 6 months. After 6 months of storage reducing sugar content was much lower in the irradiated or CIPC treated potatoes than the control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. The irradiated tubers stored at 15 deg. C and control tubers stored at 4 deg. C retained excellent physical appearance and market quality at the end of 6 months storage though irradiated potatoes were more attractive

  16. Influência da adubação e da fumigação do solo, na incidência de nematôides em tubérculos de batatinha Influence of fertilizers and soil fumigation on the nematode incidence of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1959-01-01

    had no influence on the nematode infestation of the potato tubers. Fumigation with ethilene dibromide, when applied in holes 20x20 cm apart eight or more days before planting, reduced the nematode infestation of the crop. In addition, there was a satisfactory increase in yield specially when the fumigant was applied twice a year to the same plots, that is, once for the dry season planting (March to August and another for the rainy season crop (September to February.

  17. Significance of tuber size for complications of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Hernández-Moneo, J L; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Viaño, J; Gutiérrez-Molina, M; Velazquez-Fragua, R; Quiñones Tapia, D; Morales Bastos, C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one of the most frequent neurocutaneous disorders. Cortical tubers are the most common pathological changes in TSC and they are directly related to the disease's main clinical manifestations: seizures, mental retardation, and autistic behaviour. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between tuber size and the severity of clinical features in TSC. We performed a retrospective study of the clinical and imaging findings from 45 TSC patients (22 females and 23 males) and compared the clinical features with the location, size, and number of the cortical tubers in each patient. Four patients had voluminous tubers located in 1 or both cerebral hemispheres. All of these patients had intractable seizures and severe mental retardation; 3 of these cases also presented with autistic behaviour, despite tubers having been resected in all 4 patients. Thirteen patients had tubers of large-to-average size, and all patients in this group showed intractable seizures and mental retardation. Nine patients who had experienced infantile spasms during the first year of life presented autistic behaviour. Multiple tubers of small to average size were found in 28 patients. In general, this group had seizures that responded well to antiepileptic drugs and a low prevalence of autism. In 3 patients who all presented good seizure control and normal intelligence, single cortical/subcortical tubers were located in the frontal or occipital lobes. Of the total of 45 patients, 13 had cerebellar as well as cerebral tubers; these were generally present in cases with more severe clinical features. Although large tubers are less common than small to medium-sized ones, they are much more likely to be accompanied by severe clinical symptoms (seizures, mental retardation and autistic behaviour), even when the smaller tubers are quite numerous. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  19. Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coal: Evidence for fungal and arthropod transformations of degraded macerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; O'Keefe, J.M.K.; Eble, C.F.; Raymond, A.; Valentim, B.; Volk, T.J.; Richardson, A.R.; Satterwhite, A.B.; Hatch, R.S.; Stucker, J.D.; Watt, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of fungus in the formation of coal macerals, both as a primary contributor in the form of a fungus fossil/maceral funginite, and in their role in degrading wood, thus producing degraded maceral forms, has been established. Fungus, in the course of breaking down the lignin and cellulose in wood, make the wood more digestible for grazers, such as arthropods. In turn, the remnants of the digested wood and anything else eaten but not completely digested are excreted and can be preserved intact; eaten by other fauna with a repeat of the cycle; or colonized by bacteria and/or coprophilous fungi with or without subsequent preservation. Ultimately, the coprolites can be preserved as a form of macrinite. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Use of induced mutations for potato improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)

  1. Optimizing the Operation of Maceration to Obtain Quality White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegărus Diana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study monitors the physico-chemical properties of wines from Dragasani under the influence of pectolytic enzymes in various temperature conditions. during maceration contact is made between the grape skins and selected the optimal time leads to wines with more pronounced floral character. The physico-chemical extraction maceration leads to a more pronounced specific compounds, the time of maceration is very important in this case. The curing time is of great importance in producing varieties Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească primarily for successful extraction of aromatic components from grape. As noted in the literature flavored grapes contain large amounts of terpene compounds are in free form or bound. To optimize the technological process is able to extract these compounds and to achieve a harmonious and balanced wine. The variants considered in the study presents the results of physico-chemical and aromatic wines obtained from the Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească, which took into consideration both during maceration and the use of selected yeasts and enzymes, which form the basis for the selection of the optimal procedure for obtaining aromatic white wines in Dragasani Vineyard.

  2. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  3. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  4. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  5. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems. II - The effects of temperature under 24-h and 12-h photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Steffen, Kenneth L.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of temperature and the photoperiod length on the growth and tuberization of Norland potatoes were investigated for two photoperiods, 12-h and 24-hr at 400 micromol/sq m per sec PPF, and at temperatures of 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 C. It was found that stem length increased with increasing temperature under both photoperiods. The highest tuber yield was obtained at 16 C under the 24-hr photoperiod and at 20 C under the 12-hr photoperiod (i.e., increasing the photoperiod from 12 to 24 hrs effectively decreases the optimal temperature for tuber formation). Little or no tuber formation occurred at 28 C under either photoperiod.

  6. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  7. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  8. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  9. Multimodel Inference for the Prediction of Disease Symptoms and Yield Loss of Potato in a Two-Year Crop Rotation Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Vos, J.; Grasman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The second order Akaike information criterion was used for the assessment of 139 regression models for three responses of potato test crops: (a) incidence of Spongospora subterranea on the harvested tubers, (b) percentage of haulms infected with Verticillium dahliae, and (c) tuber yield. Six

  10. EFFECT OF COMPLEX FERTILIZERS USED IN EARLY CROP POTATO CULTURE ON LOAMY SAND SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a high tuber yield of early crop potato good conditions for plant growth must be ensured. Potato has a relatively shallow root system and requires significant nutrient inputs to maintain tuber productivity and quality. The paper presents the results of the research on the effect of complex fertilizers type NPK MgS with and without microelements from the nitrophoska (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 and the amophoska group (Polimag S, and single-nutrient fertilizers on the plant growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’ on loamy sand soil. The field experiment was carried out in mideastern Poland (52°03'N, 22°33'E. Potatoes were harvested 75 days after planting (the end of June. The type of fertilizer (single-nutrient or complex fertilizer slightly affected the growth of potato plants. With the use of complex fertilizers, the assimilation leaf area and leaf area index (LAI were similar to the application of single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the examined complex fertilizers, Viking 13 (representing the nitrophoska group without microelements resulted in a smaller increase of assimilation leaf area in comparison with the cultivation without mineral fertilization. The type of fertilizer exerted a greater influence on the plant growth of ‘Aster’ (Poland than ‘Fresco’ (The Netherlands and ‘Gloria’ (Germany. The productive effects of complex fertilizers in early crop potato culture on loamy sand soil were comparable with single-nutrient fertilizers. The highest tuber yield was achieved with the application of Nitrophoska Blue Special (from the nitrophoska group with the lowest NNH4+ concentration; the total tuber yield was higher on average by 2.94 t*ha-1 (21.0% and the yield of marketable tuber fraction (diameter above 30 mm by 2.55 t*ha-1 (20.4% in comparison with the cultivation without mineral fertilization. Although the total tuber yield was a little

  11. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  12. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  13. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation and different modes of cooking on vitamin C content of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid content in control and gamma irradiated potatoes of four cultivars were studied during 15 degC storage and after cooking by different methods. Under identical prolonged storage conditions, control tubers suffered heavy losses of vitamin C and total marketability due to sprouting and shrinkage unlike irradiated tubers. Time consuming cooking destroys more vitamin C as compared to faster cooking methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  15. Preservation of potatoes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khattak, Y.I.; Khan, R.

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes (Varieties: Cardinal and Patrones) were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy in Co-60 irradiator and stored at 20 degree centigrade for a period of 4 months. There was 5 and 3 percent rotting in control and 9 and 5 percent rotting in irradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones respectively at the end of 4 months storage period. The sprouting percentage at the end of 4 months was 51 and 59 in unirradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones varieties whereas no sprouting was observed in the irradiated potatoes in both the varieties. The weight loss was more (8.3 and 6.6%) in the control than the irradiated tubers (6.7 and 5.7%) in Cardinal and Patrones varieties at the end of 4 months storage period. Effect of radiation and storage was significant on ascorbic acid but negligible on sugars. Sensory quality was improved as a result of radiation treatment. The cost economics for food irradiation based on a source strength of 59 kCi was Rs. 290 per tone

  16. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  17. Determination of physiomorphological characteristics of potato crop regulated by potassium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayyub, C.M.; Shaheen, M.R.; Noor, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Balanced use of nutrients is essential for sustainable productivity of crops. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are being used while potassium (K) application is ignored which causes serious decrease in the status of K in soils of potato growing areas. Has prodigious importance in improving quality and yield of potatoes. Therefore, the research project of field studies was designed with different levels K from SOP to determine its effects on some physio-morphological features of potato. A promising red potato cultivar Desiree was selected. Optimal recommended doses of nitrogen and phosphors (250 and 125 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively) along with 6 levels of K, i.e. 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ were applied. Data of different qualitative and quantitative characteristics was collected under the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and was analyzed by using standard statistical over the year techniques. The results revealed that SOP at the level of 150 kg ha/sup -1/ gave the best results in most of the parameters (i.e. total emergence percentage, plant height, number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant, yield per hectare, TSS, tuber dry weight per plant) while, extremely high dose of SOP showed the poor results as compared to control for some of the parameters. Number of aerial stems per plant, number of leaves per plant, specific gravity of tubers and tuber dry mass did not show any significant change with change in K levels. (author)

  18. Determination of processing and nutritional quality attributes of potato genotypes in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Hafiz, I.A.; Hussain, A.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptability of potatoes for processing as french fries is largely dependent on the quality of the end products. Processing industry is totally dependent on the quality parameters of tuber to satisfy the increasing demand of customers. Thirty two potato genotypes for processing and yield quality traits were assessed for screening. Significant differences in all the quality parameters and various characteristics were found, while the genotypes; 394021-120, 9625, Kiran, NARC 2002-1, NARC 1-2006/1 and VR 90-217 gave the highest results regarding yield and quality of potato tubers except kiran, which has a high yield but low quality characters. The tuber sizes an d weight was also significantly different among genotypes except weight of big size tubers. Variations existed among genotypes in tuber characteristics (skin color, tuber shape, eye depth, flesh color and general appearance). The results regarding correlation studies indicated that french fry color exhibited negative correlation with reducing sugar (r = -0.7046), total sugars (r = -0.6659) and positive correlation with dry matter (r = 0.5013).This screening is helpful to the ongoing efforts to select the best genotype for the emerging processing industry of Pakistan. (author)

  19. Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Promising Potato Clones and Commercial Cultivars Using the GGE Bi-plot and AMMI Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D HassanPanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics and stability of marketable tuber yield of 13 promising potato clones, along with three commercial cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Lady Rosetta as checks, an experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil during 2011 and 2012. During the growing period and after harvest, attributes like number of main stem per plant, plant height, tuber number and weight per plant, total and marketable tuber yield, dry matter percentage, baking type, hollow heart, tuber inner ring and discoloration of raw tuber flesh after 24 hours were measured. Combined ANONA for quantitative traits showed that there were significant differences among promising clones as to total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, mean tuber weight, number of main stem per plant and dry matter percentage and their interactions with year in total and marketable tuber yield and tuber number and weight per plant. The clones 396151-7, 397008-5, 397015-8, 397008-2 and 994001-4 were found to have higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant and mean tuber weight. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, yellow skin color, yellow and white flesh color, oval round and round tuber shape, mid and shallow eyes, with no hollow heart, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry matter percentage as compared with control and other clones. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot and AMMI models were found to be proper methods for selection of 397008-2, 397008-5 and 994001-4 as being high marketable and stable yielding clones.

  20. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  1. Effect of packaging material on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, N.I.; Koushik, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of packaging materials on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes was investigated. Tubers were irradiated at 10, 30 and 100 Krads and stored for 12 wk at 5 degrees C in paper or plastic bags. Nitrate nitrogen content was significantly (p 0.01) higher in tubers packaged in plastic as compared to those in paper bags. Irradiation significantly (p 0.01) increased nitrate nitrogen content between the lowest and highest levels of treatment in tubers stored in both paper and plastic bags

  2. Effect of irradiation and cooking methods on ascorbic acid levels of four potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid (AA) contents in control and in tubers irradiated to 100 Gy gamma rays for sprout inhibition were studied by HPLC and iodophenol titrimetry methods in four potato cultivars as a function of storage at 15 degC and after cooking by different methods. Both reduced and total ascorbic acid levels decreased in control tubers during the first 3 months in storage recording respectively 22 to 35% and 26 to 45% losses depending on the cultivar. Irradiated tubers recorded additional losses of 5 to 10% and 6.5 to 13%, respectively in reduced and total ascorbic acid levels during the same period but remained in good marketable conditions. Cooking of tubers in boiling water showed maximum loss in vitamin C content, whereas pressure and microwave cooking recorded least losses. The magnitude of losses in reduced and total vitamin C during cooking was comparable in control and in irradiated tubers. (author)

  3. Variation of Growth and Disease Characters Between Clones of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Bång, H; Kotkas, K

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of variation of selected characters in clones derived from meristem tips of four potato cultivars in field trials in three countries was assessed. Recorded were: the number of plants per plot; maturity of plants; skin and flesh colour; tuber deformity; time of emergence......; flowering; number of stems and tubers per plant; tuber size, yield and dry matter percentage; and the occurrence of common scab. Far more significant differences between clones than could be expected by chance were found for the last eight characters. Most of the significant differences for number of stems...... per plant, number of tubers, yield and tuber size distribution were found in six clones of three cultivars and were repeated at different locations and in different years. It is concluded that significant clone differences exist and are repeated at independent locations over the years...

  4. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  5. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  6. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  7. The effect of storage of whole potatoes of three cultivars on the patatin and protease inhibitor content; a study using capillary electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Diepenbeek, R. van; Lee, J.J. van der; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Wijngaards, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The content and biological activity of patatin and the protease inhibitors of molecular size 20-22 kDa present in whole potato tubers were investigated as a function of storage time. The amount of buffer-extractable protein decreased gradually during storage of whole potatoes of the cultivars Bintje

  8. Temperature-dependent regulation of sugar metabolism in wild-type and low-invertase transgenic chipping potatoes during and after cooling for low-temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of sugar metabolism in cold-stored potato tubers has significant ramifications for potato chip and French fry producers and consumers. Though low-temperature storage reduces losses due to sprouting and disease, it induces accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. These rea...

  9. Management of Potato Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, H.; Moussa, Z.; Abd El-Rahman, A.F.; Salem, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation aims to apply a safe practice to minimize potato losses due to soft rot disease of tubers kept under ambient temperature. In this regard, gamma irradiation was used to extend keeping quality through its effect on soft rot bacteria. Eight bacterial isolates were recovered on Logan’s medium from kitchen kept tubers with symptoms of soft rot disease. Five isolates were found pathogenic and tentatively identified as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense on the basis of the usual bacteriological methods. A molecular method using 16SrDNA sequence analysis for verification of the identity of two isolates was made. The two bacterial isolates, Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays. Complete inhibition occurred at doses 2.5 and 2.0 KGy for high densities (Approximately 4.0x10"9 CFU/ml) of P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, respectively. The D10 value of gamma irradiation was 0.24 KGy for P. atrosepticum and 0.20 KGy for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Irradiation of artificially infected tubers with soft rot bacteria using the two mentioned D10 doses for the two bacterial species increased the shelf life of tubers kept under ambient temperature. The internal chemical quality of tubers was shown to be improved by keeping the tubers under ambient temperature after irradiation by the two D10 doses 0.24 and 0.20 KGy

  10. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  11. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Natural variation of folate tuber content in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folates are essential vitamins in the human diet. Folate deficiency is still a common worldwide problem that is linked to various serious disorders, such as birth defects, certain types of cardiovascular diseases and cancers, megaloblastic anemia, impaired cognitive performance and depression. There...

  13. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. growing in conditions of southern Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. belongs to very important crops from aspect of its world production. It is grown in large areas in Asia, on the contrary, sweet potato production in Europe presents minimal part of its total world rate. The sweet potato is less-known crop, grown only on small area in home gardens in Slovak Republic. Tubers of sweet potato are characterized by anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence of valuable health-promoting components, such as carotenoids or vitamin C. The main objective of study was testing of sweet potato growing in conditions of southern Slovak Republic with focus on quantity and quality of its yield. The field trial was realised on land of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2015. Within trial, effect of cultivar and mulching on the selected quantitative (average tuber weight; yield per plant; yield in t.ha-1 and qualitative (total carotenoids; vitamin C parameters were tested. One certified cultivar of sweet potato 'Beauregard' was used as a comparative cultivar. Other two cultivars were marked according to the market place at which were purchased and sequentially used for seedling preparation. Tubers of first un-known cultivar were purchased in the Serbian market (marked as 'Serbian'. Tubers of next sweet potato cultivar were purchased on the market in Zagreb (marked as 'Zagrebian'. Outplating of sweet potato seedlings were realised on the 19th May 2015. The sweet potato was grown by hillock system. Each cultivar was planted in two variants (rows: non-mulching (bare soil and mulching by black non-woven textile. All variants were divided to three replications with 6 plants. Difference between rows was 1.20 m and seedlings were planted in distance of 0.30 m in row. The harvested tubers were classified in two size classes: >150 g (marketable yield and <150 g (non-marketable yield. Total carotenoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The

  14. Experience with irradiation of table potatoes in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the years 1976 to 1980 the effect of gamma radiation on potatoes was tested. The following parameters were monitored: weight losses of tubers, sprouting and weight of sprouts, changes in chemical composition of tubers, the development of storage diseases and the interest of consumers in irradiated potatoes. The tests were made on 5 potato species. Irradiation was carried out in three time intervals with 60 Gy, 100 Gy and 150 Gy applied from a source with an activity of 4.07x10 14 Bq. Weight losses were on average higher in irradiated potatoes than in the control group. Positive was the reduced sprouting rate at 100 Gy. No substantial changes were found in chemical composition. The development of storage diseases was found to be more dependent on previous gathering and sorting, in some species it increased after irradiation in others it dropped after the 100 Gy dose. The inquiry failed and the potatoes were sold without the buyers having expressed their views. (J.P.)

  15. Status of the Potato Processing Industry in Kenya: Result of a Survey in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.; Kabira, J.N.; Ewell, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in Nairobi showed that potato chips (French fries)and potato crisps (Chips) were the most common potato products on the market. Potato varieties preferred for the preparations of potato chips were the long types, mainly Nyayo (41%) and Roslin tana (38%). The Red-skinned Kerr's pink (22%) and white-skinned Dutch Robijn (78%) were preferred for crisps. Processors for crisps are more demanding on the quality and types of fresh potatoes used than crisps. Tuber immaturity was a common problem adversely affecting processors' profit margins due to high oil absorption particularly in chips, now a common lunch-time snack in Nairobi. The quality of products on the market could be improved further

  16. Future problems on the storage of potatoes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masato

    1981-01-01

    The effects of different storage methods on the composition, and the properties of potatoes and their suitability for processing were examined using 3 early and 3 late cultivars. When potatoes were stored at room temperature, although the results varied slightly with the cultivars, there was from 3 to 6% decrease in weight by the next spring, the content of starch decreased strikingly from the beginning of storage to around the end of February, the content of total free sugars increased rapidly from around December to the end of February, the amino acid content tended to increase during the storage period, and 65% of the total ascorbic acid in potatoes still remained early in April. Potatoes lost their shape during cooking more easily as they were stored longer. When potatoes were stored at constant temperature of 5 deg C, the decrease in weight occurred more slowly than that at 2 or 10 deg C. As the storage temperature was lower, the amount of both reduced and non-reduced sugars accumulated more, which make fried potatoes brownish. The potatoes stored at 10 deg C had the best color when they were fried, but began to sprout in mid-December. Thus, to ensure long-term supply for making good fried potatoes, potatoes should be stored at 5 deg C, then be kept at 20 - 25 deg C for 1 - 2 weeks to reduce the sugar content before processing. The sprouting of potatoes was inhibited prominently when MH-30 was given during the intermediate stage of tuber enlargement. The potatoes 40 days after harvest, irradiated with 7 or 15 krad and stored at normal temperature lost less weight than those which were not irradiated. (Kaihara, S.)

  17. Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)

  18. Ralstonia solanacearum – a New Threat to Potato Production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ware potatoes (a total of 1127 samples from localities in Serbia during two consecutive years resulted in detection and identification of R. solanacearum in 17 tuber samples. The monitoring detected the causal agent of bacterial wilt and brown rot of potato in three districts of Vojvodina province. In 2011, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 7 samples of ware potato tubers (varieties – Saturna, Pirol, Hermes, Panda in West Bačka and South Bačka Districts. In 2012, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 10 potato tuber samples (Lady Claire, Desiree, Panda, Red Fantasy and Vineta varieties from two districts: South Bačka and Central Banat. Bacterial strains obtained from positive samples were identified as R. solanacearum biovar 2 using PCR/RFLP analysis, pathogenicity test on tomato transplants, and nutritional, enzymatic and biovar determination tests. To our best knowledge, these are the only findings of R. solanacearum infection in ware potatoes in Serbia. R. solanacearum was not detected in tomato or any other host plant tested in this study. Furthermore, the bacterium was not found in any of the water samples tested, including those originating from areas in which the bacterium was found in ware potato samples.

  19. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activitity of methanol extract of Maranta arundinacea L fresh leaf and tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusbandari, A.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Maranta arundinacea L is one of herbaceous plants in Indonesia which have flavonoid content. Flavonoids has antioxidants activity by inhibition of free radical oxidation reactions. The study aims were to determination total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fresh leaf and tuber of M. arundinacea L by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanol extracts were obtained with maceration and remaseration method of fresh leaves and tubers. The total phenolic content was assayed with visible spectrophotometric using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The antioxidant activity was assayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) compared to gallic acid. The results showed that methanol extract of tuber and fresh leaf of M. arundinacea L contained phenolic compound with total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh tuber of 3.881±0.064 (% GAE) and fresh leaf is 6.518±0.163 (% b/b GAE). IC50 value from fresh tuber is 1.780±0.0005 μg/mL and IC50 fresh leaf values of 0.274±0.0004 μg/mL while the standard gallic acid is IC50 of 0.640±0.0002 μg/mL.

  20. Technology of the radio-inhibition of the germination of potatoes. Report on the semi-industrial scale tests, 1970--71 and 1971--72 seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandret, F.

    1973-12-31

    Semi-industrial experiments on the radiopreservation of potatoes were conducted in Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. General conditions of the experiments, such as variety of potatoes, treatment for sprout inhibition, and storage time are discussed. Determinations were made on weight loss and per cent of usable tubers. Culinary evaluations were made and changes in chemical composition during storage were noted. Evaluations were made of the quality of potato chips and other finished potato products. Legal aspects of potato irradiation are discussed. (HLW)

  1. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  2. Molecular and biological characterization of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV, Pomovirus) isolates from potato-growing regions in Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, José; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) causes necrotic flecks inside and on tubers in temperate countries. In South America, these symptoms have not been observed, although the presence of the virus has been confirmed in the Andes and in Central America. To characterize PMTV isolates from the Andes, soil...... samples were taken from the main potato-producing regions in Colombia and virus was recovered by planting Nicotiana benthamiana as bait plants. The complete genomes of five isolates were sequenced and three of the isolates were inoculated to four different indicator plants. Based on sequence comparisons...

  3. Adaptability Evaluation of 104 Potato Hybrids in Ardabil and Alborz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Hassanpanah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess potato hybrids for their promising agronomic, and marketability traits and their adaptability to climatic conditions of potato production areas in country. Some 104 potato hybrids selected during five years (2010-2014 along with Savalan, Ceaser, Agria and Khavaran cultivars, as controls, were compared in an augment design (preliminary experiment without replications both at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil and Seed and Plant Institute Improvement of Karaj. These hybrids (104, tested in this experiment, were from 8 breeding populations. One half of the hybrids (52 in Ardabil and the other half (52 in Karaj (a total of 104 hybrids each were planted in the 4 blocks and each block consisted of 13 hybrids with four control (Agria, Khavaran, Ceaser and Savalan cultivars. During growing period and after harvest the traits like: plant height, main stem number per plant, main stem diameter, tuber number and weight per plant, marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter percent were measured. Then 81 hybrids were selected as superior hybrids as to their marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter content. Hybrids selected consisted of 17 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Luca population, 36 hybrids from ♂ Ceaser × ♀ Luca population, 14 hybrids from ♂ Savalan × ♀ Luca population, 7 hybrids from ♂ Savalan × ♀ Ceaser population, 4 hybrids from ♂ Ceaser × ♀ Savalan population, 1 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Savalan population and 2 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Savalan population. Cluster analysis divided 104 hybrids and cultivars into three groups. The first group with 49 hybrids had higher average tuber number per plant, marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter percent than the remaining hybrids. In factor analysis, three independent factor total explained 73.90% of the variations. These were named as, 1- tuber yield and its components factor (marketable tuber yield

  4. Bioactive compounds in potatoes: Accumulation under drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Wegener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Besides starch, crude fibre, amino acids (AAS, vitamins and minerals, the tubers contain diverse phenolic compounds. These phenolics and AAS confer anti-oxidant protection against reactiveoxygen species, tissue damage, and diseases like atherosclerosis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus,and cancer. Climate change and drought stress may become a major risk for crop production worldwide, resulting in reduced access for those who depend on the nutritional value of this staple crop. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of drought stress on water, lipid soluble antioxidants, anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, free AAS, peroxidase (POD and lipid acyl hydrolase activity (LAH in tuber tissue. Methods: The study was carried out on three potato genotypes comprising one yellow-fleshed cultivar and two purple breeding clones. The plants were grown in pots (from April to September in a glasshouse with sufficient water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of both variants were analysed for antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid (ACE and Trolox equivalent (TXE using a photo-chemiluminescent method. Amounts of anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, as well as POD and LAH activities were analysed using a UV photometer. Finally, free AAS were measured by HPLC. Results: The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduces tuber yield, but has no significant effect on antioxidants, Ac, soluble phenols and POD. Drought stress significantly increased the levels of soluble protein (P < 0.0001 and LAH (P < 0.001. Also, total amounts of free AAS were higher in the drought stressed tubers (+34.2%, on average than in the tubers grown with a sufficient water supply. Above all, proline was elevated due to drought stress.

  5. Radiation induced variation in potato for tolerance to salinity using tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Meristem-tips of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. 'Diamant', obtained from tuber sprouts, were cultured on MS medium, and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. To induce variation for salt tolerance, the obtained plantlets were irradiated with 0, 20, and 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 2000 and 4000 ppm NaCI. Salt tolerant plantlets were transferred for tuberization on MS liquid medium supplemented with the same concentration of NaCI. Micro-tubers, collected after 6 weeks of culture, had fresh weight between 0.03 to 0.3 g. Mini-tubers were obtained by planting micro-tubers in 25 cm pots under insect proof greenhouse. Mini-tuber number per plant ranged from 3 to 6, and the mini-tuber weight ranged from 0.5-3.0 g, depending upon the treatment. Further studies are in progress to produce conventional tubers under salinity stress from the promising variants, specially those tolerant to 4000 ppm, and to assure the stability of the obtained variants. (author)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 42. Citation on PubMed Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. 1999 Jul ... Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2): ...

  7. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption

  8. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  9. Interspecies Respect and Potato Conservation in the Peruvian Cradle of Domestication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angé, Olivia; Chipa, Adrian; Condori, Pedro; Ccoyo, Aniceto Ccoyo; Mamani, Lino; Pacco, Ricardo; Quispe, Nazario; Quispe, Walter; Sutta, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores people and tuber affective encounters, as they unfold in a biodiversity conservation programme in the Peruvian Andes. It draws on ethnographic data from the Potato Park, renowned worldwide as one of the most successful in-situ initiatives for the conservation of biocultural

  10. The effect of 'Liang-Feng-Su' on increasing production of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yitong; Wang Zhifen

    1991-01-01

    Treating sweet potato seedling with 33 x 10 -6 'Liang-Feng-Su', by means of phosphorus-32 and carbon-14 tracing technique showed that the use of 'Liang-Feng-Su' not only increased the root vigor and net photosynthetic efficiency of leaves, but also promoted the transport of photosynthate to root tubers which results in economic benefit

  11. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals,

  12. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  13. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on three Egyptian potato cultivars during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkazy, M.A.; Mahmoud, M.E.; Abd El-Galil, M.I.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The changes in starch, reducing, non reducing, sugars and ascorbic acid (vit. C) content of three important potato cultivars (sponta, Alpha and Diamonta) grown in Egypt which were subjected to gamma irradiation (0,0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) for sprout inhibition were studied. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had adverse effect on the sprouting of potato tubers during storage at 20-24. Increasing irradiation dose, resulted in a significant increase n rotted percent (5.9-6.6%) for potato cultivars irradiated at 2 kGy and stored for 4 weeks). The sucrose content of non-and irradiated tubers increased considerably during the experimental time. The content was dependent upon irradiation dose, and the maximum sucrose content was observed at dose of 1.0 kGy in tuber stored 4 weeks at 20-24 degree. The sucrose accumulation was accompanied by decrease in starch content in irradiated potato tubers, which suggested that gamma irradiation accelerated the conversion of starch into sucrose and accumulation was not caused by direct chemical reactions but by physiological reactions

  14. Comparison of experimentally determined translocation of 134Cs in potatoes with the radioecological code CHECOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.; Egli, J.; Andres, R.

    1997-01-01

    The verification and adoption of radioecological models is a continuous process. Greenhouse trials on the translocation of radiocaesium from leaves to potato tubers showed a 4-12 times higher translocation rate compared to the radioecological code CHECOSYS. The possible reasons for the differences are discussed. (author) 1 tab., 3 refs

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the growth and metabolism ''in vitro'' culture of potato parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    The growth ''in vitro'' of the parenchyma tissues coming from control and irradiated potato tubers with doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. is studied. At the end of a four months' cultivation period the cellular proliferation, respiratory activity, content in ascorbic acid, conductivity, and pH was studied. Some differences between control and irradiated tissues were observed. (author) [es

  16. Integrated nutrient management research with sweet potato in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of field experiments that investigated the effects of organic and inorganic nutrients on sweet potato tuber yield in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In the first experiment, plots were planted with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica, which

  17. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing blackleg and soft rot of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp. are important causal agents of blackleg and soft rot of potato. To understand the outbreak of blackleg in the Northeastern U.S. in 2015, samples were collected from symptomatic plants, dormant tubers, and surface water in 2016 and 2017. Diseased plant samples wer...

  18. Different aspects of S-carvone, a natural potato sprout growth inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or

  19. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on the growth and metabolism in vitro culture of potato parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M. P.

    1977-01-01

    The present work studies the growth in vitro of the parenchyma tissues coming from control and irradiated potato tubers with doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. At the end of a four months cultivation period the cellular proliferation, respiratory activity, content in ascorbic acid, conductivity and ph was studied. Some differences between control and irradiated tissues were observed. (Author) 22 refs

  1. Biofuel production from Jerusalem artichoke tuber inulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke has high productivity of tubers that are rich in inulins, a fructan polymer. These inulins can be easily broken down into fructose and glucose for conversion into ethanol by fermentation. This review focuses on tuber and inulin yields, effect of cultivar and environment on tuber ...

  2. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    Partial root zone drying (PRD) is a new water-saving irrigation strategy being tested in many crop species. Until now it has not been investigated in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). A field experiment on sandy soil in Denmark was conducted under a mobile rainout shelter to study effects of two...... subsurface drip irrigation treatments ((1) Full Irrigation (FI) receiving 100% of evaporative demand; and (2) PRD receiving 70% water of FI) on potato yield, tuber size, leaf water relations and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). The PRD treatment was started just after the end of tuber initiation...... for two months during tuber bulking and maturing stage and was shifted from one side to the other side of the plants every 5-10 days when FI plants had used 20-25 mm. Compared to FI plants, stomatal conductance was generally lower in the PRD-treated plants, whereas leaf water potential tended to be lower...

  3. Performance of the SUBSTOR-potato model across contrasting growing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prassad, Rishi

    2017-01-01

    and cultivars, N fertilizer application, water supply, sowing dates, soil types, temperature environments, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and included open top chamber and Free-Air-CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiments. Tuber yields were generally well simulated with the SUBSTOR-potato model across a wide.......4% for tuber fresh weight. Cultivars ‘Desiree’ and ‘Atlantic’ were grown in experiments across the globe and well simulated using consistent cultivar parameters. However, the model underestimated the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and poorly simulated high temperature effects on crop growth....... Other simulated crop variables, including leaf area, stem weight, crop N, and soil water, differed frequently from measurements; some of these variables had significant large measurement errors. The SUBSTOR-potato model was shown to be suitable to simulate tuber growth and yields over a wide range...

  4. Cytotoxic potential and chromatogram profile of sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia Pendans Merr. & Perry) after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin Winarno; Susanto; Hendig Winarno; Siva Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia pendans Merr. & Perry) has cytotoxic activity. Preservation efforts of sarang semut tuber was performed with gamma irradiation. The research purposed to study the effect of gamma on cytotoxic activity against leukemia L1210 cell lines and chromatogram profiles of sarang semut tuber (Myrmecodia pendans Merr. & Perry). The dried sarang semut tuber were gamma irradiated with a variety of doses of 5; 7.5; 10; and 15 kGy. The experiments were performed with two replicates for each dose. Then samples were macerated with solvent by gradient polarity with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. Extracts were tested against the leukemia L1210 cell lines. From the results obtained showed that the ethanol extract was the most active against leukemia L1210 cell lines (IC50 9.88 μg/ml) compared with n-heksan (IC50 23.44 μg/ml) and ethyl acetate extract (IC50 17.32 μg/ml). Ethanol extracts were fractionated by column chromatography, the result were obtained 7 fractions. Based on the cytotoxic activity test for each fraction, the fraction 1 had the highest activity (IC50 ≤ 3.23 μg/ml). The identifications of ethanol extract and fraction 1 by CLT-densitometry showed that the spots area increased and decreased after gamma irradiation. The chromatogram profile of fraction 1 showed that the major peak area decreased after irradiation. The maximum irradiation dose without damaging the cytotoxic activity of sarang semut tuber againts leukemia L1210 cell lines was 5 kGy. (author)

  5. Extraction and Study of Bacteriophages, Used against Agents of Potato Soft Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda D. Davitashvili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of specific bacteriophages and their complex mixtures against bacterial diseases is very effective. As for causative agent of potato soft rot Erwinia carotovora, specific phages (25 phages in total were extracted from diseased potato, soil and sewage. The study of their biological properties showed the diversity of phages in terms of lytic action, virion plaque and morphology, as well as in relation to different environmental factors. Phages showed explicit antibacterial activity in vitro in liquid and solid media, as well as during model tests of potato tubers artificial inoculation.

  6. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, K.; Quinet, M.; Decat, J.; Secco, B.; Dulière, E.; Pieters, S.; van der Kooij, T.; Lutts, S.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, Ghent University and the Université catholique de Louvain investigated the suitability, growth and development of four potato cultivars in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions with the aim to incorporate such cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of tubers for human nutrition and (c) production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four cultivars (Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator) were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique (NFT) gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared. The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted 127 days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed 145 days. Annabelle (1.45 kg/m2) and Bintje (1.355 kg/m2) were the best performing of the four cultivars. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers (20.95 g/tuber) and Desiree the smallest (7.67 g/tuber). The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW. The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The energy values of the tubers remained in the range of the 2010 USDA and Souci-Fachmann-Kraut food composition databases. The amount of Ca determined was slightly reduced compared to the USDA value, but close to the Souci-Fachmann-Kraut value. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases

  7. Relationship between maceration and wound healing on diabetic foot ulcers in Indonesia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Haryanto; Arisandi, Defa; Suriadi, Suriadi; Imran, Imran; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sanada, Hiromi; Okuwa, Mayumi; Sugama, Junko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between maceration and wound healing. A prospective longitudinal design was used in this study. The wound condition determined the type of dressings used and the dressing change frequency. A total of 62 participants with diabetic foot ulcers (70 wounds) were divided into two groups: non-macerated (n = 52) and macerated wounds (n = 18). Each group was evaluated weekly using the Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool, with follow-ups until week 4. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that the changes in the wound area in week 1 were faster in the non-macerated group than the macerated group (P = 0·02). The Pearson correlation analysis showed a moderate correlation between maceration and wound healing from enrolment until week 4 (P = 0·002). After week 4, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the non-macerated wounds healed significantly faster than the macerated wounds (log-rank test = 19·378, P = 0·000). The Cox regression analysis confirmed that maceration was a significant and independent predictor of wound healing in this study (adjusted hazard ratio, 0·324; 95% CI, 0·131-0·799; P = 0·014). The results of this study demonstrated that there is a relationship between maceration and wound healing. Changes in the wound area can help predict the healing of wounds with maceration in clinical settings. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Detection and eradication of Spongospora subterranea in mini-tuber production tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie E. van der Waals

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Powdery scab, a root and tuber disease caused by the pathogen Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss, poses a major problem to potato producers worldwide because it affects potato quality. Inoculum can be seed-borne or originate from contaminated growing media or contaminated equipment. During 2006, a potato mini-tuber production facility in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa had an outbreak of powdery scab. The purpose of this study was to detect Sss in the production facility and identify the source or sources of contamination so that corrective measures could be taken to eradicate the pathogen. Swab samples were taken from numerous points in the facility in 2009 and Sss-specific primers (Sps1 and Sps2 were used in a polymerase chain reaction to detect Sss. Of 11 surfaces tested, 6 were positive for Sss. A second set of swab samples was taken after efforts were made to eradicate the pathogen through improved facility hygiene measures to determine whether these corrective measures were efficient. Corrective measures resulted in a disease-free harvest from 2009 onwards. This novel study has value for the mini-tuber industry as production tunnels can be tested for the presence of Sss and other pathogens before planting to ensure that, where suitable control measures are available, disease-free mini-tubers are produced.

  9. The Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Agronomic Characteristics and Yield of Two Varieties of Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Jalali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. is an autotetraploid (2n=4x=24 species and a key member of the Solanaceae family. Physiological age is usually be determined from potato tuber initiation and afterwards. Potato seed tubers physiological preparedness for growth is an important factor in determining the productive potential of the seed potatoes. Physiological age is considered as an internal biological clock that usually covers all aspects of the production while chronological age is determined only by the length of harvest and planting time (Gregory, 1985. In most cases, the current practice for storing potato tubers is to wound-heal seed-tubers at 10-15º C during the initial l0 days of storage (Curing and then reduce and maintain the temperature at a holding level of 4 ° C until planting while the technique of physiological aging of seed tubers, was not only one tuber storage temperature (4°C and then transferred to a higher temperature (similar natural germination conditions, but different thermal treatments during storage conditions is used in order to increase the physiological age. Some researchers argue that thermal storage is essential to obtain quantitative and qualitative performance which its value is higher than 250 GDD. The physiological age of seed tubers 900-600 GDD in some studies to increase performance by 90 percent and was associated uniformity producing tubers..In temperate regions with spring planting date, the short growing season and high summer temperature is considered as limiting factor for potato production. For this purpose the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the physiological age of seed and its effect on yield and earliness of two potato cultivars. Materials and Methods The Effects of six different thermal treatments storage in a three-month period, including two treatments of 440 degree- day (T1 and T2, two treatments of 880 degree-day (T3 and T4

  10. Phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as substrate for potato starch-branching enzyme I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikso-Nielsen, A.; Blennow, A.; Nielsen, T.H.; Moller, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) starch-branching enzyme I (PSBE-I) in the in vivo synthesis of phosphorylated amylopectin was investigated in in vitro experiments with isolated PSBE-I using 33P-labeled phosphorylated and 3H end-labeled nonphosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as the substrates. From these radiolabeled substrates PSBE-I was shown to catalyze the formation of dual-labeled (3H/33P) phosphorylated branched polysaccharides with an average degree of polymerization of 80 to 85. The relatively high molecular mass indicated that the product was the result of multiple chain-transfer reactions. The presence of alpha(1 leads to 6) branch points was documented by isoamylase treatment and anion-exchange chromatography. Although the initial steps of the in vivo mechanism responsible for phosphorylation of potato starch remains elusive, the present study demonstrates that the enzyme machinery available in potato has the ability to incorporate phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans into neutral polysaccharides in an interchain catalytic reaction. Potato mini tubers synthesized phosphorylated starch from exogenously supplied 33PO4(3-) and [U-14C]Glc at rates 4 times higher than those previously obtained using tubers from fully grown potato plants. This system was more reproducible compared with soil-grown tubers and was therefore used for preparation of 33P-labeled phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucan chains

  11. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  12. Fabrication of microfibrillated cellulose gel from waste pulp sludge via mild maceration combined with mechanical shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Zhaohui Tong

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a facile route, which combines mild maceration of waste pulp sludge and a mechanical shearing process, to prepare microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a high storage modulus. In the maceration, the mixture of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide was used to extract cellulose from never-dried waste pulp sludge. Then, two different mechanical...

  13. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  14. Analysis of endophytic bacterial communities of potato by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA based PCR fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of endophytic bacterial populations of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Desiree) was assessed using a combination of dilution plating of plant macerates followed by isolation and characterization of isolates, and direct PCR-DGGE on the basis of DNA extracted from plants. The culturable

  15. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp. (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  16. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  17. Haemorrhage in intracranial tuber- culosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE REPORT. 16. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • July 2005. Haemorrhage in intracranial tuber- culosis. M Modi. FCRad (SA), MMed. Department of Radiation Sciences ... wall where granulomatous inflamma- tion (Fig. 2, arrow) was present in the adventitia. A specific site of origin for the subarachnoid haemorrhage was.

  18. Influence of enzymatic maceration on the microstructure and microhardness of compact bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ling; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua

    2010-01-01

    The cleaning of fresh bones to remove their soft tissues while maintaining their structural integrity is a basic and essential part of bone studies. The primary issue is how the cleaning process influences bone microstructures and mechanical properties. We cleaned fresh lamb femurs using enzymatic maceration in comparison with water maceration at room temperature. The microstructures of these compact bones were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their porosities were quantified using image processing software. The bone microhardness was measured using a Vickers indentation tester for studying the mechanical properties. The results show that enzymatic maceration of compact bone resulted in a significant microhardness reduction in comparison with water maceration. However, enzymatic maceration did not cause any significant change of porosity in bone structures.

  19. Influence of enzymatic maceration on the microstructure and microhardness of compact bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Ling [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua, E-mail: ling.yin@jcu.edu.a [Department of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The cleaning of fresh bones to remove their soft tissues while maintaining their structural integrity is a basic and essential part of bone studies. The primary issue is how the cleaning process influences bone microstructures and mechanical properties. We cleaned fresh lamb femurs using enzymatic maceration in comparison with water maceration at room temperature. The microstructures of these compact bones were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their porosities were quantified using image processing software. The bone microhardness was measured using a Vickers indentation tester for studying the mechanical properties. The results show that enzymatic maceration of compact bone resulted in a significant microhardness reduction in comparison with water maceration. However, enzymatic maceration did not cause any significant change of porosity in bone structures.

  20. Performance of the SUBSTOR-potato model across contrasting growing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prassad, Rishi

    2017-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools in climate change impact assessments, but they often lack comprehensive field testing. In this study, we tested the SUBSTOR-potato model with 87 field experiments, including 204 treatments from 19 countries. The field experiments varied in potato species and cultiv......Crop models are essential tools in climate change impact assessments, but they often lack comprehensive field testing. In this study, we tested the SUBSTOR-potato model with 87 field experiments, including 204 treatments from 19 countries. The field experiments varied in potato species...... and cultivars, N fertilizer application, water supply, sowing dates, soil types, temperature environments, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and included open top chamber and Free-Air-CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiments. Tuber yields were generally well simulated with the SUBSTOR-potato model across a wide...

  1. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  2. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  3. In situ analytical pyrolysis of coal macerals and solid bitumens by laser micropyrolysis GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, P.F.; George, S.C.; Pickel, W. [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 136, NSW 1670 N. Ryde (Australia); Zhu, Y. [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, 434102 Hubei (China); Zhong, N. [Applied Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Petroleum, Changping, 102200 Beijing (China)

    2001-04-01

    Specific macerals in coals and distinct solid organic bitumens within limestones from northern China were separately analysed in situ by laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major pyrolysates from the resinite and cutinite macerals included aromatic hydrocarbons such as alkylnaphthalenes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetralins (in the resinite) and alkylphenols (in the cutinite), and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alk-1-enes, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane. The same classes of hydrocarbons were also detected in co-occurring vitrinites, including very similar relative distributions of alkylnaphthalenes in the case of the resin-rich coal. Several observed quantitative differences are consistent with previous molecular data from maceral concentrates. The qualitative similarity of the maceral data suggest (1) extensive assimilation of free hydrocarbons by all macerals within the coals; or (2) inefficient targeting of the macerals by the laser, although microscopic observation showed that the laser craters were generally constrained within surface boundaries of the maceral. The organic composition of a solid bitumen within a Carboniferous limestone was characterised by a distinctive distribution of C{sub 0}-C{sub 4} alkyldibenzofurans, as well as alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and a low molecular weight distribution of n-alk-1-enes and n-alkanes. These data suggest the solid bitumen comprises a strongly aromatic matrix with terrestrially-derived oxygen functionality and alkyl linkages. The same aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon products were also detected in the morphologically homogenous carbonates hosting the solid bitumens, indicating the presence of sub-microscopic organic moieties throughout the limestone.

  4. Role of Antibiosis in Competition of Erwinia Strains in Potato Infection Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrood, Paige E.; Rella, Manuela; Schroth, Milton N.

    1988-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum strains produced a bactericidal antibiotic in vitro that inhibited a wide spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The optimum temperature for production was 24°C, and the addition of glycerol to culture media enhanced antibiotic production. Antibiotic production by these strains in the infection court of potato was the principal determinant enabling it to gain ascendancy over competing antibiotic-sensitive Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strains. There was a complete correlation between antibiotic production by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum in vitro and inhibition of competing E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in planta. Inhibition of the latter by the former was apparent after 10 h of incubation in potato tuber wounds. Population densities of sensitive E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in mixed potato tuber infections with E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were approximately 106-fold lower after 48 h of incubation than in corresponding single sensitive strain infections. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora were not inhibited in tuber infections that were incubated anaerobically. This correlated with the absence of antibiotic production during anaerobic incubation in vitro. Antibiotic-resistant strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora were not inhibited in planta or in vitro by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. Moreover, isogenic antibiotic-negative (Ant−) mutant E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum strains were not inhibitory to sensitive E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in tuber infections. PMID:16347633

  5. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  6. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  7. The potato-specific apyrase is apoplastically localized and has influence on gene expression, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Apyrases hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates and are found in all eukaryotes and a few prokaryotes. Although their enzymatic properties have been well characterized, relatively little is known regarding their subcellular localization and physiological function in plants. In this study, we used reverse genetic and biochemical approaches to investigate the role of potato (Solanum tuberosum)-specific apyrase. Silencing of the apyrase gene family with RNA interference constructs under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter led to a strong decrease in apyrase activity to below 10% of the wild-type level. This decreased activity led to phenotypic changes in the transgenic lines, including a general retardation in growth, an increase in tuber number per plant, and differences in tuber morphology. Silencing of apyrase under the control of a tuber-specific promoter led to similar changes in tuber morphology; however, there were no direct effects of apyrase inhibition on tuber metabolism. DNA microarrays revealed that decreased expression of apyrase leads to increased levels of transcripts coding for cell wall proteins involved in growth and genes involved in energy transfer and starch synthesis. To place these results in context, we determined the subcellular localization of the potato-specific apyrase. Using a combination of approaches, we were able to demonstrate that this enzyme is localized to the apoplast. We describe the evidence that underlies both this fact and that potato-specific apyrase has a crucial role in regulating growth and development.

  8. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebler, C; Ponsot, G

    1983-05-01

    The hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, a midline dysraphic syndrome, corresponds to a mass of normal neuronal tissue implanted in the area of the mamillary bodies. It has no evolutionary potential, but association to other cerebral malformations has been observed. On the basis of 18 personal cases and a review of the literature, the authors evaluate the actual diagnostic criteria and the incidence of different clinical signs such as precocious isosexual puberty, seizures, and mental impairment.

  9. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebler, C.; Ponsot, G.

    1983-01-01

    The hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, a midline dysraphic syndrome, corresponds to a mass of normal neuronal tissue implanted in the area of the mamillary bodies. It has no evolutionary potential, but association to other cerebral malformations has been observed. On the basis of 18 personal cases and a review of the literature, the authors evaluate the actual diagnostic criteria and the incidence of different clinical signs such as precocious isosexual puberty, seizures, and mental impairment. (orig.)

  10. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  11. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  12. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios eRoumeliotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein. Based on sequence homology using the recently published potato genome sequence (Solanum tuberosum group Phureja we identified ten annotated potato StPIN genes. Mining the publicly available gene expression data, we constructed a catalogue tissue specificity of StPIN gene expression, focusing on the process of tuberization. A total of four StPIN genes exhibited increased expression four days after tuber induction, prior to the onset of stolon swelling. For two PIN genes, StPIN4 and StPIN2, promoter sequences were cloned and fused to the GUS reporter protein to study tissue specificity in more detail. StPIN4 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in the flower stigma, in the flower style, below the ovary and petals, in the root tips, in the vascular tissue of the stolons and in the tuber parenchyma cells. StPIN2 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in flower buds, in the vascular tissue of the swelling stolons and in the storage parenchyma of the growing tubers. Based on our results, we postulate a role for the StPINs in redistributing auxin in the swelling stolon during early events in tuber development.

  13. Evaluation of primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are good source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenols as one of the most important components. The chemical composition with reducing sugar, starch, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed in five potato varieties (Agria, Marabel, Red Anna, Picasso, Princess. Values of dry matter content ranged from 20.34 to 23.64%. In terms of tubers storage, its content above 20% is required. The highest level of starch was detected in variety Princess (16.82%. The lowest reducing sugar content was recorded by variety Marabel (0.08%. Similarly, low values reached varieties Princess (0.12%, Agria (0.14 and Red Anna (0.16%. These would be appropriate to use for food processing and for production of fried potato chips or fries. Variety Red Anna reached the highest amount of vitamin C (73.72 mg.kg-1. The lower levels of this vitamin showed tubers of varieties Picasso (35.02 mg.kg-1 and Princess (36.89 mg.kg-1. The antioxidant activity was measured with radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenic assay. Potato varieties contained high levels of total polyphenols (0.474 – 1.550 mg GAE per dry weight and flavonoids (1.407 – 15.933 μg QE per dry weight. The consumption of potatoes can provide nutritional value along with antioxidant potential that can be helpful for proper functioning of the body physiological systems. Statistical evaluation by the single factor analysis of variance detected high significant impact of variety on the content of all the analytical parameters in evaluated varieties of potato tubers. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-09-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15/sup 0/C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10/sup 0/C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28/sup 0/ +- 2/sup 0/C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential.

  15. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15 0 C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10 0 C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential. (author)

  16. Study on hydropyrolysis of maceral from Shenmu coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    2002-02-01

    Hydropyrolysis of maceral concentrates from Shenmu coal was systematically investigated using TGA at final temperature of 900{degree}C with heating rate of 20{degree}C/min under pressure of 0.1Mpa to 3Mpa. The effect of pressure on TG/DTG curve, distribution of elements in semi-cokes and removal of sulfur and nitrogen was investigated. The results indicated that the remarkable weight loss was observed in range from 378{degree}C to 718{degree}C, the peak temperature of the maximum reaction rate was 496{degree}C and 522{degree}C for V-C and F-C respectively, and V-C has larger weight loss rate. With increasing pressure the diffusion of hydrogen increased markedly, which led to increase of weight loss. For the element distribution in the semi-coke, the C content increased, H and O content decreased, while the S content changed little. The desulfurization and denitrogenation also increased with increase in pressure. At pressure of 3 MPa, V-C had higher desulfurization than F-C. With increased pyrolysis pressure, the combustion reactivity of semi-coke first decreased and then increased. V-C semi-coke had higher combustion reactivity than F-C semi-coke under the same conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Influence of Pectolytic Enzymes on the Quality of Wine Maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana REBENCIUC

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining high-quality wines with a registered designation of origin means making the most of the specific features of the variety and those imprinted with technology and the place of harvesting. The aroma is due to the chemical compounds of terpenic nature that accumulate in the grapes (variety flavors and the secondary aromas that are formed during the alcoholic fermentation and the aging period of the wines (Amrani, and Glories, 1995. The wine-making of the varieties is followed by the appreciation of the primary grapes. This is achieved by preferential maceration of the must by means of enzymes (Marin et al., 1998. The technology of aromatic wines has two fundamental objectives: extracting the primary aromas of grapes (terpenols and favoring the formation of secondary fermentation aromas. In order to obtain aromatic wines with variety typology, the preferential stage is decisive. Pectolytic enzyme preparations are used in oenology to accelerate and complete the extraction and clarification processes of the must, extracting and stabilizing the color, highlighting the varietal aromatic potential of the varieties and improving the filterability and maturation of the wines.

  18. First record of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae severely damaging field grown potato crops in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Andi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood was reported for the first time in the South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia, and is causing significant damage to field grown potato crops. In an insecticide trial, the tuber yield in infested, untreated plants was reduced by 39%, and the plants had an average number of 68 adult whiteflies per leaflet.

  19. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  20. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  1. Functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated or characterized i...

  2. Induction and use of artificial mutants in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumine, Shokichi

    1984-01-01

    X-ray, ethylene imine, 32 P and 60 Co were used as mutagen for sweet potato mutation breeding and visible variations were observed for all mutagen. In the case of 60 Co irradiation, mutation rate of skin color is 0.5-1.3% based on cutting. Direction and variation of dry matter and tuber yield of mutants which were induced by 32 P and/or 60 Co irradiation showed more deteriorative variation than progressive variation but some induced mutant lines show same or superior characters than original line. In the case of 32 P irradiation to tuber, obstruction is not so much up to dese of 10,000 μci per tuber but treatment of 330 μci per cutting approximate to LD 50 . By tuber treatment with 60 Co gamma rays, suppression of sprouting occurred in dose of 30kR. Tendency to increase a variation was not observed at higher doses. 50-200 μci per cutting or 300-500 μci per tuber in 32 P treatment and 15 kR in 60 Co gamma-irradiation for tuber seemed to be optimum dosages. Hybrid seed of mutant selected for dry matter content was compared with that of original line and it was concluded that the variation of selected line was genetic. Mutant induced by 32 P and 60 Co treatment was used as a parental material and progeny of the cross was selected for practical characters. As a result, a line of higher starch yield with high resistance to pest and disease was selected and this line was used as parental material of further breeding. (author)

  3. Tri-filial presentation of familial tuberous sclerosis with renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, Sushil R; Chatterjee, Shankar D; Ray, Saugata; Chakraborty, Swarup; Achar, Arun; Pathak, TK

    2009-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant penetrance. Only some organs are involved, e.g., skin (earthy skin thickenings, ash leaf patches), cerebral cortex (hamartomatous nodules) and kidneys, (angiolipoma, adenocarcinoma). These hamartomatous swellings resemble potatoes and hence, referred to as tubers. We herein report on three patients (all familial), father, son and granddaughter, with this rare involvement, from the eastern part of India. The father and son had involvement of only the skin (i.e. nose) and kidneys while the disease penetrated further in the subsequent filial generations with son and granddaughter having skin, brain and bilateral kidney involvement. This kind of tri-filial progression has not till date, been reported from this region, making it an interesting case presentation. (author)

  4. Tri-filial presentation of familial tuberous sclerosis with renal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoshal Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant penetrance. Only some organs are involved, e.g., skin (earthy skin thickenings, ash leaf patches, cerebral cortex (hamartomatous nodules and kidneys, (angiolipoma, adenocarcinoma. These hamar-tomatous swellings resemble potatoes and hence, referred to as tubers. We herein report on three patients (all familial, father, son and granddaughter, with this rare involvement, from the eastern part of India. The father and son had involvement of only the skin (i.e. nose and kidneys while the disease penetrated further in the subsequent filial generations with son and granddaughter having skin, brain and bilateral kidney involvement. This kind of tri-filial progression has not till date, been reported from this region, making it an interesting case presentation.

  5. Improvements of root and tuber crops in tropical countries of Asia by induced mutations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Kagoshima, Japan, 22-26 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Root and tuber crops like potato, sweet potato are important starchy foods in tropical countries. However, being vegetatively propagated or difficult to reproduce by seeds, these crops remained in a relatively primitive state in terms of plant breeding. This proceeding contains research papers that deal with the use of external irradiation or induced mutations techniques that are expected to broaden their genetic diversity, thus facilitating screening for desired characteristics.

  6. Improvements of root and tuber crops in tropical countries of Asia by induced mutations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Kagoshima, Japan, 22-26 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    Root and tuber crops like potato, sweet potato are important starchy foods in tropical countries. However, being vegetatively propagated or difficult to reproduce by seeds, these crops remained in a relatively primitive state in terms of plant breeding. This proceeding contains research papers that deal with the use of external irradiation or induced mutations techniques that are expected to broaden their genetic diversity, thus facilitating screening for desired characteristics. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  8. The effect of lowdose irradiation on the physicochemical changes of potatoes during storage [in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Langerak, D.I.; Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Potatoes were irradiated with 0.25,50,75 and 100 Gy and stored at 10°C and 85% R.H. for 180 days to find out a balanced dose for effective sprout inhibition and decreased rottage during storage in Bangladesh. Weight loss, sprouting, rotting, contents of vitamin C and sugar, and organoleptic properties of the stored potatoes were investigated the control tubers and those irradiated with 25 Gy were 100% sprouted within 45 and 135 days of storage respectively. At 50 Gy there was about 14% sprouting and about 7.3% rottage during 180 days of storage whereas at 75 and 100 Gy, sprouting was completely inhibited but the rottage was 10% and 14.7% respectively. Irradiation caused about 15% loss of vitamin C but during storage, the rate of loss of vitamin C was similar between control and irradiated tubers. Immediately after irradiation, potato tubers displayed a transient increase in total sugar content but during storage, the total sugar content of the irradiated potatoes decreased as compared to the control

  9. The behaviour of certain potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the behaviour of some potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus under the field conditions of the Potato Research and Development Station, Targu-Secuiesc. During the observed period (2001-2003 the appearance of new forms of attack was registered, for example the attack on the stem, on the leaf petioles, as well as a greater number of infected tubers. The greatest number of blighted stems belonged to the varieties Sante and Ostara, and the smallest one was registered in the case of the variety Lady Roseta, followed by Desiree and Nemere. The results prove that there is a direct relationship between the frequency of the attack on the stems and that of the blighted tubers in the case of every variety, except for the varieties Lady Roseta and Nemere at which the smallest number of infected tubers was registered.

  10. Phenology of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Commercial Potato Fields in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Carroll, Amy; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Thornton, Michael; Miller, Jeff; Nolte, Philip; Olsen, Nora; Price, William

    2017-12-08

    Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015). All life stages of psyllids were sampled using a combination of methods (yellow sticky traps, vacuum samples, and leaf samples), and adult psyllids were tested for the presence of Lso by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Abundance of potato psyllids initially increased gradually over each growing season, then exhibited a sharp late-season rise and a sharp decline as most fields were being harvested. Abundance of psyllids was higher at warmer, lower elevation sites, but infestation onset did not differ between growing regions. Fewer psyllids were collected in vacuum samples than in sticky trap samples. Nymphs and eggs were found only late season and during years with high abundance of adults. Overall incidence of Lso was similar among all years but one. The results presented here clarify our understanding of the seasonal phenology of potato psyllids and Lso in Idaho potato fields and will aid in developing integrated management strategies against this important pest of potato. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weigh...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided.......Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...

  12. A chromatochemometric approach for evaluating and selecting the perfume maceration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nogueroles, Marina; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2010-04-30

    A chemometric treatment of the data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) has been proposed to study the maceration time involved in perfumes manufacture with the final purpose of reducing this time but preserving the organoleptic characteristics of the perfume that is being elaborated. In this sense, GC-FID chromatograms were used as a fingerprint of perfume samples subjected to different maceration times, and data were treated by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), by comparing to a set of samples known to be macerated or not, which were used as calibration objects. The GC-FID methodology combined with the treatment of data by LDA has been applied successfully to seven different perfumes. The constructed LDA models exhibited excellent Wilks' lambdas (0.013-0.118, depending on the perfume), and up to a reduction of 57% has been achieved with respect to the maceration time initially established. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  14. Open Pollinated Offspring for Producing Potatoes from True Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmirzaie, AM.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Open pollinated (OP offspring offers a cheap propagule for potato production from true seed (TPS. A series of trials in contrasting Peruvian locations including several generations derived by open pollination were carried out to determine the potential of OP for TPS. The results suggest that several generations of OP did not affect the performance of TPS for tuber characteristics. On average, F1 hybrids out-yielded first generation OP offspring, but tuber yield per plot of advanced OP generations (OP5 across locations did not differ significantly from that shown by F1 hybrids. It seems that the effect of potential inbreeding in early OP generations was absent in advanced OP generations, maybe due to selection of heterozygous parents in the preceding generations. Results from sequential harvests showed that initiation and bulking of tubers are slower in advanced generations of OP than in the first OP generation, particularly in the warm tropics. Nonetheless, some OP TPS did not differ significantly for tuber yield across generations, suggesting that farmers may grow commercially selected OP offspring.

  15. Color enhancement of Fetească neagră wines by using pectolytic enzymes during maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Bichescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Red wine is the result of red grape must fermentation and the parallel extraction of various polyphenolic compounds from the grape berry skin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pectolytic enzymes addition during maceration fermentation on the chromatic characteristics of the Fetească neagră wine.An increase in concentrations of anthocyanins was observed when pectolytic enzymes were used during maceration fermentation process.

  16. Monitoring changes in anthocyanin and steroid alkaloid glycoside content in lines of transgenic potato plants using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecki, Maciej; Matysiak-Kata, Iwona; Frański, Rafał; Skała, Jacek; Szopa, Jan

    2003-03-01

    Transgenic potato plants overexpressing and repressing enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis were created and analyzed. The selected plants clearly showed the expected changes in anthocyanins synthesis level. Overexpression of a DNA encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) in sense orientation resulted in an increase in tuber anthocyanins, a 4-fold increase in petunidin and pelargonidin derivatives. A significant decrease in anthocyanin level was observed when the plant was transformed with a corresponding antisense construct. The transformation of potato plants was also accompanied by significant changes in steroid alkaloid glycosides (SAG) level in transgenic potato tuber. The changes in SAGs content was not dependent on flavonoid composition in transgenic potato. However, in an extreme situation where the highest (DFR11) or the lowest (DFRa3) anthocyanin level was detected the positive correlation with steroid alkaloid content was clearly visible. It is suggested that the changes in SAGs content resulted from chromatin stressed upon transformation. A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) system with electrospray ionization was applied for profiling qualitative and quantitative changes of steroid alkaloid glycosides in tubers of twelve lines of transgenic potato plants. Except alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, in the extracts from dried tuber skin alpha-solamargine and alpha-solasonine, triglycosides of solasonine, were identified in minor amounts, triglycosides of solanidine dehydrodimers were also recognized.

  17. Factor Analysis, AMMI Stability Value (ASV Parameter and GGE Bi-Plot Graphical Method of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Potato Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Hassanpanah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative traits and stability of marketable tuber yield of 14 promising potato clones, along with three commercial cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Savalan as checks, were evaluated at the Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station during 2013 and 2014. The experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. During growing period and after harvest, traits like main stem number per plant, plant height, tuber number and weight per plant, total and marketable tuber yield, dry matter percentage, baking type, hollow heart, tuber inner ring and discoloration of raw tuber flesh after 24 hours were measured. Combined ANONA for quantitative traits showed that there were significant differences among promising clones as to total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, tuber mean weight, main stem number per plant and dry matter percentage and their interactions with year in total and marketable tuber yield. The clone 9 (397078-3 with the least amount of marketable tuber yield had significant difference with clones 4 (397045-13, 1 (397031-16, 3 (397031-11, 6 (397009-8 and 12 (397067-6 in 2013 and with clone 4 (397045-13 and Agria cultivar in 2014. The clones 4(397045-13, 1 (397031-16 and 12 (397067-6 had uniform tuber, yellow to dark-yellow skin and light-yellow to yellow flesh color, tuber shape of oval round and round, shallow to mid shallow eyes, no tuber inner ring, hollow heart and tuber inner crack and mid-late maturity. They were selected for home consumption of chips, french-fries and frying. Based on the results of factor analysis, "tuber yield", "number of tuber" and "plant structural and quality "were named as first, second and third quality determining factors respectively. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot model and AMMI Stability Value (ASV parameter, were acceptable methods for the selection of marketable tuber yield stability which found to

  18. Effect of Different Plastic mulch on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khosro parvizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advantages of plastic mulches have been known in production of agricultural crops. Their capability have been demonstrated to help nutrition uptake, precocity and yield of fruit trees, and decreasing of aphid population as viruses pest vectors. It is also demonstrated some advantages of plastic mulch on some traits in potato such as increasing growth rate, yield and number of medium tuber size. Also, the effects of combined use of straw, chopped and polyethylene as well as different levels of irrigation (60, 80, 100, 120% water requirement on yield and water use efficiency in potato have been investigated. In previous studies, it is concentrated on the effect of the special type of plastic on growing aspect of potato and there is no comparative assessment between different types of the mulches. So that in this research we evaluated the responses between types of plastic mulches. Material and Methods: this research was conducted under field conditions. A factorial experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of mulch in five levels (clear, white, black, double layer and control (without mulch and two cultivars (Agria and Sante. Each plot was designed in 4 m2. For every plot, ridges were divided into complicated double rows with 50 × 150 centimeters wide. Irrigation tapes were placed between every duplicated row. Water requirement was calculated through corrected evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith equation with considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season some characteristics such as requirement time to 80% emergence, tuberization time, plant height in flowering time, number of stems and leaf area have been measured. Harvesting time was recorded along with measurement of tuber weights. Total yield was measured by random selection of one m2 in each plot. Harvested tubers were separated based on three sizes; edible tuber

  19. Using Gamma Irradiation To Induce New Mutants In Potatoes Cv. Diamant Through Tissue Culture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.; Ali, Amina A. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; Afifi, Abd El-Moneim M.

    2004-01-01

    The excess salt, usually NaCl, inhibits potato plant growth and decreases tubers yield. The use of gamma irradiation to induce new mutants in potato cv. Diamant through tissue culture technique was the main task of this study. Sterilized meristemic tips of potato tubers were cultured on aseptic solid MS-medium, pH 5.7, and were incubated at 20 ± 2 d eg C and 16 hrs day length of 3000-Lux light intensity, to produce virus-free plantlets. Micro-propagation started after 6-8 weeks and plantlets were sub-cultured every 3-4 weeks to increase plantlets population. Plantlets were exposed to 0, or 40 Gy, dose rate 27.7 rad / sec., using Co 60 source at the National Center for Research and Radiation Technology, Cairo, Egypt. Irradiated and unirradiated plantlets were transplanted into 60 ml liquid 1/2MS-medium, pH 5.7, and supplemented with 0, 2000 or 4000 ppm NaCl. And, they were incubated for 2 weeks under the same conditions of temperature and light till the new plantlets were grown up. Healthy plantlets were selected, and micro-propagated up to the sixth vegetative generation (M 1 V 6 ), under the same conditions of salinity and incubation conditions Thereafter, the plantlets were transferred to tuberization liquid 1/2MS-medium, supplemented with the same mentioned concentrations of NaCl, to obtain microtubers. The microtubers were collected after 6-8 weeks and preserved at 10 deg C for 3 months approximately, to break the dormancy. Sprouted microtubers were sown to obtain minitubers, and subsequently macrotubers. All cultures were performed in 30-cm pots in a protected greenhouse, and were irrigated with the same concentrations of NaCl. It could be elicited that cv. Diamant is salinity sensitive. This was evidenced by the decrease in the average number of tubers per plant and average fresh weight of tuber under salinity stress up 4000 ppm NaCl, comparing to unsaline control treatment. Potato plants, which still healthy and produced tubers under salinity stress up to

  20. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  2. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  3. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment

  4. Potato processing scenario in India: Industrial constraints, future projections, challenges ahead and remedies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen

    2010-03-01

    Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.

  5. Development of late blight resistance and heat tolerance through gamma irradiation of shoot cultures in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, S.S.; Jitender Kaur, Adas; Minocha, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28 C ) incubation temperature (optimum being 20 1C ) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties

  6. Effects of commercial organic fertilizers on the yield and yield structure of potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work has dealt with investigations of two type commercial organic fertilizers (DCM ECO-MIX 4 NPK 7:7:10 i GUANITO NPK 6:15:3 effects on the yield and yield structure of three potato cultivars (Cleopatra, Carrera and Sylvana. The control variant was used in plots without the use of organic fertilizers. The field experiment was performed in 2012. in a populated area Dobrica (N 45° 13’, E 20° 51’, 78 m.s.l. at the experimental farm plot Belča on which is certified organic production, on anthropogenic soil subtype chernozem on carbonate terrace. The results of research showed that the lowest tuber yield was determined in the control treatment (20,87 t ha-1, while the highest yield was achieved with a commercial organic fertilizer DCM ECO-MIX 4 (23,96 t ha-1. Number of tubers per plant corresponded to the characteristics of the studied cultivars. The largest number of tubers per plant was correlated with yield. Specifically, individual variants of the two greatest yields had the highest average number of tubers per plant. Cultivar Cleopatra of variant with GUANITO achieved 17,51 tubers per plant, while cultivar Sylvana of variant with DCM ECO-MIX 4 achieved 17,38 tubers per plant.

  7. Studies on mutation breeding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Kouyama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Different genotypes were subjected to gamma rays and EMS to examine the effects on tuber skin colour mutation. Different mutation rates were obtained according to the genotypes. The gamma irradiation induced larger sector size of skin colour mutation than EMS. Gamma rays had an effect on inducing flowering in MV 1 which is utilized in cross breeding. Mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EMS on the hybrid true seed which segregates in a Mendelian ratio for pigmentation in leaf, stem and tuber and for shape of leaf gave some bias to their segregation ratios. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on quantitative characters, such as dry matter content and total sugar content in tubers, were also investigated in hybrid populations. The treatments enlarged genetic variations on both the characters, being more effective on total sugar content. Clonal progenies derived from mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EI were investigated for their quantitative MV 4 -MV 6 characters (tuber yield, dry matter content and total sugar content) in MV 4 -MV 6 . Heritabilities in a broad sense and phenotypic variances were estimated from the measurements on derivative strains obtained by random selection from mutagenic treatment plots. Artificial selection was effective only for tuber yield. Mutant clones with short stem length decreased their tuber yield and vice versa. A few mutant clones were found to excel the originals in dry matter content and total sugar content. Some aspects of mutation breeding in sweet potato are also discussed

  8. Novel receptor-like protein kinases induced by Erwinia carotovora and short oligogalacturonides in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, M; Kõiv, V; Mäe, A; Palva, E T

    2001-11-01

    summary Identification of potato genes responsive to cell wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for four related receptor-like protein kinases. One of the putative serine-threonine protein kinases might have arisen through alternative splicing. These potato receptor-like kinases (PRK1-4) were highly equivalent (91-99%), most likely constituting a family of related receptors. All PRKs and four other plant RLKs share in their extracellular domain a conserved bi-modular pattern of cysteine repeats distinct from that in previously characterized plant RLKs, suggesting that they represent a new class of receptors. The corresponding genes were rapidly induced by E. carotovora culture filtrate (CF), both in the leaves and tubers of potato. Furthermore, the genes were transiently induced by short oligogalacturonides. The structural identity of PRKs and their induction pattern suggested that they constitute part of the early response of potato to E. carotovora infection.

  9. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  10. [Effects of fertilizer application on water consumption characteristics and yield of potato cultured under ridge-furrow and whole filed plastic mulching in rain-fed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian Feng; Zhang, Xu Cheng; Wang, Hong Li; Ma, Yi Fan; Hou, Hui Zhi; Fang, Yan Jie

    2016-03-01

    Chemical fertilizer reduction and organic manure substitution are the useful methods to increase potato water-and nutrient use efficiency, which is cultured under ridge-furrow and whole soil surface mulched by plastic film in semiarid rain-fed area. A 4-year field experiment was carried out from 2011 to 2014 with three treatments: 1) traditional chemical fertilizer application (F), 2) chemical nitrogen fertilizer reduced by 25% and dressing at flowering stage (DF), and 3) chemical nitrogen fertilizer reduced by 50% and organic manure substitution (OF). The soil moisture and potato yield were investigated, and seasonal water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE) were calculated to study the regulations of different nutrient management methods on potato water use process, as well as its effects on potato tuber yield and WUE. The results showed that soil water storage in potato flowering stage was the highest under DF treatment, but there were no significant difference among these three treatments. The depth of soil water depletion in DF and OF showed an increasing trend at post-flowering stage. Potato water consumption decreased significantly at pre-flowering stage, but increased by 36.2%, 23.2%, 24.8% and 19.0% respectively at post-flowering stage in 2011-2014 under DF treatment, as compared with those under F treatment. OF treatment increased potato water consumption by 20.7% and 16.3% than that under F treatment at post-flowering stage from 2011 to 2012, respectively, but exerted no significant effect at pre-flowering stage. Compared with F, DF increased potato tuber yield averagely by 2595.1 kg·hm -2 from 2012 to 2014 and significantly increased the WUE by 14.4% and 6.3% in 2013 and 2014, respectively; OF significantly increased potato tuber yield averagely by 2945 kg·hm -2 tuber yield in 4 experimental years and WUE was significantly higher than that under F from 2012 to 2014. It was indicated that both DF and OF could regulate water consumption between pre

  11. Potato yield and quality as a function of the plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Varis

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of potato plant density on yield quantity and quality were investigated at the Hankkija Plant Breeding Institute from 1971-73, using seed rates of 1600, 3200 and 4800 kg/ha, and seed sizes of 40, 80 and 120 g. The varieties used were Ijsselster and Record. The number of stems per m2 rose with increasing seed rate and with increasing seed size. Stem number increased with seed rate faster for small seed than for large. The response in stem number was greater for Ijsselster than for Record. The number of stems per seed tuber fell as the plant density rose. The number of tubers per m2 altered in the same direction as the number of stems, but less responsively. The reason for this was that the number of tubers per stem decreased with increasing plant density. The tuber yield showed a continual increase with increasing plant density. At the lowest stem densities (less than 20—25 stems/m2 small seed gave better results than other sizes, but at the higher plant densities, the importance of seed size faded away and the yield was dependant on the plant density alone. Net yield (gross yield 2 x seed rate, however, was higher the smaller the seed used, whatever the stem density. Tuber size decreased when plant density increased, the proportion of large tubers diminishing most, especially when small seed was used. The proportion of small tubers altered more for Ijsselster than for Record. Seed size and seed rate did not on average significantly affect the proportion of Class I potatoes, though small seed gave results slightly better than other sizes. The starch content of the yield rose when the seed rate was increased (16.0-16.3 -16.5 % and fell with increasing seed size (16.5 16.2 16.1 %. The maximum variation was 15.8-16.7 %. The specific gravity distribution improved with increasing plant density. Raw discolouration of the tubers did not alter significantly as the plant density rose. Blackening of the tubers decreased with increasing plant

  12. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  14. evaluation of selected composted organic sources on potato plant grown in sandy soil using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    the main point of this study is the evaluation of organic compost as a source of nutrient demand by potatoes cultivated in light texture soil under drip irrigation system. the composted materials either applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilizer have an effective role on potato yields and nutrients management under field scale. so, many objectives were achieved. the valuable results obtained in the present study could be summarized as follows: part one: composting experiment contains ph changes of composted materials, EC changes with time, nitrogen content in composted materials, change of c/n ratio with time, organic matter content of the composted materials, phosphorus content in composted materials,. part two: potato field experiment contains .dry matter yield, tuber dry weight, tuber yield, nutrients uptake by potato varieties,. part three contains . application of 15 N isotope dilution technique, nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), nitrogen derived from organic compost (% Ndf comp),nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs), fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE), 15 N recovered by potatoes.

  15. The use of molecular approaches in overcoming salinity stress in potato plants (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmida-Sayari, A.; Jaoura, S.; Gargouri-Bouzid, R.

    2005-01-01

    Proline is known as compatible osmolyte accumulated by plant cells in response to salt and drought stresses. It is supposed to be an osmoprotectant involved in the protection of cellular structures under osmotic stress. Therefore, in an attempt to increase salt tolerance in potato, a pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) cDNA. Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred to potato plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This enzyme is responsible for conversion of glutamate to delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate that is reduced to Proline. The resulting transgenic potato plants showed an important increase in Pro production levels compared to non-transgenic plants. This Proline accumulation was particularly enhanced in the presence of salt up to 100 mM NaCl. The transgenic potato plants showed also an improved tolerance to salinity through an increase of the tuber yield. Indeed the potato tuber yield in such transgenic lines was much less altered than in the non-transgenic plants. (author)

  16. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  17. Micrinite maceral evidence of hydrocarbon generation in cretaceous coal measures of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Ukpabio, E. J.; Funtua, I. I.

    1999-01-01

    Maceral analysis on samples from the coal and coal-bearing strata of the Awgu Formation in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria allows the subdivision of the coal beds and inter seam sediments into three different petrographic/coal facies, namely: a vitrinite-fusinite coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, poor in liptinite, with variable amounts of inertinite and low mineral matter content; a trimaceritic coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite with low mineral matter content; and a shaley coal facies which, expectedly, is dominated by mineral matter and has variable amounts of vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Micrinite macerals constitute 8.2% and 4.5 on mineral matter-counted basis in samples from the trimaceritic and shaley coal facies respectively. These amounts, in both cases, are considered to be very high. They occur as finely particulate, rounded grains approximately I um in diameter. Most of the micrinite are closely associated with highly reflecting, almost unrecognizable liptinite. The nature and origin of micrinite and its significance to oil and gas generation have been studied extensively. As secondary macerals, they are generally believed to be relics of oil generation from oil-prone macerals, mainly liptinitic and vitrinitic macerals with which they are closely associated. Reflectance measurements on the associated vitrinite macerals indicate a thermal maturity range of 0.74 - 1.25 % Rm. This range corresponds to the zone of oil generation in most minerogenic oil source rocks. In the study area, however, only the trimaceritic coal facies and some parts of the shaley coal facies that are rich in liptinite alongside the associated micrinite macerals are considered to have generated oil. The vitrinite-fusinite coal facies with its high content of humic organic matter (vitrinite + Inertinite) can only generate gas (wet + dry) within the given thermal maturity range

  18. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  19. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).

  20. Potential of golden potatoes to improve vitamin A and vitamin E status in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the third most widely consumed plant food by humans. Its tubers are rich in starch and vitamin C, but have low or null levels of essential nutrients such as provitamin A and vitamin E. Transformation of potato with a bacterial mini-pathway for β-carotene in a tuber-specific manner results in a "golden" potato (GP tuber phenotype resulting from accumulation of provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene and xanthophylls. Here, we investigated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E as α-tocopherol (αTC in boiled wild type and golden tubers using in vitro digestion. Golden tubers contained up to 91 μg provitamin A carotenes (PAC/g D, increased levels of xanthophylls, phytoene and phytofluene, as well as up to 78 μg vitamin E/g DW. Cubes from wild type and GP tubers were boiled and subjected to simulated digestion to estimate bioaccessibility of carotenoids and αTC. Retention in boiled GPs exceeded 80% for β-carotene (βC, α-carotene (αC, lutein, phytoene ± and αTC, but less than 50% for phytofluene. The efficiency of partitioning of total βC, αC, E-lutein, phytoene, phytofluene and αTC in the mixed micelle fraction during small intestinal digestion was influenced by genotype, tuber content and hydrophobicity. Apical uptake of the compounds that partitioned in mixed micelles by monolayers of human intestinal Caco-2 cells during incubation for 4h was 14-20% for provitamin A and xanthophylls, 43-45% for phytoene, 23-27% for phytofluene, and 53% for αTC. These results suggest that a 150 g serving of boiled golden potatoes has the potential to contribute 42% and 23% of the daily requirement of retinol activity equivalents (RAE, as well as 34 and 17% of the daily vitamin E requirement for children and women of reproductive age, respectively.

  1. Interaction of different irrigation strategies and soil textures on the nitrogen uptake of field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, S.H.; Andersen, M.N.; Lærke, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    received 65% of FI after tuber bulking and lasted for six weeks until final harvest. Results showed that the irrigation treatments were not significantly different in terms of N uptake in the tubers, shoot, and whole crop. However, there was a statistical difference between the soil textures where plants...... in the loamy sand had the highest amount of N uptake. The interaction between irrigation treatments and soil textures was significant, and implied that under non-limiting water conditions, loamy sand is the suitable soil for potato production because plants can take up sufficient amounts of N and it could...... potentially lead to higher yield. However, under limited water conditions and applying water-saving irrigation strategies, sandy loam and coarse sand are better growth media because N is more available for the potatoes. The simple yield prediction model was developed that could explains ca. 96...

  2. Management of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) with bio-fumigants/stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T J G; Turner, S J; Fleming, C C

    2007-01-01

    Field trials evaluated the effect of four plant-based bio-fumigants/stimulants on population levels of G. pallida and the resulting potato yields and quality. Three formulations contained seaweed biostimulants (Algifol, Nutridip and Metastim) and one bio-fumigant containing mustard and chilli pepper extracts (Dazitol). These were compared with the fumigant nematicide Nemathorin and untreated control plots. The effect of G. pallida on growing potato crops was assessed by recording haulm characteristics which indicated that the nematicide treatment gave most protection. Levels of PCN juveniles and migratory nematodes were assessed during the trial. Plots treated with Nemathorin and Dazitol had fewest PCN, whilst the highest number of migratory nematodes occurred in fallow plots. Sixteen weeks after planting the nematicide treatment produced highest yield and tuber numbers. Dazitol treatment produced a lower yield but the largest tubers.

  3. WAY OF PRE-PLANTING TREATMENT OF EARLY-RIPENNING POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Semibratskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of pre-planting treatment of early-ripening potato increasing the volume of production in the Eastern forest-Steppe of Ukraine is presented. This technology is referred to development of organic-mineral container, which covers the surface of tubers and remains there until planting. During this period, the substance of the substrate has a direct impact on growth of apical points of tubers that stimulate its germination and development of root system, and prevent the breaking of sprouts. Comparative data of time of seedling emergence and yield of different potato varieties are presented.

  4. Effect of low-temperature storage, gamma irradiation and iso-propyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl carbamate) treatment on the processing quality of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.S.; Chen, R.Y.; Tsai, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    In Taiwan commercial storage of potatoes (CV Kennebec, Wu-Foon, Cardinal) at 2°C. 85% RH, can supply the fresh market all year round. However, reducing sugar and total sugar which accumulate in the tubers will reduce the processing quality of potatoes. Reconditioning of tubers from cold stores was undertaken at ambient temperature (20°C) for up to 6 weeks. The optimum temperature for Kennebec and Cardinal reconditioning ranged from 20 to 25°C. However, after storage at 2°C for a long period, the sugar content of potato tubers cannot be reduced to a satisfactory level. When newly harvested potatoes were pretreated with CIPC (300–500 μg litre −1 ) and stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, sprouting was inhibited effectively. The quality of potatoes was retained well and reducing sugar remained at a low level for up to 8 months. MENA was found to be ineffective. Gamma irradiation of potatoes at 0.175-0 20·0-10–0.125 and 0.125 kGy for Cardinal, Kennebec and Wu-Foon respectively was found to be effective in controlling the sprouting of tubers stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, for 9 months. A rapid increase in sugar content was found in irradiated Cardinal and Wu-Foon after storage for 7 months, while the reducing sugar in irradiated Kennebec was still below 0°2 % after 8 month's storage. Gamma irradiation had no adverse effect on the ascorbic acid content, and higher firmness retention was obtained in irradiated tubers throughout storage at 10°C

  5. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on potatoes during storage Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakdi, O.M.; Pal, I.; Szoeke, P.; Beczner, J.

    1991-01-01

    Potato varieties Desire and Metal were irradiated with 0, 50, 100 and 500 Gy gamma rays, and were stored at 5 deg C and 20-25 deg C for 6 months. Respiratory rate, starch, total and reducing sugar contents were determined every month. The control samples of variety Desire showed higher respriration rates in comparison with the irradiated tubers. The respiratory rate was significantly higher in the variety Metal in comparison with the variety Desire. The sugar content was higher in the irradiated tubers, and it was also higher in the tubers stored at 5 deg C than in those stored at 20-25 deg C. This increase in sugars accompained with a decrease in starch content, suggests conversion of starch into sugars. (author) 16 refs.; 10 figs

  6. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  7. Using BIB-SEM to determine pore morphology and pore size distributions in coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, S.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Klaver, J.; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics

    2013-08-01

    The composition of coalbeds is considerably heterogeneous, affecting the transport pathways for fluids within the coal. Transport pathways include cleats and larger pores. However, only a few clues exist as the nature of these pores. This study examines the morphology and distribution of macro- and mesopores in coal samples, using broad ion beam (BIB) milling to prepare relief- and damage-free polished surfaces of coal samples for high-resolution SEM imaging. Broad ion beam milling is advantageous to focused ion beam milling in that a larger surface area can be milled. Combining that with SEM imaging results in a useful tool to study pore morphology and distributions in the size range between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m. Since BIB-sections of a few square millimeters are not large enough to be statistically representative, results cannot be easily interpreted from a coal seam standpoint. Therefore, porosity was investigated as a function of maceral type to characterize pore morphologies. Macerals from the vitrinite and inertinite groups were selected with a known relationship to bedding. BIB-sections were milled parallel to bedding and perpendicular to bedding, and the pores were evaluated in each section. The goal of this study is to (1) qualitatively describe pore morphology with respect to maceral type and (2) quantitatively characterize pore size distributions with respect to maceral and in relationship to bedding. Our results lead to a better understanding of bulk coal porosity due to the visual, spatial representation and quantification of pores in individual macerals. (orig.)

  8. Cloning and characterization of a potato StAN11 gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Wang, Bing; Wang, Man; Chen, Min; Yin, Jing-Ming; Kaleri, Ghullam Murtaza; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Zuo, Tie-Niu; You, Xiong; Yang, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of products of plant secondary metabolism and are responsible for tubers color in potato. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a complex biological process, in which multiple genes are involved including structural genes and regulatory genes. In this study, StAN11, a WD40-repeat gene, was cloned from potato cultivar Chieftain (Solanum tuberosum L.). StAN11 (HQ599506) contained no intron and its open reading frame (ORF) was 1,029 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 342 amino acids. In order to verify its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, StAN11 was inserted behind the CaMV-35S promoter of pCMBIA1304 and the recombination vector was introduced into the potato cultivar Désirée plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The color of transgenic tuber skin was significantly deepened, compared to the wild-type control, which was highly consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin and expression of StAN11 in transgenic lines tuber skin. Further analysis on the expression of Flavonone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and Flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (3GT) in transgenic plants revealed that only DFR was upregulated. This result suggested that StAN11 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato by controlling DFR expression and accumulation of anthocyanin could be increased through overexpression of StAN11 in the tubers with the genetic background of anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite

  10. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  11. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  12. Assessment of Paclobutrazol’s Time and Concentration of Foliar Application on Production and Germination of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Mini-tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seeds are important in the potato seed production technology. Moreover, the basic seed materials must be free of pathogens. Therefore tissue culture techniques are used at this stage in the laboratory to produce disease free seeds. Mini-tubers can be produced after acclimatization from plantlets as tissue culture which are planted at high densities in the greenhouse in beds or containers using different substrate mixtures, or even in hydroponic culture. Foliar application of growth regulators is a way to increase potato mini-tuber production. Growth regulators influence on potato mini-tuber dormancy. Triazoles, a family which Paclobutrazol belongs to them, have both fungitoxic and plant growth regulatory effects. In addition, they can also protect plants against various stresses. Therefore, the triazoles have been characterized as plant multi-protestants. Paclobutrazol changes the relationship between source and sink and by this way, affects plant production. Also, it can inhibit giberellic acid biosynthesis. Some morphological changes observed in paclobutrazol-treated plants include the inhibition of plant growth, decreased inter-nodal elongation and increased root to shoot ratios. Time of paclobutrazol foliar application is an important factor which changes plant characters (Lim et al., 2004. This study implemented to evaluate foliar application of paclobutrazol concentrations at different time on production and mini-tuber dormancy. Materials and Methods The factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the faculty of agriculture’s research greenhouse, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Plantlets of Agria cv. produced from nodal tissue culture in Murashinge and Skoog (MS medium. After 25 days, plantlets of free disease and uniform exported to plastic pots with 12 cm diameter and 30 cm height. Perlite, cocopite

  13. Breeding of a new potato variety ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ with high eating quality, high carotenoid content, and resistance to diseases and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yu; Mori, Kazuyuki; Matsuo, Yuuki; Mukojima, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Sobaru, Norio; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuya; Watanuki, Hitomi; Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Chaya, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is a new potato variety bred from a cross between ‘Saikai 35’ as a female parent and ‘Saikai 33’ as a male. ‘Saikai 35’ is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Rychc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while ‘Saikai 33’ has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is higher than that of ‘Dejima’, a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is comparable to that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to ‘Nishiyutaka’, another popular double cropping variety. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ was higher than that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of ‘Nishiyutaka’ in double cropping regions. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ tubers are larger on average than ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt. PMID:28744186

  14. Breeding of a new potato variety 'Nagasaki Kogane' with high eating quality, high carotenoid content, and resistance to diseases and pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yu; Mori, Kazuyuki; Matsuo, Yuuki; Mukojima, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Sobaru, Norio; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuya; Watanuki, Hitomi; Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Chaya, Masataka

    2017-06-01

    'Nagasaki Kogane' is a new potato variety bred from a cross between 'Saikai 35' as a female parent and 'Saikai 33' as a male. 'Saikai 35' is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Ry chc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while 'Saikai 33' has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of 'Nagasaki Kogane' is higher than that of 'Dejima', a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed 'Nagasaki Kogane' is comparable to that of 'Inca-no-mezame' tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to 'Nishiyutaka', another popular double cropping variety. 'Nagasaki Kogane' is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of 'Nagasaki Kogane' was higher than that of 'Inca-no-mezame' in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of 'Nishiyutaka' in double cropping regions. 'Nagasaki Kogane' tubers are larger on average than 'Inca-no-mezame' tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the 'Nagasaki Kogane' variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt.

  15. The effect of storage and culinary treatment of irradiated potato on the cytogenetic activity of extracts obtained therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipova, I.N.; Shillinger, Yu.I.; Zajtsev, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Male-rats (25-27 g) were given perorally extracts separated from potato subjected to gamma-radiation in a dose of 10krad (test groups) and from non-irradiated tubers (controls). The extracts were introduced for a period of one week, daily in an amount of 1 ml. The males from the test groups (each numbering 8-10 animals) received extracts of the raw potato stored for 4 months after irradiation and of the potato subjected to thermal treatment (cooking) after 1 day, 1 and 4 months of its storage. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells was determined by the anaphase method. Altogether about 34000 cells (500-600 from each animal) were counted. The results testified to a significantly reduced frequency of chromosomal aberrations (bridges and fragments) accurring in the bone marrow cells of the mice which received extracts from the raw stored irradiated potato and from thermally treated freshly irradiated tubers, as compared to extracts obtained from the raw freshly irradiated potatoes. The extracts of irradiated potato cooked after 1 and 4 month of storage did not display any mutagenic properties

  16. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Braemswig, J.H.; Korinthenberg, R.

    1986-03-01

    Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum are tumour-like collections of normal tissue in abnormal location. They are benign lesions with slow or absent growth and without any tendency to neoplastic evolution. Due to their neurosecreting properties they usually cause precocious puberty. Further neuroendocrine disturbances, seizures, or psychoneurological symptoms may be associated in some cases. Cisternography and CT are the most conclusive radiologic procedures in almost all cases. The typical feature is a well circumscribed round-shaped isodense soft tissue mass without contrast enhancement. Usually the tumour is small, rarely exceeding 2 cm, in diameter. If CT diagnosis is not conclusive, examination in the coronal plane or CT cisternography are recommended. Although CT does not permit a histological diagnosis the clinical and radiological features together are sufficient to make a highly suggestive diagnosis. The treatment of choice is medical therapy. Surgery should be restricted to those tumours which damage surrounding structures by their size and cause other symptoms than precocious puberty.

  17. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  18. Yield Evaluation of Nutrient-rich Potato Clones in High Hill of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Prasad Luitel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the yield of nutrient-rich potato clones in high-hill districts: Dolakha and Jumla of Nepal during the years 2013 and 2014, respectively. Fourteen potato clones were tested as on-station and on-farm experiments at both districts, and those fourteen clones were compared to ‘Lady Rosita’ and ‘Jumli Local’ respectively as the check varieties in the first year experiment, 2013. Eight promising clones were selected from the first year experiment, and were evaluated and compared with same local varieties in the consecutive year, 2014. Two clones namely; CIP 395112.32 (19.3 tha-1 and CIP 393073.179 (17.8 tha-1 exhibited superior marketable tuber yield than that of ‘Lady Rosita’(14.2 tha-1 in Dolakha and five CIP clones namely; 395112.32 (25.5 tha-1, 393073.179 (22.5 tha-1, 394611.112 (20.9 tha-1, 390478.9 (19.9 tha-1 and 395017.229 (17.0 tha-1 showed higher marketable tuber yield than ‘Jumli Local’(14.5 tha-1. Based on two years’ phenotypic and tuber yield result, clones CIP 395112.32 and CIP 393073.179 are recommended to potato growers at high hills of Nepal for commercial cultivation.

  19. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  20. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)