WorldWideScience

Sample records for macedonia northern greece

  1. His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

  2. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education.

  3. A Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change from Lake Dojran (Macedonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Francke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Late Glacial to Holocene sediment sequence (Co1260, 717 cm from Lake Dojran, located at the boarder of the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece, has been investigated to provide information on climate variability in the Balkan region. A robust age-model was established from 13 radiocarbon ages, and indicates that the base of the sequence was deposited at ca. 12 500 cal yr BP, when the lake-level was low. Variations in sedimentological (H2O, TOC, CaCO3, TS, TOC/TN, TOC/TS, grain-size, XRF, δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg data were linked to hydro-acoustic data and indicate that warmer and more humid climate conditions characterised the remaining period of the Younger Dryas until the beginning of the Holocene. The Holocene exhibits significant environmental variations, including the 8.2 and 4.2 ka cooling events, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Human induced erosion processes in the catchment of Lake Dojran intensified after 2800 cal yr BP.

  4. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  5. ESEM-EDX characterisation of airborne particles from an industrialised area of northern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanidis, A.; Buckman, J.; Triantafyllou, A.G.; Asvesta, A. [Technology Educational Institute for Western Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise individual airborne particles collected from the Ptolemais-Kozani region (Western Macedonia), northern Greece. Throughout a 1-year period (March 2003 to February 2004), we collected several filters that captured airborne particles at seven sampling sites distributed throughout the area. The airborne particles captured on the filters were then characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The particles were categorised as geogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic. The main anthropogenic airborne particles were fly ash (released from lignite-fired power plants) and carbonaceous (soot and char) and metalliferous (mainly iron- and copper-enriched) particulates. We present here characteristic ESEM and EDX spectra for the airborne particles and underline the presence of characteristic primary and secondary sulphates.

  6. Feasibility analysis of municipal solid waste mass burning in the Region of East Macedonia--Thrace in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, C J; Tsalkidis, D A; Kalogirou, E; Voudrias, E A

    2015-06-01

    The present work conducts a preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for a single municipal solid waste mass burning to an electricity plant for the total municipal solid waste potential of the Region of Eastern Macedonia - Thrace, in Greece. For a certain applied and highly efficient technology and an installed capacity of 400,000 t of municipal solid waste per year, the available electrical power to grid would be approximately 260 GWh per year (overall plant efficiency 20.5% of the lower heating value). The investment for such a plant was estimated at €200m. Taking into account that 37.9% of the municipal solid waste lower heating value can be attributed to their renewable fractions, and Greek Law 3851/2010, which transposes Directive 2009/28/EC for Renewable Energy Sources, the price of the generated electricity was calculated at €53.19/MWhe. Under these conditions, the economic feasibility of such an investment depends crucially on the imposed gate fees. Thus, in the gate fee range of 50-110 € t(-1), the internal rate of return increases from 5% to above 15%, whereas the corresponding pay-out time periods decrease from 11 to about 4 years.

  7. Future Availability of Water Supply from Karstic Springs under Probable Climate Change. The case of Aravissos, Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadis, M.; Spachos, Th.; Zampetoglou, K.; Soupilas, Th.

    2012-04-01

    The test site of Aravissos is located at 70 Km to the West (W-NW) of Thessaloniki at the south banks of mount Païko, in the north part of Central Macedonia The karstic Aravissos springs supply 40% of total volume needed for the water supply of Thessaloniki, Greece. As the water is of excellent quality, it is feed directly in the distribution network without any previous treatment. The availability of this source is therefore of high importance for the sustainable water supply of this area with almost 1000000 inhabitants. The water system of Aravissos is developed in a karstic limestone with an age of about Late Cretaceous that covers almost the entire western part of the big-anticline of Païko Mountain. The climate in this area and the water consumption area, Thessaloniki, is a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and humid winters and hot and dry summers. The total annual number of rainy days is around 110. The production of the Aravissos springs depends mostly from the annual precipitations. As the feeding catchement and the karst aquifer are not well defined, a practical empirical balance model, that contains only well known relevant terms, is applied for the simulation of the operation of the springs under normal water extraction for water supply in present time. The estimation of future weather conditions are based on GCM and RCM simulation data and the extension of trend lines of the actual data. The future evolution of the availability of adequate water quantities from the springs is finally estimated from the balance model and the simulated future climatic data. This study has been realised within the project CC-WaterS, funded by the SEE program of the European Regional Development Fund (http://www.ccwaters.eu/).

  8. Investigation study for technological application of alternative methods for the energy exploitation of biomass/agricultural residues in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabaniotou Anastasia A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy potential is addressed to be the most promising among the renewable energy sources, due to its spread and availability worldwide. Apart form that, biomass has the unique advantage among the rest of renewable energy sources, to be able to provide solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels that can be stored, transported, and utilized, far away from the point of origin. For the northern region of Macedonia in Greece, biomass utilization is considered to be a major issue, due to the considerably intensive regional agricultural activities. Wood by-products, fruit cores, rice husk and cotton gin waste provide a promising energy source for the region. The energy potential of the available agricultural biomass produced in the region is much enough to cover the 10% of the annual oil consumption utilized for thermal applications. However, the cost of energy utilization of biomass is considerably high due to the high cost of the logistics concerning the collection, transport, and storage of biomass. The available utilization technologies developed, to handle efficiently all different species of biomass, cover a wide technological range. One of the most promising technologies involving thermal treatment of biomass and the production of a gaseous fuel (biogas for industrial heat applications and electricity production, is the thermo chemical conversion. In the present work, an investigation concerning biomass potential for energy production in the region of central Macedonia in Greece, utilizing several locally produced biomass species, is conducted. Emphasis is put on the energy utilization of agricultural by-products and residues. Agricultural sector is of great importance due to the considerably intensive agricultural activities in the region of Central Macedonia. .

  9. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  10. A new Leiobunum species from Greece (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaman, Ivo M.

    1996-01-01

    Leiobunum gruberi nov. spec. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from northern Greece (Macedonia, Leptokaria) is described and figured. This species is closely related to Leiobunum seriatum Simon, 1878, known from the Near East, Cyprus and eastern Anatolia. A short review of known taxa of the genus

  11. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  12. Giving Children Space to Express Themselves: Exploring Children's Views and Perspectives of Contact Programmes in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misoska, Ana Tomovska

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perspectives of 10-11-year-old children from conflict-affected areas in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Macedonia. By drawing upon Bronfennbrenner's ecological theory and Bourdieu's notion of habitus, the main aim of the paper is to show different reactions to intergroup contact based on the children's previous…

  13. New Material of the Hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis from the Late Miocene of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) with Some Remarks on Its Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    New hominoid teeth from the late Miocene locality Ravin de la Pluie (RPl) of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied in this article. Their morphology, dimensions and proportions are similar to the hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, allowing their attribution to this taxon. The studied material provides some new morphological characters for the female P3 (small asymmetry, small mesiobuccal crown projection, paracone higher than protocone) and the lower canine (mesial groove: large in the male and small in the female, distobuccal fovea: large in the female and small in the male). The new material enriches the collection of O. macedoniensis. The estimated degree of sexual dimorphism of the RPl O. macedoniensis, calculated by the multivariate size dimorphism method, is compared with those of extant hominoids (Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) and of the late Miocene Lufengpithecus lufengensis from China, which is considered as more dimorphic than any living hominoid. The results suggest that Ouranopithecus multivariate size dimorphism for the premolar, molar and post-canine row is similar to those of Pongo and Lufengpithecus, slightly higher than that of Gorilla and clearly higher than that of Pan. Therefore, O. macedoniensis is apparently one of the most sexually dimorphic hominoids and the RPl assemblage is monospecific.

  14. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  15. Monitoring Reservoirs Using MERIS And LANDSAT Fused Images : A Case Study Of Polyfitos Reservoir - West Macedonia - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefouli, M.; Charou, E.; Vasileiou, E.; Stathopoulos, N.; Perrakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Research and monitoring is essential to assess baseline conditions in reservoirs and their watershed and provide necessary information to guide decision-makers. Erosion and degradation of mountainous areas can lead to gradual aggradation of reservoirs reducing their lifetime. Collected measurements and observations have to be communicated to the managers of the reservoirs so as to achieve a common / comprehensive management of a large watershed and reservoir system. At this point Remote Sensing could help as the remotely sensed data are repeatedly and readily available to the end users. Aliakmon is the longest river in Greece, it's length is about 297 km and the surface of the river basin is 9.210 km2.The flow of the river starts from Northwest of Greece and ends in Thermaikos Gulf. The riverbed is not natural throughout the entire route, because constructed dams restrict water and create artificial lakes, such as lake of Polyfitos, that prevent flooding. This lake is used as reservoir, for covering irrigational water needs and the water is used to produce energy from the hydroelectric plant of Public Power Corporation-PPC. The catchment basin of Polyfitos' reservoir covers an area of 847.76 km2. Soil erosion - degradation in the mountainous watershed of streams of Polyfitos reservoir is taking place. It has been estimated that an annual volume of sediments reaching the reservoir is of the order of 244 m3. Geomatic based techniques are used in processing multiple data of the study area. A data inventory was formulated after the acquisition of topographic maps, compilation of geological and hydro-geological maps, compilation of digital elevation model for the area of interest based on satellite data and available maps. It also includes the acquisition of various hydro-meteorological data when available. On the basis of available maps and satellite data, digital elevation models are used in order to delineate the basic sub-catchments of the Polyfytos basin as well as

  16. Northern Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 637 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Sloane, Hilary J.; Milodowski, Antoni; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological, and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data from carbonate over the upper 243 m of a composite core profile recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. The investigated sediment succession covers the past ca. 637 ka. Previous studies on short cores from the lake (up to 15 m, millennial timescales. We also measured isotope ratios from authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs) and, with the oxygen isotope composition of calcite and siderite, reconstruct δ18O of lake water (δ18Olw) over the last 637 ka. Interglacials have higher δ18Olw values when compared to glacial periods most likely due to changes in evaporation, summer temperature, the proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall), and inflow from adjacent Lake Prespa. The isotope stratigraphy suggests Lake Ohrid experienced a period of general stability from marine isotope stage (MIS) 15 to MIS 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial. Climate conditions became progressively wetter during MIS 11 and MIS 9. Interglacial periods after MIS 9 are characterised by increasingly evaporated and drier conditions through MIS 7, MIS 5, and the Holocene. Our results provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major environmental events on biological evolution within Lake Ohrid.

  17. Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  18. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  19. Organic geochemistry of Amynteo lignite deposit, northern Greece: a Multi-analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Georgakopoulos, A.; Lagen, van B.

    2012-01-01

    Several lignite samples were collected from boreholes of the Amynteo opencast lignite mine, northern Greece. Organic geochemical characteristics were investigated with the help of various analytical techniques, comprising Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas-chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Four

  20. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  1. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  2. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and ...

  3. A pesticide monitoring survey in rivers and lakes of northern Greece and its human and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmaluel N; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athena; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Makris, Konstantinos C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-06-01

    A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1 μg/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031 μg L), dicofol (0.01 μg/L), dieldrin (0.02 μg/L) and endosulfan a (0.065 μg/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk

  4. Resurgence of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera in northern Greece associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidis, George K; Kapantaidaki, Despina; Bentila, Maria; Morou, Evangelia; Savopoulou-Soultani, M; Vontas, John

    2013-08-01

    Helicoverpa armigera has been controlled effectively with chemical insecticides in the major cotton crop production areas of northern Greece for many years. However, a resurgence of the pest was observed in 2010, which significantly affected crop production. During a 4-year survey (2007-2010), we examined the insecticide resistance status of H. armigera populations from two major and representative cotton production areas in northern Greece against seven insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, gamma-cyhalothrin and endosulfan). Full dose-response bioassays on third instar larvae were performed by topical application. Lethal doses at 50% were estimated by probit analysis and resistance factors (RF) were calculated, compared to a susceptible laboratory reference strain. Resistance levels were relatively moderate until 2009, with resistance ratios below 10-fold for organophosphates and carbamates and up to 16-fold for the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. However, resistance rose to 46- and 81-fold for chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin, respectively in 2010, when the resurgence of the pest was observed. None of the known pyrethroid resistance mutations were found in the pyrethroid-resistant insects. The possible association between resistance and H. armigera resurgence in Greece is discussed.

  5. Eating habits, health attitudes and obesity indices among medical students in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Papazisis, Georgios; Toulis, Konstantinos; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2010-12-01

    Medical students represent not only the final but also the most crucial opportunity for education in the field of healthy lifestyles and nutritional habits. Eating habits and obesity indices among medical students in southern Greece were described almost a decade ago. However, there is a lack of current, relevant data concerning students living in northern Greece. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the body mass index distribution and nutritional and health-related behavior among medical students in northern Greece. The participants, 187 males (21.5 ± 1.9 years) and 203 females (21.3 ± 2.2 years), filled out a self-report questionnaire. Height and weight measurements were obtained. Dietary practices of fast food consumption (more frequent for males) and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (more frequent for females) were reported. Females seemed to adopt different practices than males when trying to lose weight and were significantly better informed about the nutrient value of the food consumed. Although the prevalence of overweight (males: 32.1%, females: 8.4%) and obesity (males: 5.9%, females: 1.5%) in the present sample is lower compared to previous data, it remains high according to what would be health promoting. The above findings suggest a need for further improvement in strategies promoting healthier nutrition habits.

  6. Application of pilot technologies for energy utilization of agricultural residues in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabaniotou Anastasia A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The enormous potential of agro biomass can be exploited to produce sustainable bioenergy. Proper management and further exploitation of this potential could lead to economically profitable approximations and solutions for the agricultural industry and even energy production industry. Gasification in-situ with energy production or pyrolysis of the above mentioned residues, under a non-oxidizing atmosphere for alternative fuels production could be a solution to the environmental problems that land filling or conventional combustion could create. The present work focuses on combustion and pyrolysis of cotton gin residues in Greece, as an alternative way of energy production. The purpose of presentation of a case study of the two alternatives methods (combustion and gasification or pyrolysis, by using cotton ginning waste as biofuel, is to show the appropriateness of new bioenergy sources by coupling them with energy production technologies. These technologies can be applied in northern Greece as well as in other Balkan or Mediterranean countries. .

  7. New mothers' perceptions regarding maternity care services provided in a prefecture of Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tsiligiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of health care services during pregnancy assists in decreasing neonatal deaths and improves the quality of life of pregnant women and their newborn children.Aim: To investigate the perceptions of new mothers in a prefecture of Northern Greece regarding the maternity services provided during pregnancy and childbirth.Methodology: The sample consists of 133 mothers of newborn babies who were hospitalised, after in-hospital delivery, between April and June 2008 in a prefecture of Northern Greece. The instrument used for the data collection was the Kuopio Instrument for Mothers (KIM.Results: 97% of participants were married, 42.2% had higher education and 23.3% were full-time employees. 42.9% of the mothers were primiparous and 57.1% were multiparous. 56.8% had vaginal delivery, while 42.9% had caesarean section. 84.2% of the participants stated that they would prefer to have their next delivery in a private maternity clinic, and 3% stated that they would prefer to give birth at home. 15.3% had participated in childbirth preparatory courses. Finally, the participants considered that maternity services, such as pregnancy monitoring, preventative examinations for foetal abnormalities, PAP-test and preventative examinations for breast cancer, should be provided by the state free of charge.Conclusions: It is necessary to further develop and modernize maternity services in such a way that they will correspond to pregnant women’s needs.

  8. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna

    2011-12-01

    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active.

  9. Lithics in Neolithic Northern Greece: territorial perspectives from an off-obsidian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kourtessi-Philippakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available C. Renfrew’s research in the Aegean at the beginning of the 1970’s and his hypothesis on the diffusion of obsidian from the island of Milos greatly influenced views of Greek Prehistory. Further lithic studies, especially in the Southern Aegean, have served to further confirmation the prevalence of obsidian in this area during the Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to areas such as Northern Greece that are situated on the periphery of the Melian obsidian domain, where local materials occur in connection with imported ones from the North and South. With the aid of various examples from major Neolithic sites, we will discuss the question of procurement strategies in association with the reduction sequences of each material in use in this region, and outline trends of territorial organization among Neolithic farmers in the area.

  10. The lost Roman calendars of ancient Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.

    2006-08-01

    As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the lunisolar Macedonian calendar became the most widely circulated among all the lunisolar Greek calendars. However, despite its spread, two Roman calendars, generally unknown in the scientific community, were developed and used inside Macedonia itself during the Roman occupation of Greece. The older calendar used the so-called ‘Macedonian year’. This system started in 148 BC to emphasize the importance of the victory of the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus against Pseudo-Philippus Andriscus, King of Macedonia. The newer calendrical system, which absorbed the older system, used the ‘Augustian or respectable year’ bearing its name from Octavius Augustus; its starting point was the date of the catalytic victory of Octavius over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The solar Octavian calendar survived until the sixth or seventh century in the Macedonian Territory.

  11. Ground deformation detection of the greater area of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece using radar interferometry techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Raucoules

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study SAR interferometric techniques (stacking of conventional interferograms and Permanent Scatterers, using images from satellites ERS-1 and 2, have been applied to the region of Thessaloniki (northern Greece. The period covered by the images is 1992–2000. Both techniques gave good quantitative and qualitative results. The interferometric products were used to study ground surface deformation phenomena that could be related to the local tectonic context, the exploitation of underground water and sediments compaction.

    The city of Thessaloniki shows relatively stable ground conditions. Subsidence in four locations, mainly in the area surrounding the city of Thessaloniki, has been detected and assessed. Two of the sites (Sindos-Kalochori and Langadhas were already known from previous studies as subsiding areas, using ground base measurements. On the contrary the other two sites in the northern suburbs of Thessaloniki (Oreokastro and in the south-east (airport area were unknown as areas of subsidence. A further investigation based on fieldwork is needed in these two areas. Finally, an attempt to interpret the observed deformation, according to the geological regime of the area and its anthropogenic activities, has been carried out.

  12. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  13. Line - organised convection putting fire to forest area of Halkidiki, Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, M.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The organisation of convection in a line often coincides with the end of heat waves in the Southern Balkans. This was indeed the case on the 21st of August 2006, when the tail of an eastward moving cold front put an end to the preceding heat wave and, at the same time, triggered thunderstorms and windstorms in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece. The associated electric activity initiated a fire in Kassandra, Halkidiki, Greece. Due to the prolonged drought and the strong winds, the fire spread quickly. It lasted for three days, costing two human lives, burning an extended forest area, as well as destroying hotels and resort facilities. Availabla data are: i) European Centre for Medium - range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, ii) RADAR reflectivity data from the Weather Modification Dept. of the Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organisation and iii) surface and upper air data from the airport ‘Makedonia’ of Thessaloniki, Greece. The heat wave, that affected Greece during the 5 - day period prior to the line convection, was associated with the establishment of a hot, but very stable at low levels, boundary layer, probably modified part of the Saharan air layer, advected to the area of interest. Destabilisation occurred due to surface heating, as well as upper level cold air advection. From the synoptic point of view, upward motion prevails under the inflection point of the subtropical and polar jet streams, indicating once more how important are, for upper level divergence, the curvature changes along the flow. In the meso-α scale, the line convection formed along and just ahead of a shallow, frontogenetically active cold frontal zone. Hence, the line under study may be called a squall line. It is suggested that such zones play a key role in triggering severe weather in the same area, as well as cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean area. Previous studies have shown numerous severe weather events to occur along such zones. In the meso-β scale, the line under

  14. Determination of uranium concentration in ground water samples of Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashalidis I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentration of 238U and 234U has been determined in groundwater samples of hot springs and deep wells from the region of Northern Greece. The analysis was performed by alpha spectroscopy after pre-concentration and separation of uranium by cation exchange (Chelex 100 resin and finally its electro-deposition on stainless steel discs. The uranium concentration in deep wells and springs varies strongly between 0.15 and 7.66 μg l−1. Generally the springs present higher uranium concentration than the deep wells, except of the Apol-lonia spring, which has shown the lowest value of 0.15 mg l−1. 238U and 234U activity concentration ranged between 1.8–95.3 mBq l−1 and 1.7–160.1 mBq l−1, respectively. The obtained isotopic ratio 234U/238U varies between 0.95 and 1.74 which means that the two isotopes are not in radioactive equilibrium. The highest 234U/238U activity ratio values correspond to the Langada springs, indicating most probably old-type waters. On the other hand, ground waters from wells with relatively low uranium activity concentration and low 234U/238U isotopic ratios, point to the presence of younger waters with a stronger contribution of a local recharge component to the groundwater.

  15. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouras, A; Katsoyiannis, I; Voutsa, D

    2007-08-25

    An integrate study aiming at the occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece has been carried out. Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and private wells were analysed for arsenic and other quality parameters (T, pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO(3), NO(3), SO(4), B, Fe, Mn). Arsenic showed high spatial variation; ranged from 0.001 to 1.840mg/L. Almost 65% of the examined groundwaters exhibit arsenic concentrations higher than the maximum concentration limit of 0.010mg/L, proposed for water intended for human consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to find out possible relationships among the examined parameters and groundwater samples. Arsenic is highly correlated with potassium, boron, bicarbonate, sodium, manganese and iron suggesting common geogenic origin of these elements and conditions that enhance their mobility. Three groups of groundwater with different physicochemical characteristics were found in the study area: (a) groundwater with extremely high arsenic concentrations (1.6-1.9mg/L) and high temperature (33-42 degrees C) from geothermal wells, (b) groundwater with relatively high arsenic concentrations (>0.050mg/L), lower temperatures and relatively high concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese and, (c) groundwater with low arsenic concentrations that fulfil the proposed limits for dinking water.

  16. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, C.; Kouimtzis, Th; Tsitouridou, R.; Kanias, G.; Simeonov, V.

    Ambient PM 10 were sampled at three sites in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece during June 1997-June 1998 and analyzed for 17 chemical elements, 5 water-soluble ions and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, chemical source profiles consisting of the same particulate components were obtained for a number of industrial activities (cement, fertilizer and asphalt production, quarry operations, metal electroplating, metal welding and tempering, steel manufacture, lead and bronze smelters, metal scrap incineration), residential oil burning, non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped passenger cars, diesel fuelled taxis and buses, as well as for geological fugitive sources (paved road dust and soil from open lands). Ambient and source data were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for source identification and apportionment. Results of CMB modeling showed that major source of ambient PM 10 at all three sites was diesel vehicle exhaust. Significant contribution from industrial oil burning was also evidenced at the site located closest to the industrial area.

  17. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  18. Syphilis on the rise: A prolonged syphilis outbreak among HIV-infected patients in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachouridou, Olga; Skoura, Lemonia; Christaki, Eirini; Kollaras, Panagiotis; Sidiropoulou, Eleni; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Margariti, Apostolia; Metallidis, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health issue in Europe. Numerous outbreaks of syphilis have been described recently and an increased prevalence of high-risk sexual practices has raised concern about the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Similarly, an increase in sexually transmitted infections has been recorded in Northern Greece. Methods This report describes a recent outbreak of syphilis in people living with HIV. The demographic, clinical, and serologic data of HIV patients diagnosed with syphilis were recorded and analyzed. Data on syphilis incidence from the general population was also compared to HIV patients’ data. Results Fifty-eight HIV-patients of the Infectious Diseases Unit of a tertiary hospital (5.2%) were diagnosed with syphilis during a three-year period (2008-2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coexistence of other STDs were independent predictors of syphilis (OR: 2.4, 95CI%: 1.26, 4.63, p=0.008; OR: 9.4, 95%CI: 4.49, 19.64, phomosexual contact (p=0.003), were separate risk factors for syphilis in the general population in the same area. Conclusion Diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in an HIV patient is a crucial clinical event that should trigger the clinician’s suspicion for high-risk sexual behavior. Sexual health assessments should be a routine process for HIV patients. PMID:27622160

  19. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  20. A large scale geophysical survey in the archaeological site of Europos (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, G. N.; Giannopoulos, A.; Tsourlos, P.; Vargemezis, G.; Tealby, J. M.; Sarris, A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Savopoulou, T.

    1994-04-01

    The results of a large scale exploration of an archaeological site by geophysical means are presented and discussed. The operation took place in the site where the ruins of the ancient city of Europos are buried. This site is in northern Greece. Resistivity prospecting was employed to detect the remnants of wall foundations in the place where the main urban complex of the ancient city once stood. The data were transformed in an image form depicting, thus, the spatial variation of resistivity in a manner that resembles the plane view of the ruins that could have been drawn if an excavation had taken place. This image revealed the urban plan of the latest times of the life of the city. Trial excavations verified the geophysical result. Magnetic prospecting in the same area complemented the resistivity data. The exact location of the fire hearths, kilns and remnants of collapsed roofs were spotted. Magnetic gradient measurements were taken in an area out of the main complex of the ancient city and revealed the location of several kilns. One of these locations was excavated and a pottery kiln was discovered. The resistivity prospecting in one of the graveyards of the ancient city showed anomalies which were expected and corresponded to monumental tombs. The locations of a few of them were excavated and large burial structures were revealed. Ground probing radar profiles were measured over the tombs which showed pronounced resistivity anomalies, so far unearthed. The relatively high resolving ability of the method assisted the interpretation in the sense that a few attributes were added. In the presented case, it was concluded that a particular tomb consists of two rooms and that it is roofless.

  1. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria of the northern Dodecanese (“Southern Sporadhes” Archipelago, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papapavlou, K. P.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of Orthoptera species collected during 1997 from isolated islets of the northern Dodecanese archipelago, Greece, is presented. Information on related taxonomical aspects and ecological parameters is also given.

    Se presenta un catálogo de especies de Ortópteros recogidos durante 1997 en pequeñas islas aisladas del archipiélago del norte del Dodecaneso (Espóradas del sur, Grecia También se incluye información sobre algunos aspectos taxonómicos y ecológicos de las especies recolectadas.

  2. Macedonia: Illiberal Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Abazi

    2014-01-01

    The recent presidential and early parliamentary elections in Macedonia are only one illustration of the country’s long-term political condition: illiberal democracy. What is needed is a re-think of the instruments and the manner in which major international actors could and should foster constitutio

  3. TRANSITION FROM CARBONATE PLATFORM TO PELAGIC DEPOSITION (MID JURASSIC- LATE CRETACEOUS, VOURINOS MASSIF, NORTHERN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAOS CARRAS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Jurassic- Cretaceous carbonate succession crops out along the Zyghosti Rema, Kozani (Northern Greece. The substratum consists of the ophiolitic succession of the Vourinos Massif (Pelagonian Domain: serpentinites tectonically overlain by basalts, with thin lenses of radiolarian cherts of middle Bathonian age. The contact with the overlying Jurassic limestones is tectonic. Eight informal units have been distinguished within the Mesozoic limestones, from the base upwards. (A bioclastic, intraclastic and oolitic packstone (Callovian- Oxfordian. (B bioclastic packstone and coral boundstone (Oxfordian . (C bioclastic and oncoidal wackestone with Clypeina jurassica (Oxfordian- Upper Kimmeridgian. (D (Upper Kimmeridgian- Portlandian: oncoidal packstone and rudstone (facies D1; intraclastic and bioclastic grainstone and packstone (facies D2; neptunian dykes with intraclastic and bioclastic wackestone and packstone filling (facies D3; neptunian dykes with Fe-Mn rich laterite filling and with pink silty filling of early Late Cretaceous age. An unconformity surface, due to emersion and erosion of the platform during the latest Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, is overlain by (E intraclastic, bioclastic packstone and grainstone (Cenomanian. (F massive body of debrites with coral, echinoderm, algae and rudist large clasts (facies F1 (Cenomanian; turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic and lithoclastic rudstone and grainstone (facies F2. (G thin bedded bioclastic mudstone and wackestone with planktonic foraminifers and radiolarians, alternating with turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic packstone and rudstone and with conglomeratic levels and slumped beds of the previous turbidites (upper Santonian- lower Campanian. (H: bioclastic packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H1 (lower Campanian - ?Maastrichtian; amalgamated turbiditic beds of bioclastic wackestone and packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H2; turbiditic beds of bioclastic

  4. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priporas Constantinos-Vasilios

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. Methods A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Results Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Conclusions Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction.

  5. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Efthymios; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios

    2011-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction.

  6. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. Methods A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Results Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Conclusions Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction. PMID:21981753

  7. Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae), a new species from the northern Peloponnese (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Iatrou, Gregory; Vold, Gert;

    2010-01-01

    Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae) is described as a new species endemic to Greece and illustrated by photographs. It occurs on rocks in a few localities in north central Peloponnese, and resembles H. taygeteum from Mt Taigetos and Mt Parnon in the south Peloponnese. Its similarities with H........ rumeliacum are also noted; the latter occurs in the Balkans and Romania...

  8. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  9. Particle-size distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2015-03-01

    The size distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in particle sizes 7.2 μm was measured during the cold and the warm period of the year 2013 at traffic and background sites in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Mean aggregate concentrations (sum of six particle fractions) of the sum of 12 PBDE congeners (∑12PBDE) were 20.3 and 2.1 pg m-3 at the traffic and the urban background site, respectively, in the cold period exhibiting relative increase (27.1 and 2.4 pg m-3, respectively) in the warm period. At both sampling sites, more than 58% of ∑12PBDE was found to be associated with particles smaller than 0.49 μm in diameter. The outdoor workday inhalation exposure to PBDEs was estimated by calculating daily intake values for respirable, thoracic and inhalable fractions.

  10. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  11. Assessing Nitrogen Fertilization Strategies in Winter Wheat and Cotton Crops in Northern Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. POLYCHRONAKI; C. DOUMA; C. GIOURGA; A. LOUMOU

    2012-01-01

    The management of fertilizer application is crucial for agricultural production and environmental safety.The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of different fertilizatior.strategies,applying fertilizers with and without nitrification inhibitors (NIs)in split application,in Greece.The assessment criteria used were based on crop yield,soil nitrogen (N) concentrations and economic efficiency.For this purpose two crops (winter wheat and cotton) were selected in order to explore the optimum fertilization strategy for each crop.Three treatments combining fertilizers with NIs were tested compared with conventional fertilization (CF).Slight differences in the quantity and the combination of fertilizers with NIs applied resulted in variable effects on crop yield,soil N and economic return.Split N application of 102 kg ha-1,with half of the total amount applied at seeding,resulted in higher grain yield of winter wheat,lower NO3-N in soil and higher economic return.This result reveals the importance of N application at seeding in wheat crop.Fertilization strategy with 109.5 kg N ha-1 and split P application resulted in higher cotton yield and higher economic profit.Split P application seemed to increase yield,even though it is not a common practise in the area.

  12. Reproductive potential of silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla migrating from Vistonis Lake (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MACNAMARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla, once abundant throughout much of Europe and North Africa, has recently been classified as critically endangered. Information on its biology from the eastern Mediterranean is lacking, especially in relation to spawner quality. Therefore, silver eels were sampled during their seaward spawning migration from Vistonis Lake in Greece. Characteristics linked to reproductive output and success (i.e. body size and condition, sex ratio, silvering, Anguillicola crassus infection, fecundity and oocyte diameter were examined. The lake produced large (687–1138 mm, exclusively female silver eels, 61.7% of which were infected by A. crassus. Silver eel fecundity, the first estimates from the southern part of the species range, was positively related to body length (R2 = 0.693; P < 0.001 and body weight (R2 = 0.731; P < 0.001. Fecundity did not differ between A. crassus infected and uninfected silver eels, but Greek silver eels were significantly more fecund than those in north-west Europe. The reproductive potential of Vistonis Lake silver eels and their contribution to the A. anguilla spawning stock is discussed.

  13. Smoking among adolescents in Northern Greece: a large cross-sectional study about risk and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyratos Dionisios G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate epidemiological data about cigarette smoking in relation with risk and preventive factors among Greek adolescents. Methods We randomly selected 10% of the whole number of schools in Northern Greece (133 schools, 18,904 participants were included. Two anonymous questionnaires (smoker's and non-smoker's were both distributed to all students so they selected and filled in only one. A parental signed informed consent was obtained using an informative leaflet about adolescent smoking. Results The main findings of the study were: a 14.2% of the adolescents (mean age+/−SD: 15.3+/−1.7 years reported regular smoking (24.1% in the age group 16–18 years, b 84.2% of the current smokers reported daily use, c students who live in urban and semirural areas smoke more frequently than those in rural areas, d students in technically oriented schools smoke twice as frequent compared to those in general education, e risk factors for smoking: male gender, low educational level of parents, friends who smoke (OR: 10.01, 95%CI: 8.53-11.74, p Conclusions Even though prevalence of cigarette smoking is not too high among Greek adolescents, frequency of everyday cigarette use is alarming. We identified many social and lifestyle risk and preventive factors that should be incorporated in a national smoking prevention program among Greek adolescents.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil pH-Plant Productivity Relationships in Upland Grasslands of Northern Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. D. VERESOGLOU; O. K. VOULGARI; R. SEN; A. P. MAMOLOS; D. S. VERESOGLOU

    2011-01-01

    The potential role of soil pH in modulating plant productivity was assessed on the basis of dry mass,harvested in the form of 0.25 m2 quadrats,in two low-productivity upland grasslands of northern Greece subjected to annual factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization (15 g N m-2 year-1 and 10 g P m-2 year-1) over a minimum period of 3 years.It was hypothesized that under these particular conditions,a positive relationship would exist between soil pH and plant productivity and,further,that N or P fertilizer application of a nutrient limited system,would result in a weakening of this positive relationship.A significant positive relationship was confirmed between soil pH and plant productivity in one of the two study areas and a positive trend in the other.Moreover,plant productivity increase,following fertilization,appeared to have a detrimental effect on the soil pH-plant productivity relationship.Findings support the original hypotheses and strengthen the idea that plant diversity-mediated soil pH-plant productivity relationships are a result of the more intense plant speciation that occurred under the more "typical" soil conditions of higher pH in temperate as opposed to tropical regions.

  15. Tree number estimation with the use of VHR natural colour orthophotos over a heterogeneous landscape in northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stournara, P.; Tsakiri-Strati, M.; Siachalou, S.; Doxani, G.; Mallinis, G.; Tsioukas, V.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial explicit knowledge regarding the quantity and the spatial distribution of forest parameters is crucial for sustainable forest management, as well as in fulfilling national reporting needs in the framework of international treaties (i.e. Kyoto Protocol, FAO, EFFIS etc). Especially, tree number which can be used for assessing forest tree density (tree number/ha), is among the most important and laboursome parameters to be measured in the field. The aim of this study is to estimate tree number based on the use of nationwide, freely available, very high spatial resolution orthophotos acquired from Greek National Cadastre and Mapping Agency during the 2007-2009 period. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Halkidiki, Northern Greece. The dominant species of the forest includes both broadleaves (oak, beech) and coniferous species (Black pine, Calabrian pine), which are found in both pure and mixed stands. Tree crown detection was tested on natural color orthophoto bands in several plots. The principal components and intensity-hue-saturation transformations were also applied in order to enhance tree detection accuracy. Local maxima technique was utilized for tree crown detection. Accuracy results were evaluated based on field plot data available from the official forest management plan of the area completed in 2011. Overall, the detection accuracy exceeded 50% which is deemed satisfactory considering also the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean landscape and the limited spectral resolution of the remote sensing data available.

  16. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  17. Engineering Geological Considerations in Tunnelling through Major Tectonic Thrust Zones - Cases along the Egnatia Motorway, Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Vassilios P.; Aggistalis, Georgios; Kazilis, Nikolaos

    Tunnelling through tectonic shear zones is always a challenge due to the geometrical complexity and the presence of poor quality rock masses with high variability in their occurrence. Based on the experience from the Egnatia motorway, in Northern Greece, the paper aims to give some general concepts, on the main failure mechanisms of the deformed materials and discuss guidelines for the design. Two case studies are presented, the first when the rock mass is brecciated derived from brittle rocks and the second when the rock mass is sheared from the compression of weak rocks with plastic characters. In the first case the rock mass is composed of interlocking angular pieces of strong rock and can exhibit satisfactory stability under confined conditions. Unless immediate support is provided, the cohesionless rock mass does ravel in tunnel excavation. In the second case heavily sheared clayey flysch exhibits squeezing behaviour even under tens of meters of overburden. In this case there is a variability of the material and it is not suggested to provide a number of support categories for each of the erratically alternating various geotechnical conditions that may be present but it is preferable to design an excavation and support system and sequence which are capable to deal with the worst anticipated conditions.

  18. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Vlahopoulou, M; Tsirliganis, N; Kastelis, N; Ouzounis, K; Kazakis, N

    2015-12-01

    Extensive measurements of (222)Rn in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m(-3). A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m(-3) while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq m(-3). Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th-early 20th century. Measurements of (238)U and (232)Th content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor (222)Rn was found with temperature (r(2) = 0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r(2) = 0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere (222)Rn flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m(-2) h(-1), which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  19. Effects on fisheries and waterbirds of raising water levels at Kerkini Reservoir, a Ramsar site in northern greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, A. J.; Grillas, P.; Jerrentrup, H.; Nazirides, T.

    1995-05-01

    A new, higher dam was installed at Kerkini Reservoir in 1982, causing habitat and landscape disruption. A decrease in the area of grassland and shallow water areas, the rapid disappearance of reedbeds, the appearance of beds of Nymphaea, and the disappearance of half the forest area were all observed between 1982 and 1991. With the new hydrological regime, a lacustrine system was created, with an extensive, rather deep (4-8 m), pelagic zone favorable for the development of coarse fish species throughout the year. After 1982, an increase in fishing effort and a change in the relative abundance of fish species in the catch, including the disappearance of eels and wels, were observed. The impact of the rise in the water level of breeding aquatic birds led to a general decline in species typical of marshy habitats in favor of species preferring deeper open water habitats. A decrease was recorded in bird species that feed largely on invertebrates and to a lesser extent fish (e.g., glossy ibis) and that require extensive shallow feeding areas. There was a decline in geese, whose nests were regularly flooded, and a major increase in piscivorous birds, particularly diving birds (e.g., cormorants), which prefer deeper open water and benefitted directly from the large increase in coarse fish biomass. The disappearance of birds breeding in flooded meadows (e.g., black-winged stilts) and of those restricted to reedbeds (e.g., marsh harrier) occurred from 1983. Over the same period, the changes in populations of wintering birds at Kerkini were different from those occurring in other wetlands in northern Greece. The changes recorded in the populations of wintering birds at Kerkini did not therefore result from overall regional trends but from the major habitat modifications that occurred to this wetland. As for breeding birds, strictly piscivorous species increased greatly as a result of the increased availability of fish, but also due to the appearance of many suitable night

  20. „Contested identity“ of Macedonia: Identity of Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stanković-Pejnović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is still in the process of forging its identity as an independent state; a process that is “contested” not only sub-state national identities but also the extent to which Macedonia sees itself as a subject of international relations.Without the protection of the Yugoslav federation, Macedonia found its security weakened and as a response to Bulgarian and Greek attitudes a more assertive and uncompromising view of Macedonian nationalism emerged, which would have a significant influence on Macedonian-Albanian relations in the new state. The Macedonians saw their national identity “contested” from several directions at the beginning of the 1990s, most notably from Greece and Bulgaria, and from inside the new state the Albanian opposition to Macedonian political and cultural dominance. Internal challenge to national identity is a result of the large number of cleavages between the two main ethnic communities. Because of this society has become increasingly segregated with major tensions running through the formation of new political identities and institutions across ethnic lines. External challenge to national identity between the Republic of Macedonia and its neighbors can be summarized as follows: Bulgaria is the main identity threat to the extent that identity is anchored in language; Serbs are the main identity threat to the extent that identity is anchored in religion; Albanians are the main identity threat to the extent that identity is anchored in statehood; and Greeks are the main identity threat to the extent that identity is anchored in the name of the nation, its language and state.

  1. Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area-The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasara, Eleni; Marakis, Georgios; Breda, Joao; Skepastianos, Petros; Hassapidou, Maria; Kafatos, Anthony; Rodopaios, Nikolaos; Koulouri, Alexandra A; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2017-04-22

    A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18-75 years, 45.2% males). Participants' dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0-55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake salt reduction initiatives in Greece.

  2. Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasara, Eleni; Marakis, Georgios; Breda, Joao; Skepastianos, Petros; Hassapidou, Maria; Kafatos, Anthony; Rodopaios, Nikolaos; Koulouri, Alexandra A.; Cappuccio, Francesco P.

    2017-01-01

    A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18–75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0–55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake salt reduction initiatives in Greece. PMID:28441726

  3. Time trends and correlates of late presentation for HIV care in Northern Greece during the decade 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Metallidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to assess the extent of late presentation for HIV care in Northern Greece during the period 2000 to 2010 and to explore correlations aiming to provide guidance for future interventions. Methods: HIV-positive patients with no prior history of HIV care at presentation and with a CD4 T cell count within three months from the first confirmatory Western blot result were eligible for this study. Late presentation and advanced HIV disease were defined in concordance with the recommendations of the European Late Presenter Consensus working group. Time trends in presentation status and risk factors linked to late presentation and advanced HIV disease were identified in multivariable logistic regression models. Additional analyses after multiple imputation of missing values were performed to assess the robustness of our findings. Results: The status at presentation was evaluated for 631 eligible HIV-positive individuals. Overall, 52.5% (95% CI: 48.6% to 56.4% of patients presented late for HIV care and 31.2% (95% CI: 27.6% to 34.8% presented with advanced HIV disease. Time trends were consistent with an improvement in the presentation status of our study population (p<0.001. Risk factors associated with late presentation in multivariable logistic regression were intravenous drug use, heterosexual HIV transmission, immigrant status and age at diagnosis. Conclusions: Despite the trend for improvement, a significant proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients present late for care. Targeted interventions with focus on social groups such as the elderly, persons who inject drugs, immigrants and individuals at risk for heterosexual HIV transmission are mandated.

  4. Long term evolution of tree growth, understorey vegetation and soil properties in a silvopastoral system of northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Gakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree growth, understorey characteristics and soil parameters were evaluated in a silvopastoral system in northern Greece at seven and twelve years after its establishment. The experiment was laid out in 1992 and included three understorey treatments (grass, legume and control- unsown, two tree species - sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and two tree spacings (2.5 x 2.5 m and 3.5 x 3.5 m. Tree height was taller in the control and in the dense stands while Scots pine had better growth but, higher mortality than sycamore in the both periods. In 2004, understorey vegetation was uniform under the three understorey treatments and a significant decrease in sward above ground biomass was recorded under the dense treatment, compared with the open stand. In the same year, organic C and N, Mg and K concentrations as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore numbers were found significantly higher under sycamore than Scots pine plots in the 0-20 cm soil depth. The results show that, although understorey vegetation became uniform over time, the initial plant composition of the understorey treatments continued to affect tree growth, indicating the importance of the understorey vegetation at the establishment stage of silvopastoral systems. However, as time passed initial tree spacing started to affect tree growth and tree species, particularly sycamore to improve soil properties. These results indicate an evolution of the initial silvopastoral system to a forest.

  5. Structural Analysis of Recent and Active Faults and Regional State of Stress in the Epicentral Area of the 1978 Thessaloniki Earthquakes (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jacques-Louis; Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Mouyaris, Nicolas; Simeakis, Konstantinos; Roundoyannis, Theodora; Anghelidhis, Christos

    1983-12-01

    During spring and summer 1978, Macedonia (Greece) suffered damaging seismic activity. During the two main shocks which occurred on May 23 (Mb = 5.7) and June 20 (Mb = 6.1), seismic open cracks and faults were formed in the epicentral area, 25 km NNE from Thessaloniki. They have been mapped and their kinematics analyzed. These studies have shown that they result from the reactivation of existing faults of Pleistocene, Recent, and historical age and that the crust is stretching along a N-S to NNE-SSW direction in that part of the North Aegean. Principal stress directions have been computed from the slip vectors measured on recent neotectonic faults and seismic cracks and faults, this computation utilizing a simple mechanical model (homogeneous deformation through the addition of small and independent displacements of rigid blocks in a highly fractured body). A striking feature of this analysis is that the tensional directions σ3 deduced from seismic faulting and from recent neotectonic faulting are nearly the same. They are compatible with the regional tension axis deduced from focal mechanisms of North Aegean and with the focal mechanisms of the 1978 Thessaloniki main shocks. They are also compatible with in situ stress measurements in this region. Studies of superficial seismic faulting strongly support previous assumptions proposed from aftershock distribution: the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquakes resulted from reactivation of several different faults situated within the same NE dipping fault zone of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene age (and older) separating the Serbo-Macedonian Massif from the Peonias (East Vardar) zone.

  6. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, C; Varacalli, S; Gino, S; Chatzikyriakidou, A; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Matullo, G; Piazza, A; Torre, C

    2004-10-04

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)--DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385--were typed in a population sample (n = 113) of unrelated males from seven different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Crete Island, and Chios Island).

  7. Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  8. Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  9. Notes on epilithic, epigeic and muscicolous lichens and lichenicolous fungi from rock outcrops in the mountains of northern Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen N.; Alstrup, Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Of the 154 taxa reported, 27 species are new to Greece, 9 new to the Greek mainland and 39 new to one or more provinces. Many of these records represent substantial range extensions of species with Central European or arctic-boreal distribution. Distribution data are briefly discussed and notes a...

  10. Notes on epilithic, epigeic and muscicolous lichens and lichenicolous fungi from rock outcrops in the mountains of northern Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen N.; Alstrup, Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Of the 154 taxa reported, 27 species are new to Greece, 9 new to the Greek mainland and 39 new to one or more provinces. Many of these records represent substantial range extensions of species with Central European or arctic-boreal distribution. Distribution data are briefly discussed and notes a...

  11. The Views of School Administrators and Educational Authorities Concerning the Management of Multiculturalism in a Regional Unity of Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziouri, Apostolia; Tsioumis, Konstantinos; Kyridis, Argyris

    2014-01-01

    By this research--part only of the findings we expose here--we attempted to investigate the degree up to which the financial crisis that has stricken Greece the latest years and the ascension of the nationalist party "Golden Dawn" have affected the concepts of school principals on multicultural issues. Such a change in the profile of…

  12. Brachyopa minima (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species from Greece with notes on the biodiversity and conservation of the genus Brachyopa Meigen in the Northern Aegean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Radenković, Snezana; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-01-29

    An on-going study of the hoverfly fauna of the Northern Aegean Islands (Greece) has revealed the presence of four species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen. During the survey the following species were found: B. bicolor (Fallén), B. quadrimaculosa Thompson in Kaplan & Thompson, B. minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón sp. nov. and an unidentified species very close to B. pilosa (Collin). Morphological characters and mitochondrial COI barcodes were used to link different life stages of B. minima, and to identify a larval specimen of B. bicolor. In this study adult and larval morphology and habitat preferences for B. minima are described. The description of larval morphology of B. bicolor and Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa is amended too. An identification key to the adults of the B. quadrimaculosa group sensu Kassebeer (2002) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Israel and Turkey) is provided. The importance of specific microhabitats for the continued existence of these taxa is discussed.

  13. The Last-glacial/Interglacial Transition in northern Greece: consequences on physical environments and implications for human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Antoine

    2010-05-01

    Across the Mediterranean Basin, the glacial-interglacial transition (15000-6000 BP) is the transition from hunter-gatherer societies of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Final companies to Neolithic farmers. In Epirus (northwestern Greece), the lack of archaeological sites is obvious for this period: only two cave sites have yielded Upper Paleolithic occupations and one open air site was dated to the Mesolithic. At the scale of the Tardiglacial and the Holocene, climate fluctuations have been multiple and caused palaeogeographic changes that we do not yet fully measure the amplitudes and limitations: significant change in the coastline and coastal paleogeography and modification of river systems. The prehistoric remains in a continental environment can not be easily found: they were either destroyed by marine erosion during the post-glacial rebound, or they were buried by sediment. The study we are conducting as part of a PhD in geoarchaeology tries to better understand the response of the physical backgrounds in northwestern Greece. Our study focuses on two specific areas: the delta formed by the river Thyamis (or Kalamas) and the inlet between the island of Corfu and the mainland. The first has never been paleoenvironmentaly studied. Likewise, archaeological researches in the watershed are almost nonexistent. The second study area is of paramount importance to understand the likely impact of the post-glacial rebound on the prehistoric and archaeological maps: initial investigations indicate that this space was occupied by a lake that has ceased to function around 10 000 BP. The paper will present preliminary results on the paleogeographic evolution of the delta Thyamis. In June 2009, combined measures of electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and GPR profiles have established the thickness of the Holocene sedimentation: nearly 15 meters at the upstream of the delta. To better understand the prehistoric and historical evolution of this space, a first serie

  14. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  15. Morbidity and mortality of malignant neoplasms in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovikj, Viktorija; Markovski, Velo

    2015-01-01

    Introductions: Malignant neoplasms are the second cause of death among the population in Republic of Macedonia with representation of and represent 19.0% in the structure of total deaths. Objective: To analyze the morbidity and mortality of the most common malignant neoplasms in Republic of Macedonia. Material and methods: Were used a data from the Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia, National institute for statistic of Republic Macedonia. Results and discussions:...

  16. Modeling seawater intrusion in overexploited aquifers in the absence of sufficient data: application to the aquifer of Nea Moudania, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2016-08-01

    In many coastal areas, overexploitation of groundwater resources has led both to the quantitative degradation of local aquifers and the deterioration of groundwater quality due to seawater intrusion. To investigate the behavior of coastal aquifers under these conditions, numerical modeling is usually implemented; however, the proper implementation of numerical models requires a large amount of data, which are often not available due to the time-consuming and costly process of obtaining them. In the present study, the investigation of the behavior of coastal aquifers under the lack of adequate data is attempted by developing a methodological framework consisting of a series of numerical simulations: a steady-state, a false-transient and a transient simulation. The sequence and the connection between these simulations constitute the backbone of the whole procedure aimed at adjusting the various model parameters, as well as obtaining the initial conditions for the transient simulation. The validity of the proposed methodology is tested through evaluation of the model calibration procedure and the estimation of the simulation errors (mean error, mean absolute error, root mean square error, mean relative error) using the case of Nea Moudania basin, northern Greece. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to minimize the error estimates and thus to maximize the reliability of the models. The results of the whole procedure affirm the proper implementation of the developed methodology under specific conditions and assumptions due to the lack of sufficient data, while they give a clear picture of the aquifer's quantitative and qualitative status.

  17. Responses of vegetation to a rise in water level at Kerkini Reservoir (1982-1991), a Ramsar site in northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, A. J.; Grillas, P.; Lacaze, B.

    1995-05-01

    The floodplain of the river Strymon at Kerkini (northern Greece) was transformed into an irrigation reservoir by the construction of a dam in 1932 and subsequently enlarged in 1982. The aims of this study were to quantify the changes occurring in the various habitat types following raising of the waterlevel and to assess the stability of the plant communities present at this Ramsar site. The current hydrological regime, which has been stable since 1986, is typified by an increase in mean annual reservoir level of 2.2 m and by an increase in the annual range in level of 1.3 m. Landsat (1980, 1981, 1984, 1986, and 1988) and SPOT (1990) satellite images show a decrease in the area of grassland and shallow water areas, the very rapid disappearance of reedbeds, the appearance of beds of Nymphaea and the disappearance of half the forest area. The flooded forest, dominated by Salix alba, is a key habitat contributing to the biological richness of this wetland of international importance. The decrease in the forested area will continue because of the death of standing trees, the absence of regeneration under the new regime, the felling of trees and grazing. Management could be undertaken to ensure the survival of forested habitat and reedbeds at Kerkini, but this would require that the authorities take into account nature conservation and the protected status of the site and not raise the water level again.

  18. Modeling seawater intrusion in overexploited aquifers in the absence of sufficient data: application to the aquifer of Nea Moudania, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2016-12-01

    In many coastal areas, overexploitation of groundwater resources has led both to the quantitative degradation of local aquifers and the deterioration of groundwater quality due to seawater intrusion. To investigate the behavior of coastal aquifers under these conditions, numerical modeling is usually implemented; however, the proper implementation of numerical models requires a large amount of data, which are often not available due to the time-consuming and costly process of obtaining them. In the present study, the investigation of the behavior of coastal aquifers under the lack of adequate data is attempted by developing a methodological framework consisting of a series of numerical simulations: a steady-state, a false-transient and a transient simulation. The sequence and the connection between these simulations constitute the backbone of the whole procedure aimed at adjusting the various model parameters, as well as obtaining the initial conditions for the transient simulation. The validity of the proposed methodology is tested through evaluation of the model calibration procedure and the estimation of the simulation errors (mean error, mean absolute error, root mean square error, mean relative error) using the case of Nea Moudania basin, northern Greece. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to minimize the error estimates and thus to maximize the reliability of the models. The results of the whole procedure affirm the proper implementation of the developed methodology under specific conditions and assumptions due to the lack of sufficient data, while they give a clear picture of the aquifer's quantitative and qualitative status.

  19. Notes on epilithic and epigeic lichens from granite and gneiss outcrops in mountains of Makedonia, Greece, with emphasis on northern species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The epilithic and epigeic lichen flora of eight localities with granite and gneiss outcrops in the mountains of Makedonia, N Greece has been investigated. Of the 46 taxa reported, seven species are new to Greece, viz.: Brodoa oroarcti­ca, Candelariella coralliza, Cetraria ericetorum, Lecanora...

  20. Frequency of genetic diseases and health coverage of children requiring admission in a general pediatric clinic of northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lialiaris Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to estimate the causes of pediatric morbidity in our area, with particular emphasis on diseases with a genetic background, we retrospectively categorized the admissions of all children hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics of the University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, in the area of Evros, Thrace, Greece over the three year period 2005-2007. Finally, in order to guide health care administrators to improve the delivery of pediatric health care services, we estimated the percentage of hospitalized children who were uninsured and the type of health insurance of those who had medical coverage. Patients and Methods The causes of admission, as recorded in the medical records were categorized in terms of the major organ and/or system involved and/or the underlying pathology, with emphasis on diseases with a genetic background. Duplicate admissions, i.e., admissions of the same child for the same underlying disease were excluded. Additional information recorded was age, sex, and type of health insurance of all admitted children. Distribution of the causes of admission by study year was compared by chi-square. A p value Results Over the study period, there were 4,947 admissions in 2,818 boys and 2,129 girls. Respiratory diseases were the most common accounting for 30%, while infectious diseases followed with 26.4%. The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among the hospitalized children was only 0.06%. However, if we consider diseases with an underlying genetic background, this percentage rises to 5%. Approximately 10.3% of the admitted children had no health insurance. Conclusions The percentage of children hospitalized in our area due to a disease with an underlying genetic background was 5%. This percentage pertains to a Department of Pediatrics that has no inpatient subspecialty units and which is located within a General hospital, because hospitalizations for genetic diseases are more frequent in

  1. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  2. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Greece: Spatio-temporal analysis and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lightning Network (PLN) is analysed over the wider area of Greece. In addition, the spatial and temporal relationships between TRMM 3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) datasets and lightning are presented. The analyses concern the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2012. The Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens, has established a detailed dataset of lightning impacts over Greece from 1895 to 2013, based on digitized archive editions of newspapers. The mean seasonal variability of CG lightning activity revealed autumn as the most dominant season with 303 LD, while the mean monthly variability of CG indicated October as the most lightning active month and May as the month with a mean of 27 LD. The mean annual spatial distribution of CG lightning per km2, depicted the maximum frequency over Pindus mountain range (> 7 CG/km2). During the autumn season, the northern Ionian Sea experienced a mean frequency of more than 5 CG/km2, compared to the southern Ionian Sea and NW Peloponnesus, where values of more than 7 CG/km2 are depicted. During the summer season, the maximum frequency appeared along Pindus mountain range, around Attica, Thessaly and central Macedonia highlands. The spatial distribution of seasonal correlations between the number of CG flashes/day and gridded (TRMM 3B42) daily rainfall totals for the period 2008-2012 over Greece, indicated that correlations were mainly positive all over the under study area, within all seasons, and especially during summer and autumn. Regarding the lightning impacts in Greece, based on the 1895-2013 study period, more than 343 fatalities and at least 224 injured people have been recorded. The spatial analysis of lightning impacts, showed that the majority of events has been recorded over Greek mainland and only few scattered events have been reported over

  3. Migrant Crisis, a Security Challenge for the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Racaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migrant crisis is an imposed problem that requires a thorough solution. The complete understanding of the reasons for migration, as well as the situation in the Mediterranean basin and in the Middle East is a precondition for finding appropriate solutions. Eradication of poverty and disparity, the fight against terrorism and the ISIS extremism as well as the fight against other similar groups are just a fraction of the necessary preconditions for a successful dealing with the current challenges. The solution to the drama with the infinite wave of migrants from Syria and the Middle East, to which we are sad observers, seems is not to be seen soon. First of all, if we look at the European political elite and the general lack of a reliable and clear strategy for solving this problem, all we will see is helplessness and mutual accusations. The migrant or the refugee crisis is followed by a large number of incidents or series of events. The massive arrival of refugees in the European Union, usually illegal migrants from Asia, Africa and parts of Southeastern Europe, started in the mid of 2010 and escalated in 2015. The reasons for the mass arrival are traditionally associated with the chronic unemployment and poverty in these countries, but lately, are also result of the war, especially in Syria, where the civil war caused massive exodus of the population. The situation is similar in Libya, where the fall of Moamer Gaddafi’s regime led to anarchy, used by the well-organized networks of human traffickers. By mid-2015, the refugee crisis mainly took place on the Mediterranean coast of Italy, where refugees were arriving by ships and boats. In many cases, such attempts were futile and led to mass deaths. Lately, there has been a massive influx of refugees and migrants in the Balkans, using Greece and Croatia, EU member countries on the periphery of the Union, as entry point. But also, The Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Serbia, candidate

  4. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in soil and vegetation following a large scale landfill fire in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, Loukia; Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs, as well as trace elements were determined in soil and vegetation samples collected from the surrounding area of the landfill "Tagarades", the biggest in northern Greece, following a large scale fire involving approximately 50,000 tons of municipal waste. High concentrations of total PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals were found inside the landfill (1475 microg kg(-1) dw, 399 microg kg(-1) dw and 29.8 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively), whereas concentrations in the surrounding soils were by far lower ranging between 11.2-28.1 microg kg(-1) dw for PAHs, 4.02-11.2 microg kg(-1) dw for PCBs and 575-1207 mg kg(-1) dw for heavy metals. The distribution of HCHs and DDTs were quite different since certain soils exhibited equal or higher concentrations than the landfill. In vegetation, the concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, HCHs and DDTs ranged from 14.1-34.7, 3.64-25.9, 1.41-32.1 and 0.61-4.03 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively, while those of heavy metals from 81 to 159 mg kg(-1) dw. The results of the study indicated soil and vegetation pollution levels in the surroundings of the landfill comparable to those reported for other Greek locations. The impact from the landfill fire was not evident partially due to the presence of recent and past inputs from other activities (agriculture, vehicular transport, earlier landfill fires).

  5. Local social capital and the acceptance of Protected Area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N; Clark, J R A; Panteli, M; Proikaki, M; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

    2012-04-15

    Managing Protected Areas (PAs) is a challenging task, and globally many instruments have been utilised for this purpose. Existing research demonstrates that the effectiveness of these instruments is highly dependent on their social acceptability among local communities resident within PAs. Consequently, investigating local attitudes and perceptions of Protected Area (PA) policies has been emphasised in recent studies. Drawing on empirical work conducted in two National Parks including river delta ecosystems designated as Ramsar wetlands in northern Greece, this paper examines local residents' perceptions of three hypothesized policy options (regulatory, market-based and participatory) for Park management. The influence of social capital elements (social trust, institutional trust and social networks) on residents' perceptions is explored. The findings reveal a high degree of importance attached by resident communities to Park designation in both PAs, though residents' perceptions of the proposed management options varied. The regulatory option was regarded as the least restrictive, while the most restrictive was perceived to be the market-based option. However, greater benefits were identified by residents from the market-based option, while the fewest benefits were considered to arise from the proposed regulatory option. Furthermore, local residents' perceptions were significantly shaped by the proposed management and decision-making structure offered under each policy option. The influence of different social capital elements on residents' perceptions also varied in the study sample, with social trust and institutional trust positively correlated with the benefits that were perceived to arise from the different policy options. Moreover, when social capital was measured as an aggregate indicator at the level of the individual, it was positively correlated with perceived environmental benefits.

  6. Humanitarian interventions in Macedonia: an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morris

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of the Kosovo crisis has given the impressionthat UNHCR and the relief agencies were overwhelmed by the influx ofrefugees into Macedonia and that it was highly fortunate that NATO was on hand to save the day. Such is the aftermath of NATO’s large and slickly publicized humanitarian operation. This impression is questionable.

  7. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  8. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  9. Distribution and geochemical composition of suspended particulate material in the shallow embayment of northern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanoglou, K.; Anagnostou, Ch.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Pagou, K.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Pavlidou, A.; Albanakis, K.; Tsirambides, A.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution and the chemical composition of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), in the northern Thermaikos Gulf, were studied during an annual experiment, carried out from June 2004 to June 2005. Water samples were collected at three depths (1 m below surface, 10 m depth, and 2 m above bottom) and filtered to obtain SPM, particulate organic carbon (POC), total particulate nitrogen (PNtot) and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations. SPM and POC concentrations exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, related to the different environmental characteristics in the study area such as river network, biological productivity, anthropogenic interferences, wind regime, and resuspension of the bottom sediments. The highest SPM concentrations were recorded at the surface (mean = 1.45 ± 0.75 mg/l, maximum value = 11.60 mg/l) and close to the bottom (mean = 1.49 ± 0.67 mg/l, maximum value = 11.72 mg/l), creating surface and bottom nepheloid layers (SNL and BNL), respectively. The maximum values were recorded close to the river mouths; the rivers are identified as the major sources of SPM. The Axios and Aliakmon rivers supplied the gulf with particulate matter, during the entire sampling period. Chemical analysis has revealed the significant correlation among the elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti, K, V, Mg and Ba suggesting the presence of terrigenous aluminosilicate minerals. Silica and Ca have terrigenous origin, but also come from autochthonous biogenic fraction. Chromium, Ni and Co, are of natural origin and derived from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Axios and Aliakmon watersheds. Copper and Zn are correlated with each other and their distributions follow that of POC; these two metals are derived from partially treated domestic and industrial effluents. The vertical distribution of organic matter implies increased primary production within the upper layer of the water column. Phosphorus is present mainly in an organic form. During the sampling period, the water

  10. West Nile Virus Circulation in Mosquitoes in Greece (2010–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsoula, Eleni; Vakali, Annita; Balatsos, Georgios; Pervanidou, Danai; Beleri, Stavroula; Tegos, Nikolaos; Baka, Agoritsa; Spanakos, Gregory; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Menounos, Panagiotis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background of the Study. Following a large West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in Northern Greece in 2010, an active mosquito surveillance system was implemented, for a 3-year period (2011, 2012, and 2013). Description of the Study Site and Methodology. Using mainly CO2 mosquito traps, mosquito collections were performed. Samples were pooled by date of collection, location, and species and examined for the presence of WNV. Results. Positive pools were detected in different areas of the country. In 2010, MIR and MLE values of 1.92 (95% CI: 0.00–4.57) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.38–7.49) were calculated for the Serres Regional Unit in Central Macedonia Region. In 2011, the highest MIR value of 3.71(95% CI: 1.52–5.91) was recorded in the Regions of Central Greece and Thessaly. In 2012, MIR and MLE values for the whole country were 2.03 (95% CI: 1.73–2.33) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.86–2.48), respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In 2013, in the Regional Unit of Attica, the one outbreak epicenter, MIR and MLE values for Cx. pipiens were 10.75 (95% CI: 7.52–13.99) and 15.76 (95% CI: 11.66–20.65), respectively. Significance of Results/Conclusions. The contribution of a mosquito-based surveillance system targeting WNV transmission is highlighted through the obtained data, as in most regions positive mosquito pools were detected prior to the date of symptom onset of human cases. Dissemination of the results on time to Public Health Authorities resulted in planning and application of public health interventions in local level. PMID:27294111

  11. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  12. Branding the green tourism in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana PETREVSKA; Cingoski, Vlatko

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is a fast growing business therefore developing a national brand can be part of an effective strategy in managing national growth in tourism. A positive national image is an essential ingredient for promotion that raises the issue for necessity of investing into national branding as part of the image-building strategy. The article draws on primary and secondary data to provide insights into the processes and conflicts over efforts to brand Macedonia as an eco-friendly destination. The...

  13. The development of victimology in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the development of victimology in Macedonia. The author presents research activities in the field of victimology, the development of victimology as a scientific discipline that is being taught at appropriate higher education institutions, as well as the usage of victimology in the process of legislation reforms. The paper also deals with victim assistance services in this country, as well the victims’ rights movement.

  14. A case of technology transfer in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacia Dabescki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing and facilities among organizations, the transfer of technology is instrumental for boosting the economy through creation of competitive products, new jobs and a better quality of life. The stagnant environment for technology transfers in Macedonia in the post-privatisation era is a result of a combination of factors. Among them is the outdated educational system that does not boost entrepreneurial spirit and innovation thinking. Main purpose of this paper is to examine the current status, conditions, anomalies and challenges for technology transfer in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as the potential for development and possibilities for improvement of the process. Through a lens of the technology transfer paradigm, this exploratory study will present a case in which the Foundation Business Start-up Centre in Macedonia, as a technology transfer agent provided links and cooperative platform for creation of new technologies and innovations within the local SME ecosystem. The focus will be on a couple of initiatives for technology development and transfer in a domestic context. Results from the process of implementation of these initiatives will be discussed, along with their stimulating impact on the environment for technology transfer.

  15. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  16. Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioudi, K E; Antoniou, S E; Iliadou, P; Sachpatzidis, A; Plevraki, E; Agianniotaki, E I; Fouki, C; Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Chondrokouki, E; Dile, C

    2016-06-01

    Lumpy skin disease was first reported in the EU, Greece, in August 2015. Until the end of December 2015, six regional units have been affected in northern Greece and the island of Limnos. This article presents the epidemiological situation, the diagnosis, the control measures including emergency vaccination and the preliminary conclusions from the experience gained.

  17. Constitutional overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmire Lumani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a scientific study that aims at analyzing the overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia in the Albanian Constitution. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is a representative body of citizens and the bearer of legislative power in the Republic. It is a unicameral body. Its status and its activity is regulated by the Constitution and special laws on Parliament. The Republic of Macedonia is a unitary state, with a multiethnic society. The population is made up, by two ethnic groups, Macedonians and Albanians. In the Republic of Macedonia are included the minority of Turks, Serbs, Vlachs, Romas, Bosniaks and others. As a result of many minorities and 2 ethnic groups, the structure of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, which is unicameral, does not respond and fit into the actual reality of the country. Therefore, changes should be made to this regard. This reality requires also a federalization of the Republic of Macedonia by guaranteeing the freedom and the right of self-determination of both majority groups, in this case Macedonians and Albanians. It should be noted, that the Republic of Macedonia, is divided into six electoral districts, with unequal numbers of voters and in this sense, changes in the Electoral Code should be undertaken.

  18. Constitutional overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmire Lumani

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a scientific study that aims at analyzing the overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia in the Albanian Constitution. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is a representative body of citizens and the bearer of legislative power in the Republic. It is a unicameral body. Its status and its activity is regulated by the Constitution and special laws on Parliament. The Republic of Macedonia is a unitary state, with a multiethnic society. The population is made up, by two ...

  19. SMEs AND INNOVATION – CASE OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA RISTESKA JANKULOSKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the dynamic environment, competitiveness of small and medium enterprises depends on the speed with which new products can be presented in the market. Innovation represent specific instrument of entrepreneurship, and in general entrepreneurs are bringing innovation. Innovation represents activity that impregnates the existing resources with new capacities for creation of resources. Innovation sometimes may result in brand new, unknown product or replacement of some existing function for it’s more efficient and successful performance. SMEs are more innovative than larger firms, due to their flexibility and their ability to quickly and efficiently integrate inventions created by the firms’ development activities. Hence, in this paper the main focus will be on SMEs in Macedonia, their innovation and the business environment, excually the influence of business environment for creating innovation. To prove this we will test three hypotheses by using the ANNOVA model and in the end of the paper based on the obtained results we will purpose a measures for improving the business environment in Macedonia in order to stimulate SMEs innovation.

  20. PROMOTION: BRANDING TOOL FOR MACEDONIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Violeta Milenkovska; Zoran Strezovski; Angela Milenkovska

    2015-01-01

      In times when competition between countries in the world is stronger, in order to attract as many tourists as possible, and strengthening their brand as a tourist destination, Republic of Macedonia...

  1. Tectonic development of the Vardar ocean and its margins: Evidence from the Republic of Macedonia and Greek Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Trivić, Branislav; Đerić, Nevenka; Bucur, Ioan I.

    2013-06-01

    The tectonic development of the northeast margin of the Korabi-Pelagonian continent and the adjacent Vardar ocean is discussed based on study of nine traverses across the former northeastern margin of the Korabi-Pelagonian continent, represented by the West Vardar subzone in the Republic of Macedonia. A detailed correlation of units is also made across the international border with Greece, coupled with regional comparisons. Precambrian-Palaeozoic units were metamorphosed and intruded by granitic rocks, followed by Mid-Triassic rifting and the construction of a carbonate platform bordering a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic ocean. Neritic deposition was followed by Late Jurassic (syn- or pre-Early Tithonian) subsidence with radiolarian and then terrigenous turbidite sedimentation. Overlying ophiolitic rocks are characterised by a relatively thin ( 200 km N-S) sheet of sheared, blocky serpentinite (mainly mantle harzburgite), associated with ophiolite-derived debris flows. The emplaced ophiolitic rocks were subaerially weathered to form local Fe-Ni accumulations. Following marine transgression, a shallow-water carbonate-siliciclastic deposits, including coralgal reefs, accumulated during Late Tithonian-Early Cretaceous. After a hiatus, mixed terrigenous-carbonate gravity flows accumulated in deep water during the Late Cretaceous. The Vardar ocean opened during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic separating the Korabi-Pelagonian and Serbo-Macedonian continents. Northeastward subduction created a Late Jurassic magmatic arc along the southern margin of the Serbo-Macedonian continent, while future ophiolites formed by supra-subduction zone spreading within the Vardar ocean. These ophiolites were emplaced in response to collision of the subduction trench with the Korabi-Pelagonian continent. The pre-Mesozoic basement detached and subducted undergoing high pressure-low temperature metamorphism during the Late Jurassic (Tithonian), followed by amphibolite/greenschist facies

  2. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH HEAVY METALS CONTENT AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TENA SIJAKOVA-IVANOVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this research was to determinate the contents of heavy metals and physico chemical properties of coal fly ash and to find out if it is possible to reuse it in embankments, soil stabilization, flow able fill, asphalt, geopolymers and so on.The chemical properties included in this study were: pH, Electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, and Cation exchange capacity. A physical property such as specific gravity was determined.Four samples of coal fly ash were analysed for the presence of As, Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co. We made comparison between concentration of heavy metals in coal fly ash in Macedonia and concentration of these metals in coal fly ash from Spain, Greece, India, Philippines and the UK, given in literatures. The concentrationof As in the fly ash from thermal power plant MEC - Bitola in Macedonia is lower than the contents of this element in the fly ash in thermal power plants from the Philippines and the UK. The contents of other heavy metals is in the range same as theirs. Cation exchange capacity (CEC and ammonium exchange capacity (AEC values for fly ash from investigation thermal power plant are in the range of 0.19-0.28 meq/ g for CECs and 0.17-0.33 meq/g for AECs. Ec 0.13-0.15mmhos/cm, Organic carbon 3.17-3.85 and specific gravity 2.04-2.37g/cm3. Every year in Macedonia 900 000 – 1 100 000 t of coal fly ash are produced. Only 10% of coal fly ash is used in cement products which are far below the global utilization rate (25%. We hope that the results of this study will be the basis for further research aimed at increasing the percentage of utilization of coal ash.

  3. Trichinellosis in Greece: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiraki S.T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis which constitutes a public health problem in many countries seems to be of no importance on both pig industry and public health in Greece, where in spite of a law requiring mandatory use of trichinoscopy during meat inspection, muscle larvae have not been found in slaughtered pigs since 1957 in Thessaloniki and 1967 in Athens. Since its first recovery in 1 946 and up to 1952, human trichinellosis has been found or suspected in 22 persons in the area of Athens and Thessaloniki. Moreover, in 1968, T.spiralis larvae were found incidentally in a human with laryngeal tumor and in 1971, living larvae were postmortem recovered in the diaphragm of a 70-year-old man. The average incidence of infection in pigs at that time was 0.02-2.2 %. Since then, no other clinical case had been reported up to 1982- 1984 when 15 people were found to harbor the parasite and fourteen of them were part of an outbreak which occurred in a small village in Northern Greece. Moreover, 1.07 % of the pig serum samples which came from the same area, showed the presence of specific antibodies. Because of the above data, it is generally accepted that in Greece T. spiralis is only rarely spread in man.

  4. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  5. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: a case study for Central Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Papageorgiou, A; Perkoulidis, G; Sanida, G; Samaras, P

    2010-02-01

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  6. Process of Reconciliation in a Postconflict Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Popovska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will consider reconciliation in a post-conflict Macedonia. When Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA was signed, the international community greeted the achievements of the international community as it was signed under specific circumstances. Since it stopped the conflict, it had achieved its goal. Legally, the country became a multiethnic one with a power-sharing government. Yet, the political and intellectual elite, which slightly differ from each other, did not invest intellectual and political capital when searching for a specific Macedonian (inter national identity, which goes beyond the limitations of the ethnic definitions and mythology around them. Instead, the national discourse is emphasized. Using the terms such as multiculturalism, multhiethnicity and polylingualisam creates additional confusion. When media and politicians use these phrases and incorporate their own political discourses, the damage is done. Critical thinking is not on the agenda in the educational process and the young people are expected to listen rather than think. There is a need for a structural communication among the citizens, a social link but also a philosophical and maybe an ideological communication, so as to fill in the gaps and avoid further divisions. The only way to accomplish that is to have an open and inclusive society. In order to achieve this, the culture of dialog should be nurtured. It is not enough for Macedonians and Albanians to know each other’s folklore and cultural history. Coexistence requires knowing the modern reality. Structured communication is a key. Absence of public discourse has a positive effect on the society’s wellbeing. A debate is not a threat to the process of creating politics. Instead, it legalizes the decision-making process. The intellectual elite should take the lead, show its grandiosity, and view Macedonia as a whole in a joint narrative, which considers all the specifics of the different cultures

  7. PROMOTION: BRANDING TOOL FOR MACEDONIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Milenkovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In times when competition between countries in the world is stronger, in order to attract as many tourists as possible, and strengthening their brand as a tourist destination, Republic of Macedonia started to build and strengthen its tourism brand. Due to the enormous competition, traditional destinations maintain and improve their brand through new innovative tourist attractions. On the contrary, the new tourist destinations strongly attack potential tourists with intention of gaining a better position on the tourist market. The subject of this paper is Macedonia as a tourist destination seen through the prism of promotional activities that Agency for promotion and support tourism in Republic of Macedonia realized in period 2009– 2012. This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 65 tourist stockholders (travel agencies and hotels in Macedonia in 2012. In this study it will be analyzed what other countries have undertaken regarding the aspect of promotion of their tourist product, concerning promotion of their tourist destination and what Macedonia has undertaken and should undertake regarding that aspect.

  8. Sustainable Economic Growth: a Perspective for Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Rexhepi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis shows that since 1990’s, ex-socialist economies were in transition. This process was multidimensional and had deep roots. In most transition economies, output (GDP is determined by the availability of labour, capital and their productivity (TFP. Hence, these indicators are not generating the business cycles, which is typical for market economies in the long-term. At this point, it is vital to understand the reasons of low-level of capital accumulation in transition economies in order to find opportunities to make better use of physical, human and social capital. Furthermore, it is observed that in these economies, institutions needed to be re-established or the rules of the game needed to be changed to regulate incentive structures that will lead to growth. The main objective of this research is to identify the peculiarity of economic growth in Macedonia and to examine if achieving smart growth in long-term is possible; which is supported by fundamental notions of sustainable development.

  9. From the history of Serbian question in Macedonia: Culturological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Prvoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Serbian Question in Macedonia is most closely related to major political events in the Balkans in 19th and 20th centuries. Starting from the social and historical processes in this region of the Balkans, the author examines this question through several fundamental periods, wishing to look into the status of Serbian population in Macedonia of the time against this background. The first period began with the First Serbian Uprising (1804 heralding the creation of the first free Serbian state in the Balkans, and ended with the conclusion of Liberation Wars (1878 leaving considerable Serbian territories liberated. The second period started at the time of conclusion of liberation wars and lasted till the beginning of the Balkan Wars in 1912. The third period was the one from the conclusion of Balkan Wars till the end of World War II (1945. The fourth period commenced at the end of World War II and lasted till the disintegration of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The last, fifth period refers to the contemporary state of affairs in the Republic of Macedonia since the disintegration of the SFRY, i.e. the independence of the Republic of Macedonia in 1991. The analysis of the status of Serbian Question here is predominantly related to the culturological aspect through examining the circumstances in education literature, and in culture in general. It shows that the status of Serbian ethnic minority in Macedonia was closely related to social, historical and political setting in these areas of the Balkans. In the new social and political environment, the status of the remaining Serbian ethnic minority in Macedonia is uncertain. In the recent decades, unstable political circumstances in this area have had adverse effects on the presence of Serbian ethnic element in Macedonian territories, even more so since it fails to receive sufficient national support from both sides.

  10. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    OpenAIRE

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-01-01

    Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  11. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  12. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  13. Employment, Education, and Emigration: The FYR of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovska, Margareta

    2004-01-01

    The transitional process of the FYR of Macedonia since independence in 1991 has been marked by a severe economic crisis, which has led to a significant increase in the levels of unemployment (31.9 percent in 2002) and poverty (22.7 percent in 2001). The turbulent situation in the Balkan region (war in the countries of the Former Yugoslavia) and…

  14. THE IMPACT OF TAXES MEASURED BY GINI INDEX IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The past decades the problem of income inequality and welfare segregation has presented itself as one of the biggest faults for modern economic systems. Republic of Macedonia as a country in development is presented with a serious challenge into decreasing the income inequality witch has risen for average 4% annually over the past 15 years, according to the GINI index. The problem of income inequality for Republic of Macedonia starches further as the country presents itself as one the highest ranking of income inequality in comparison the South-East European countries. The impact of different types of taxes on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia measured through the GINI index, the econometric model of regression and correlation was conducted towards determination the type of tax that has the most impact on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia for the observational period, the Personal income tax have the utmost impact on the income inequality measured through the GINI index.

  15. Eutrophication patterns in an eastern Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Vassova, Delta Nestos, Macedonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of an intensive monitoring study of main eutrophication parameters in relation to fish farming management, climate and hydrography in the Vassova coastal lagoon (Nestos Delta are presented. The overall aim is to produce basic knowledge in order to contribute to the management of eutrophication of coastal lagoons at local and national levels. Due to extensive spatiotemporal variability of the measured parameters correlation and regression polynomial analysis was used to identify patterns (p<0.05. Freshwater was the main source of nitrate and phosphate in the lagoon. This finding has justified the reduction of freshwater inflow in the past, which, however, has increased mean salinity to 30 PSU and reduced spatial salinity gradients. Maximum nitrate values in winter coincided with adverse climatic and hydrographic conditions (high precipitation, strong NE to E winds and low tide and fish farming management that hinder water circulation. Dissolved phosphorus variability indicated the combination of the external (freshwaters and internal (sediment P-sources. N/P water values indicated nitrogen being the most important nutrient for primary producers throughout the year, except in winter, when phosphorus was the most important nutrient. Practical measures for improving fish farming practices to decrease “eutrophication risk” during winter are suggested. Existing nutrient data from the Vassova and from other Greek lagoons in comparison were also presented and discussed.

  16. Book review: Macedonia: the political, social, economic and cultural foundations of a Balkan state

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Daniel Martyn

    2013-01-01

    Macedonia: The Political, Social, Economic and Cultural Foundations of a Balkan State is a collection of twelve essays taking an in-depth look at the multi-layered relationships between different groups in Macedonia from an anthropological perspective. Daniel M. Knight finds the book to offer revealing insights into the rich tapestry of life in modern-day Macedonia, especially in the areas of religion and ethnicity.

  17. Tectonic field and deformation in Chalkidiki area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatza, Stavroula-Drosoula; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Greece is situated on the convergence limits, between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plate, and as a consequence, is considered as one of the most seismogenic areas on the world. Chalkidiki is part of the region of Central Macedonia in Northen Greece. The region of Chalkidiki is traversed by three faults and it is an area of great tectonic interest. On a daily basis, earthquakes occur in the seabed between the three peninsulas of Chalkidiki. Concerning the geomorphology of the area, it is covered by three types of rocks, the Serbomacedonian mass, the Perirodopiki zone and Peonia sub zone. The contact with the Serbomacedonian mass has a direct effect on tectonics of the region, since the area has a continuous tectonic activity. The neotectonic activity is characterized by normal faults, as well as horns and tectonic trenches. Velocity field and strain parameters for a deformation model are evaluated using GPS data from a geodetic network of thirty one points established in the broader area of Chalkidiki. Apart from these points, all the available observations of permanent stations in the area, were used to determine the final tectonic velocity field. All data were processed using Bernese GNSS Software v.5. The implementation of the reference system ITRF2005, was performed, using nine IGS stations, for the local network. Time series analysis for each point was used, in order to calculate the displacements and tectonic velocities. Finally, in order to investigate the strain patterns of the area, strain tensors were computed and discussed.

  18. Index of Circular Agriculture Development in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trendov Nikola M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, the circular economy would boost country’s agri-food sector competitiveness and help create new business and market opportunities for the farmers and processing industry. Public benefits that could accrue from the bio-economy perspective has become compelling. Nevertheless, the question arises: “At what level are we? Does the country go toward the development of the circular agriculture or not?” By using conceptual model of BPEIR (Behaviour - Pressure - Effect - Impact - Response and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method, the author introduces a comprehensive analysis and quantitative evaluation of the level of Macedonian circular agriculture development. This paper discusses the fact that the Republic of Macedonia shows positive trends regarding circular economy disciplines in agriculture, given by natural geographic conditions and traditional agricultural production.

  19. A Mathematical Model on Employment versus Several Factors in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpresa Syla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study is made an attempt to analyze the conjunction of several indicators on the employment of citizens in the Republic of Macedonia. In this regard the logistic regression and odds ratios were used in order to see how certain factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, area of residence and the number of family members affect employment at citizens. This study is based on data from a survey organized by the Center for Economic Analyses in December 2011, by 400 citizens of the Republic of Macedonia. Results show that young males of Macedonian nationality, those with higher education, ones that live on urban areas and the families that have greater number of members are more likely to be employed. For data processing is used software Med Calc.

  20. The Quality of Life and Regional Development in FYR Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bartlett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on regional disparities in the quality of life in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It explores the relationship between the quality of life, social exclusion, and policies towards regional and local economic development. The paper is based on a household survey carried out in August 2008 which provides a detailed picture of the situation facing households across regions. Overall, the survey shows that there are large regional disparities in life satisfaction, indicating an important role for regional policy in improving the life experience of people living in the most deprived parts of the country. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations for improving the focus of regional policies to ensure a higher quality of life in the deprived regions of Macedonia.

  1. Perceptions of Transition and the Crisis in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Shukarov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of people’s perceptions about the effects of the transition process and economic crisis in Macedonia, as extrapolated from UNDP surveys from 2008 and 2009 and set in the context of Macedonia’s political life. Questions were constructed in a way to compare the current situation with the pre-1989 period in order to show differences in opinions. The results indicate dissatisfaction, especially among young people. Participants blame their dissatisfaction on the economic problems that have occurred during transition. Their expectations had been high in respect of economic efficiency but transition has not brought high employment or quality of life closer to the EU average. In fact, unemployment rates have increased and job security has been lost. The widespread belief that quality of life was better before the period of economic liberalisation and privatisation is no surprise and subjectively reflects the dissatisfaction with economic and political developments in Macedonia.

  2. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  3. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  4. Development Perspectives of Investment Funds in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Odzaklieska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the importance of investment funds for the expansion of investment alternatives in the capital market in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as their role in collecting funds from small investors who often do not possess sufficient knowledge and financial resources to achieve satisfactory degree of diversification of their individual portfolio. It will also give a review of perspectives, measures and recommendations to encourage the development of these financial institutions in our country.

  5. The accounting view of tax reforms in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinovski, Aleksandar; Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A modern tax system and efficient tax administration is the basis for the economic development of each country. Increased workloads, expanded responsibilities and continuing demands for faster and better tax reporting drive tax departments to become more efficient and effective. The recent reforms of the tax system in Republic of Macedonia which involves lower taxes and modernization of tax administration, should leads to a modern, simple, transparent and fair tax system that con...

  6. Political culture in Macedonia after the Ohrid Framework Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jonuz Abdullai

    2012-06-01

    • interethnic relations after the Ohrid Framework Agreement. Political culture in South-Eastern European countries has been analysed in different views, especially in the reform process, where it has an important role. Conclusions of this paper are that Macedonia must fulfil the conditions set forth, both political and institutional, based on the political culture for EU integration, since political culture, according to scholar L. Pye represents a “set of basic values, emotions and knowledge shaping and feeding political processes”.

  7. Opportunities for upheaval in developing market securities in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sajnoski, Krste

    2011-01-01

    This parer analyze the development of market securities in Macedonia. We present arguments which show that the emission of securities is negligible and with large oscillations. The value of emissions increases its share in GDP and gross investment in the country, but it is still below the level necessary and possible to determine as a factor for acceleration of economic activity and as a competitive factor of banks in providing funds for development. Among the reasons for the such...

  8. Biomedical journals in Republic of Macedonia: the current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Danevska, Lenche

    2014-01-01

    Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tradition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS-Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to be included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

  9. CMS Virtual Tour Greece

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    More than 500 high-school students from 7 locations in Greece visit virtually the CMS experiment. Read more about this record-breaking event here: http://home.web.cern.ch/students-educators/updates/2014/02/students-visit-heart-cms-detector

  10. History of Forest Enterprise Management Development in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Blazevska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The central theme of the paper is the development of forest enterprise management in Macedonia and the adaptation to changes throughout the history. The change has become a permanent phenomenon that has to be addressed and managed appropriately in order to ensure organizational survival. Because of the changes in technology, the market place, social values and work force created a dynamic and unpredictable environment especially for those organizations who are unable to respond to the changes and adapt. Methods and Methodology: For the purpose of the research, a content analysis was applied to forest enterprises that appeared in all documents starting from 1900 to 2012. In order to increase the validity of the research and avoid any gaps, the data was divided into categories according to the meaning of the words. Hence, words with similar meanings were placed into the same categories, in order to obtain a better review of the researched phenomena. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that throughout the history there were different types of forests enterprise managements in Macedonia. According to the analysed documents, during the period of the administration after the World War II (May 1945 the first federal forest company “FESUMA” was established with the help of ASNOM (Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People’s Liberation of Macedonia and the Department of Forestry and Mining. All modifications of forests funds and legislation thereafter have influenced and provoked a lot of changes in the forest enterprise management. At the same time it is interesting to emphasize that the results obtained from the research show that in order to survive and stay competitive on the market, forest enterprises have been developing and adapting to the changes in the environment.

  11. LEASING SECTOR IN MACEDONIA-STATES AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA BOSKOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of limited access to traditional sources of funding when lending a privilege of the largest and most creditworthy companies, contemporary, alternative ways of funding, including the leasing are increasingly gaining importance. They are particularly attractive for small and medium enterprises that grow rapidly and are facing a shortage of funds. In terms of general illiquidity of the Macedonian economy, on the one hand, and restrictive credit policies of banks on the other hand, creating a business climate where will apply and promote alternative modes of financing in the Republic of Macedonia is a very importance for the operation and development of small and medium enterprises.

  12. A Mathematical Model on Employment versus Several Factors in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shpresa Syla; Sadri Alija

    2013-01-01

    In this study is made an attempt to analyze the conjunction of several indicators on the employment of citizens in the Republic of Macedonia. In this regard the logistic regression and odds ratios were used in order to see how certain factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, area of residence and the number of family members affect employment at citizens. This study is based on data from a survey organized by the Center for Economic Analyses in December 2011, by 400 citizens of the ...

  13. Strategy for food risk assessment of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Domazetovska-Popovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Central legal Act in food legislation in the Republic of Macedonia is The Law on safety of food and products and materials in contact with food (O.G. of R.M. No. 54/02 and 84/07). Authorities for control of food safety are Ministry of Health by Food Directorate (about 100 employees, 60 inspectors), and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water economy by: Veterinary Directorate, Agricultural Inspection and Phytosanitary Directorate. Tasks of the Risk Assment Unit includes: Creating da...

  14. Foreign Direct Investments Induced Innovation? A Case Study − Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolov Mico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, while analysing innovation in Southeast Europe, and in particular the case study of Macedonia, focuses on the basic ties between foreign direct investments and innovation. Foreign direct investment is usually defined as dominant or controlling ownership of a company in one country (the host country, by an entity based in another country. The concept of industry-government- university relationships interprets the change from a dominating industry-government duo in the ‘industrial society’ to a growing triadic relationship between industry-government-university in the ‘knowledge society’.

  15. Greece at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Greece, one of CERN*'s founding Member States, inaugurated its first Industrial Exhibition at the Meyrin site on Tuesday, 14 October. After a meeting with CERN's Director General, Professor Christopher Llewellyn Smith, Professor Emmanuel Frangoulis, the General Secretary of the Greek Ministry of Industry, accompanied by Prof Emmanuel Floratos, Greek delegate to CERN council visited the DELPHI experiment on the LEP collider, guided by Andromachi Tsirou, a Greek physicist.

  16. Molecular basis of cystic fibrosis in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreska, L; Koceva, S; Plaseska, D; Chernick, M; Gordova-Muratovska, A; Fustic, S; Nestorov, R; Efremov, G D

    1998-09-01

    Eighty-three cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and their families, belonging to various ethnic groups living in the Republic of Macedonia were studied for molecular defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, and for the associated extragenic marker loci XV-2c and KM19. The DNA methodology used included characterization of CFTR mutations in 19 exons (and flanking sequences) of the gene and analysis of distribution of the XV-2c/KM19 haplotypes among normal (N) and CF chromosomes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by dot blot hybridization, restriction digestion, single-strand conformational polymorphism, constant denaturing gel electrophoresis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. We identified 58.4% (97/166) of the CF chromosomes. Nine different CFTR gene mutations, including three novel ones, were found. Eight known and one new CFTR intragene polymorphisms were also characterized. The haplotype analysis of the XV-2c/TaqI and KM19/PstI polymorphic loci have shown that haplotype C is the most frequently found haplotype among the non-deltaF508 CF chromosomes from Macedonia (36.5%). The results demonstrate the broad heterogeneity of CF origin in this part of the Balkan Peninsula.

  17. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  18. ELECTRONIC RETAILING IN MACEDONIA-CASE STUDY OF OHRID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With electronic retailing that offers the possibility of direct sales, is no longer need expensive business premises, or paying high rents, or employing a number of vendors. There is also the possibility of selling to final consumers in any geographical region in different countries of the world by establishing instant communication, through presenting an interactive multimedia catalog that can offer numerous information то the customers. However, on the other hand, sales through the Internet can appear certain problems. Many potential buyers in the world still do not use the Internet, others don't have fast connections, others do not speak good English, also it requires the existence of trust between both parties, buyer and seller, as well as security in the execution of transactions. The aim of this paper is to treat electronic retailing in Macedonia which is becoming more popular as worldwide, especially in developed parts of the world like the US and Europe. Macedonian companies are increasingly applying electronic method of sale and communication with customers. The number of Internet users and on-line purchase is rapidly expanding what undoubtedly indicates that there is potential for advancement in this field. Also in this paper will be presented a case study where will be analyzed the current state for development of electronic retailing in Macedonia, especially region of Ohrid.

  19. Essential oil composition of wild growing Sage from R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze and identify the essential oil composition of S. officinalis populations growing in Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate these data according to different standards’ requirements for, commercially most utilized, Dalmatian sage. The essential oil yield, obtained after hydrodestilation from leaves, of three different populations of Salvia officinalis L. from Republic of Macedonia was determined, varying from 1.40 to 3.46%. The GC/FID/MS analysis of the composition of the essential oils revealed 63, 57 and 51 components in Galicica Mtn., Jablanica Mtn. and Karaorman Mtn. sage populations, respectively. The main components of the oil, in all three samples, were the terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: camphor (13.15 - 25.91%, α-thujone (19.25 - 26.33%, β-thujone (2.03 - 5.28%, 1,8-cineole (6.51 – 13.60%, α-pinene (0.93 – 1.47%, borneol (1.07 – 4.67%, then sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene (1.72 – 5.33%, α-humulene (2.89 – 7.99%, viridiflorol (4.27 – 7.99%, and the diterpene manool (2.13 - 3.79%. Thus, our results for the essential oil composition of sage complied with the reference values specified in the DAC 86 monograph for Salvia essential oil.

  20. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF MEDIATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution enables faster, more efficient and less costly resolution of disputes in relation to the proceedings. Its operation is based on the following principles: voluntary, equality of the parties, neutrality of the mediator, exclusion of the public, efficiency of the procedure, confidentiality of information, fairness. In Macedonia the mediation as an alternative dispute resolution was introduced by the Law on Mediation in 2006. However, besides this law, the resolution of disputes by mediation is regulated by other special laws such as the Family Law Act, Consumer Law, the Juvenile Justice, Law for the peaceful resolution of labor disputes, etc.. For effective functioning of the mediation, except legal regulation of mediation, and established appropriate institutional framework is an important link for a successful mediation. The institutional framework of mediation includes: Ministry of Justice - Sector for Mediation, Board for Mediation, the Mediators Chamber of Macedonia and mediator. All the above institutions have proper function in the system of mediation and their jurisdiction is governed normative-legal. The legal and institutional framework actually consists of mediation system in the country and represent a whole.

  1. Analysis of the life insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeski Cvetko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia has a short history, if we do not count the experience of ZOIL Makedonija before the independence of Republic of Macedonia. The recent history of life insurance covers the last seven years and the segment of life insurance comprises about 6% of the total insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia. In this paper we analyse the development of life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia in recent history, taking the gross premiums of two of the best companies that are working in the segment of life insurance. Besides analysing the influence of the basic determinants of the development of life insurance (GDP, monetary stability, social insurance, etc. we analyse the model of time series, with the purpose of making a model and forecasting future values of the series.

  2. The Units of Alexander’s Army and the District Divisions of Late Argead Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rzepka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The respective numbers and sizes of the military units reflect Macedonia's geographical organization and exhibit a rational pattern that shows parallels with the structure of the Greek federal states.

  3. Measles Outbreak in Macedonia: Epidemiological, Clinical and Laboratory Findings and Identification of Susceptible Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Irena T Kondova; Zvonko Milenkovic; Sanja P Marinkovic; Golubinka Bosevska; Gordana Kuzmanovska; Goran Kondov; Sonja Alabakovska; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases) and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected...

  4. Effects of the application of targeting the exchange rate policy in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    KRUME NIKOLOSKI; SANJA PANOVA; M-R.VLATKO PACESKOSKI

    2016-01-01

    The monetary system and monetary – credit policy in the Republic of Macedonia were built after the country gained independence from the previous federal community, when Macedonia faced problems such as: termination of many plants, increase in unemployment, increase in budget and foreign trade deficit as well as high inflation rate. The macroeconomic stability narrowly understood as reducing the inflation rate, was the first measure of the economic policy, undertaken along with the monetary in...

  5. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  6. Qualitative Study of Attitudes of Healthcare Professionals Regarding Accreditation and Quality, in the Pre- accreditation Period in R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrusevska, Aneta; Dimitrioska, Vera; Zisovska, Elizabeta; Spasovski, Mome

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare system in the Republic of Macedonia has planned to commence accreditation of the healthcare organizations. The Government of Macedonia chose to establish its own hospital accreditation systems. The objective of this study is to understand the attitudes of healthcare professionals in hospitals in Macedonia, to gain understanding of the value of accreditation on quality of care as perceived by the staff members and the possible strategies to improve implementation ...

  7. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  8. Foreign Capital, GDP and Effects Affairs of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Apostolov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Southeast Europe and analyzes foreign capital movements, gross domestic product and possible effects, through a case study of Macedonia. There are many respectable sources of data, especially macro data and firm-level data that are used in this research. What we are interested in are the movements of foreign direct investment i.e. foreign capital, gross domestic product and effects of such changes, and possible contributions to the development of domestic firms and the overall economy. Foreign direct investment is usually defined as dominant or controlling ownership of a company in one country, by an entity based in another country. As of the beginning of the transition process, foreign direct investments remain priority, as essential pillar, that moves forward the society towards developed market economy. Further, we are interested in the possibility that these two indicators have positive and upward climb to facilitate this developing economy.

  9. Intensity Based Seismic Hazard Map of Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojcinovski, Dragi; Dimiskovska, Biserka; Stojmanovska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The territory of the Republic of Macedonia and the border terrains are among the most seismically active parts of the Balkan Peninsula belonging to the Mediterranean-Trans-Asian seismic belt. The seismological data on the R. Macedonia from the past 16 centuries point to occurrence of very strong catastrophic earthquakes. The hypocenters of the occurred earthquakes are located above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, most frequently, at a depth of 10-20 km. Accurate short -term prognosis of earthquake occurrence, i.e., simultaneous prognosis of time, place and intensity of their occurrence is still not possible. The present methods of seismic zoning have advanced to such an extent that it is with a great probability that they enable efficient protection against earthquake effects. The seismic hazard maps of the Republic of Macedonia are the result of analysis and synthesis of data from seismological, seismotectonic and other corresponding investigations necessary for definition of the expected level of seismic hazard for certain time periods. These should be amended, from time to time, with new data and scientific knowledge. The elaboration of this map does not completely solve all issues related to earthquakes, but it provides basic empirical data necessary for updating the existing regulations for construction of engineering structures in seismically active areas regulated by legal regulations and technical norms whose constituent part is the seismic hazard map. The map has been elaborated based on complex seismological and geophysical investigations of the considered area and synthesis of the results from these investigations. There were two phases of elaboration of the map. In the first phase, the map of focal zones characterized by maximum magnitudes of possible earthquakes has been elaborated. In the second phase, the intensities of expected earthquakes have been computed according to the MCS scale. The map is prognostic, i.e., it provides assessment of the

  10. Macedonian Calendars in Macedonia during the Roman Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Danezis, E.; Grammenos, Th.; Stathopoulou, M.

    Two calendrical sye parallely used in Macedonia during the Roman occupation. Both systems had kept the ancient greek names of the months as they were given in the ancient greek Macedonian Calendar. Also, both systems started with the same month Dios but they differed in the starting year. The older one started with the "Macedonian year" in 148 B.C., the year of the victory of the Roman Consul Q.C.Metellus against the revolution of Pseudo-Phillipus Andriscus. The second one started in 31 B.C., which was known as the "respectful" year. This year indicates the victory of Octavian Augustus over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra in Aktion on September 2 of the year 31 B.C.

  11. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FINANCIAL REPORTING: HARMONIZATION IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of global resources, easier consolidation of multinational companies foreign subsidiaries, alleviation of accounting staff mobility and reducing of audit costs. The research is based on the benefits that the national economy can gain if the international financial reporting standards are successfully implemented. Special attention in the paper is devoted to the factors that determine the harmonization of financial reporting. The analysis of the results show the managers' perception of financial reporting, and emphasize the effects of the implementation of IFRS in Republic of Macedonia.

  12. Forest Strategy in Republic of Macedonia: Barriers to Effective Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Baumgartner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In recent years, implementation of forest strategies and programs has been acknowledged as an important phase of the forest policy process. Forest policies such as conflict management concepts between deferent interests of stakeholders, are a dynamic route that needs to be managed carefully to achieve its goals. Creation of the forest policy document entitled “Strategy for sustainable development of forestry in Republic of Macedonia” was introduced for the first time in 2005 as cooperation between the Government and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. Action Plan was brought in the same year including the strategy and validity until the end of the year 2009 now is out of date for undetermined reasons, due to lack of analysis of the level of implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Materials and Methods: Through exploratory qualitative method using a case study, this paper attempts to explore different stakeholders perception of the most common barriers for implementation of the Strategy for sustainable development of forests in Republic of Macedonia and ascertain if implementation variables are identified as barriers in the implementation stage. Results: The research showed that environmental and organisational barriers such as legal restrictions, political willingness, social change, control, leadership and clear responsibility are the most common barriers impeding forest strategy implementation in Macedonia. Conclusions: The paper concluded that the three year action plan was too ambitious, given the existing human and technical capacities in the forestry sector, recommending participation of all included stakeholders in the implementation as an important fact in overcoming the current barriers and moving forward the process.

  13. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  14. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa...

  15. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  16. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    become small because the expected magnitudes approach the regional upper bound. A feature common to all these maps is the existence of three well defined aseismic blocks: (a) the Attikocycladic block (b) the Ptolemais basin and (c) the block formed by the northeastern part of Greece. Well defined areas of high seismic hazard which correlate with the most tectonically active areas are: (a) along the Hellenic arc: the Greek-Albania border, Leukas-Cephalonia Islands and the southeastern end of the arc (b) the western end of the North Anatolian fault and (c) the Chalkidiki peninsula and the northern Sporadhes Islands.

  17. Thinking About Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Ioannides, Yannis M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of corruption, which appears to be endemic in Greece. It reviews the facts about corruption as multi-faceted phenomenon and its close relationship to tax evasion, by comparing Greece to its EU partners, as well internationally. It addresses corruption as an instance of anti-social behavior by means of a number of simple metaphors that allow reliance on powerful tools of modern social interactions and property rights literatures. It emphasizes that whereas tepid e...

  18. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of the gastropods (Gastropoda, Pulmonata of Ilinska and Plakinska Mountains (Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAYLO DEDOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of a collecting trip in July 2008 in the mountains Ilinska and Plakinska (Republic of Macedonia. The work summarizes data for distribution and ecology of 19 species from the mountains. The data collected during the expedition provide the first information for terrestrial gastropods in this region of Macedonia.

  20. FIRST RECORDING OF THE SPECIES Acerina cernua Linnaeus, 1758 IN THE WATERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the general importance of this fish species and deals with its first registration in the waters of Macedonia in 1997. Its basic ichthyological parameters are presented, as well as the ichthyofauna of the reservoir where it was found. Based on available data it was tried to trace the origin of this species in Macedonia.

  1. Hipparion macedonicum revisited: New data on evolution of hipparionine horses from the Late Miocene of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Koufos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The new expeditions to the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece provided a new set of fossils from the various localities. Among the material collected from the Late Miocene hominoid bearing mammal locality Ravin de la Pluie (RPl were some remains of Hipparion macedonicum, which was originally described from this locality. The most important is the skull and associated mandible, the first from the type locality. The new material is compared with the previously collected material of the taxon from the Vallesian and Turolian levels of Greece, as well as with corresponding material from Eurasia. The RPl skull is compared with the type skull of H. matthwei, a taxon, which several times has been referred as synonym to H. macedonicum. The comparison indicated several differences which distinguish the two species. Hipparion macedonicum has a continuous stratigraphic range from the Vallesian to middle Turolian and it is possibly present in the late Turolian. The comparison of the chronologically different samples of H. macedonicum indicates that the Vallesian form of H. macedonicum has larger size, shorter narial opening, longer tooth rows, rich enamel plication, more elongated and narrow plis, more robust metapodials and less running legs than the Turolian form. Some of the morphological changes are related to the habitat, which was more closed, warmer and wetter in the Vallesian than Turolian.

  2. Life Insurance in Republic of Macedonia – Luxury or Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Vitanova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s life is uncertain and limited, such as are his working life and working ability, therefore life insurance represents a manner of managing with risks which may be expressed through the lack of means for subsistence in a certain period of life or protection of the individual or the members of his family in financial terms. By having a life insurance policy one invests in his own security, protects his loved ones, while saving and planning their own future. Life insurance policy is a long-term solution that combines the safest savings and reliability. There is a tradition of having a life insurance policy in the developed countries, while in the Republic of Macedonia the number of individuals with life insurance is still very small. In this paper we will do a research on the perception of the population in the country regarding the benefits of owning a life insurance policy, limiting factors and measures to increase the contracts on life insurance.

  3. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in FYR of Macedonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka, E-mail: stojanovskazdenka@gmail.com [Institute of Public Health, Laboratory for Radioecology Skopje, 50 Divizija 6, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Januseski, Jovan [Institute of Public Health, Laboratory for Radioecology Skopje, 50 Divizija 6, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Bossew, Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (German Federal Office for Radiation Protection), Berlin (Germany); Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, ECELab, Belgrade (Serbia); Tollefsen, Tore [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra (Italy); Ristova, Mimoza [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, University in Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This paper presents the results of the seasonal indoor radon concentration measurements in dwellings in all regions of the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. The measurements were made in 437 dwellings using CR-39 track detectors over four successive three-month periods (winter, spring, summer and autumn) throughout 2009. The results of analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences between indoor radon concentrations in different seasons. The geometric mean values and geometric standard deviations of indoor radon concentrations in winter, spring, summer and autumn were obtained to be: 115 Bq m{sup -3} (2.02), 72 Bq m{sup -3} (1.97), 46 Bq m{sup -3} (1.95), 92 Bq m{sup -3} (2.02), respectively. The geometric mean values of spring, summer and autumn to winter ratios were found to be: 0.63 (1.50), 0.40 (1.81), and 0.80 (1.58), respectively. The results of the analysis of the variance showed statistically significant differences among the indoor radon measurements for the regions in different seasons. The influence of the factors linked to building characteristics in relation to radon measurements in different seasons was examined. The factors which enable a differentiation into subgroups (significance level p < 0.05) are the floor level, basement and building materials.

  4. Implementation of Systems for Knowledge Management in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Janeska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a trend that is increasingly widespread in business circles and small companies as well as in the larger organizational structures. The concept of knowledge management is increasing and becomes the basis for quality and successful functionality of every organization. Organizations that use the potential of human resources as primary resource in dealing with the application of knowledge management have significantly improved the performance with reduced costs and increased quality of products or services. With the application of information technology in knowledge management a decentralization is achieved and therefore it facilitates the expansion of foreign markets. The subject of this research will be the systems for knowledge management, their relationship with the organizational learning, and the role of information technology in these systems. The purpose of this research is to recognize the importance and the benefits of managing knowledge and to perceive the role of information technology in knowledge management in enterprises in Republic of Macedonia, in order to achieve competitive advantage and long-term profitability.

  5. The Impact of the New Media Laws on the Freedom of Expression in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stefanovski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After a long and tiring process of political bargaining, public debates and negotiations, the Law on Media, and the Law on Audio and Audiovisual Media Services were passed in Parliament. Media experts, media organizations and critical media in Macedonia, insist that new regulations will further diminish freedom of media and freedom of expression in Macedonia. The main goal of the paper will be to measure the effects of the new laws, after six months of their introduction in the legal system. The activities of the Agency for Audio and Audiovisual Media Services and the Macedonian Radio and Television will be closely followed, mostly by examination of the minutes of their meetings, participation on meetings and depicting effects of their ruling. The ultimate goal will be to propose future recommendations for enhancement of the media sphere, and most precisely, the freedom of media and freedom of expression, in Macedonia.

  6. State Institutions and Freedom of Speech in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem Aziri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Macedonia is one of the youngest world democracies, a multiethnic, multi-confessional and multi-lingual society facing enormous internal and external challenges and difficulties. Different opinions exist among researchers when it comes to freedom of speech as one of the most important features of a democratic society. A great discrepancy exists, regarding this issue, among researchers, practitioners and ordinary citizens in the Republic of Macedonia. The main objective of this paper is to give a description of the citizen’s view regarding the freedom of speech in the Republic of Macedonia, as opposed to the generally known theoretical knowledge on this issue. The paper is based on a survey of 1079 citizens conducted during 2011 in all parts of the country. The sample is of a mixed nature and includes representatives of all ethnic and religious groups in the county, as well as representatives of different political proveniences.

  7. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  8. ANALYSIS OF SMEs FINANCING IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA – CONDITIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA RISTESKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SMEs play a crucial role in furthering growth, innovation and prosperity. Unfortunately, they are strongly restricted in accessing the capital that they require to grow and expand. Banks in developing countries are in turn hampered by the lack of lender information and regulatory support to engage in SME lending. Hence, the main aim of the research is identification of factors that significantly influence the access to the capital, and determine the financial state of the investigated entities in Macedonia. Considering the facts from the analysis in the end of the paper will be propose many recommendations for improving the financial support for SMEs in Macedonia

  9. Characteristics of a calcite "limestone"-marble from Macedonia, used as flux material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of calcite "limestone"-marble from Banjany area village (near Skopje, Macedonia were examined by means of XRD, SEM microscope in polarizing and reflected lights, chemical, DT/TG-analyses. It was concluded as follows: - calcite (CaCO3 is a major mineral component (cca 80-90 % prevailing in the marble over the other minerals - dolomite is generally of minor importance (cca 10-20 % in the rock - quartz, micas graphite, pyrite represent typical accessories. As result of the mentioned phase characteristics, this raw materials was for a long time (more than 30 years used as flux in the iron and steel metallurgy in Macedonia.

  10. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N. [Lawyer - Legal Department of PPC S.A., 28, Halkokondili Street, GR-10432 Athens (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  11. AZF deletions in infertile men from the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaseski, Toso; Novevski, Predrag; Kocevska, Borka; Dimitrovski, Cedomir; Efremov, Georgi D; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2006-07-01

    Y chromosome deletions in the three azoospermia factor (AZF) regions constitute the most common genetic cause of spermatogenic failure. The aim of this study was to estimate the length and boundaries of the AZF deletions and to correlate the AZF deletions with the sperm concentrations, testicular histology, Y haplogroups and the ethnic origin of the men with deletions. PCR analysis of STS loci in the three AZF regions was used to characterize the deletions. Y haplogroup was predicted from a set of 17 Y short tandem repeats (STR) marker values. A total of nine men out of 218 infertile/subfertile men showed the presence of Y microdeletions. In eight patients the results were consistent with the presence of AZFc deletions, while in one patient a larger deletion involving both AZFb and AZFc regions was detected. In two patients, the deletion, initially diagnosed as AZFc, involved part of the distal part of the AZFb region and in one of them the deletion also extended into the region distal to the AZFc. The 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion, due to homologous recombination between b2 and b4 amplicons, was detected in six men (66.7% of all Y deletions), thus being the most common type of AZF deletion among infertile men from the Republic of Macedonia. Patients with the 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion had azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia and variable histological results [Sertoly cell only syndrome (SCOS), maturity arrest (MA) and hypospermatogenesis (HSG)]. They were of different ethnic origin (Macedonian, Albanian and Romany) and belonged to different Y haplogroups (I1b, J2, E3b and G).

  12. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Burdová, Eva Krídlová; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m³ to 2610 μg/m³. Recommended value (200 μg/m³) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 μm) are determined to be from 16.80 μg/m³ to 30.70 μg/m³ and from 38.30 μg/m³ to 74.60 μg/m³ individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke.

  13. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Krídlová Burdová, Eva; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m3 to 2610 μg/m3. Recommended value (200 μg/m3) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 µm) are determined to be from 16.80 µg/m3 to 30.70 µg/m3 and from 38.30 µg/m3 to 74.60 µg/m3 individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke. PMID:28045447

  14. The seismotectonic regime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALANOPOULOS A. G.

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented which favours the theory that the
    earthquake activity in the area of Greece should bo ascribed to horizontal currents flowing off to the side of the secondary sedimentary arc, from a minor mantle current rising under the primary volcanic arc of the Southeastern section of the Dinaric Alps.

  15. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A

  16. Coal facies studies in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christanis, Kimon [Department of Geology, University of Patras, GR-265.00 Rio-Patras (Greece)

    2004-04-23

    In Greece, coal-forming conditions prevailed mainly during Neogene and Quaternary times in several intermontane and paralic basins and resulted in the formation of significant peat and lignite deposits. The economically recoverable lignite reserves are 3.9 Gt and the annual production, mainly for power generation, exceeds 65 Mt.

  17. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  18. What makes a nationalist? Nationalism in the Dutch press coverage of Macedonia, 1991-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynen, Michel van

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article sheds light on the use of the words ‘nationalism’, ‘nationalist(s)’ and ‘nationalistic’in the news coverage of three Dutch newspapers about Macedonia during the breakup of Yugoslavia. A review of 280 newspaper articles shows that nationalism is often associated with extremism an

  19. The Impact of the Required Reserve on the Monetary Multiplication in the Republic of Macedonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dejanovski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary and most important tasks of any central bank is conducting monetary policy in the state. In Macedonia the only central and issuing bank is the National Bank of Macedonia, which is responsible for the monetary and financial stability in the country, while performing important functions, without which the overall economic and financial system could not exist. In exercising its functions, the National Bank of Macedonia uses a set of economic instruments and policies, from which in RM the most efective is the required resserve. This monetary tool is showing the best results in developing countries where the financial markets are not developed and where there is a high concentration of the banking sector (in RM banks occupy a good 98% of total financial institutions. The role of the reserve will be analyzed through the prism of its effects on the process of multiplication the money supply in the country and its contribution to generating or withdrawal of money by the central bank. The main goal of the paper is to research the required reserve, as a monetary instrument, and to qualify its impact on the monetary creation in the Republic of Macedonia. The basic methods, used in this paper are the positive analysis, comparative analysis and deductive approach.

  20. Annotated catalogue of the carabid beetles of the Republic of Macedonia (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2015-08-20

    The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).

  1. [Nationalities and ethnic groups in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Yugoslavia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, J P

    1979-01-01

    Population changes in Macedonia since 1900 are outlined, with particular attention to the growth of the Macedonian and Albanian populations in the province. Differences in the birth rates and in socioeconomic factors, including rural and urban residence, among the nationalities are examined

  2. The british military hospitals in macedonia during the first world war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovski, Vladimir

    The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.

  3. What makes a nationalist? Nationalism in the Dutch press coverage of Macedonia, 1991-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynen, Michel van

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article sheds light on the use of the words ‘nationalism’, ‘nationalist(s)’ and ‘nationalistic’in the news coverage of three Dutch newspapers about Macedonia during the breakup of Yugoslavia. A review of 280 newspaper articles shows that nationalism is often associated with extremism

  4. The Determinants of Students' Well-Being in Secondary Vocational Schools in Kosovo and Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ardiana; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica

    2016-01-01

    Students' well-being is crucial for learning motivation and effective learning, for their quality of life and their psychological health later in life. In this regard, this article investigates the factors that affect the well-being of students in secondary vocational schools in Kosovo and Macedonia. It empirically examines determinants of…

  5. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis in a brown bear (Ursus arctos in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm is a filarial nematode found in the pulmonary circulation and the heart of susceptible hosts. It represents an important zoonotic vector-borne disease of domestic dogs and several wildlife species. Herein we report for the first time, the finding of Dirofilaria immitis worms in a brown bear killed in a vehicle collision in Northern Greece. The worms were morphologically identified; molecular examination, based on the analysis of the mitochondrial genes 12S (433 bp and CO1 (610 bp, verified the identification by demonstrating 100% similarity to D. immitis specimens deposited in GenBank. Brown bears in Greece occupy habitats that are shared with the potential wild and domestic hosts and the vectors of D. immitis and thus may be particularly susceptible to this parasite. This report contributes to the knowledge of dirofilariosis spread in Europe and on the epidemiological threats that may affect the survival of the endangered brown bear in Greece.

  6. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems.

  7. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  8. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  9. The historical development of corporate- and property law in Macedonia until Communism as part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

    OpenAIRE

    Endri Papajorgji

    2015-01-01

    Macedonia is a candidate state for EU Membership. During Communism, Macedonia followed the communist pattern (as a consequence of the system of selfadministration of workers as part of the Yugoslav Federation) and the transition process in the beginning of the 90’s was followed by a fundamental change not only in the whole economic system but in the whole society. But before the transition, with the coming of Communism, Macedonia as part of the Yugoslav Federation followed the Soviet pattern ...

  10. Higher education in tourism, hospitality, and gastronomy: an answer to the need for professional staff in this area in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako; Metodijeski, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this article is tourism and the role that higher education institutions have in shaping the professional staff in the field of tourism, hospitality and gastronomy in Republic of Macedonia. For this purpose the need of higher education institutions in the field of tourism is explained, and a review of universities in Macedonia in which function faculties of tourism, hospitality and gastronomy is made. Republic of Macedonia is not a country with a long tradition in tourism but st...

  11. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  12. Greece: Too Strategic To Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index , Greece scored at the bottom of the “European Union and Western Europe” category...International, “ Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Results,” accessed online on 3 October 2015. http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results. 11 See Appendix...Transparency International. “ Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Results.” Accessed online on 3 October 2015. http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results

  13. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  14. PM(10) episodes in Greece: Local sources versus long-range transport-observations and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaios, Vasileios N; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Periods of abnormally high concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, defined as air pollution episodes, can cause adverse health effects. Southern European countries experience high particulate matter (PM) levels originating from local and distant sources. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of extreme PM10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution episodes in Greece. We examined PM10 concentration data from 18 monitoring stations located at five sites across the country: (1) an industrial area in northwestern Greece (Western Macedonia Lignite Area, WMLA), which includes sources such as lignite mining operations and lignite power plants that generate a high percentage of the energy in Greece; (2) the greater Athens area, the most populated area of the country; and (3) Thessaloniki, (4) Patra, and (5) Volos, three large cities in Greece. We defined extreme PM10 pollution episodes (EEs) as days during which PM10 concentrations at all five sites exceeded the European Union (EU) 24-hr PM10 standards. For each EE, we identified the corresponding prevailing synoptic and local meteorological conditions, including wind surface data, for the period from January 2009 through December 2011. We also analyzed data from remote sensing and model simulations. We recorded 14 EEs that occurred over 49 days and could be grouped into two categories: (1) Local Source Impact (LSI; 26 days, 53%) and (2) African Dust Impact (ADI; 23 days, 47%). Our analysis suggested that the contribution of local sources to ADI EEs was relatively small. LSI EEs were observed only in the cold season, whereas ADI EEs occurred throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the cold season. The EEs with the highest intensity were recorded during African dust intrusions. ADI episodes were found to contribute more than local sources in Greece, with ADI and LSI fraction contribution ranging from 1.1 to 3.10. The EE contribution during ADI fluctuated from 41 to 83 μg/m(3

  15. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  16. Process of depoliticization of civil servants in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemazie Ibraimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In administrative theory and practice, there is a dilemma whether public administrators should be chosen based on political criteria, based on professional values confirmed by the job performances or based by the combination of these two principles. The Republic of Macedonia as a country aiming the Integration in the EU, and fulfilling the criteria’s of Copenhagen, should aim at building up a qualitative civil administration comprised of public servants who perform their duties in order to realize the citizen’s rights and interests, regardless their political orientation, politically amorphous, and serving as a good enforcer of law and order. In this sense, main objective of this paper is to analyze the process of Depoliticization of civil servants in Macedonia as one of the main criteria’s toward EU.

  17. State Base Map for GIS – New Digital Topographic Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Srbinoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI built in accordance with INSPIRE directive is to standardize spatial data infrastructure on national level. In that direction, topographic maps are a basic platform for acquiring spatial data within geoinformation systems and one of the most important  segments of NSDI. This paper presents methodology of establishing the new digital topographic map of the Republic of Macedonia titled “State Base Map for GIS in Macedonia”. This paper analyzes geometrical accuracy of new digital topographic maps. Production of the new digital topographic map has been the most important cartographic project in the Republic of Macedonia since it became independent.

  18. Comparative analysis of ethical codes for state administration in the Republic of Macedonia and nearby states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malis Sazdovska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Professional Ethic is the professional set of standards that describe the professional behavior that is expected in all fields of work. Professional Ethics examines the moral and ethical issues that arise in a corporate environment. The basic ethics a responsible and reliable employee practices are that he stays productive and takes responsibility for his action, and that includes being accountable for the good or bad consequences of his actions. Morals are the welfare principles enunciated by the wise people, based on their experience and wisdom. They were edited, changed or modified or evolved to suit the geography of the region, rulers and in accordance with development of knowledge in science and technology and with time. This paper analyzes the comparison of the professional code of conduct of civil servants in all neighboring countries including the Republic of Macedonia. Particular importance is given to similarities and differences in each neighboring country including the Republic of Macedonia.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E

    2007-12-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace.

  20. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Leicher, Niklas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Nomade, Sebastien; Francke, Alexander; Carlo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). Major element analyses (energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS)) were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060). The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin in the Italian volcanic province...

  1. Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels amo...

  2. Level of Education and Health Status of the Different Social Groups: Case Study Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchevska, Lenche; Donev, Doncho; Mojsoska, Snezhana

    2008-01-01

    The educational level is an important indicator within the socioeconomical status for health evaluation and a powerful instrument in promotion of population’s health. In 2000 a study conducted in R. Macedonia, in 15 municipalities with different gross national product per capita, encompassing 1129 examinees older than 18 years. The results of the conducted research showed statistically significant association of the educational level with the morbidity. Higher morbidity emerges in persons tha...

  3. Legal aspects of forms and factors of mobbing in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroski, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    This project represents a serious attempt for discovering and presenting the meaning and the role of mobbing as a new contemporary concept in Macedonia in the last 3-4 years. Mobbing is commonly defined as repeated, non-physical harassment in the workplace in certain period, which aims to humiliate and belittle the employee. The forms of mobbing that have been occurring in the global and European practice commonly refer to psycho-physical harassment of the employee, various forms of sexua...

  4. The Influence of Social distance on Interethnic relations: The case of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Strasko

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of Social distance on interethnic relations as a precondition of security destabilization of Macedonian society. The paper is based on empirical research conducted in 2015, and compared with similar researches in Macedonia, conducted in 2002 and 1995. Basically, we are focused on ethnic and religious distance as a factor for social destabilization. Increasing the level of this type of social distance can mean greater chance for destabilization and possibili...

  5. Ore-fluid evolution at the Sasa Pb-Zn skarn deposit, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Strmić Palinkas, Sabina; Tasev, Goran; Serafimovski, Todor; Palinkas, Ladislav; Šmajgl, Daniela; Peltekovski, Zlatko

    2013-01-01

    The Sasa Pb-Zn skarn deposit is located in the Serbo-Macedonian massif approximately 100 km east from Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Ore reserves are estimated at 10 million metric tons with 7.5% lead and zinc. The deposit is hosted by the Lower Palaeozoic metamorphic complex composed of gneisses, marbles and quartz-graphite schists. The mineralisation is spatially and temporary related to Tertiary calc-alkaline magmatism. The volcanic rocks in the area are mostly quartz latite an...

  6. Evaluating tourism development of South East Macedonia: a micro region perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Trajkov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates the current level of tourism development in a micro region consisted of the municipalities of Gevgelija, Bogdanci and Dojran, as part of the South East planning region of Macedonia. It analyses the tourism sector dynamics by evaluating the market, the core value chain as well as the enabling environment for tourism development. Moreover, it elaborates the supporting functions, services, rules and regulations that facilitate tourism growth. For that purpose, the paper under...

  7. The Republic of Macedonia: Implementing the Ohrid Framework Agreement and Reforming the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    of Macedonia, according to the country’s 2002 public census, Albanians make up 25% of the population, while other ethnic groups, such as the Roma ...conflicting views on politics, religion , and economic policies with their government. Opportunities may arise, which can warrant action from these...educational rights. Allow for the prevention of discrimination based on religion , race, place of origin and language. Institutions such as the Organization

  8. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Macedonian Railways - transport in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Nikolov, Elenior; Nikolova, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the design and implementation of the philosophy of total quality management (TQM) in some segments of Macedonian Railways - Transport which produce services of public interest in the Republic of Macedonia. By analyzing the company's business processes and optimizing them to achieve consistently exceeding the growing expectations of service users. Special activities are analyzed in control department of revenue or in business process of data input from the tickets ...

  9. Protection of personal data in criminal legislation in Macedonia vs. its protection in EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    Data protection is emerging as a key EU policy area, and the EU has been the key driving force for implementing the right of protection of personal data in the criminal legislation of many States, including Macedonia. The undeniable fact that our lives are now becoming a continuous exchange of information, and that we live in a continuous stream of data, means that data protection regime is gaining importance and moving to the center of the political and institutional system. The protection o...

  10. CEFTA Agreement and Opportunities for Wood Furniture Export of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilijana Petrovska; Živka Meloska; Krum Efremov; Kiril Postolov

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on business possibilities of CEFTA 2006 and its influence on export trend of wood furniture from the Republic of Macedonia. First, six categories of wood furniture export are analyzed such as: office furniture, kitchen furniture, bedroom furniture, living and dining room furniture, shop furniture and other furniture, presenting a positive trend in each category, except for living and dining room furniture. The total export of wood furniture shows a positive trend. The se...

  11. Accommodation Capacities in Macedonia as a Factor for Competitive Tourism Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana PETREVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Creating an adequate tourism supply which will meet the demand is a challenge for every country that seeks a planned tourism development. Tourism infrastructure is an essential part of the tourism supply and must be projected on a thorough analysis of the tourism demand. This paper argues the necessity of initiating measures and activities for enhancing tourism competitiveness in Macedonia. The recommendations stemmed from detailed calculations as a base for analyzing accommodation capacities...

  12. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  13. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  14. TURKISH BRIDGE EXTENDING FROM MACEDONIA: ‘JOURNAL OF ‘KÖPRÜ’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray KAYADİBİ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia has hosted to different nations throughout the history. It constitutes a mosaic structure in which people from different nations, languages and cultures live together. 34 different nationalities and ethnic groups, particularly Macedonians, Turks, Albanian, Gypsies (Roms, Bulgarians, Wallach, Greeks and Bosnians live in the country. A long history of Turkish is in question in these lands. Turks in Macedonia conserve the Turkish culture in unity. Even if some problems are confronted resulting from their being minority, they can study in Turkish and print out Turkish newspapers and journals. Journal of ‘Köprü’ is a journal which is printed out in Skopje city of Macedonia by which important names of Macedonian Turkish literature and Turkish youth make themselves heard. It is seen in the articles of the journal that Turkish culture is studied intensively. In this research, information about ‘Köprü’ culture, art, literature journal and Association of ‘Köprü’ Culture, Art and Education has been given and it has been tried to be advertised. The editions of the journals which have been obtained have been examined and evaluations have been made about the articles in the journal.

  15. La caballería macedonia: teoría y práctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Hernández, Jorge Juan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Macedonia in the Fourth century b.C. is parallel to the rising of Philip’s Macedonian army. In that army, cavalry played a decisive rol, becoming the offensive weapon par excellence. Its appearance is part of the evolution of that period’s trends, where Philip played an important role. Nonetheless, cavalry’s image has not been completely understood by contemporary historiography. Therefore, we will analize the evolution of Greek cavalry, and particularly Macedonian cavalry, in order to make it clear: its composition, equipment, organization, and specially its deployment and way of combat.

    La eclosión de Macedonia en el siglo IV es paralela al desarrollo del ejército macedonio de Filipo. En ello la caballería jugó un papel decisivo, convirtiéndose por primera vez en la historia en el arma ofensiva por excelencia. Su aparición forma parte de una tendencia evolutiva, en la que Filipo será el mejor exponente. Sin embargo, la imagen de esta caballería no ha sido del todo entendida por buena parte de la historiografía. Por tanto, analizaremos la figura y evolución de la caballería griega en general, y la macedonia en particular: su composición, armamento, organización, y especialmente su despliegue y modo de combatir en batalla.

  16. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF TARGETING THE EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRUME NIKOLOSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The monetary system and monetary – credit policy in the Republic of Macedonia were built after the country gained independence from the previous federal community, when Macedonia faced problems such as: termination of many plants, increase in unemployment, increase in budget and foreign trade deficit as well as high inflation rate. The macroeconomic stability narrowly understood as reducing the inflation rate, was the first measure of the economic policy, undertaken along with the monetary independence of Macedonia. In a small and open economy, the exchange rate policy has particular importance in the control of the inflation rate and beyond: in the real economic trends. The strategy of targeting the denar exchange rate was accepted and applied with the expectation that it would act in that direction, hence the monetary policy was focused on maintaining fixed exchange rate against the euro. The determination of the country to join the European Union and to become a member of other international financial organizations is yet another reason for choosing this strategy.

  17. Why hasn’t Macedonia succeeded for a long time in absorbing Foreign Direct Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently almost all countries of the world without exception developed countries or the developing countries are attracting foreign direct investments. The reason is that there is no dilemma that benefits of foreign direct investments in the host countries as well as domestic countries are greater than the damage that can have. Western Balkan countries also follow this trend for attracting foreign direct investment. Some of them have achieved notable successes, while the others have achieved less success.  Macedonia is a country that during the last two decades ranks among the countries with smaller foreign direct investments. In the paper which I have chosen to analyze, in the start I gave a general overview of the meaning, role and importance of foreign direct investments for economic development of a country.  Later I have analyzed the trend of foreign direct investments in the region, and especially in Macedonia. At the end sought and given reasons of locking foreign direct investment in Macedonia and recommendations to overcome such a situation.

  18. Measles outbreak in Macedonia: epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings and identification of susceptible cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena T Kondova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected. RESULTS: The most affected age groups were children up to 4 years of age and adolescents/adults of 15 years and older. Most patients were unvaccinated (n=263, 92.61% and many had non-Macedonian nationalities (n=156, 54.93% or belonged to the Roma ethnicity (n=73, 25.70%. Bronchopneumonia and diarrhea were the most common complications. Eighty-two out of 86 tested patients (95.35% had measles-specific IgM antibodies. The outbreak was caused by the measles variant D4-Hamburg. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic identified pockets of susceptibles in Skopje and indicated that additional vaccination opportunities in particular for people with non-Macedonian nationality and traveler communities are warranted to ensure efficient measles control in Macedonia. The high attack rate among children of less than 1 year suggests that vaccination before 12 months of age should be considered in high risk settings.

  19. THE POTENTIALS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISTIC OFFER IN EASTERN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bizoev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research of the touristic offer market indicates that the previous touristic arrangements that included a touristic offer of seven or fourteen days is not an attractive offer nowadays. We shall take into consideration the fact that current tourists prefer short vacations. As short trips are more required rather than long trips, the Eastern part of Macedonia has the potential and possibility for success in developing the touristic offer. Trends of short trips shall be the turning basic point when creating the touristic offer in this part of Macedonia. The private accommodation in the Eastern part of Macedonia is closely related to the rural way of living, which is a great advantage comparing to enormous hotels, as tourists expect to experience a difference. For this purpose, tourists must be offered with activities with which certain destinations would be sold as a unique touristic product with precised and interesting story, authentic offer and high quality accommodation infrastructure. This kind of sell requires numerous activities and contracts between local communities, agencies and local entrepreneurship. It is necessary the destination management to be on a high functional level as previous experiences include excellent results.

  20. The Educational Theory of John Dewey and its Influence on Educational Policy and Practice in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska-Spaseva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the impact that the educational theory of the American philosopher and educator John Dewey has had on education in Macedonia since the establishment of the educational system after the Second World War. Within this framework two periods are identified and analysed. One refers to forty-five years of socialist development, during which the traces of Dewey’s presence and influence are recognized in the policy documents that shaped the education in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia as part of the former Yugoslav federation. The analysis of the second period covers the last twenty-five years of development of education in the socio-political context of a sovereign state, and is focused on reform initiatives for improving the teaching process introduced in the 90s of the past century. They are marked by the implementation of three major international projects that altered the traditional teaching organization and methodology in elementary and secondary public schools in Macedonia: Active teaching-Interactive learning, Step by step and Reading and writing for critical thinking. The theoretical foundations of these projects are explored, and common elements that can be traced back to Dewey’s educational concepts and values are identified and discussed.

  1. THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE MOBBING IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhosev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplace mobbing as a form of psychological terrorism in the Republic of Macedonia is relatively new phenomenon which in the last decade is causing huge attention in the legal theory and practice. The problem with mobbing has also become an object of interest of the Macedonian’s trade union since they have seen the danger which this unwanted phenomenon causes in the work environment. That is why the trade union, especially the most numerous and the most representative ones in this country, the Federation of trade unions in Macedonia, has taken initiative to introduce a legislative to protect the workers from harassment in the work place in order to prevent psychological terrorism of the employees, as well as protect the workers from this negative phenomenon. This initiative resulted with the adoption of a special law on 29.05.2013. In this paper we are going to try to analyze the legal framework of the protection from psychological harassment in the work place (mobbing in the Republic of Macedonia, in terms of the rights, obligations and responsibilities of the employers and employees regarding the prevention of psychological harassment in the work place, as well as measures and procedures for the protection from psychological harassment in the work place of the employer and the proceedings. While analyzing the legal aspects of the psychological harassment we are going to stay focused in the Labor law and Law on Protection from Harassment in the Workplace.

  2. Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 640 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. H.; Leng, M. J.; Francke, A.; Sloane, H. J.; Milodowski, A.; Vogel, H.; Baumgarten, H.; Wagner, B.

    2015-08-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data on carbonate from the upper ca. 248 m of sediment cores recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project, covering the past 640 ka. Previous studies on short cores from the lake (up to 15 m, millennial timescales. We also measured isotopes on authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs) and, with the δ18OCc and δ18Os, reconstruct δ18O of lakewater (δ18Olw) through the 640 ka. Overall, glacials have lower δ18Olw when compared to interglacials, most likely due to cooler summer temperatures, a higher proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall), and a reduced inflow from adjacent Lake Prespa. The isotope stratigraphy suggests Lake Ohrid experienced a period of general stability through Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 to MIS 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial, and was isotopically freshest during MIS 9. After MIS 9, the variability between glacial and interglacial δ18Olw is enhanced and the lake became increasingly evaporated through to present day with MIS 5 having the highest average δ18Olw. Our results provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major environmental events on biological evolution within the lake.

  3. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  4. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Yannis Raftoyannis; Dimitrios Bakaloudis

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildf...

  5. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  6. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  7. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  8. Analysis of the statistical data of illegal trade with narcotic substances in Macedonia in the Period 2005-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qebir Avziu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a negative phenomenon, drug addiction appears already a big problem in modern world. Narcotic substances have affected the Republic of Macedonia and just like in other countries, every day users have increased. Today in the world of narcotics abuse has taken a big trend that has initiated a whole chain of criminality, which on one side has increased the number of drug addicts in the search for new amounts of narcotics, and in turn the desire of suppliers to realize the greater profits. Drugs are not the invention of modern man, it is certain that prehistoric people knew them too. The Republic of Macedonia is not a country distinct in the production of drugs, but it is a regional focal point for illegal trade of drugs known as the Balkan route. In this sense, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of statistical data of illegal trade with narcotic substances in Macedonia during 2005-2012.

  9. Decadal changes in extreme daily precipitation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Nastos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes in daily precipitation totals in Greece, during the 45-year period (1957–2001 are examined. The precipitation datasets concern daily totals recorded at 21 surface meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed over the Greek region. First and foremost, the application of Factor Analysis resulted in grouping the meteorological stations with similar variation in time. The main sub groups represent the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of Greece with common precipitation characteristics. For representative stations of the extracted sub groups we estimated the trends and the time variability for the number of days (% exceeding 30 mm (equal to the 95% percentile of daily precipitation for eastern and western regions and equal to the 97.5% percentile for the rest of the country and 50 mm which is the threshold for very extreme and rare events. Furthermore, the scale and shape parameters of the well fitted gamma distribution to the daily precipitation data with respect to the whole examined period and to the 10-year sub periods reveal the changes in the intensity of the precipitation.

  10. Interprofessional collaboration and collaboration among nurses in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstadinidou-Straukou A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A I M : This study aimed at assessing satisfaction from collaboration among nursing staff members as well as betweennurses and physicians, and to determine factors influencing their collaboration.B A C K G R O U N D : Studies investigating the collaboration among nursing staff members are mainly focusedon its negative effects in their work, on horizontal violence among nurses, on colleagues’ aggression, and on verbalabuse. Multidisciplinary and interprofessional working is currently a priority in health care.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : The study is descriptive. The data collection was carried out through a self-administeredquestionnaire, which was developed by the researchers. The participants were 336 nursing staff membersworking in hospitals in the greater area of Thessaloniki.R E S U L T S : 87.8% agree that colleagues in the hospital help one the other, and 76.9% agree that there is teamworkand collaboration between the various levels of nursing staff. Almost half (50.5% disagree that no-one doesnot undermine the efforts of the other. Many nursing staff members (50.6% agree that physicians collaborate verywell with them. More than a half of the sample (56% disagree that physicians have a complete picture of the activitiesof a nurse and 57.7% disagree that physicians underestimate too much the nursing staff.C O N C L U S I O N S : Since the nursing work environment has a critical impact on patient safety, nursing staffmembers and physicians should make an effort to collaborate well and to provide quality services.

  11. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  12. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  13. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  14. Electoral Systems and Democracy: a Comparative Analysis of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreta SALIAJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elections and electoral systems are a factor of great importance for the functioning of political systems and their democratization. The end of the last century brought fundamental changes in the socialist countries of Europe. One party regime’s were replaced with pluralism. Dictatorship of the proletariat was replaced with democracies; centralized economies were replaced with the market economy. Although, elections and the electoral systems were not considered important during the communist period of the development of Albania and Macedonia, things changed rapidly with the acceptance of the democratic way of living. For two decades, the Republic of Albania and the Republic of Macedonia are thriving towards functional pluralisms, and elections have played a major role in the process. Although elections do not necessarily mean that democracy is becoming more democratic, at least they make democracy possible. Although democracy includes free elections based on internationally acceptable standards, the fact remains that in many countries elections are not a guarantee for democracy. The Republic of Albanian and the Republic of Macedonia, when it comes to elections and electoral systems have a lot in common, but also much specificity, which make their electoral systems different from each other. The common aspects include the fact that both countries have accepted parliamentarism and a tendency of respecting the will of citizens expressed in fair and free elections. On the other hand, the level of socio-economic development, the historical past, the overall type of political culture, cause many differences in the electoral systems and level of democracy between these two neighboring countries.

  15. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum coccodes isolated from pepper cultivated in Bulgaria and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanova Zornica B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum coccodes has been recognized as one of the causal agents of pepper fruit anthracnose in Bulgaria. Recently, this species has been recorded in pepper fruits in Macedonia. In Bulgaria, the fungus has also been isolated from roots of premature senescent pepper plants but in Macedonia it has not been isolated yet. The purpose of the investigation was to make comparative morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of C. coccodes isolates obtained from pepper fruits and roots in Bulgaria and Macedonia. Additionally, a technique was applied to differentiate among the C. coccodes isolates obtained from roots and other microsclerotia-producing fungi. On the host tissue, C. coccodes developed acervular conidiomata with cup-shaped fruiting bodies accompanied with dark-pigmented, unbranched, thick-walled sterile hyphae called setae. A slimy mass of hyaline, straight, unicellular, fusiform conidia appeared on nutrient media. In a short time, numerous small dark globose setose microsclerotia emerged in the colony starting from its centre and distributing proportionally throughout agar plates. Two PCR primer sets were used to sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Single products of ~450 bp and ~350 bp were amplified by the genus-specific (Cc1F1/Cc2R1 and the species-specific primers (Cc1NF1/Cc2NR1, respectively. Morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of the isolates from roots and fruits showed that root rot and fruit anthracnose of pepper were caused by one and the same causal agent determined as C. coccodes. The isolates from roots showed rapid mycelial growth, gave rise to numerous minute microsclerotia and produced conidia only on SSPA. SSPA supported significantly more mycelium growth and sporulation than all other media tested and could be recommended for production of large quantity of conidia. No pattern of genetic variation associated with the organ or geographic origin

  17. Performance of the public health care sector in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Mitevska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Healthcare authorities constantly search for new approaches of assessing the performance of the health sector. Comparative studies help for improvements in healthcare by learning from each-other. Our aim was to assess the performance of the public healthcare system in the Republic of Macedonia, through the analysis of preparedness of institutions to fulfill the population’s healthcare needs and expectations. Methods: This study had a regional character. The national research team interviewed 175 randomly selected participants from Macedonia. The research was performed in the period March 2012 – March 2013. For the research purposes there were used especially designed questionnaires for cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus and injuries. For assessment of the performances, the appropriate techniques were developed. Results: Macedonians consider public healthcare system as being medium-good in all aspects: accessibility, availability, quality of health care services and population’s confidence. The knowledgeable observers (N=125 believe that state-of-the-art treatment exist all over the country (“yes”: 33.6% and “rather yes”: 44.8%. They believe that the services are accessible to everybody, free of major charges (“yes”: 31.2% and “rather yes”: 45.6%. The individual witnesses (N=50 argued toward lack of pharmacies and proper medicines in rural areas, with a gap between the availability and quality of services in rural vs. urban areas. Conclusion: The future goals for Macedonia include better public healthcare financing, cost definition of health packages, improved disease prevention and effective human resources.

  18. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  19. Essential oils composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae growing on Pelister Mtn., Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from needles, from branches without needles and from branches with needles of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Pelister Mtn. (R. Macedonia was analyzed by GC/FID/MS. One hundred and seven components (40 monoterpenes, 37 sesquiterpenes, 9 diterpenes and 21 other components - aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and acids; phenols and other oxygenated benzene derivates were identified. The most abundant constituents were terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene + β-phellandrene and bornyl acetate and the sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene and germacrene D.

  20. What makes a nationalist? Nationalism in the Dutch press coverage of Macedonia, 1991-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Duynen, Michel van

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article sheds light on the use of the words ‘nationalism’, ‘nationalist(s)’ and ‘nationalistic’in the news coverage of three Dutch newspapers about Macedonia during the breakup of Yugoslavia. A review of 280 newspaper articles shows that nationalism is often associated with extremism and violence, and is selectively linked to specific national groups and movements.Drawing upon the social-scientific term ‘banal nationalism’, this study argues that the selectiveuse of words associa...

  1. Water supply from the karst aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the most important kast aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia whose water is used for the water supply in several municipalities. Ground waters from karst aquifers are important for the water supply of a number of large cites such as Skopje, Dojran, Kavadarci, Negotino, Gostivar, Ohrid, Kruševo, Prilep, Kićevo, Valandovo, Oslomej, Makedonski Brod etc. Investigations carried out so far indicate that the waters of karst aquifers have the most promising potential for w...

  2. A climatological study of rural surface ozone in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that surface ozone levels at rural sites in Greece are generally high when compared with rural ozone measurements at northern European sites. The area of SE Europe, including Greece, is not very well monitored regarding rural ozone in comparison to central and northern Europe. In order to have the best possible picture of the rural surface ozone climatology in the area, based on the available data-sets of long-term continuous monitoring stations, the 10-year measurement records (1987-1996 of the Athens peripheral station of Liossia, (12 km N of the city center and the urban background station of Geoponiki (3 km W as well as the 4-year record (1996-1999 of the rural station of Aliartos (100 km NW of Athens, are analyzed in this paper. The data for Liossia and Geoponiki stations are screened for cases of strong airflow from rural areas (N-NE winds stronger than 5 m/s. The variation characteristics of the average rural ozone afternoon levels (12:00-18:00, with the best vertical atmospheric mixing, are mainly examined since these measurements are expected to be representative of the broader area. In all three stations there is a characteristic seasonal variation of rural ozone concentrations with lowest winter afternoon values at about 50 μg/m3 in December-January and average summer afternoon values at about 120 μg/m3 in July-August, indicating that high summer values are observed all over the area. The rural summer afternoon ozone values are very well correlated between the three stations, implying spatial homogeneity all over the area but also temporal homogeneity, since during the 13-year period 1987-1999 the rural afternoon ozone levels remained almost constant around the value of 120 μg/m3.

  3. Rabies outbreak in Greece during 2012-2014: use of Geographical Information System for analysis, risk assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, A; Valiakos, G; Papaspyropoulos, K; Dougas, G; Korou, L M; Tasioudi, K E; Fthenakis, G C; Hutchings, M R; Kaimaras, D; Tsokana, C N; Iliadou, P; Spyrou, V; Tzani, M; Birtsas, P; Kostoglou, P; Sokos, C; Doudounakis, S; Yon, L; Hannant, D; Artois, M; Tsiodras, S; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012-2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal cases (40/48) involved red foxes, while domestic animals were also diagnosed with rabies. Overall, 80% of the cases were diagnosed in central northern Greece; 75% of the cases were diagnosed in low altitudes (analysis revealed that distance from farms contributed the highest percentage in defining environmental niche profiles for rabid foxes. Oral vaccination programmes were implemented in 24 administrative units of the country during 2013 and 2014, covering a total surface area of ~60 000 km2. Rabies re-occurrence in Greece emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance in cross-border areas and in areas with intense human activity.

  4. The determinants and stability of money demand in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Kjosevski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine the long and short-run determinants, and stability of money demand (M1 in the Republic of Macedonia using monthly data from January 2005 to October 2012. The Johansen cointegration technique and VECM model were used to fi nd the long-run and short-term dynamic relationships in money demand model. Empirical results provide the evidence that exchange rate and interest rate payable on denar time deposits up to one month explains the most variations of money demand in the long-run, while interest rate is signifi cant only in short-run. Long-run money demand function is estimated to indicate slow speed of adjustment of removing the disequilibrium. Our fi nding shows that real money demand M1 in the Republic of Macedonia is stable in the analyzed period. The results obtained in this study suggest that the National Bank should carefully monitor the exchange rate and infl ation as two most important indicators of monetary policy, because these two determinants are the main drivers of demand for money in the short and long term.

  5. Molecular profile of the Lynch Syndrome in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Hiljadnikova-Bajro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent type of hereditary colorectal cancer, the one occurring in the setting of the Lynch syndrome (LS is considered a phenotypic manifestation of a germline defect in the mismatch repair mechanism i.e. in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 gene. Aiming towards establishment of a standardized protocol involving molecular analyses for diagnosis of this syndrome and developing a unique national register of families with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in the Republic of Macedonia, we began a prospective study to reveal the genetic defects among Macedonian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC and identifying families with hereditary CRC. A total of 53 patients fulfilling the revised Bethesda criteria for MSI-genetic testing were compared to 350 patients with sporadic CRC. The results reveal significant differences in age at diagnosis (p=0.03, involvement of microsatellite instability (pG nonsense mutation with a possible founder effect in the Macedonian population, the MLH1 ex.3-12 deletion, as well as the c.244A>G mutation, IVS14- 19A>G and IVS4+65A>C changes in MLH1 without confirmed pathological significance. The observed high frequency (87.5% of the Ile219Val (c.655A>G variant in MLH1 among the LS suspects prompts further analyses to evaluate its involvement in the development of hereditary CRC by itself or as a risk modifying factor among the patients from the Republic of Macedonia.

  6. An Empirical Analysis of Stock Market Development and Economic Growth: The Case of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarov Darko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two goals. The first goal is to investigate the influence of stock market development on economic growth for a group of 14 transition economies from the Central and South-East European (CSEE region in the period 2002-2012, while the second is to analyze the main characteristics and specificities of the stock market in the Republic of Macedonia. To fulfil the first goal, we apply panel regression models (fixed and random effects and a dynamic panel model (Generalized Method of Moments – GMM, while we use a single country approach and comparative analysis to examine the main characteristics of the Macedonian stock market. The estimated results indicate that stock market development is positive and significantly correlated with economic growth. Additionally, the comparative analysis of the stock market in the Republic of Macedonia suggests that the Macedonian stock market is still underdeveloped and faces a number of challenges before it can enter a new phase of development after the negative impact of the global financial crisis. Those challenges include capital market regional integration and the harmonization of legal and institutional frameworks such as bankruptcy procedures, accounting and reporting standards, public sector regulatory bodies, corporate governance and a liberalized trade regime.

  7. Challenges and actual problems in reforming the public administration in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argëtim Saliu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the fact that the public administration has a very important role in offering services and being a public service to the citizens and business community, as well as the need of improvement and harmonization of the norms and standards with the European Union, as one of the most important demands toward the integration process of Macedonia in the EU, makes this paper necessary to be taken into consideration for at least as a humble research in the area of public administration. Primary goal of this paper is that through comparative and quantitative methods to represent the challenges of reforming the public and state administration in Macedonia. De-politicization, more professional administration services and lowering the number of clerks in administration is one of the main criteria that our country needs to fulfil towards full integration in NATO and EU. The more time passes, the least progress is seen in this process, as we see stagnation in the aspect of quality of services, as well as in the aspect of total number of administrative clerks.

  8. Contribution of Academician Momir Polenakovic to the Development of Nephrology in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimoski, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Academician Momir H. Polenakovic, MD, Ph.D. is an outstanding researcher, educator and scientist, one of the founders of the nephrology in the Republic of Macedonia. With more than 500 published papers in national and international journals, of which more than 189 are on the PubMed, he is one of the most fruitful medical worker in our country. With his participation in national and international congresses he has contributed to the transfer of the world nephrology in Macedonia, as well as, to the dissemination of the reputation of the Macedonian nephrology and science in the world. He has educated a number of specialists in internal medicine and subspecialists in nephrology. He has introduced new tests and methods in diagnosis and treatment of renal disease, which was a basis for his research and publication. Analyzing the life opus of Academician Momir Polenakovic we can say that he has dedicated his life and work to the research, diagnosis and treatment of kidney patients.

  9. Republic of Macedonia and Citizens Participation in the Digital Age: Where Do We Stand?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanova, Ganka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates citizens’ participation in e-democracy processes in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. e-participation. It reflects upon the availability of digital tools and availability of online platforms set up by the institutions on their official webpages in order to enable active citizens’ participation. Methodological approach used in this research relies on analysis of the obtained answers from an online questionnaire that explores citizens’ awareness of the possibility to use digital tools in the democratic process, their participation via usage of digital tools and their attitudes towards e-democracy process. The questionnaire was distributed via social networks Facebook and LinkedIn in the period from November 2015 to February 2016. The empirical findings in this study research enhance our understanding of citizens’ awareness of the possibility to use digital tools in the democratic process, their participation via usage of digital tools and their attitudes towards e-democracy process in the Republic of Macedonia. As findings suggest, there is stillroom for improvement of the factors that determine citizens’ participation in digital age.

  10. Potential health implications of water resources depletion and sewage discharges in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Pacemska-Atanasova, Tatjana; Olson, Larry W; Markovski, Jasmina; Mitev, Trajce

    2016-08-01

    Potential health implications of deficient sanitation infrastructure and reduced surface water flows due to climate change are examined in the case study of the Republic of Macedonia. Changes in surface water flows and wastewater discharges over the period 1955-2013 were analyzed to assess potential future surface water contamination trends. Simple model predictions indicated a decline in surface water hydrology over the last half century, which caused the surface waters in Macedonia to be frequently dominated by >50% of untreated sewage discharges. The surface water quality deterioration is further supported by an increasing trend in modeled biochemical oxygen demand trends, which correspond well with the scarce and intermittent water quality data that are available. Facilitated by the climate change trends, the increasing number of severe weather events is already triggering flooding of the sewage-dominated rivers into urban and non-urban areas. If efforts to develop a comprehensive sewage collection and treatment infrastructure are not implemented, such events have the potential to increase public health risks and cause epidemics, as in the 2015 case of a tularemia outbreak.

  11. KNOWLEDGE OF THE POPULATION IN THE PURPOSE OF DEVELOPING INVESTMENT FUNDS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Vitanova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Investment funds are young and efficient non-bank institutions in developed financial markets. These institutions are direct intermediaries between the holders of free financial resources on one hand and the economy i.e. companies as beneficiaries and claimants of free capital on the other. They allow investors diversification of invested assets, minimizing the potential risk and opportunity their securities to convert into cash. These funds are attractive for holders of free financial resources since through them one can achieve a higher rate of return compared to conventional investments of financial resources in banks. There are ten investment funds in the Republic of Macedonia but still they are not significant participants in the capital market. The subject of the research in this paper will be the state of the investment funds in Republic of Macedonia with special emphasis on informing the population about their advantages and the ways of their promotion as a significant factor in the development and greater establishment in the financial market in the country.

  12. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  13. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  14. The manipulation of death: a burial area at the Neolithic Settlement of Avgi, NW Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Stratouli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Neolithic of Northern Greece the disposal of the deceased is strongly related to the community of the living, and in most cases to the built environment. Burials often occur in close proximity to, or underneath ‘domestic’ structures. The constant association of dead ancestors with the living social environment may indicate a particular desire by Neolithic people to negotiate their past by incorporating it into their own present. This paper addresses such issues, based on new evidence from the Neolithic settlement of Avgi, NW Greece. A group of cremations were recently located inside ten small pots buried in an open space in the Neolithic village. The burials consisted of tiny amounts of heavily burnt human bones and, in two cases, were accompanied by carbonized seeds. This paper will discuss the occurrence of the burial pots and the associated cremations as tokens of memory and of special links to the past represented by the dead ancestors.

  15. Pollen Foraging by Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in Greece: Botanical and Geographical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimou Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is very important for honey bee colony development and nutrition. It is also a valuable product for human consumption, considered to have high nutritional value. In this study, we performed melissopalynological analysis of 285 pollen load samples collected from 44 apiaries throughout Greece. The analysis revealed 229 plant taxa represented in total. The abundance of each pollen type varied among the geographical areas from which the samples were collected. We also observed variation among samples collected from the same geographical region. The most frequently found families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. The most frequently observed taxa were Brassicaceae, Carduus type, Cistus and Papaver rhoeas. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical classification of pollen samples among northern, central and southern Greece is possible.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiraki S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite’s prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2 % for sheep, 7.6-14.7 % for goats, 0 % in cattle and 0.6 % in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  17. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece.

  18. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  19. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  20. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  1. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  2. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klarin M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mira Klarin,1 Ana Pororokovic,2 Slavica Šimic Šašic,1 Violeta Arnaudova31Department of Teacher and Preschool Teacher Education, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia; 2Department of Psychology, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia; 3Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, University of Ciril and Method, Skopje, MacedoniaIntroduction: The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033 from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends.Methods: Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence; those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships; and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness.Results: Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural

  3. The historical development of corporate- and property law in Macedonia until Communism as part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is a candidate state for EU Membership. During Communism, Macedonia followed the communist pattern (as a consequence of the system of selfadministration of workers as part of the Yugoslav Federation and the transition process in the beginning of the 90’s was followed by a fundamental change not only in the whole economic system but in the whole society. But before the transition, with the coming of Communism, Macedonia as part of the Yugoslav Federation followed the Soviet pattern from 1945-1951 with: nationalization of major enterprises, state direction of investment and production through a series of Five-Year Plans, emphasis on heavy industry and collectivization of agriculture. After 1951, Macedonia followed its own system with the selfadministration of workers a mix of central planning- and free market economy until 1990. The problem with transition in Macedonia after 1990 was closely connected with the extent and form of implementation of economic reforms and especially privatization, because some enterprises had at least to be transformed, others restructured and others had to be completely liquidated. Another problem with transition was closely connected with two questions: the question of economics and the question of politics. In fact, it can be argued that what has happened in Albania and Macedonia, but also in all post-communist Balkan states and the new countries that have emerged since 1989, is historically unique (Papajorgji 2013. But before the transition, and Communism, lie some very important questions which will be analyzed in this paper: What tradition and family law followed Macedonia before Communism? How did this tradition of law especially in the field of corporate and property law affect the new democratic legal system of Macedonia? These are the main objectives of this article.

  4. THE ECONOMICS OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: USE OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AS A MARKETING STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVENESS OF WINE SECTOR IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nacka, Marina; Georgiev, Nenad; Dabovic Anastasovska, Jadranka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is: (a) to emphasize the importance of the industrial property rights for countries in transition economy, (b) to analyze the international trade and competitiveness of Republic of Macedonia and EU countries and (c) to present geographical indications as a powerful marketing strategy for competitiveness of the wine sub-sector in Republic of Macedonia. The paper includes qualitative and quantitative approach. Regarding the qualitative approach, we have performed a descrip...

  5. Calc-alkaline lavas from the volcanic complex of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece : a petrological, geochemical and stratigraphic study

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsmans, J.P.P.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-geochemical- and stratigraphic study of the calc-alkaline lavas from Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The volcanic complex of Santorini consists of seven eruption centres, of which some have been active contemporaneous. The eruption centres in the northern part of Santorini mainly produced lava flows in contrast with a long-lived eruption centre in the southern part, that mainly produced pyroclastic deposits. The lavas and pyroclastics of Santo...

  6. INVESTMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY WITH A SPECIFIC REFERENCE OF R.MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Bardarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fact that today tourism takes a bigger swing in the share of GDP, has prompted firms from the tourism sector to take measures to invest in their business. Thus, given the numerous studies proved that today tourism take a greater participation in the economy and hence the performance and creation of profit in tourism lies in more employees, unlike in the past when equity is created in the area of money and materiel. Today, the capital of every enterprise representing people with their knowledge, professionally, experience, creative ideas and potentials. So investing in a professional and qualified staff is the key to successful and profitable operation of tourism and catering companies. The subject of this research paper are companies from the tourism sector in R. Macedonia and how they invest in human capital

  7. Impact Of Insurance On Economic Growth: The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Kjosevski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of insurance and economic growth, with empirical analysis for the Republic of Macedonia. We apply multiple regression and control for other relevant determinants of economic growth. The analysis used data for the period 1995 - 2010. In order to solve the model in the analysis will use the technique of least squares, followed by analysis of variability in order to identify the effects of each variable. Insurance development is measured by insurance penetration (insurance premiums in percentage of GDP. We used three different insurance variables - life insurance, non-life insurance and total insurance penetration. According to our findings, insurance sector development positively and significantly affects economic growth. The results are confirmed in terms of non-life insurance, and, total insurance, while the results show that life insurance negatively affect economic growth.

  8. Indoor exposure of population to radon in the FYR of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Januseski, Jovan; Boev, Blazo; Ristova, Mimoza

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the results of a year-long survey of the indoor radon concentration levels in the FYR of Macedonia. A total number of 437 dwellings in eight statistical regions were subject to radon concentration measurements by using CR-39 track detectors. The annual mean indoor radon concentration in each measuring site was estimated from the four individual measurements with 3 months duration. The measuring period was from December 2008 to December 2009. The distribution of the results was nearly log-normal. The arithmetic and geometric mean values of the annual mean value of radon concentration were estimated to be 105 ± 84 and 84*/1.9 Bq m(-3), respectively. The annual effective dose due to indoor exposure to radon in the dwellings was estimated to be 2.1*/1.9 mSv y(-1).

  9. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  11. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  12. Optimization of Business processes in Airport Services Company in Macedonia using the TQM Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to show a full diagnostic to some of the business processes in the company for airport services in Macedonia was made. The methodology of TQM (Total Quality Management system was applied in the company, especially in the sector for de-icing and protection against frost on aircrafts. With the implementation of this system, an optimal solution was found for uninterrupted operation in the airport traffic. In this way there was a change in the company paradigm – do not work hard but smart, with a constant improvement of processes, while taking into account the needs and desires of customers and profit. This research shows that other methods and techniques were applied such as Pareto Diagram, Ishikawa approach, Checklist, Map of trends, all in order to identify problems and find an optimal solution.

  13. Surveillance of avian influenca viruses in farmed poultry in 2009 in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovik Iskra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence and distribution or to confirm the absence of avian influenca viruses in farmed poultry in the poultry production systems 1 and 2 from the eight statistical regions in R. Macedonia. Total number of 1215 cloacal swabs from poultry were sampled. Each sample was processed and analysed by both molecular (RRT-PCR and classical virology methods (virus isolation and identification. All samples gave negative result for presence of avian influenza viruses. Commercial poultry production systems have biosecurity measures preventing the entry of pathogens i.e avian influenza viruses, therefore resulting with no circulation of these viruses in the sampled farmed poultry flocks.

  14. Privacy and data protection: Legal aspects in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Osmani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical assessment of the existing Law on Personal Data Protection in the Republic of Macedonia. The paper aims to analyse whether there is a need for additional legal tools in order to achieve a balance between maintaining data integrity in the digital age and the use of modern technology. The paper discusses the meaning of “information privacy” in the age of big data, cyber threats and the domestic and international response to these issues. Special focus is dedicated to privacy policy enforcement in European Union Law. Having regard to the development of new technologies, prevailing data protection legislation may no longer be able to provide effective protection for individuals’ personal information. Therefore, existing laws should be continuously adapted to respond to new challenges and situations deriving from different online activities and communications.

  15. Investigation Of The Determinants Of The Adjustment Of Lending Rates In Macedonia – A Sur Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane BOGOEV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the determinants and differences of the short-run lending rate stickiness among banks in Macedonia by using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression model (SUR. For that purpose, eight bank balance sheet items, two macroeconomic variables and an indicator for the level of concentration in the banking system are considered. The results generally support the hypothesis of aggregation bias in the literature. Namely, the size of the short-run pass-through adjustment of lending rates to changes in the “cost of funds” rate is incomplete and heterogeneous among Macedonian banks where various bank balance sheet items play different role over banks’ lending rate setting decisions.

  16. Health insurance system and provider payment reform in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doncho M. Donev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an insight to the current health insurance system in the Republic of Macedonia. Special emphasis is given to the specificities and practice of both obligatory and voluntary health insurance, to the scope of the insured persons and their benefits and obligations, the way of calculating and payment of the contributions and the other sources of revenues for health insurance, user participation in health care expenses, payment to the health care providers and some other aspects of realization of health insurance in practice. According to the Health Insurance Law, which was adopted in March 2000, a person can become an insured to the Health Insurance Fund on various modalities. More than 90% of the citizens are eligible to the obligatory health insurance, which provides a broad scope of basic health care benefits. Till end of 2008 payroll contributions were equal to 9.2%, and from January 1st, 2009 are equal to 7.5% of gross earned wages and almost 60% of health sector revenues are derived from them. Within the autonomy and scope of activities of the Health Insurance Fund the structures of the revenues and expenditures are presented. Health financing and reform of the payment to health care providers are of high importance within the ongoing health care reform in Macedonia. It is expected that the newly introduced methods of payments at the primary health care level (capitation and at the hospital sector (global budgeting, DRGs will lead to increased equity, efficiency and quality of health care in hospitals and overall system

  17. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  18. Surface water characterization of three rivers in the lead/zinc mining region of northeastern Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Sheriban; Dragun, Zrinka; Kapetanović, Damir; Kostov, Vasil; Jordanova, Maja; Erk, Marijana; Hajrulai-Musliu, Zehra

    2014-05-01

    Mine waste is recognized as being one of the most serious threats for freshwater ecosystems, and it still represents one of the greatest environmental concerns in Macedonia. The aim of our investigation was to obtain an in-depth understanding of mining influence on freshwater systems from water contamination to effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, we assessed the impact of active lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mines Zletovo and Toranica on the water quality of three rivers in northeastern Macedonia (Bregalnica, Zletovska, and Kriva rivers) based on data collected in spring and autumn of 2012. The Bregalnica River, near Shtip, was characterized mainly by weak contamination with arsenic, barium, iron, molybdenum, titanium, uranium, vanadium, nitrate, and phosphate, as well as critical faecal pollution, which alltogether could be connected to agricultural activities; however, an impact of the mines was not observed. Contrary, both the Zletovska and Kriva rivers showed a clear impact of Pb/Zn mines on water quality. In the Zletovska River, increased concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt, cesium, copper, lithium, manganese (Mn), nickel, rubidium, tin, strontium, thallium, Zn, sulphates, and chlorides were found, especially in autumn (e.g., Cd 2.0 μg L(-1); Mn 2.5 mg L(-1); Zn 1.5 mg L(-1)). In the Kriva River, increased Cd (0.270 μg L(-1)) and Pb (1.85 μg L(-1)) concentrations were found only in spring, possibly due to sediment resuspension during greater water discharge. The selected sampling sites on the Bregalnica, Zletovska, and Kriva rivers were confirmed as being appropriate locations for further studies of mining waste's impact on freshwater ecosystems, the first one as a nonimpacted site and the other two as possible areas of increased exposure of aquatic organisms to metals.

  19. Magna Carta And Its Significant Role For Rule Of Law In The Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanovska-Spasovska Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and famous historical documents from the English legal and constitutional legacy is the Magna Carta Libertatum. Signed and sealed in the year 1215 the Magna Carta is further on viewed as the sole inception of the idea of limiting the power of the ruler trough legal rules. That limitation is to be made with legal rules that are binding for everyone, even the monarch. Therefore, the Great Charter is viewed as the first document signed by a monarch with which, the principle of supremacy of the law is set out. That supremacy of the law has been further on developed by eminent scholars and practitioners, eventually leading to the development of the concept of rule of law. Rule of law, as a concept, means that the royal authority (or the executive branch of power is going to be inferior to the law. However, this concept means a lot more than simply that. Unlike the principle of legal state, the rule of law is closely linked to justice, separation of powers and legal certainty. All of these concepts are actually prerequisites for its existence. That is why each of them is separately examined and elaborated. Furthermore, as one of the most important principles the rule of law had a great influence on the constitutional (and legal systems around the world. Since the Republic of Macedonia strives to become a democratic state where the rule of law is established and developed it is important to elaborate the influence of this principle in it. Therefore, the research gravitates over the principle of rule of law in the Republic of Macedonia.

  20. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  1. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  2. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  3. Metamorphism of bauxites on Naxos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-mineralogical and geochemical study of the metamorphosed karstbauxites on the island of Naxos, Greece. The bauxites have been subject to an Eocene highpressure metamorphism (M1), followed by a Late Oligocene-Miocene medium-pressure metamorphism (M2)

  4. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Greece

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Greece. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Ec...

  5. Third intensive Balkan telemedicine and e-health seminar: current principles and practices of telemedicine and e-health--clinical applications and evidence-based outcomes: International Conference on Telemedicine and e-Health February 6-7, 2009 Skopje, Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Latifi, Rifat; Hadeed, George; Haxhihamza, Kadri; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet

    2009-05-01

    The region, which consists of the countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosova, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, takes its name from the mountain range, the Balkans. The Balkans, a Turkish word for "chain of wooded mountains," covers an area of 700,000 km(2) region in Southeastern Europe and is home to over 55 million inhabitants. A decade of war and ethnic fighting in the 1990s destroyed the medical systems in place, creating a desperate need to rebuild a modern healthcare infrastructure. Telemedicine has been shown to be an effective tool in this regard. The adoption of telemedicine in the Balkans is firmly under way. Since its inception in 2001, the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has promoted the design, growth, and implementation of telemedicine in a variety of developing countries across the globe. Successful implementation of telemedicine in any region is based on a number of factors, each of great importance. However, one that is key is the education and training of community leadership. Over the past several years, the IVeH has held intensive seminars in the region to promote the application of telemedicine as an effective tool in healthcare modernization. This includes the First Intensive Balkan Telemedicine and e-Health Seminar in Prishtina, Kosova (2002) and the Second Intensive Balkan Telemedicine and e-Health Seminar in Tirana, Albania (2007). Recently, the third installment of these seminars was held in Skopje, Macedonia (February 2009). These three seminars have provided a fertile foundation for telemedicine to emerge as a significant tool in enhancing healthcare in this region. Each has broadened the understanding of the immense capability that telemedicine can offer and has acted as a catalyst for the development of telemedicine in the region. The Republic of Macedonia is the latest country to invest in telemedicine, having a formal commitment from the Ministry of Health to establish a national

  6. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  7. HOW STRONGLY THE HIDDEN ECONOMY OF A SMALL COUNTRY CAN BE INFLUENCED BY DRASTIC EVENTS: CASE OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagica Novkovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidden economy presents a big concern for both developing and developed countries. Of particular interest is precise determination of the temporal pattern of hidden for small developing economies, which exhibit many peculiarities. Several methods for estimation of hidden economy are effectively used in economic research. Appropriate model based on some of these methods for small developing economies is required. Modified electric energy household consumption model is proposed in this work. Using this model, temporal variations of hidden economy in Republic of Macedonia were calculated for the period 1992–2014. For the sub-period 1999–2007 the obtained values are in excellent agreement with values reported in literature obtained by dynamic multiple indicators multiple causes method, proving that the method proposed in this work produces highly relevant results. Thus obtained temporal pattern of the hidden economy in Macedonia, using deconvolution in Gaussians, is described by five contributions: baseline at 32% and four Gaussian peaks corresponding to hyperinflation, Kosovo conflict, security crisis in Macedonia and banking crisis. After the expiration of the effects of these shocks, hidden economy approaches the baseline at about 32 %. It is proposed to use this modified method for estimating size of hidden economy in various small economies.

  8. Money-in-the-Utility-Function: Model Simulations and Money Demand Estimation in the Case of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Mile

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reassess and analyze the dynamic interactions between money, prices and economic activity in the case of the Republic of Macedonia. The first part of the paper simulates the property of the superneutrality of money, based on Sidrauski’s (1967 framework. The second part presents the money demand estimations on the monetary aggregate M2 for the period from 2002 to 2012, using the cointegration approach. Following Cziráky and Gillman (2006, we examine the validity of the Fisher equation in the case of Macedonia. The Fisher equation does not hold in the case of Macedonia, so the inflation rate must be included in the money demand specification. The estimated cointegration equation is in line with economic theory. The cointegration equation shows income elasticity less than unity (0,81, small and negative interest rate semi-elasticity (-0.17 and negative elasticity with respect to inflation. The short-run dynamics reveal that only 2,70% of the disequilibrium is corrected in a single quarter. The properties of stability imply that the M2 aggregate may serve as a proper policy indicator.

  9. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  10. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  11. The distribution of full income in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsampelas, Christos; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Non-cash incomes from either private or public sources can have substantial effects on the distribution of economic welfare. However, standard approaches to inequality measurement either neglect them or take into account only selected non-monetary items. Using data for Greece in the mid 2000s we show that it is possible to incorporate a comprehensive list of non-monetary components into the analysis of income inequality. The results indicate that inequality declines sharply when we move from ...

  12. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Pallantzas, A.; kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade ro...

  13. MEASURE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR TESTS OF MOVEMENT FREQUENCY WITH STUDENT FROM MACEDONIA AND KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tests of good measure characteristics are a multiple matter of interest. They can be property used in the work of selecting young athletes as well as programming the physical activities and giving marks in classes. There are many authors who have conducted researches and established measure characteristics of motor tests. Measure characteristics are constantly an actual issue for research. This research was conducted with the aim of establishing and comparing the measure characteristics of the used motor tests of movement frequencies with 11-year-old students from Macedonia and Kosovo. Methods: The sample of respondents consists of 180 male students at the age of 11 (100 from Macedonia and 80 from Kosovo. They were tested with three composite motor tests to assess the movement frequency. For the obtained data there calculated: basic descriptive parameters, Pearson coefficient of correlation, factor analyse, Cronbach α and Spearman-Brown’s coefficients (Vincent, 2005. Results: On the based of the received results, it is obvious that regarding the three tests satisfactory measure characteristics are established (validity and reliability. Discussion: In kinesiology, by using motor tests, we indirectly form a concept about the motor abilities of the respondents. That is why, it is of great importance to use tests that have satisfactory measure characteristics. The used tests are recommended for application in assessing motor abilities’ movement frequency. The final results correspond to a great extent with the researches of Metikos et al, (1989, Georgiev (1996, 2007, Pireva (2013 and other. References: Georgiev G (1996. Definiranje na stepenot na faktorskata validnost, relijabilnost i drugi merni karakteristiki vo biomotorniot prostor kaj učenicite od dvata pola od 11-godišna vozrast. (Magisterski trud, Univerzitet “Sv. Kiril i Metodij”, Fakultet za fizička kultura, Skopje. Georgiev G (2007. Sport i nauka, 5, 224

  14. Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Yfantidou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is set in the context of tourism marketing and refers specifically to tourist roles. A representative sample of 1675 tourists brings to light the tourist role preference in Greece, and allows us to examine the possible differences between men and women of varying ages. The Tourist Role Preference Scale (TRPS was used for this research. The findings of this study support the existence of Yiannakis and Gibson’s 15 leisure tourist roles in Greece. Sun lover, anthropologist, archaeologist, independent mass tourist and escapist were found to be the most prevalent tourist roles in Greece. A comparison between gender and age revealed more similarities than differences. TRPS was proven reliable and valid for the sample used in this study and the questions of the scale represented significantly the tourist roles measured.

  15. The precursory earthquake swarm in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hellenic subduction region displays the same precursory swarm phenomenon as has been found in comparable regions of New Zealand and Japan. In the earthquake catalogue of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 10 past sequences of precursory swarms and related major mainshock events have been identified. These correlate, in respect of location, magnitude and time, with the 9 sequences previously identified in New Zealand, and 9 in Japan, bringing the total of sequences to 28, and the totals of related events (allowing for clustering to 56 precursory swarms and 42 mainshock events. The results add strength to the hypothesis that swarms are long-range predictors of mainshock events. A close similarity between the swarm and aftershock magnitudes in a given sequence is also confirmed in Greece, supporting the proposal that swarms are an integral part of the seismogenic process in subduction regions. Further, the modelling of swarms as part of an overall increase in seismicity, the onset of which marks the onset of seismogenesis, is well illustrated from past sequences in Greece. Formal tests are being carried out in Greece, in parallel with New Zealand and Japan, to ascertain the performance of the hypothesis as a basis for long-range synoptic forecasting.

  16. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  17. Optimum Currency Area Criteria in the Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Rankov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creation of a monetary union in any region, regardless of the structure and level of development among countries, carries along certain costs and benefits. This paper explains Mundell’s concept of Optimum Currency Area and criteria that are needed to achieve it. Viewed through the prism of these criteria the EMU is currently far from achieving the OCA confirming the current crisis in Greece and other PIIGS countries. The example of Greece and shortcomings that contributed to its current crisis represents the biggest cost and a break-even point for the future of the monetary union. However, it is encouraging that Greece is not alone in its problems, since various funds for help have been established in a relatively short period of time. The reason for this is certainly a huge cost if any country should leave the union and the spillover effect that it would cause. Certainly serious transformations can be expected and the result should be a stronger union with better control from supra-national level.

  18. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  19. Involvement and Loyalty in Recreation Swimming in Greece: Investigating Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Kontogianni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study tested the validity of involvement scale (Kyle et al., 2004, examined differences according demographic characteristics and investigated possible relationships between involvement and attitudinal loyalty in context of recreational swimming. Three hundred and forty nine participants (61.9% females from a major swimming sport center in northern Greece, completed the three dimensional involvement model of Kyle’s et al (2004, and Armitage & Conner’s (1999 attitudinal loyalty’s instrument. Demographics of the sample and frequency of participation were also recorded. The results indicated high differences (p<.01 between dimensions of involvement and the frequency of participation levels supporting the predictive validity of the scale. Female subgroup and married subgroup scored significantly higher in all involvement dimensions (attraction, centrality, self-expression than males and singles respectively. Significant statistical differences existed also between involvement dimensions and age subgroups. Finally, involvement concept only partially (centrality, β=.13 and attraction, β=.47 dimensions predicted swimmers loyalty (p<.001. Marketing implications are discussed toward the development of appropriate promotion strategies from sport managers toward overcoming swimmer’s needs and broadening participants net.

  20. Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; McCoy F. Jr.

    1984-09-30

    The well-known caldera of Thira (Santorini), Greece, was not formed during a single eruption but is composed of two overlapping calderas superimposed upon a complex volcanic field that developed along a NE trending line of vents. Before the Minoan eruption of 1400 B.C., Thira consisted of three lava shields in the northern half of the island and a flooded depression surrounded by tuff deposits in the southern half. Andesitic lavas formed the overlapping shields of the north and were contemporaneous with and, in many places, interbedded with the southern tuff deposits. Although there appears to be little difference between the composition of magmas erupted, differences in eruption style indicate that most of the activity in the northern half of the volcanic field was subaerial, producing lava flows, whereas in the south, eruptions within a flooded depression produced a sequence of mostly phreatomagmatic tuffs. Many of these tuffs are plastered onto the walls of what appears to have been an older caldera, most probably associated with an eruption of rhyodiacitic tephra 100,000 years ago. The Minoan eruption of about 1400 B.C. had four distinct phases, each reflecting a different vent geometry and eruption mechanism. The Minoan activity was preceded by minor eruptions of fine ash. (1) The eruption began with a Plinian phase, from subaerial vent(s) located on the easternmost of the lave shields. (2) Vent(s) grew toward the SW into the flooded depression. Subsequent activity deposited large-scale base surge deposits during vent widening by phreatomagnetic activity. (3) The third eruptive phase was also phreatomagmatic and produced 60% of the volume of the Minoan Tuff. This activity was nearly continuous and formed a large featureless tuff ring with poorly defined bedding.

  1. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  2. INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: ANALYSIS OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Achkovska Leshkovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The intercultural education is most explicitly accomplished trough textbook contents which encourage interaction, exchange, desegregation, interdependency and solidarity among people belonging to different cultural groups living in the same territory. The main goal of the research was to determine the quantity and quality of content that point to intercultural education in the textbooks used in elementary schools in the Republic of Macedonia, where the medium of teaching is in Macedonian. The analysis includes 44 textbooks. The research involved both quantitative and qualitative research methods, the late involved using deductive defining of categories. Nine categories, important for intercultural education were distinguished: identity, cooperation and friendship, respect, tolerance, cultural relativism, stereotype, prejudice, oppression and labeling. The results showed that the highest percent of contents promoting intercultural is found in textbooks for Civic education and History, while the lowest one in Nature and Geography. From the analyzed categories, identity is highly present, followed by cooperation, friendship and respect of the other. Themes regarding the categories such as: stereotype, prejudice, labeling and oppression are least represented and are not even mentioned as negative examples of behaviors which are not to be practiced. As a conclusion, we can say that it is very positive that depreciation and discrimination of other cultures, ethnicities or religious groups are not present. However, there is demand and need to enrich textbooks and syllabuses with large number of contents concerning above mentioned positive categories, in order to promote one set of values which are essential to build an intercultural society.  

  3. Industrial Pollution Regulation in the EU and in Macedonia, Serbia And Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Chavleski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution control has substantial impact in the protection of the environment. In the European Union, there’s vast legislation in this field consisting mainly of the Directive on industrial emissions of 2010 aimed at consolidating the so far existing legislation in this field. The new Directive on industrial emissions aims to establish an integrated prevention and control of the pollution arising from industrial activities and it lays down rules designed to prevent or, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions into air, water and land and to prevent the generation of waste, in order to achieve a high level of protection of the environment taken as a whole. Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia have made significant progress in this field in the recent years as part of their obligations under the Stabilization and Association Process. The purpose of this particular article is to evaluate the degree of alignment and implementation of the environmental legislation in this particular area with the legislation of EU as well its practical application, and to identify the existing deficiencies and necessary steps for action

  4. Occupational safety and health of employees in the catering industry in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Shaqiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important for the wider population to understand that 90% of the injuries that happen each year can be prevented. According to the ILO statistic, annual cost of financing cash benefits, health care and rehabilitation for work-related disabilities is colossal: a sum equivalent to 4 % of global gross domestic product (GDP for work injuries alone. And for some developing countries the cost equates 10 % of national GDP (ILO, 2008. This sector is composed mainly of small enterprises employing 10 people or less. EU workforce in the catering sector is young according to European statistics (EU-25, Eurostat 2005 some 48 % are under 35, and people of 55 years and older make up less than 10 % of the workforce, although numbers are rising as a result of demographic change. Female workers make 54 % of the workforce outnumbering men. The sector is considered a good place for young and relatively unskilled people to enter the workforce. The educational level of the workforce is low: 40 % of employees are relatively unskilled; only 1 employee in 10 has a high level of education. Despite the demanding working conditions, the sector does not have above-average rates of accidents and disease. Is Macedonia too rich or to turn blind to check this fact? Main objective of this paper will be a short overview on the Occupational Safety and Health situation in the catering industry with emphasis on legal framework, employer’s obligations and statistical data provided by the State Labour Inspectorate.

  5. Medical journals in the Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, M; Danevska, L

    2011-01-01

    An attempt was made to retrospectively examine the medical journals published in the Republic of Macedonia since the Second World War. An analysis was made of the basic data concerning the journals, most of which are deposited in the Central Library of the Medical Faculty at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, and a few deposited in the National and the St. Clement of Ohrid University Library in Skopje. Some journal-related data were obtained by searching the electronic databases (mainly Medline/PubMed, Hinari, Ebsco) and the Internet as a global system of network of networks. After the Second World War several attempts at publishing biomedical journals have been made in the Republic of Macedonia. The number of journals has increased especially in the last ten years. Only a few of them have a long-term publishing tradition. In fact, the only journal to maintain continuity in publishing until today is the Macedonian Medical Review, that has been published regularly since 1946 until today. It is an official publication of the Macedonian Medical Society. The Annual of the Medical Faculty in Skopje was published from 1954 to 1997 under this name, and in 1997 it was renamed the Macedonian Journal of Medicine. There was an interruption in its publishing in 1999 and 2000 and it was regularly published until 2007, after which its publication ceased once more. In addition to these two journals, other medicine-related journals that have been published in the Republic of Macedonia (some of them, however, irregularly or they have ceased publication) are Acta Morphologica (since 2004); Physioacta (since 2007); Paediatrics Annual Review (since 1996); Epilepsy (since 1997); Acta Ortopedica et Traumatologica Macedonia (since 1999); MJMS-Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (since 2008); Prilozi Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences (since 1969); Macedonian Dental Review (since 1977); Dental Review (since 2007); Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin (since 1964

  6. The implementation of the Quality Costs Methodology in the Public Transport Enterprise in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of TQM (Total Quality Management strategy in the public transport enterprises in Macedonia means improving the quality of services through examination of business processes not just in terms of defining, improvement and design of the process, but also improvement of productivity and optimization of the costs of quality. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of determining the quality of the transport services, its methods, and techniques for measurement of the optimization of business processes in particular. The analysis of the quality costs when providing transport services can help managers to understand the impact of poor quality on the financial results and the bad image it gives to the enterprise. In this study, we proposed and applied the model for better performance and higher efficiency of the transport enterprise, through the optimization of business processes, change in the corporate culture and use of the complete business potentials. The need for this methodology was imposed as a result of the analysis made in the company in terms of whether is it doing an analysis on the costs of quality or not. The benefits from the utilization of this model will not only lead to increasing the business performance of the transport enterprise, but this model will also serve as a driving force for continuous improvements to the satisfaction of all stakeholders.

  7. The Attitude Towards Hunting of the Local Population from Two Settlements in Suburb of Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Nikolovski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The object of this paper is to investigate what kinds of perception towards hunting the local non-hunters population from settlements of Dolno Lisice and Dracevo have, their attitudes towards hunting activities and moreover of hunting as an economic activity. Material and Methods: Based on a survey method with using a questionnaire, the research is conducted between February 21st and 23rd, 2010 on the area of suburb of Skopje, the capital city of Macedonia. The analysis reveals public opinion, obtained from 67 interviewees, as a representing part of the investigated area. For this purpose a questionnaire with 11 questions is prepared and in order to be included biggest possible number of residents and to access bigger response, except door to door mail approach is used also. The gathered data are processed with manual recording obtaining quantitative data on the attitude of interviewees. Results and Conclusion: Results reveal that most of the male population are going on hunting for benefit, unlike most women who hunt for sport and recreation. This analysis shows that hunting is quite widespread in this region and almost all respondents reported they know someone who is a hunter. Moreover in this case it is interesting that despite the big number of males of this region and female inhabitants as well have expressed desire to go on hunting.

  8. Media coverage of the violent crime in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovska Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Media is the main source of information about crime and the way it is displayed determines the position and public perception of this phenomenon. In addition to showing the commission of crime and its state, media are obliged to cover not only the activities of the criminal justice system within the framework of formal social control, but even more, the activities of civil society organizations and the Ombudsman as part of informal social control in combatting agaist crime. Because of the perception of their action, the questions that arise are: How the media understands the civil society and its role, how they transmit their public discourse, what they choose to publish, whom they protect, whom they marginalise and what message they send to the public? An analysis of these issues along with an analysis of current offenses is of particular importance in order to determine whether the media give a true or distorted picture of crime. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present results of the survey of media coverage of violent crime in the Republic of Macedonia.

  9. THE MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR ENTERING INTO FOREIGN MARKETS-THE CASE OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the most important motives that make companies  consider while operating out of their borders into other potential markets. It will also analyze the factors of internal and external environment. Therefore, the goal of this research is to analyze the motives and factors of foreign companies that have already entered Macedonia in any mode of entry by finding out the factors and motives that influenced their decision making while choosing the proper mode for that particular market. As a research methodology for collecting primary data, a structured questionnaire was used with 13 variables- motives for the internationalization of businesses. The SPSS software is used in order to analyze these variables. Cronbach Alfa is used for checking the internal reliability of variables. According to this analysis the following factors: international knowledge and experience of the company, identification of international opportunities, following competitors, international and competitive nature of the industry /the firm are considered as the most important motivating factors for the internationalization of businesses. While the following factors: economic stability, social stability, political stability, infrastructure, access to capital, аnd the level of education influence the modes of entry for companies that entered the Macedonian market.

  10. Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher temperatures have been associated with higher salmonellosis notifications worldwide. Aims : The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal pattern of Salmonella cases among humans. Material and Methods: The relationship between ambient maximum temperature and reports of confirmed cases of Salmonella in the Republic of Macedonia and Skopje during the summer months (i.e. June, July, August and September beginning in 1998 through 2008 was investigated. The monthly number of reported Salmonella cases and ambient maximum temperatures for Skopje were related to the national number of cases and temperatures recorded during the same timeframe using regression statistical analyses. The Poisson regression model was adapted for the analysis of the data. Results: While a decreasing tendency was registered at the national level, the analysis for Skopje showed an increasing tendency for registration of new salmonella cases. Reported incidents of salmonellosis, were positively associated (P<0.05 with temperature during the summer months. By increasing of the maximum monthly mean temperature of 1° C in Skopje, the salmonellosis incidence increased by 5.2% per month. Conclusions: The incidence of Salmonella cases in the Macedonian population varies seasonally: the highest values of the Seasonal Index for Salmonella cases were registered in the summer months, i.e. June, July, August and September.

  11. CYP2D6 allele distribution in Macedonians, Albanians and Romanies in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovska, M; Dimishkovska, M; Maleva Kostovska, I; Noveski, P; Sukarova Stefanovska, E; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2015-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great importance for the metabolism of clinically used drugs. More than 100 variants of the CYP2D6 gene have been identified so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele distribution of CYP2D6 gene variants in 100 individuals of each of the Macedonian, Albanian and Romany population, by genotyping using long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a multiplex single base extension method. The most frequent variants and almost equally distributed in the three groups were the fully functional alleles *1 and *2. The most common non functional allele in all groups was *4 that was found in 22.5% of the Albanians. The most common allele with decreased activity was *41 which was found in 23.0% of the Romany ethnic group, in 11.0% of the Macedonians and in 10.5% of the Albanians. Seven percent of the Albanians, 6.0% of the Romani and 4.0% of the Macedonians were poor metabolizers, while 5.0% of the Macedonians, 1.0% of Albanians and 1.0% of the Romanies were ultrarapid metabolizers. We concluded that the CYP2D6 gene locus is highly heterogeneous in these groups and that the prevalence of the CYP2D6 allele variants and genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia is in accordance with that of other European populations.

  12. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN MACEDONIA THROUGH THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the nature of energy applied in hotel industry in Macedonia. It explored the indicators for resources application in three, four and five star hotels. The data were collected by means of an online survey conducted among 45 managers and department supervisors. It is found that large number of hotels lack measures to reduce the conventional energy use and replace it with renewable sources of energy. Considering the fact that energy use is a substantial cost factor, the modest and restricted application of geothermal energy, biofuels and photocell lightening is extremely alarming for achieving sustainable tourism development. The study concludes that Macedonian hotels although being fully aware of importance of energy efficiency concept, it is not their managerial priority. It further pointed out that the development and operation of sustainable hotels requires properly planned and designed environmental protection practices. Finally, the study recommends that instead of being driven by increased number of tourists regardless the environmental concern, Macedonian hotels should pay attention and become eco-friendly and be focused on applying environmental oriented practices. At the same time, the research poses new challenges that urgently need to be brought to hotel management in the line of achieving sustainable tourism development.

  13. Management’s Awareness for Implementation of Contemporary Accounting Concepts in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Spaseska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Realization of the determined targets in drastically changed working conditions requires development of new approaches, new business models and ideas of management. As a consequence, managerial practice and methods significantly changed in the last decade of the 20th century and those changes have been continuing in the 21st century. In that context, contemporary trends present in the managerial accounting are associated with its strategic concepts, such as: activity based costing system, just-in-time system and total quality management. Starting from the a.m., the main objective of this research will be directed towards providing data for that if Macedonian business entities are familiar with these concepts and how much they implement them. For this purposewe carried out a survey on a representative sample of Macedonian companies.The examination conducted in this paper shows that business entities in R. Macedonia still apply these accounting techniques not sufficiently. Obtained results are presented within this paper in details.

  14. The Public Health Impacts of Climate Change in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Projected climatic changes for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia for the period 2025–2100 will be most intense in the warmest period of the year with more frequent and more intense heat-waves, droughts and flood events compared with the period 1961–1990. The country has examined their vulnerabilities to climate change and many public health impacts have been projected. A variety of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in the assessment: literature reviews, interviews, focus groups, time series and regression analysis, damage and adaptation cost estimation, and scenario-based assessment. Policies and interventions to minimize the risks and development of long-term adaptation strategies have been explored. The generation of a robust evidence base and the development of stakeholder engagement have been used to support the development of an adaptation strategy and to promote adaptive capacity by improving the resilience of public health systems to climate change. Climate change adaptation has been established as a priority within existing national policy instruments. The lessons learnt from the process are applicable to countries considering how best to improve adaptive capacity and resilience of health systems to climate variability and its associated impacts.

  15. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  16. HENA CLOTHING FROM S K O P J E REGION O F MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek TUFAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatolian society provided cultural interaction greatly from Asia to Anatolia, from Anatolian to Europa and Africa with the historical improvment and the basic great culture provided by that history. Turkish people sent to Macedonia from interior parts of Anatolia for the r purpose of adopting there, carried their own culture, constructed close relation ship with local people and they enabled to comeinto variety of practice especially with the interaction of Turksh culture and their own culture. After the cultural interaction, Turkish emigrants lernt the Macedonian traditional clothes and the techniques used for sewing and making clothes and they had the first examples of that way of wearing. The differances and specialities taking place in that fashion became the most special heritage of that society. The clothes worn in special events gave information about the people who had them. In the study the purpose was to examine some women clothing samples worn at henanights in Üsküp Region in terms of materials, color, cut, sewing and decorating and help carrying it tonext generations.

  17. Excess erosion and deposition in the catchments of Kamenichka and Radanjska river, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milevski Ivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest environmental problems in the Republic of Macedonia is accelerated soil erosion caused by high human impact during last centuries on to the susceptible landscape. Natural factors itself are very suitable for development of such erosion: from mostly erodible rocks and soils on the mountainous slopes around the depressions, to the generally continental, semi-arid climate and slight vegetation cover. Because of that, there are sites with severe erosion and deposition like those in the catchments of Kamenichka River and Radanjska River, two torrential tributaries of Bregalnica. In these catchments there are varieties of erosion-related landforms: rills, gullies, badlands, landslides, as well as valley-type alluvial fans and huge alluvial plains. Such devastating accelerated erosion and deposition largely transformed original landscape, and represent significant environmental, social, and economic problem in local areas. Because of that, some measures of protection and conservation were taken from 1950-ties in both catchments. But it is obvious that the final effect of these measures is far of enough, so new efforts must be implemented to revitalizing these abandoned lands.

  18. The Role of Astronomical Alignments in the Rituals of the Peak Sanctuary at Kokino, Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovska-Barandovska, Olgica; Stankovski, Jovica

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological locality 'Taticev Kamen' (Tatic Rock) is located in the north-eastern part of Macedonia, near the village of Kokino. During the Bronze Age, it was used as a mountain sanctuary by the people living in the region. The large number of excavated artefacts have confirmed the practise of several different cults. The site also has many characteristics of a megalithic observatory. The detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the locality indicates that the periodic movements of the Sun and other celestial objects were observed from three different platforms, and their positions on particular dates were marked by notches on the nearby stone blocks. From the first platform, a marker for the midsummer sunrise was carved for the purpose of performing the ritual that has solar characteristics. The second platform is a central site from which the Sun was observed throughout the year, and the extreme sunrise positions on the days of the solstices and the equinoxes were marked. The newly-discovered third platform contains evidence of ritual activities similar to those at the Minoan peak sanctuaries on Crete. Using this platform as an observational site, we found four markers that pointed to the rising of Aldebaran over an interval of several centuries (from 1900 BC to 1500 BC). The heliacal rising of this star before summer and its rising in the evening sky in early autumn were probably connected with vegetative cycles and the organization of agricultural activities.

  19. Some Aspects of Culturally Competent Communication in Health Care in the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollozhani, Aziz; Kosevska, Elena; Petkovski, Kostadin; Memeti, Shaban; Limani, Blerim; Kasapinov, Blasko

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To examine the existing situation, barriers and consequences of the intercultural communication in health institutions and to offer training models for strengthening and improving communication skills of health professionals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the relationship between patients and health professionals. A total of 813 health professionals (302 physicians and 511 other medical staff) from different healthcare institutions, and 1016 patients participated in cross-sectional survey performed in autumn 2010. Results: The research has showed that each third examined patient thought that his/her physician or the other medical personnel had no understanding for his/her emotions and gave no answer to all of his/her questions. From the other side, 60% of the physicians declare that they have a good communication with patients speaking other language than their mother tongue. Only 60% of physicians said that they know good the culture of their patient and 52% of the other medical staff said that they adjusted the treatment to the patient culture (religion, attitudes, language, life style). Conclusion: There are some gaps in current provision of health care practice in an aspect of effective interactions and communication skills of health professionals to meet patient needs in a multicultural and multilingual setting. A training model is proposed for strengthening communication skills of health professionals. PMID:24511268

  20. Where are we now in the investigation of rare diseases in the Republic of Macedonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor

    2014-01-01

    In Europe Rare Disease (RD) is the one which affects less than 1/2000, in the USA 1/1250, while in Japan RD is the one that affects fewer than 1/50,000 patients. EU estimates that 5-8000 distinct rare diseases affect 6-8% of the Population. The impact of rare diseases in the health systems is impresssive: at least 3 million patients in the UK, 4 million in Germany, and between 27 and 36 million EU citizens. There is not a precise register for rare diseases in the Republic of Macedonia. Rare diseases are becoming increasingly important as possible targets of new forms of treatment, as a valuable source of a novel insight in fundamental lows of biology, and in the specific mechanisms of many diseases. Molecular methods have created a better diagnosis and oftentimes treatment. Rare diseases pose significant problem for the patients, since their problems are often not recognized by the medical community and shunned by the health insurance. The cumulative costs of diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases is significant for any society and oftentimes not acceptable for developing countries.

  1. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  2. Analysis of Introducing One Stop Shop Administrative Services: A Case Study of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin TODEVSKI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reforming the administrative procedures through the implementation of an e-Government programe is an on-going important process for governments around the world. The benefits of using ICT as a catalyst for increasing the efficiency of administrative procedures are well known and confirmed. The implementation of computer based information systems and providing a possibility for institutions to share data and documents among themselves will create conditions for introducing one stop shop electronic services, which will lead to simplifying administrative procedures. The new simplified administrative services will be of great benefit to citizens. Yet, the institutions will face a significant reduction in the number of issued documents required for providing administrative services, which will lead to positive financial implications. In that regard, the goal of this paper is to make an analysis of the financial aspects of introducing one stop shop services in the Republic of Macedonia by using computer based information systems. The analysis was conducted using public data for the administrative services which are currently provided by a closed set of 16 Macedonian government institutions. In this analysis we calculate the financial implications on citizens, businesses, institutions, and other entities in the society. The result of the analysis is the calculation of the overall savings for the society, which can be used by decision-makers in order to adjust the degree of investments in information systems and necessary complementary assets needed for introduction of these services.

  3. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. from Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileski Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. (fam. Apiaceae collected in Macedonia. The chemical composition of E. sibthorpiana essential oil was characterized by the presence of methyl eugenol (60.40%, p-cymene (11.18% and α-phellandrene (10.23%. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The aqueous extract of aerial parts exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (IC50=1.67 mg/ml; results of the ABTS test showed that the most effective was the ethanol extract of aerial parts (1.11 mg vit. C/g. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity compared to hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid and quercetin that were used in the DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in the extracts ranged between 38.65-60.72 mg GA/g, and 3.15-19.00 mg Qu/g, respectively. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts and essential oil were investigated using a micro-well dilution technique against human pathogenic strains. The results were comparable with the effects of the positive controls, streptomycin and fluconazole. These findings indicate that E. sibthorpiana extracts and oil can be used in preventive treatments and as an alternative for synthetic preservatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173021

  4. Loan Supply Shocks in Macedonia: A Bayesian SVAR Approach with Sign Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of loan supply, as well as aggregate demand,aggregate supply and monetary policy shocks between 1998 and 2014 in Macedonia using a structural vector autoregression model with sign restrictions and Bayesian estimation. The main results indicate that loan supply shocks have no significant effect on loan volumes and lending rates, or on economic activity and prices. The effects of monetary policy on lending activity are fairly limited, although there is some evidence that it affects lending rates more than loan volumes. Monetary policy shocks have strong effects on inflation, while the central bank reacts strongly to adverse shocks hitting the economy. Baseline results are confirmed by several robustness checks. According to historical decomposition, the lending activity was supporting economic growth before and during the crisis, but its contribution became negative during the recovery and it was a drag on growth until the end of the period. Pre-crisis GDP growth is mostly explained by supportive monetary policy. However, the restrictive monetary policy during the crisis contributed to the fall of GDP, before becoming supportive again during the early stages of the recovery. Policy rates in recent years mostly reflect subdued lending activity and aggregate supply factors, which the central bank tries to counteract with a more accommodative policy.

  5. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  6. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...

  7. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  8. The Cultural and Natural Heritage in the Western Part of the Republic of Macedonia and Their Impact on the Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Todorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory of Western Macedonia covers an area of 10473 km², or 40.7% of the total territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The territory includes Polog, Pelagonia and the Southwest Plan Regions. The cultural and the natural heritage in the western part exceeds the country borders, so some of them are important tourist destinations in the Balkans and Europe. The transformation of the area can be observed through the number of visitors, realized overnight stays, participation of the tourism in the national GDP and their impact on the development of linear and institutional infrastructure in this part of the country.

  9. Current Scientific Impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze current scientific impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014). Material and Methods: Affiliation search of the Scopus database was performed on November 23, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UC&M), Republic of Macedonia. A total number of 3960 articles (3055 articles from UC&M, 861 articles from Faculty of Medicine, U...

  10. Determinants and role of foreing direct investment in transition economies:with special look in FYR of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Merale Fetahu-Vehapi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide clear insight about the determinants and role of FDI in transition country with particular reference in FYR of Macedonia. We are using a panel dataset for twenty seven - 27 transition countries over the period 1997 to 2009. Applying static and dynamic modeling, econometrics findings have driven as to dynamic models. Inthe same empirical investigations following variables have been tested: GDP of the host and source country, unit labour cost, trade inflation, legal environment, distance, dummy variables capturing the language, common border and colonizing effect. Empirical result confirms expectation of the chosen variables as well as the positive feedback effect of past FDI onto current FDI. While the negative and significant coefficient of distance indicates that FDI is determined by gravity factors, the positive relationship between FDI stock and unit labour cost is explained through the effect of the service sector on wages. In addition, countries having higher trading shares attract more FDI. Low inflation rate as well as efficient legal system should be taken as a good sign for attracting more FDI flows since it has a positive impact on foreign investors. Dummy for English language, which indicates countries where English language is official or widely spoken in that country, have less language difficulties and more FDI flows with FYR of Macedonia. At the same time, income level of the host country is found to be important determinant for foreign investors. Moreover, FDI role in FYR of Macedonia has been found as crucial in many aspects of country’s economic development and sustainability. Apart from accelerated growth, technical innovation and enterprise restructuring, FDI in this transition country gave considerable contribution to the financial potential improvement.

  11. The Effects of Tourism on the GDP of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia in the Process of European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Čerović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a socio-economic phenomenon exerting considerable economic, social and political impact, thus securing itself an important position in the overall economic growth. The principal purpose of this paper is to present the effects of the EU integration process on tourist movements in Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro during the period 2006-2014, as 2006 was the year when one of the surveyed countries initiated EU accession negotiations, and tourism sector contribution to GDP in these countries in the period from 2002-2013 based on the data available for these years. To that end, the authors have compared the relationship between the number of foreign tourist arrivals and overnight stays and the GDP rates in the surveyed countries. Upon reviewing the available sources, the authors have reached the conclusion that during the EU integration period, an increase in the number of foreign tourists and overnight stays positively correlated with the GDP growth. EU integration process has had a positive bearing on tourism movements in the surveyed countries. The panel regression method has shown that despite a continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals, tourism sector still makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth of the surveyed countries (Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia. Also, the Granger causality test was applied to demonstrate that it is not possible to predict GDP values in any of the surveyed countries based on the tourism revenue growth, while tourism contribution to GDP in Macedonia and Montenegro can be predicted based on their GDP.

  12. Estudio de plantas medicinales usadas en la comunidad indígena Tikuna del alto Amazonas, Macedonia.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Entre Febrero del 2008 y Octubre del 2009, se realizó una investigación de plantas asociadas a las enfermedades más frecuentes en la Comunidad TIKUNA de Macedonia ubicada a 57 km de Leticia. Para realizar este estudio se aplicaron tres tipos de encuestas basadas en las “TRAMIL”. A a partir de estas, se establece como resultado el reporte de 115 plantas de valor de uso medicinal dentro de la Comunidad, y 308 remedios aplicados para la cura de diferentes enfermedades. Se presentó un listado que...

  13. Increasing the capacity of consular services in the Republic of Macedonia in order to improve services to citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Memet Zendeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consular offices as object have to protect the right and the interest of the citizens that stay out of their country for different reasons. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that consular offices (consul from their foundation until today have an important role and have the influences in diplomacy related improvement of the relations between the state on the economic and cultural plan, which also represents one of important functions that consular representative of the Republic of Macedonia has. The fact that should have in mind is that consular representations impelement government policy commitment of which is the withdrawal of foreign investments.

  14. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  15. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  16. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  17. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  18. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  19. (ReConsidering American Studies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Detsi-Diamanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In writing about American studies in Greece, one is tempted to consider for a moment the fact that the field, ever since it placed itself on the international academic map, has been in a constant process of self-discovery and self-becoming. Its openness, which may be taken as evidence for its vibrant existence and its ability to reconstruct and deconstruct itself, has led to new areas of research, new formulations, new critiques, as well as to an essential paradox  : although we currently wit...

  20. Impacts of Pb-Zn mining on Lake Kalimanci and Human Health in Eastern Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrhovnik P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining is very important economic activity. However, mining and related industries presents the main threat for environment. Pollution with heavy metals is a significant problem in Eastern Republic of Macedonia. In year 2003 great environmental disaster happened near small town Makedonska Kamenica, when the Sasa tailings dam collapsed and caused an intensive flow of mining waste material through Kamenica River valley and was discharged into Lake Klaimanci. Water from lake is used for irrigation, thus, the pollution assessment of the Lake Kalimanci sediments was made. The major, trace and rare earth element contamination in surficial lake sediments was studied to assess the effects of metalliferous mining activities. The mean concentrations of major elements [wt %] Si 23.5, Al 7.9, Fe 6.6, Mg 1.3, Ca 3.8, Na 1.1, K 2.3, Ti 0.4, P 0.2, Mn 0.6 and trace elements ranged within: Mo 1.0-4.6 mg kg-1, Cu 144.4-1162 mg kg-1, Pb 1874-16300 mg kg-1, Zn 2944-20900 mg kg-1, Ni 21.7-79.3 mg kg-1, Cd 16.5-136 mg kg-1, Sb 0.6-3.6 mg kg-1, Bi 3.0-24,3 mg kg-1 and Ag 1.4-17.3 mg kg-1. Results of rare earth elements (REE in surficial lake sediments indicated that are tightly related to the catchment geology. The results of the sequential extraction procedure revealed the majority (Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd of investigated toxic metals and all REEs to be strongly bonded to the exchangeable fraction and the rest (As and Mo to the oxidizable fraction. Regarding to results is evident that heavy metals and REEs are highly bioavailable for living organisms and can seriously affect human health.

  1. Impact of family businesses in the development of the national economy in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Goce Markoski

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of family-run business and to recognize its significance in the new social, political background and economic system of our country. By developing strategies for family-run business, the country should boost confidence of young people regarding the possibilities these kinds of business offers in accomplishing individual ambitions. To be able to successfully the challenges of the environment, Family businesses have to adapt to new market conditions. Following the market supply and demand and appropriately responding to the same family businesses contribute to strengthen their market position. Also spur innovation, contributes to this kind of businesses to successfully cope with market competition. Development documents in all these years of independence of the Republic of Macedonia contain provisions for strengthening the small business sector by providing financial support to the operations of the companies, especially new and young enterprises. But despite the fact that several projects were opened several institutions and provide some funds for financing, there remains the conclusion that helping and strengthening the development of family businesses should be treated as a permanent process in the interest of faster employment, using creative potential employees, laid-off workers, young and educated people. Commitment to helping the development of family business is a constant and long-term process, which should be a permanent task and goal of macroeconomic policy. The absence of a quick and relatively easy access to capital, information and new technology, requiring long-lasting process in the policy of encouraging the development of family businesses.

  2. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND DECRIMINALIZATION OF THE DEFAMATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of expression is one of the most important human civil and political rights which is guaranteed with many international and regional legal instruments established by UN, European Council, EU and etc. That is basic precondition for the development of one country. The freedom of expression includes not only the freedom to express one's opinion or ideas but it also includes freedom to search information or ideas, receive informations or ideas and to pass the informations or ideas. In many countries in the world, as well in Macedonia, the freedom of expression is not absolute but limited and the border is the respect of the freedom and the rights of other people, more specifically their reputation and honour. Reporters often deliberately or unintentionally, while doing their job, violate the right of freedom of speech by insulting or defaming others, most common public function holder (politicians. The politicians with their political power significantly influenced on the judicial organs so that they reach a verdict in their favor. Therefore the reporters were exposed to great pressure and very often they were punished by jail sentences. Setting the judicial system this way it became limiting factor in the normal development of the reporters job. Until 2012 the insult and the defamation in Republic of Macedonian were considered criminal act and they were subjected to jail punishment. Since the law of civil liability for insult and defamation in 2012, the insult and the defamation don't belong to corpus delicti that are in the sphere of the criminal right. Since then to this day the insult and the defamation are treated as violation.

  3. 36Chlorine exposure dating of a terminal moraine in the Galicica Mountains, Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Mechernich, S.; Ribolini, A.; Dunai, T. J.; Wagner, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciation history of the Balkan Peninsula is subject of research since the late 19th century. To date, only a few moraines on the Balkan Peninsula are dated, mainly using 10Be exposure dating applied on quartz bearing rocks. Since large parts of the Balkan Peninsula mountains are composed of carbonatic rocks, absolute age dating is restricted to 36Cl exposure dating, which, to date, was not conducted in this region yet. So far, an absolute chronological control in limestone-dominated areas is limited to U-series minimum ages of calcitic cements. In order to obtain more information about the timing of the glaciation history on the Balkan Peninsula, we investigated a terminal moraine in a NNE-facing cirque in the Galicica Mountains (40°56´N, 20°49´E) in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The cirque comprises a series of nested moraine ridges at the base of the cirque wall, with the largest one being sampled. Samples from five limestone boulders in crest position (≈ 2050 m a.s.l.) were taken and pre-treated for AMS measurement at the University of Cologne. Three preliminary ages point to a moraine formation in the course of a late Pleistocene glaciation, either Last Glacial Maximum or Younger Dryas. The data were discussed concerning corrections for topographic shielding, snow cover, inheritance, and erosion. However, five AMS re-measurements are currently in progress in order to refine the correlation of the moraine formation to a specific glacial period. The resulting ages will be compared to sediments of the adjacent Lakes Ohrid and Prespa, which represent valuable climatic and environmental archives. Several studies on these sediments were carried out in order to reconstruct relative changes in temperature and moisture availability. Moreover, the inferred moraine formation ages will be compared to glaciation reconstructions of other mountainous regions on the Balkan Peninsula to improve the knowledge on past climatic conditions.

  4. Vascular Genetic Variants and Ischemic Stroke Susceptibility in Albanians from the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajram Kamberi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute first-ever ischemic stroke (FIS is a heterogeneous, polygenic disorder. The contribution of vascular genetic variants as inherited causes of ischemic stroke has remained controversial. AIM: To examine the association of genetic variants in vascular factors with the occurrence of FIS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current research was performed in a group of 39 patients with FIS (study group and 102 healthy volunteers (control group. We analyzed the prevalence of vascular genetic variants in following genes: factor V, prothrombin, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, factor XIII, plasminogen activator 1, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein E, β-fibrinogen, human platelet antigen 1, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and lymphotoxin alpha. RESULTS: It was found that heterozygous LTA 804C>A and FXIII V34L Leu/Leu were significantly more frequent in patients with FIS than in control group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively. The frequency of FXIII V34L Val/Val was significantly lower in patients with FIS than in control group (p = 0.020. Other frequencies of vascular gene variants in patients with FIS and in control group were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive study to present data indicating that polymorphism of vascular genes in the prevalence of acute FIS exists in the Albanian population from the Republic of Macedonia. Variations in these genes have been detected in patients with acute FIS, suggesting that their combination might act in a susceptible or protective manner in this Albanian population.

  5. Family Structure and Behavior Disorders in Students in Primary Education in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Petrova Gjorgjeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What should the family represent? In an ideal variant, it is a place where people act generously to each other or where the interests of the family are put before the interests of others. But, nowadays family is undergoing a crisis and that is why it is not seen as a “holly” place for growing up, but as a “necessary reality”. The family is a primary spontaneous school, but it doesn’t act in an organized and intentional manner: we do not planit, we do not build it purposely, in the same way that we cannot plan our children – they are mostly born and they live in an emotional relation between the husband and the wife. There are opinions that the condition in the family is to be blamed for all the disturbances in the behavior of children and young people (this refers to incomplete, dysfunctional, and broken families and the conclusion is made that parents are to blame for everything. This kind of approach means that the whole development of a person is put in the frames of the theoretically ideal family which can rarely be metin practice. It cannot be emphasized or repeated enough: love is the most important moment! Not as a sentiment, as infatuation and tenderness – but as a clear and strong inner decision, a word given for a total mutual trust, with which every kind of bad action, animosity, and distance will be uprooted. Resulting from this and starting from the attitude that family is a rather closed unit, we have decided to investigate the situation in the Republic of Macedonia. Our objective is to examine the family structural characteristics and their impact on students in primary school. The research was carried out in the course of 2012/2013 school year.

  6. Sustainable Economic Development in the Transition Countries, With a Retrospect of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolovski

    2013-12-01

    . Sustainable development is much more than a mutual connection  between the economy, the law and the ecology in establishing relations between the indicators of sustainable development  and the economic  development  are the basis for creating conceptual link  between the  different approaches toward sustainable economic development. The aim of this paper is the implementation of today’s relevant experiences, practices and theoretical knowledge expressed through the changes that are reflected in the life in the Republic of  Macedonia: • Protection of natural resources • Sustainable production and consumption • Sustainable sources of energy and • Following and reporting about the conditions, supported by the following indica-tors: • Level of citizens’ involvement in the social activities • Number of companies that have an ecological strategy • Number of people involved in the planning process • Number local communities in the Republic of Macedonia, which are eco-logically oriented • Number of shops that sale home food and organically developed food • Number of companies for organic production • Renewable sources of energy in the Republic of Macedonia • The level of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere  The elaboration of the final material will go through the following principles: Participation of local citizens. Key segment of the implementation of the Agenda 21; Short-term plans that support the municipalities that environmentally oriented; Local production, which is forced whenever possible; The oil, coal, gas, water should be saved and renewable sources of energ y should be used instead.

  7. Financing of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farije ALIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Political party in the Republic of Macedonia began to operate after independence and the adoption of the Constitution in November 1991 and has since become an integral part of the political scene and the data from the Central Registry of the Republic of Macedonia registered political parties more than 50 political parties active in the current system. The electoral system in the country is set according to the proportional model where direct and free elections by secret ballot to elect members of Parliament and members of the municipal councils and the City of Skopje for four years, while according to the majority model is the selection of the President of the Republic for a term of five years and the election of mayors of municipalities and the City of Skopje for four years. The legal framework for the financing of political parties in the country is well developed. The main law governing the financing of political parties and their supervision law on financing of political parties and the amendments to the same law. The provisions contained in the law is comprehensive, addressing the financing of the regular activities of political parties and their supervision and demonstrate ensuring transparency and accountability in political financing and a ban on anonymous donations and donations from abroad and determine the rules for cap on private donations and prohibiting quid pro quo agreements. Some provisions relating to the financing of political parties included in the Law on Political Parties and certain provisions governing the various supervisory authorities, in particular the Law on Prevention of Corruption and the Law on State Audit footnote. The basic law that regulates elections is the Electoral Code. Under the provisions of the Electoral Code the political parties and election campaign organizers are required to submit financial reports to the authorities to ensure respect for the principles of transparency and accountability and are

  8. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  9. Requiring Competencies of Basketball Coaches in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to identify the competencies of Basketball coaches in Greece. The current study is based on previous work done by Rodrigues et al, (11, and Tripolitsioti et al, (14,17, who measured competencies both in Portuguese basketball coaches and directors of indoor sport facilities in Greece. Two hundred and forty five basketball coaches of three Greek Divisions (first, second and third participated in the study and completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors consisting of 21 competency statements: Sport science/practice (6 items, communication/leadership (5 items, first aid/risk management (2 items, computer skills (4 items, and programming 4 items. Moreover, the results demonstrated that first aid and training skills were the top rated competencies, following by management and computer skills, while facility & event management were the low rated competencies. These results validate that the successful basketball coaches didn’t only have training competencies, but management, computer skills, first aid, communication, facility management and event management.

  10. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  11. Dichotomy of The Messada Pluton, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: From Rifting to Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatos, Charalampos

    2016-10-01

    The Messada pluton is a mafic intrusion that is located about 12 km SW of Serres town, (Macedonia Greece) that intrudes the two mica, biotite and the augen gneisses of the Vertiskos formation (Serbo-Macedonian massif). The aim of this study is to investigate, define and evaluate the geochemical characteristics of the pluton in order to determine the geotectonic environment in which the parental magma has been formed. The Mesada pluton is a mid to coarse grained intrusion presenting petrographic variety from diorite and quartz diorite to tonalite and granodiorite. The variety in petrography reflects its chemical inhomogeneity in major and trace elements. It is suggested that parts of pluton have been formed by distinctly different types of magmas originated in diverse geotectonic settings. Those parts of quartz diorite and tonalite composition, present similar geochemical characteristics, LILE/HFSE ratios and negative Nb, but no Ti anomalies in their primitive mantle normalized trace elements spider grams. They exhibit higher HFS values than those of granodioritic composition. Moreover, their ORG normalized spider grams not only suggest that they have been evolved by a common parental magma, but also present the typical characteristics of a “crust dominated” within plate pluton that may have been formed in an early stage during rifting, prior to a subsequent subduction episode. This interpretation may be in accordance with the suggestion for the Gondwanian origin of the more silicic Triassic rift related meta-granites (e.g. Arnea plutonic complex) of the Serbo-Macedonian massif. In contrary; the parts of Mesada pluton of granodioritic composition, exhibit a calc-alkaline to high K calc-alkaline magmatic suite and present higher LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, related to a higher crustal component contribution for the magma genesis. Furthermore, their primitive mantle normalized spider grams’ present negative anomalies at Nb and Ti. These characteristics

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of populations of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in outbreak populations from Greece and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J R; Testa, J M; Smith, L; Adams, Z J O; Khallaayoune, K; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Farkas, R; Ready, P D

    2009-06-01

    Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), is the most important cause of traumatic myiasis in the southern Palaearctic region. Larval stages are obligate parasites and the wounds caused by infestations are very similar to those caused by Old and New World screwworm flies. During the last decade, W. magnifica appears to have expanded its range to parts of northern and central Morocco, and to Crete, Greece. Specimens of W. magnifica were collected in Morocco and Crete either as larvae (preserved in 80% ethanol) or as adults (dry-pinned). Comparison specimens were collected in Spain, Hungary and mainland Greece. A DNA fragment containing the 3' 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from each of 132 larvae or adults of W. magnifica and the amplicons were directly sequenced and analysed phylogeographically. Twelve cytochrome b haplotypes were detected. All haplotypes from Morocco belonged to a lineage that included specimens from the Iberian peninsula, and restricted mixing of central and northern populations in Morocco was demonstrated. Cytochrome b haplotyping combined with an analysis of larval size provided clear evidence of multiple infestations of hosts in all geographical areas, with one quarter of wounds containing larvae from two to at least four females. More than 80% of specimens from Crete contained a haplotype predominating in mainland Greece and Hungary. Our survey indicated that wohlfahrtiosis was more widespread in northern and central Morocco than previously recorded by government veterinarians. However, the prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis was low (< 1%). The high genetic diversity of Moroccan populations is consistent with longterm endemicity, rather than recent introduction. Crete showed a higher prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis (< or = 15%) and less genetic diversity of W. magnifica, which is consistent with a recent introduction. The western and

  13. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW TO THE TAX EVASION: THE EFFECT OF TAX MORALE ON PAYING TAXES IN MACEDONIA AND EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ristovska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last couple of years there is a growing literature and evidence suggesting that enforcement efforts alone cannot achieve significant increase of tax compliance. This literature links the willingness of citizens to pay taxes with the social values and norms, i.e. to the tax morale. If correct, the optimal government policies to tackle the tax evasion might defer considerably from the common ones. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate factors that shape the tax morale of Macedonian citizens, and to provide a comparative assessment with the EU countries. Our empirical investigation is based on the work of Frey and Torgler (2007, through estimating an ordered probit model in which the dependent variable is the tax morale, and is regressed on a number of independent variables, age, gender, marital status, education, national pride, trust in institutions, happiness, life satisfaction, etc. Data for our study are from the fourth wave (2008 of the European Values Survey. Our main finding is that contrary to other studies for the European countries, the non-demographic factors are more important factors influencing tax morale in Macedonia than the demographic ones. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first attempt in our knowledge to investigate the factors driving the tax morale in Macedonia.

  14. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: The importance of health system governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gregory Thomas-Reilly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB arises where treatment is interrupted or inadequate, when patients are treated inappropriately, or when an individual has impaired immune function, which can lead to a rapid progression from infection with an MDR-strain to disease. This study examines the role of health systems in amplifying or preventing the development of MDR-TB. Methods: We present two comparative studies, which were undertaken in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (TFYR Macedonia and Moldova. Results: The findings reveal several health systems-level factors that contribute to the different rates of MDR-TB observed in these two countries, including: pre-existing burden of disease; organization of the health system, with the existence of parallel systems; power dynamics among policy makers and disease programmes; and the accountability & effectiveness of programme oversight. Conclusions: The findings do not offer a universal template for health system reform but do identify specific factors that may be contributing to the epidemic and are worthy of further attention in the two countries.

  15. Comparative analyses of the vascular flora of the Pčinja river gorges in Serbia and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatković B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim is the comparative chorologic and ecological analysis of the vascular flora of the two gorges of the Pčinja River in Serbia and Macedonia which are 27 km apart. In the two gorges 1564 taxa have been recorded, 1057 being in the upper gorge in Serbia and 1174 in the lower gorge in Macedonia. Common to both gorges are 666 taxa. Chorological spectra show that in both gorges the most abundant are Mediterranean-submediterranean plants, 32.85% being in the upper and 43.97% in the lower gorge. Differences in the studied vegetation result from a diverse participation of other floristic elements such as Central European ones that are more abundant in the upper gorge (17.05% than in the lower gorge (10.86 %. The life-form spectrum reveals that the flora in both gorges is hemicryptophyte-therophyte in character. Both gorges belong to an enclave of a Mediterranean-submediterranean region, i.e. to its submediterranean Macedonian- Thracian province.

  16. Rainwater harvesting, quality assessment and utilization in Kefalonia Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, E; Alexopoulos, A; Leotsinidis, M

    2007-05-01

    The quality of harvested rainwater which is used for domestic and drinking purposes in the northern area of Kefalonia Island in SW Greece and the factors affecting it were assessed through 3-year surveillance. In 12 seasonal samplings, 156 rainwater and 144 ground- or mixed water samples were collected from ferroconcrete storage tanks (300-1000 m3 capacity), which are adjacent to cement-paved catchment areas (600-3000 m2). Common anions and major cations as well as the metals Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were tested. The presence of three major groups of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochloride pesticides (OCPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was screened by common analytical techniques. All of the rainwater samples were within the guidelines for chemical parameters established by the 98/93/EU directive. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci were detected in 80.3%, 40.9% and 28.8% of the rainwater samples, respectively, although they were found in low concentrations. Chemical and microbiological parameters showed seasonal fluctuations. Principal component analysis revealed that microbiological parameters were affected mainly by the cleanness level of catchment areas, while chemical parameters were influenced by the sea proximity and human activities. Disinfection should be applied into the tanker trucks which distribute the water to the consumers and not into the big storage tanks in order to avoid by-products formation. Due to the lack of fluoride in rainwater samples, the consumers must become aware of the fact that the supplementation of this element is needed.

  17. Fog characteristics at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Stolaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical approach in order to study fog event characteristics occuring at the airport of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece is presented in this work. To achieve this, the seasonal and diurnal characteristics of fog are investigated using 35 years (1971–2005 of observations of meteorological parameters such as: visibility, air temperature, dew point temperature, air relative humidity, wind vector, precipitation, and cloud base height and coverage. Hourly surface observations of fifteen (15 years (1991–2005 are used to identify fog events induced by various physical mechanisms. Fog events are classified into fog types through the application of objective criteria that are derived upon fog formation processes and under the influence of various physiographic features. The temporal variability of different fog type occurrences are examined and the events are characterized according to their duration and intensity.

    The results are somehow affected by regional and local factors. Fog is mainly formed in winter time (~64% with an enhanced likelihood to appear also in late autumn (19%. The highest frequency of the fog events occurs around sunrise or 1 to 2 h before of it. The mean duration of the events is about 4.5 h. Most of them (75% are dense (visibility <400 m. The overall fog phenomenon is a combination of various types, such as: advection fog, radiation fog, cloud-base lowering fog and precipitation fog. Advection fog (30% and radiation fog (29%, which are the most common types, occur predominantly in winter and early spring time. With respect to the former type, it seems that, in many cases, already formed fog is advected from the nearby Anthemountas valley. Moreover, a considerable number of fog events (22% result from cloud-base lowering, and they frequently occur in late autumn and mid winter.

  18. The Sirius Cult in Ancient Greece. Aristaios and the Formation of the Attico-Cycladic Mythological Substratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoupi, A.

    Pivotal figure of Sirius myth among the inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Greece (ca.1600-1100 B.C.) is Aristaios protector of the shepherds and hunters teacher of cheese-making and the art of hunting , of oil-making and bee-keeping , honey and honey - mead, god of medicinal herbs and the cooling Etesian winds of mid-summer. The aim of this paper is to detect a) the inventors of Sirius astromyth within the boundaries of prehistoric Greek maritime Civilization (the Pelasgian substratum), b)the geographical distribution of this myth via its main divine figure (colonization of Western Mediterranean and the Prehistoric trade of silphium with the North African Coast , Kadmos and cultural relationships with Eastern Mediterranean connection with Thesaly, Northern Greece, Arcadia, Argos, Attica, Minoan Crete and Cyclades, N.W. Greece), c)the elements of Sirius cult worshipped by the insular population of the Aegean, d)the historical pathway of this astromyth and its survival to the later periods of Cycladic history (Keians coins, Keian traditions, modern Keian names and localities) e)the immigration of its symbols (the hunting lion, the motif of the dogs, deities with fertilizing and creative properties) and f) the environmental setting which gave birth to this astromyth (disturbance of wind patterns, teleconnections with Indian monsoons and NAO, climatic oscillations, pestilence in Eastern Mediterranean).

  19. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  20. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  1. Greece:Strategic Partner for China's "Go Global" Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China and Greece have both made great contributions to the world's cultural heritage.As the Chinese economy has become an economic powerhouse In the global economy,the Greek economy has proven capabilities and is constantly improving.

  2. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  3. Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2016-05-31

    Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come.

  4. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  5. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  6. Diabetes Care in Republic of Macedonia: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokovski, Ivica; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Trapp, Caroline; Mitov, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia (RoM) has experienced a rapid rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) over the past 2 decades, a period characterized by significant social, political, and economic change. RoM now has one of the highest rates of diabetes in Europe. To explore the modifiable conditions that may underlie and exacerbate the T2D epidemic; describe the state of diabetes care; and consider improved mechanisms for prevention and treatment, including research priorities, in RoM. Methods included data mining from reliable sources and collaboration of authors to consider and describe applications of research from outside RoM and to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the burden of T2D in RoM. In 2014, the national prevalence of diabetes was 11.44% of the population (20-79 years) of RoM. Per capita caloric intake has increased significantly over the past 2 decades, with the majority of these calories coming from sugar, pork, chicken, beef, and sunflower oil. Excess calories, in the form of nutrient-deficient foods, animal products, and added oils promote insulin resistance and T2D. Tobacco use and lack of physical activity also contribute to the diabetes epidemic. Insulin, especially insulin analogues, are widely available and used to manage diabetes, often over other interventions that are more appropriate for patients with T2D, and more frequently than in other more developed countries, resulting in higher and unsustainable related costs. A new National eHealth System allows for better identification and monitoring of citizens with diabetes. However, the rapidly growing expense of insulin in the past has been unsustainable. The potential exists for a stronger role for lifestyle interventions in prevention and treatment of T2D. Significant changes in dietary patterns parallel the rise in diabetes prevalence and are likely a leading cause of diabetes and its complications. Research in RoM is needed to determine the impact and acceptability of

  7. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    diagnosis and treatment. New methods are expanding our capabilities for a fast and precise diagnosis. Novel knowledge offers better distinction on whom to treat with which medications (e.g. steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome). Novel diseases or variants are published (segmental overgrowth). The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. Namely, the Health Fund of Macedonia for the first time treats the patients with Gaucher's disease. We are hopeful that the number of patients treated for Gaucher's disease and the number of treated patients with other treatable RDs diseases will continue to grow.

  8. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael; Baumgarten, Henrike; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Sadori, Laura; Wonik, Thomas; Leng, Melanie J.; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m composite depth of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on 11 tephra layers (first-order tie points) and on tuning of bio-geochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (second-order tie points), the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 637 kyr. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilimnion during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparably cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that the most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6, whereas somewhat warmer temperatures can be

  9. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  10. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Greece and the surrounding region including site-specific considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mäntyniemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic approach was applied to map the seismic hazard in Greece and the surrounding region. The procedure does not require any specification of seismic sources or/and seismic zones and allows for the use of the whole seismological record, comprising both historical and instrumental data, available for the region of interest. The new seismic hazard map prepared for Greece and its vicinity specifies a 10% probability of exceedance of the given Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA values for shallow seismicity and intermediate soil conditions for an exposure time of 50 years. When preparing the map, the new PGA attenuation relation given by Margaris et al. (2001 was employed. The new map shows a spatial distribution of the seismic hazard that corresponds well with the features of shallow seismicity within the examined region. It depicts the level of seismic hazard in which the exceedance of the PGA value of 0.25 g may be expected to occur within limited areas. The highest estimated levels of seismic hazard inside the territory of Greece are found in the Northern Sporades Islands, where PGA values in excess of 0.50 g are reached at individual sites, and in the Zante Island in Western Greece, where PGA values in the range of 0.35 g to 0.40 g are obtained at more numerous localities. High values are also observed in the sea between the Karpathos and Rhodes islands, near the Island of Amorgos (Cyclades Archipelago and in the Southwestern Peloponnesus. The levels of seismic hazard at the sites of seven Greek cities (Athens, Jannena, Kalamata, Kozani, Larisa, Rhodes and Thessaloniki were also estimated in terms of probabilities that a given PGA value will be exceeded at least once during a time interval of 1, 50 and 100 years at those sites. These probabilities were based on the maximum horizontal PGA values obtained by applying the design earthquake procedure, and the respective median values obtained were 0.24 g for Athens, 0.28 g

  11. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is characteristic of terrestrial higher plant origin. Low CPI values (1.6-3.4) were recorded only in Acheloos river, where very low n-alkane concentrations were also found, suggesting transport of limited amounts of terrigenous organic material in this case. The highest PAH concentrations were again measured in Asopos and Evros estuary (800-1200 ng/g), followed by Axios, Aliakmons, Strymon, Acheloos and Acherontas (220 - 650 ng/g), whereas very low

  12. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  13. The Right to Asylum and EU Asylum Procedure in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Greece, under intense criticism over its asylum management by local NGO actors and European member states, has established a new asylum service, in 2013. In this article we explore the practice and the discourses that occur at the Appeals Authority, an independent authority in the determination of refugee eligibility at second instance, of the newly established Asylum Service in Greece. As members of appeal committees engage with each other and with the asylum seekers in deciding who is entit...

  14. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  15. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  16. What can co-ethnic immigrants tell us about ethnic visions of the national self? A comparative analysis of Germany and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Heß

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nations with a predominantly ethno-cultural self-perception and citizenship based on jus sanguinis are under pressure today to adopt more civic-territorial ideas of nationhood, including elements of jus soli. Two nations experiencing these trends in Europe but have rarely been juxtaposed are Greece and Germany. Characteristic of both nations is a long reserved privileged access to citizenship and settlement assistance for co-ethnic immigrants from Eastern Europe and recently the Former Soviet Union. This article argues that changes to the way these privileged immigrant groups and their settlement are addressed should also reflect changes to the national idiom. The paper contrasts Greece to Germany and finds that, similarly to developments in its northern counterpart, Greek repatriates from the Former Soviet Union have been an important consequence of the ethno-cultural idiom and reinforced it at times. In the new millennium these immigrants’ importance is diminishing in reality, if not on paper. The article concludes that in spite of this and the citizenship reform of 2010, the tendency to see the country as a culturally homogeneous nation is still fairly strong in Greece. The analysis draws on interviews with ‘repatriates’ in both countries and with national policy-makers in Greece, as well as on newspaper clippings, opinion polls and statistical data, complemented by leading scholarship in the field to date.

  17. Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert (Cyanobacteria) strains from Lake Kastoria, Greece form a separate phylogenetic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkelis, S; Rajaniemi, P; Vardaka, E; Moustaka-Gouni, M; Lanaras, T; Sivonen, K

    2005-01-01

    Three strains of Limnothrix (Cyanobacteria) isolated from Lake Kastoria, Greece, were characterized based on their morphological features and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The Limnothrix isolates 007a, 165a, and 165c can morphologically be assigned to Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert. The 16S rRNA gene of the Limnothrix strains showed a 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of Planktothrix sp. FP1. Limnothrix redekei strains 165a, 165c, 007a and Planktothrix sp. FP1 formed a separate cluster in the cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree. It was distinct from the Pseudanabaena cluster, which included the other Limnothrix strains isolated from northern temperate lakes. This is the first report on the phylogeny of L. redekei strains originating from a Mediterranean lake (southern Europe) and provides new data about the genus Limnothrix.

  18. Chemical and statistical interpretation of sized aerosol particles collected at an urban site in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitouridou, Roxani; Papazova, Petia; Simeonova, Pavlina; Simeonov, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of aerosol particles (PM0.015-PM18) in relation to their soluble inorganic species and total water soluble organic compounds (WSOC) was investigated at an urban site of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. The sampling period was from February to July 2007. The determined compounds were compared with mass concentrations of the PM fractions for nano (N: 0.015 pollution were identified and an attempt is made to find patterns of similarity between the different sized aerosols and the seasons of monitoring. It was proven that several major latent factors are responsible for the data structure despite the size of the aerosols - mineral (soil) dust, sea sprays, secondary emissions, combustion sources and industrial impact. The seasonal separation proved to be not very specific.

  19. Developing a multidimensional framework for wine tourist behavior: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alebaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for a better empirical understanding of the multiple factors that drive the demand of wine tourism, this paper serves a twofold objective: first, to test the distinctiveness of motivations for visiting a wine region along with a winery; and secondly, to explore whether geographical distance between tourists׳ place of origin and the wine region can add to the ability of other wine consumer/tourist variables (product involvement; product knowledge; wine tourist identity; past experience to predict specific aspects of wine tourist behavior. In doing so, quantitative survey data were collected from 381 visitors of 12 wineries located in Northern Greece. Results from Principal Component and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analyses indicate that travel distance predicts wine purchasing at the cellar door as well as the motivational factors associated with ׳Socialization׳ and ׳Destination attractiveness׳. Further, the study proposes a conceptual framework for wine tourism motivation.

  20. Population genetics of Y-chromosome STRs in a population of Northern Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatsi, Leda; Saunier, Jessica L; Irwin, Jodi A

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen Y STR loci were typed in a population sample of 191 unrelated male individuals from Northern Greece. Haplotypes are presented for the following loci: DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9992. This database study provides significant additional information for the application of Y-chromosomal STRs to forensic identification efforts in Greece by nearly doubling both the number of individuals and the number of Y-loci typed from Greek populations. These samples have been previously typed for autosomal STRs [L. Kovatsi, T.J. Parsons, R.S. Just, J.A. Irwin, Genetic variation for 15 autosomal STR loci (PowerPlex 16) in a population sample from northern Greece, Forensic Sci. Int. 159 (2006) 61-63] and the mitochondrial DNA control region [J. Irwin, J. Saunier, K. Strouss, C. Paintner, T. Diegoli, K. Sturk, L. Kovatsi, A. Brandstatter, M.A. Cariolou, W. Parson, T.J. Parsons, Mitochondrial control region sequences from northern Greece and Greek Cypriots, Int. J. Legal Med. 122 (2008) 87-89].

  1. Department of Nephrology at the Medical Faculty, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje--creating nephrology protection for the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, M

    2013-01-01

    In January 1975, de facto, the Nephrology Department was founded at the Medical Faculty in Skopje as the first institution of such a type in former Yugoslavia. The Nephrology Department was the driving force for the further development of nephrology in the Republic of Macedonia. D. Hrisoho was the first Director of the Department, and its subsequent Directors were G. Masin, M. Polenakovic, K. Zafirovska and currently A. Sikole. Prior to the establishment of the Nephrology Clinic there had been considerable experience in the diagnosis and treatment of renal patients. The first haemodialysis (HD) in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) was performed in 1959 on a patient with acute renal failure (ARF) using a Kolff-Brigham rotating drum artificial kidney at the Blood Transfusion Institute in Skopje. In 1965 the Renal Unit at the Department of Medicine, Medical Faculty, Skopje obtained a new, modern "Websinger" artificial kidney with a sigma motor pump and possibilities for the use of a disposable Kolff "twin coil" dialyser. Between 1959 and 1971, HD was performed only on patients with ARF. In May 1971, a Unit for Chronic HD was founded at the Renal Unit and the programme of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) was started with five Stuttgart Fresenius machines and 12 patients dialysed on twin coil dialysers. That was a great incentive for the development of HD in the Republic of Macedonia enforced by the great number of patients with end stage renal disease. Thus in 2007 we have 18 HD centres in the Republic of Macedonia, with 1183 patients. Treatment of the patients with MHD is the greatest success achieved in the Republic of Macedonia in nephrology concerning patients with end stage renal disease. Prior to the treatment with MHD patients were destined to die, whereas now, with this type of treatment, they have a normal life and families. Patients with kidney diseases are examined in outpatients clinics as well as treated in the wards of the Department. All types of vascular

  2. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate regime on real GDP and prices in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqiri Izet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative costs and benefits associated with introducing a more active monetary and a different exchange rate regime in the Republic of Macedonia. In this finding, the econometrics result show that introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate targeting in order to promote rapid economic growth could easy disturb macroeconomic stability (after having achieved it at a substantial cost without any significant economic benefits. Therefore, introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate regime is likely to incur more costs than benefits, since changes of the monetary policy and exchange rate regime type do not show a persistent effect on real GDP, while changes of money stock and exchange rate regime do show a strong and persistent effect on prices level.

  3. Practical use of registered veterinary medicinal products in Macedonia in identifying the risk of developing of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Calculating the cost for employee turnover in the IT industry in Macedonia by using a web calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mitrovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The little meaning, which Hr managers attach to managing the rate of employee turnover, is mostly cause by the lack of specific tools to calculate its impact on the profitability of the companies. This paper presents a universal calculator for calculating the cost of employee turnover, which can be used in developing various effective retention strategies. more precisely, the research focuses on the expense of turnover rate in the IT industry in the Republic of Macedonia, calculated using a web calculator specifically designed for this purpose. This web calculator can be used to compute the cost of employee turnover in any industry, with appropriate minor modifications and adjustments of its elements.

  5. Serological diagnostic of maedi-visna (MVV in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV in goats in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Maedi-Visna in sheep and CAEV in goats are diseases caused by lentiviruses with very similar antigenic characteristics. This diseases are very important for the animal husbandry because of the economical losses they cause (reduced milk yield, lower body weight, deaths, therapy expenses. The results in this article, represents the first serological confirmation for the existence of this diseases in Macedonia. Investigations showed high percent of seroprevalence in the examined herds. The seroprevalence ranges from 60.3% for Maedi-Visna to 55.8% for CAEV. Despite the presence of clinical signs of the disease, the mortality is low, witch is related to the presence of the causal agent in the field i.e. the endemic character of this diseases.

  6. THE MEANING OF INVESTMENT FUNDS FOR THE DEVELOPEMENT OF THE STOCK MARKETS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Odzaklieska

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Investment funds are quite typical representatives of the group of young and efficient financial intermediaries on the money market. These financial institutions have been created as a result of the rapid development of stock markets in industrialized countries. As a matter of facts, in these countries investment funds overtook traditional instruments from other financial institutions. We can mention for example savings and credits from banks, pension plans and retirements from pension funds as well as assurance policies from assurance companies. Therefore the role of investment funds is to intermediate between the industry and people as investors and between companies and the public sector as issuers of long term securities. The object of this study is to analyze the meaning of these same investment funds on stock markets in transition countries and in particular in the Republic of Macedonia.

  7. Interaction between trench retreat and Anatolian escape as recorded by neogene basins in the northern Aegean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beniest, A.; Brun, J. P.; Gorini, C.; Crombez, V.; Deschamps, R.; Hamon, Y.; Smit, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the North Aegean Sea is studied through the development of three deep basins: the North Aegean Trough, the North Skyros Basin and the Ikaria Basin. Bathymetric data, a 2D seismic dataset and the well-investigated stratigraphic records of the onshore deep basins of northern Greece

  8. Antibiotics for upper respiratory infections: public knowledge, beliefs and self-medication in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovska, Verica; Zdravkovska, Milka; Bosevska, Golubinka; Angelovska, Bistra

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication as part of the irrational use of antibiotics contributes to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this community-based survey in Macedonia was to determine public knowledge, beliefs and self-medication with antibiotics for upper respiratory infections. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three administrative regions in Macedonia in April 2012. 402 eligible participants answered an anonymous questionnaire. The analysis of answers involved descriptive quantitative statistics (frequencies and percentages). We also tested for significant associations between demographic characteristics and non-prescription use of antibiotics. Our respondents demonstrated a relatively low level of public knowledge about antibiotics and upper respiratory infection treatments in comparison to the EU countries. The study found that 71.4% of participants stored antibiotics at home, and 43.3% purchased antibiotics over-the-counter in the last year, despite national regulation that restricts antibiotics as prescription-only medicines. Actual self-medication with antibiotics for a recent upper respiratory infection episode was reported in 17.8% of adults and 1.8% of children aged 0-4 years. We did not find any significant association between participants demography and non-prescription use of antibiotics. Our results put in the group of eastern and southern EU countries with the highest rates for non-prescription use of antibiotics in Europe. Multifaceted interventions are needed to prevent self-medication with antibiotics, including: enforcement of regulations that restrict over-the-counter sales of antibiotics, monitoring of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance rates and combined public education strategies.

  9. Hypogenic origin of Provalata Cave, Republic of Macedonia: a distinct case of successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Temovski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Provalata Cave (Republic of Macedonia is a small but remarkable hypogenic cave, developed in Cambrian marbles by successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The cave has a thick partly corroded calcite crust, abundant gypsum deposits, with cupolas, ceiling and wall channels, feeders and replacement pockets as some of the most characteristic morphological features. Distribution of morphology and deposits suggest a hypogenic origin in two distinct speleogenetic phases: the first by thermal CO2 rich waters, the second by sulfuric acid dissolution, which were separated by complete infilling of cave passages with pyroclastic-derived clays. In the first phase of speleogenesis, cave passages were formed by dissolution along fractures due to cooling of rising carbonated thermal waters. These phreatic morphologies were later covered with a thick calcite crust deposited in a shallow phreatic environment. In Early Pleistocene the cave was completely filled with clays due to deposition of pyroclastic rocks in a lacustrine environment in the nearby Mariovo Basin. Mariovo Lake sediments were later incised by the Buturica River, which cut down into Cambrian marbles, creating its superimposed valley. Incision lowered the water table and allowed removal of the clay deposits in Provalata Cave. The second phase of speleogenesis started after introduction of H2S associated with rising thermal waters. Oxidation produced sulfuric acid, which rapidly dissolved first calcite crust, then marble host rock. Condensation-corrosion by sulfuric vapors replaced carbonate rock with gypsum producing replacement pockets as well as second generation of pockets and cupolas. The contact of sulfuric acid with the clay deposits formed alunite, jarosite, and natroalunite. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave maximum ages of 1.6 Ma (alunite and 1.46 Ma (jarosite for this last stage of speleogenesis, thus making it the second 40Ar/39Ar dating of a sulfuric cave in Europe (after Kraush

  10. Detection of recessive mutations (BLAD and CVM in Holstein-friesian cattle population in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Adamov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BLAD and CVM are Holstein-specific recessive mutations which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. The aim of this study was to optimize a diagnostic test for detection of these two disorders and to obtain a preliminary picture about theire existence in Macedonian HF population. Blood samples were obtained from 84 HF cows from several different farms in Macedonia. Genomic DNA was extracted using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen which was also used for DNA extraction from deeply frozen sperm doses from 6 different HF bulls. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis with TaqI and HaeIII restriction endonucleases for BLAD and with PstI for CVM. The correctness of the genotyping was evaluated by direct sequencing of the amplified products. Among 90 HF cattle tested two cows were identified as carriers of the BLAD allele and one was carrier of the CVM allele. No bulls were found to be carriers of either of the two disorders.This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD and CVM are present in Macedonia, although at low frequency. PCR followed by RFLP is efficient and inexpensive method for detection of the carriers and should be used as laboratory test in eradication programs. In order to establish a more accurate picture of the prevalence of these disorders, it is necessary to screen a larger number of animals. It is indispensable to test each bull before entering the A.I. program to prevent accidental transmission to a large number of offspring.

  11. Classical and molecular characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 isolated from backyard poultry – first report in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naletoski Ivancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to characterize pigeon variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolated from backyard poultry using classical and molecular methods. In standard hemagglutination inhibition (HI test both polyclonal NDV antiserum and monoclonal antibodies 161/617 specific for pigeon variants of NDV showed inhibition of heamagglutination of the isolated virus. Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI has shown that the isolate is mesogenic virus (ICPI = 0.81. One-step RT-qPCR for detection of M gene was performed indicating a presence of NDV and RT-qPCR for discrimination between lentogenic and velogenic strains based on F gene was also performed indicating a presence of virulent NDV. A portion of the F gene was amplified and sequenced for determination of virulence and phylogenetic characterization. The F protein cleavage site sequence of the isolate had multiple basic amino acids at residues 112–116 and a phenyl alanine at residue 117 (112RRQKR*F117 which is typical for velogenic strains. The nucleotide sequence of 374 bp was aligned to begin at nt 47 and finish at 420 immediately after the cleavage site and compared with other reference strains from the region and worldwide. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate clustered into genotype VIb, typical for PPMV-1. This strain is phylogenetically very similar to other PPMV-1 isolated from pigeons in Macedonia. Poultry infected with PPMV-1 can spread the virus in the absence of clinical signs, thus PPMV-1’s are constant threat to domestic poultry. This is the first report of evidenced spillover of PPMV-1 into poultry in Macedonia.

  12. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leicher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A~tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania. Major element analyses (SEM-EDS/WDS were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060. The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin from the Italian Volcanic Provinces. They include: the Y-3 (OH-DP-0115, 26.68–29.42 cal ka BP, the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 (OH-DP-0169, 39.6 ± 0.1 ka, and the X-6 (OH-DP-0404, 109 ± 2 ka from the Campanian volcanoes, the P-11 of the Pantelleria Island (OH-DP-0499, 129 ± 6 ka, the Vico B (OH-DP-0617, 162 ± 6 ka from the Vico volcano, the Pozzolane Rosse (OH-DP-1817, 457 ± 2 ka and the Tufo di Bagni Albule (OH-DP-2060, 527 ± 2 ka from the Colli Albani volcanic district, and the Fall A (OH-DP-2010, 496 ± 3 ka from the Sabatini volcanic field. Furthermore, a comparison of the Ohrid record with tephrostratigraphic records of mid-distal archives related to the Mediterranean area, allowed the recognition of the equivalents of other less known tephra layers, such as the TM24-a/POP2 (OH-DP-0404, 101.8 ka from the Lago Grande di Monticchio and the Sulmona basin, the CF-V5/PRAD3225 (OH-DP-0624, ca. 162 ka from the Campo Felice basin/Adriatic Sea, the SC5 (OH-DP-1955, 493.1 ± 10.9 ka from the Mercure basin, and the A11/12 (OH-DP-2017, 511 ± 6 ka from the Acerno basin, whose specific volcanic sources are still poorly constrained. Additionally, one cryptotephra (OH-DP-0027 was identified by correlation of the potassium XRF intensities from the DEEP site with those from short cores of previous studies from Lake Ohrid. In these cores, a maximum in potassium is caused by glass shards, which were correlated with the Mercato tephra (8.43–8.63 cal ka BP from Somma-Vesuvius. With the tephrostratigraphic work, a consistent part of the Middle Pleistocene tephrostratigraphic framework of

  13. Anthropoghenic soil contamination connected with active mines, smelting and plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Serafimovski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few anthropogenic pollutants at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, were studied, three Pb-Zn mines with three mi­lls, one copper mine with mill and copper leaching facility, one Pb-Zn smelting and several mines and factories for raw minerals such is the Usje in our capital Skopje. At the Usje factory were measured values in ranges of 1.46÷2.23% Fe, 440÷940 mg kg-1Mn, 93.4÷104.71mg kg-1Ni, 58.57÷83.1 mg kg-1Zn, 23.1÷34.9 mgkg-1 Pb, 42.30÷60.3 mg kg-1 Cu and 0.59÷1.61 mgkg-1Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals at Veles former smelting Pb-Zn plant were in the range: 20÷1823 mg kg-1Pb, 29÷2395 mg kg-1Zn, 28÷65 mgkg-1Cd, 27÷81 mg kg-1 Cu, 39÷164 mg kg-1Ni, 508÷938 mgkg-1Mn and 1.6÷3.8% Fe, all of them above reference values. Around the Feni smelting plant concentrations of particular pollution elements were in the range: 16÷31 mg kg-1Pb, 117÷286 mgkg-1Zn, 13÷30 mg kg-1Co, 43÷119 mg kg-1 Cu, 158÷292 mg kg-1Ni, 519÷903 mgkg-1Mn, 119÷236 mg kg-1 Cr and 2.24÷3.79% Fe. At the ToranicaPb-Zn mine all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values. Enri­ch­me­nt factors ranged from, low 3.75 for nickel up to 362.5 for zinc and extreme 1587.5 for lead. The Zletovo Pb-Zn mine has been characterized by all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values with an exception of nickel. Enrichment factors ranged from mediate ones such were those for copper of 20.8, cadmium of 28.7, arsenic of 32.5 up to high ones for zinc with 341.7 and lead 925. In regards to SasaPb-Zn mine all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values with an exception of nickel. Enrichment factors ranged from low for manganese of 12.14 and arsenic of 15.72, median for copper of 59.15, high for cadmium of 126 and extremely high for zinc with 892.7 and lead 1201.9. In regards to the Bucim copper mine the median values for Cu in samples were 396 mg kg-1 and the ranges from 94.8 to 1171 mg kg-1, for the Topolnica village the

  14. Site characteristics of Tuber magnatum in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Christopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Day after day it is being demonstrated that Greece hides a buried treasure in its forests. The wild black truffles Tuber aestivum, T. uncinatum, T. brumale and T. melanosporum and the white truffle T. borchii and recently T. magnatum are picked in a variety of forest ecosystems all over the country. The information which has been collected has initiated a national programme on truffle cultivation which, so far, has immense appeal, especially among young farmers. The discovery of carpophores of T. magnatum, the most valued white truffle in the market, triggered the interest in studying the site characteristics, botanical and pedological, in order to help farmers to cultivate the species in similar sites. All carpophores were found under hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis along the banks of a creek on alluvial sediment. Soil analyses of four soil samples from truffle nests showed a narrow range of values of pH in water (7.57–7.78 and 1N KCL (6.94–7.07 and a similar granulometric soil texture.

  15. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  16. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  17. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  18. Quantitative differences in antibiotic resistance between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Hungary, Austria and Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A; Rozgonyi, F; Pesti, N; Kocsis, E; Malmos, G; Kristof, K; Nagy, K; Lagler, H; Presterl, E; Stich, K; Gattringer, R; Kotolacsi, G; Cekovska, Z; Graninger, W

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) strains from three European countries to nine antistaphylococcal agents. The antibiotic susceptibility of 274 MRSA and 284 MSSA strains from Hungary, Austria and macedonia was tested by the broth microdilution method. The clonal relationship of strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin appeared in Macedonian MRSA strains. Macedonian MRSA strains had high-level amikacin and gentamicin resistance. MSSA strains generally were susceptible to all drugs at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) except for gentamicin resistance in Macedonian strains. In Hungary and Austria a common antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA predominated, while in macedonia three other phenotypes were also prevalent. Geographical differences in the resistance of S. aureus are still high. Since resistance levels of MRSA and MSSA strains differ extensively, they should be considered separately for antibiotic resistance analysis.

  19. Localization Factors and Inward Foreign Direct Investment in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the foreign direct investment (FDI attractiveness for Greece as a host country in the period 1998-2007. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of variables, such as market size, labour costs, trade openness, taxes, inflation and economic stability. The manuscript applies a panel data approach (Fixed Effects estimator and GMM system estimator. In contrast to previous studies, this paper used a dynamic panel data to solve the problems of serial correlation and endogeneity. The empirical results indicate that the market size, trade openness, and labour costs are significant factors to explain inward FDI to Greece. These results indicate that the FDI attracting will be influenced by market size. Our results also show that Greece has some problems of macroeconomic stability, which discourages the investors.

  20. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pteroudis, E

    1996-01-01

    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  1. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  2. The lameness of King Philip II and Royal Tomb I at Vergina, Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsiokas, Antonis; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Santos, Elena; Algaba, Milagros; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2015-08-11

    King Philip II was the father of Alexander the Great. He suffered a notorious penetrating wound by a lance through his leg that was nearly fatal and left him lame in 339 B.C.E. (i.e., 3 y before his assassination in 336 B.C.E.). In 1977 and 1978 two male skeletons were excavated in the Royal Tombs II and I of Vergina, Greece, respectively. Tomb I also contained another adult (likely a female) and a newborn skeleton. The current view is that Philip II was buried in Tomb II. However, the male skeleton of Tomb II bears no lesions to his legs that would indicate lameness. We investigated the skeletal material of Tomb I with modern forensic techniques. The male individual in Tomb I displays a conspicuous case of knee ankylosis that is conclusive evidence of lameness. Right through the overgrowth of the knee, there is a hole. There are no obvious signs that are characteristic of infection and osteomyelitis. This evidence indicates that the injury was likely caused by a severe penetrating wound to the knee, which resulted in an active inflammatory process that stopped years before death. Standard anthropological age-estimation techniques based on dry bone, epiphyseal lines, and tooth analysis gave very wide age ranges for the male, centered around 45 y. The female would be around 18-y-old and the infant would be a newborn. It is concluded that King Philip II, his wife Cleopatra, and their newborn child are the occupants of Tomb I.

  3. The Balkan Sprachbund in the Republic of Macedonia Today: 'Eurology' as Discontinuity and Dialectology as Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Friedman

    2015-07-01

    In the article, I attempt to uphold the thesis about the continuity of the processes which gave rise to the phenomenon of the Balkan linguistic league. I argue that these processes are very much alive in today’s Republic of Macedonia and in other Balkan states. I develop my thesis drawing on examples from modern languages: Macedonian, Albanian, Aromanian, and Romani in its urban variation spoken in modern Republic of Macedonia. However, while in all other Balkan states the classic Balkan multilingualism is present as a distinctive feature on the local level, in Macedonia it is manifest both on the local level and in the cities. I thus point out the need for dialectological research in urban and multilingual rural sites so as to overcome the limitations of classic dialectology, with its historic-nationalist, monolingual focus. Only the former type of research allows for the study of language contact as the source of language change. Finally, I emphasise the fact that the Balkan Sprachbund assumed its present form in a period when what became the core of the EU was divided into dozens of mini-states, while in the Ottoman state, as Olivera Jašar-Nasteva said, you could travel the whole territory of the Empire with one document (teskere. This means that the idea of creating a unified linguistic alliance with the centre constituted by the “old” EU member states and the Balkans as its periphery is a product of contemporary political situation, not of the historical context which enabled the emergence of the Balkan Sprachbund. Bałkańska liga językowa w Republice Macedonii dziś: „eurologia” jako nieciągłość i dialektologia jako ciągłość W niniejszym artykule staram się podtrzymać tezę o ciągłości funkcjonowania procesów, które wykreowały fenomen bałkańskiej ligi językowej i ich żywotności na terytorium dzisiejszej Republiki Macedonii, a także na obszarze pozostałych bałkańskich państw. Tezę tę dokumentuję poprzez przyk

  4. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  6. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, pGreece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, pGreece. It should be noted that the running financial crisis in Greece seems to have many effects on quality of life, since the most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts,general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Having in mind the above situation, further analyses are needed to determine the relationship between mental health-care services, suicide rates and other psychosocial indices, in order to provide a strategic plan for a better design of mental health-care policy in Greece.

  7. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  8. Informal payments in public hospitals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2008-07-01

    Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.

  9. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  10. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  11. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  12. Deep into an interglacial: A compound-specific biomarker study of Marine Isotope Stage 11 (Tenaghi Philippon, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardenghi, N.; Niedermeyer, E. M.; Kahmen, A.; Pross, J.; Mulch, A.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 is a mid-Pleistocene interglacial, characterized by a minimum in orbital eccentricity, and therefore often studied as a climate analogue for the Holocene (MIS 1). However, a slightly different phasing of obliquity and precession between these two interglacials sparks strong interrogatives about the MIS 1-11 alignment and its meaningfulness for Holocene predictions.MIS 11c represents an unusually long warm subphase immediately after the "Mid-Brunhes Event" (≈430 ka bp), which marks the passage from the 40 ka (obliquity-) to the 100 ka (eccentricity-driven) world. The following subphases MIS 11b and MIS 11a, represent a series of cold-warm oscillations, terminated by the glacial inception of MIS10. Our aim is to describe atmospheric circulation patterns and their changes through glacial and interglacial transitions while tracking the evolution of the respective terrestrial temperatures and levels of biomass burning.We worked on a peat core from Tenaghi Philippon, an intramontane peat deposit in Eastern Macedonia (Greece); its position at the convergence zone of Atlantic, monsoonal and Siberian-influenced climates makes it an excellent archive to study climate change during MIS11 in the Eastern Mediterranean. We show the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of higher plant waxes (δD) as proxy for changes in atmospheric circulation and related shifts of moisture source, together with changes in air temperature based on GDGTs (Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers) analysis. In addition, we studied the chain-length distribution of higher plant-wax n-alkanes to derive the "aquatic index" (Paq), a measure of wetland aggradation. Paq varies between 0.2 and 0.9, indicating pronounced shifts of the water table throughout the record, and neatly traces Termination V (the warming leading to MIS11), MIS11c as well as the inception of MIS10.Levoglucosan in turn, a marker for biomass burning, shows a strong glacial-interglacial dichotomy with low

  13. Public investment and regional growth and convergence : Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Psycharis, Yannis; Tselios, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of public investment on regional economic growth and convergence at the NUTS 3 level in Greece. Using a new database of public expenditure per region for the period 19782007, it proposes a model which captures not just the impact of public investment in Greek prefectu

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  15. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  16. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes of Computer Science Teachers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…

  17. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizu...

  19. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Zorba

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of ODs is high in Greece, contrary to all official reports by the Greek National Institute of Health. There is a need to introduce a nationwide voluntary surveillance system for reporting ODs and to enhance skin protection measures at work.

  20. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  1. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states...

  2. Economic voting under the economic crisis: Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nezi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Having joined the Eurozone in 2001, Greece experienced a short period of economic euphoria before confronting a major financial crisis some nine years later. In the period between joining the Eurozone and accepting the joint IMF/EU bailout package, the economic situation facing Greek voters changed

  3. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  4. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  5. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  6. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  7. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (terms of sediment texture, 41% of the beaches were found to consist mostly of medium and coarse sands (gS and (g)S) and 31% of gravels with some sand presence ((s)G and sG). The exclusively sandy beaches correspond to the 11% when the exclusively gravelly beaches accounts for 16%. North sided

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  9. Developing Interethnic and Intercultural Competencies - Aims and Syllabus in the Context of Elementary Education Students in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalina Popova-Koskarova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Тhe main goal of our theoretical research was to show how much the syllabus allow development of awareness about the diversities and development of life values in multiethnic and multicultural environments. In that context, we established the goal to analyze the objectives and the content of the syllabus of the most relevant subjects regarding multicultural and intercultural education: Introduction to society and Society for grades I – V. Having in mind that in Macedonia there are different cultures, religions, traditions and languages, it is necessary to develop competencies to show respect for the diversities and to develop the multicultural awareness of the students at the earliest age. On the other hand, globalization, as a characteristic of the modern age, increasingly imposes the need to develop the intercultural awareness and competencies of the students as well. The interethnic (multicultural as well as intercultural competencies are especially important from several aspects: firstly, as a result of the need to overcome stereotypes and prejudices still present in our society, and secondly, to develop values in children, and especially empathy in students.

  10. Constitutional Judiciary in the Republic of Macedonia under the shadow of its Fiftieth Anniversary-Situation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeton SHASIVARI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes the position, prospects and challenges of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Macedonia, in light of the fiftieth anniversary of the existence of this institution which in the socialist past suffered from complete marginalization, and people’s conscience of its significance is yet to be built. This article aims to explain and assess the constitutional concept of the Constitutional Court of this country as a public authority which consists of the organizational and functional aspects. The organizational aspect involves the composition of the Constitutional Court, the election of the judges and their legal position. The functional aspect involves the issue of jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court, the legal procedure for carrying out such responsibilities and the legal effect of its decisions. Finally, the paper refers to the functioning of the Constitutional Court in the period 2008-2012, analyzing statistical data on the structure of the Court's decisions by various parameters, by highlighting the relevant findings on its situation and prospects

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  12. Impact of Cross-listed Directorship on Appointment and Independence of Auditors: Evidence from Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasko Atanasovski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between cross-listed directors at multiple boards of directors and the choice of audit firm in emerging market economy such as Republic of Macedonia. The study involved all listed companies and companies with special reporting obligations at Macedonian Stock Exchange owned domestically, since appointment of auditors for subsidiary companies is influenced dominantly by parent company decision making process. Determinants of auditor selection are important input for overall assessment of auditor independence and audit quality and provide valuable argument for revised regulations in order to improve credibility of audit of financial statements. There is limited research available regarding the close relationship and ties between management and auditors, especially in the case of small audit markets where the potential impact of cross-listed directorship on auditor independence and audit quality is considerable. The results of the study provide little evidence of significant relationship between cross-listed directorship and the choice of auditor in respect of Macedonian listed entities. The findings will be of interest for public accounting firms in developing their strategies for close inter-relationships with those charged with governance. It is intended to help regulators assess the impacts of interpersonal relations to auditor independence and quality of assurance services provided to the general public, as well as improvement of monitoring function on behalf of shareholders.

  13. THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SIX SIGMA METHOD AND TQM STRATEGY AS WELL AS THEIR APPLICATION IN PRACTICE IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed methodologies for the Six Sigma method and the TQM strategy as well as their application in practice in Macedonia. Although the philosophy of the total quality management (TQM is deeply involved in many industries and business areas of European and other countries it is insufficiently known and present in our country and other developing countries. The same applies to the Six Sigma approach of reducing the dispersion of a process and it is present in a small fraction in Macedonian companies. The results of the implementation have shown that the application of the Six Sigma approach does not refer to the number of defects per million opportunities but to the systematic and systemic lowering of the dispersion process. The operation and effect of the implementation of the six sigma method engages experts that receive a salary depending on the success of the Six Sigma program. On other hand the results of the application of the TQM methodology within the Macedonian companies will depend on the commitment of all employees and their motivation.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment in the meat processing facilities in republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Jankuloski

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment was examined in seven meat processing facilities. Up to date prevalence of this foodborn pathogen in meat processing facilities facilities in Republic of Macedonia was unknown. Biofilms are composed from food spoilage microorganisms and food born pathogens. They are located on the surfaces of the equipment that come in contact with food and in facilities environment. Microorganisms in biofilm presenting micro eco system and are source of dissemination and contamination of food born pathogens in final meat products. During the preparation of this study we have covered a 7 meat processing facilities and we took a total of 39 swabs from surfaces that come in direct or indirect contact with food. Listeria monocytogenes was discovered in 10 (25,64% swabs (locations. Prevalence of other Listeria spp. compared with total number of taken samples was 15 (38,46% Listeria innocua, 3 (7,69% Listeria welshimeri and 1 (2,65% isolate Listeria seeligeri.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CASE STUDY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Dzamtovska - Zdravkovska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the challenges of the new changes and reforms on the way towards accessing the European Union, the Republic of Macedonia is also facing the challenge to strengthen the capacities of the administration, which inevitably means informing it about European values and systems of operation, but also informing the public about innovations and changes the future membership brings. The paper focuses on the manner in which the Macedonian public is being informed regarding Macedonia’s process of advancement towards the European family, with emphasis on the importance of internal communication in the public administration in terms of the exchange and dissemination of information on activities related to the pre-access process. Through analysis of the relevant strategic documents and the results of the implemented projects, it can be concluded that it is necessary to continuously inform the public about the process of entering the Union. At the same time, it is also necessary to include the public administration in the process of shaping the policy for informing the public.

  17. Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Transition Economies, With Special Reference To Macedonia: Evidence From Gravity Model1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauti Bardhyl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment stocks to 5-South East European Countries and the 10-New Member States of the European Union countries by using an augmented Gravity Model, for the purpose of calculating the potential levels of FDI stock in Macedonia. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 20 core OECD countries to invest in SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors (market size and distance, institutional related factors (control of corruption, corruption perception index, regulatory quality, transition progress and WTO membership and other traditional determinants of FDI (schooling, bilateral exports appear to significantly determine inward FDI stock to the SEE region and new EU member states. The GMM estimates suggest that bilateral FDI stock is subject to persistence effects. The study additionally confirms the relatively strong gravitational character of Macedonia’s inward FDI stock.

  18. Effectiveness of EU Conditionality in the Western Balkans: Minority Rights and the Fight Against Corruption in Croatia and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Glüpker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EU candidate countries must prove their respect for democracy and the rule of law to be eligible for EU membership. The Commission administers their accession processes following the principle of conditionality. This paper examines how domestic conditions and different aspects of the conditionality principle affect policy outcomes. It reviews the arguments made in the literature on EU conditionality and applies them to the policy areas of minority rights and the fight against corruption in Croatia and Macedonia. Both countries have been subjected to the Commission’s conditionality while their democratic achievements differ substantially. Thereby, the two countries offer a fruitful ground to evaluate the lessons drawn from the 2004-07 enlargement. While previous studies have remained quite unclear about the relative importance of domestic and EU-related determinants of effective conditionality, I argue that domestic influences vary strongly across the researched policy areas. In comparison, the political-legal instruments of the Commission show clear impacts on policies in candidate countries. Material incentives offered by the EU are only effective within the early phases of the accession process.

  19. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  20. Organization of Proficiency Testing for Dairy Laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia in Order to Improve Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in proficiency testing is not only an obligation for all analytical laboratories which tend to be credible, but also an opportunity to check how the results agree with the reference or assign value. The Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Dairy Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb, is itself incorporated in the proficiency testing organized by dairy laboratories from Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland and Slovenia. The aim is to find out its own accuracy and reliability in particular milk and dairy products analyses. On the basis of seven years experience of participating in proficiency testing, five years ago the Reference Laboratory started organizing its own proficiency testing for dairy laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia for milk components such as milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count. The results of the analyses have been statistically analyzed and, on the basis of Z-score, the successful measurements have been estimated. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the organisation and data processing of proficiency testing for milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count in milk for the involved dairy laboratories.

  1. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  2. Recent geodetic unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew V.; Stiros, Stathis; Feng, Lujia; Psimoulis, Panos; Moschas, Fanis; Saltogianni, Vasso; Jiang, Yan; Papazachos, Costas; Panagiotopoulos, Dimitris; Karagianni, Eleni; Vamvakaris, Domenikos

    2012-03-01

    After approximately 60 years of seismic quiescence within Santorini caldera, in January 2011 the volcano reawakened with a significant seismic swarm and rapidly expanding radial deformation. The deformation is imaged by a dense network of 19 survey and 5 continuous GPS stations, showing that as of 21 January 2012, the volcano has extended laterally from a point inside the northern segment of the caldera by about 140 mm and is expanding at 180 mm/yr. A series of spherical source models show the source is not migrating significantly, but remains about 4 km depth and has expanded by 14 million m3 since inflation began. A distributed sill model is also tested, which shows a possible N-S elongation of the volumetric source. While observations of the current deformation sequence are unprecedented at Santorini, it is not certain that an eruption is imminent as other similar calderas have experienced comparable activity without eruption.

  3. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  4. The effects of exchange rate on balance trade and on monetary aggregates of macedonia and the impact of the current world crisis in its economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Kadishe Limani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is a country that is close related to the European Union countries where the majority of the Macedonian foreign trade is with the European Union countries (52%. So the Macedonian economy is in a high level dependency of Euro.  Since Denar is connected closely to Euro, and the level of its usage in everyday economic activity is close to the usage of Denar, it is obvious to be discussed as a dilemma whether Macedonia should have Euro as its currency. However, the problem lies in that whether it is the right time for such action as the best solution for Macedonian economy, keeping in mind the fact that in the international arena there is present a second crisis that is the crisis of Euro-Zone. Based on various sources and on our econometric results, in this paper is argued and supported the main hypothesis that the fix exchange rate for Macedonia is a more optimal choice in comparison with the unilateral euroisation and flexible exchange rate. Thus, during the research we found out some arguments that support the existing regime, such as: under a flexible regime an eventual devaluation of the Denar is more possible, which can lead to more negative effects on the economy than benefits. Thus, devaluation of the Denar will have no significant effects on the balance trade (export and imports and GDP. This means that the competitiveness of a country relies on the other factors. In addition an eventual devaluation of the Denar, it will not have significant effects on monetary aggregates (M2 and M4 due to the asset substitution from Denar deposits to foreign deposits and vice-versa.

  5. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  6. Reference Equations for Static Lung Volumes and TLCO from a Population Sample in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailopoulos, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Spyratos, Dionisios; Argyropoulou-Pataka, Paraskevi; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2015-02-14

    Background: The most commonly used reference equations for the measurement of static lung volumes/capacities and transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO) are based on studies around 30-40 years old with significant limitations. Objectives: Our aim was to (1) develop reference equations for static lung volumes and TLCO using the current American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and (2) compare the equations derived with those most commonly used. Methods: Healthy Caucasian subjects (234 males and 233 females) aged 18-91 years were recruited. All of them were healthy never smokers with a normal chest X-ray. Static lung volumes and TLCO were measured with a single-breath technique according to the latest guidelines. Results: Curvilinear regression prediction equations derived from the present study were compared with those that are most commonly used. Our reference equations in accordance with the latest studies show lower values for all static lung volume parameters and TLCO as well as a different way of deviation of those parameters (i.e. declining with age total lung capacity, TLCO age decline in both sex and functional residual capacity age rise in males). Conclusions: We suggest that old reference values of static lung volumes and TLCO should be updated, and our perception of deviation of some spirometric parameters should be revised. Our new reference curvilinear equations derived according to the latest guidelines could contribute to the updating by respiratory societies of old existing reference values and result in a better estimation of the lung function of contemporary populations with similar Caucasian characteristics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: Spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe 2O 3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb 3O 4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO 4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings.

  8. Evaluation and management of juvenile recurrent parotitis in children from northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, E; Chatziavramidis, A; Vampertzi, O; Alataki, S; Konstantinidis, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of childhood.  The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and imaging profile of children with JRP as well as to estimate the impact of siadendoscopy as a therapeutic tool in the clinical outcome of JRP. Methods: Twenty-three children with JRP aged 3.5-16 years, were investigated. Twelve of them underwent sialendoscopy: seven aged 8 years under local anesthesia. Results: The age at onset ranged from 2-15 years while the number of episodes from 2-8 per year. The autoantibody profile was negative in all patients, suggesting no evidence for autoimmune diseases.  Antibody deficiency was found in two children. The imaging studies reveal an overall parotid swelling and intraparotid lymph nodes while microabscesses were present in 31% of the patients. Twelve patients who underwent sialendoscopy had a significant improvement in their clinical outcome; the mean episodes of JRP before sialendoscopy was 3.9/year and reduced to 0.4 at the post-intervention year. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy represents an alternative and promising perspective in the management of JRP. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 356-359. PMID:27688702

  9. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  10. Island mortality in the past: some evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalas, Vasilis S

    2008-03-01

    This paper explores the course of infant and childhood mortality in the Greek island of Paros from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. For this purpose the method of family reconstitution has been applied to two towns on the island. Official population statistics have been used to derive basic mortality estimates for the Cyclades and Greece as a whole. Reference to other studies concerning island mortality is also made. Hence, there appears the chance to compare insular with mainland mortality and realise that insular mortality presented some distinct features. It is shown that island populations presented lower mortality than the national average until the first decades of the twentieth century. However, by the 1950s Greece's infant and childhood mortality had dropped to the same or even to lower levels than those of the islands.

  11. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  12. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  13. Energy consumption and economic growth. A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z. [The University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements. (author)

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z., E-mail: s.cani@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  15. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit." excerpt

  16. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-02

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.

  17. Mismanagement, ambiguity and delusion : training primary teachers in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Bryan J.; Koutouzis, Emmanuel

    1997-01-01

    Preparing primary teachers in Greece is an area of great ambiguity and frustration for many students. This paper seeks to show the influence of social origins, characteristics and qualifications of entrants to primary teaching and its role in social mobility. The paper is based on original research with first year student teachers along with unpublished research from government sources. Outcomes of the research demonstrate a greater need for creative and strategic planning i...

  18. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Ilias; Athanasios Panoras; Andreas Angelakis

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects...

  19. Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Grémillet X.

    1993-01-01

    Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (Greece)Pages 39 - 42 (Report)Xavier GémilletA study on Corfu Island in 1986 describes an otter population strongly threatened by building activities and pollution from olive pressing factories. This present report shows the accurate situation in 1992. Otters no longer breed on the west coast, where two major populations have been extirpated. Pressure from tourist development, fishfarming and uncontrolled poaching, even in reserves, threatens remain...

  20. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  1. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Zorba, Eleni; Karpouzis, Antony; Zorbas, Alexandros; Bazas, Theodore; Zorbas, Sam; Alexopoulos, Elias; Zorbas, Ilias; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos; Konstandinidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between seven occupational dermatoses (ODs) and 20 types of work in Greece. Methods This was a prevalence epidemiologic study of certain ODs among 4,000 workers employed in 20 types of enterprise, in 104 companies, in 2006–2012, using data from company medical records, questionnaires, occupational medical, and special examinations. The χ2 test was applied to reveal statistically significant relationships between types of enterprises and occurrence of O...

  2. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literatu...

  3. Feast, Food and Fodder in Neolithic-Bronze Age Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between mundane domestic and more formal meals in recent rural Greece, as a prelude to a diachronic examination of the range of commensal behavior through the Neolithic and Bronze Age of the same region. Analysis of recent practices highlights the role of a hierarchy of low- to high-value foods. While Neolithic commensality beyond the household emphasizes equality and collective cohesion, formal commensality takes a strikingly and increasingly diacrit...

  4. INFORMAL HOUSING IN GREECE: A QUANTITATIVE SPATIAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Serafeim POLYZOS; MINETOS, Dionysios

    2009-01-01

    During the last 50 years in Greece growing demand for urban (residential and industrial) space has resulted in unplanned residential development and informal dwelling construction to the expense of agricultural and forest land uses. Despite the fact that the post-war challenge faced by the state in providing minimal housing for their citizens has been met the informal settlements phenomenon still proceeds. This situation tents to become an acute problem with serious economic, social and envir...

  5. Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

  6. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Körlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Dag Körlin talks about the Guided Imagery and Music (GIM training programme in Greece and his contribution to its development. He explains some of the main aspects of GIM as a receptive music therapy method; he points out the role of music in the therapeutic process and he talks about the importance of listening. Finally, he refers to the European Network of GIM.

  7. Impact of Olive Cultivation on Biodiversity in Messenia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellström, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The biggest threat and cause to loss of biodiversity have been found to be the intensification of agriculture under the 20th century. Messenia is one of the oldest olive cultivation areas in Greece and the landscape is dominated by olive groves characterized by extensive tillage, which causes serious erosion and might be a threat to plant diversity. Organic olive cultivation is an alternative that aims to preserve and support biodiversity. In this study the plant composition in the edge zones...

  8. Steatosis and steatohepatitis in postmortem material from Northwestern Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; D; Zois; Gerasimos; H; Baltayiannis; Anna; Bekiari; Anna; Goussia; Peter; Karayiannis; Michalis; Doukas; Demetrios; Demopoulos; Antigoni; Mitsellou; Theodoros; Vougiouklakis; Vasiliki; Mitsi; Epameinondas; V; Tsianos

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of steatosis and steatohepatitis in a series of autopsies in Northwestern Greece. METHODS: Liver biopsy material from a total of 600 autopsies performed over a period of 2 years (2006-2008) to def ine the cause of death was subjected to histological examination. Patient demographic data were also collected. Tissue sections were stained with different dyes for the evaluation of liver architecture, degree of fibrosis and other pathological conditions when necessary. RESULTS: S...

  9. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Trikalis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five academies in voluntary sector. Goals and objectives in each youth football academy were recorded in three different theoretical areas: a administrative, b coaching, and c supportive services. Data were collected through interviews via open and closed question formats from fourteen administrative and fourteen coaching staff of the corresponding teams. Qualitative analysis was applied. The results of the study indicated significant differences in operation of youth football academies according to the different sector they operated: a the commercial sector academies attempted to improve rapidly the technical skills of child footballers, using their good facilities / services, b the public sector academies aimed primarily to improve the number of children, and c the voluntary sector academies aimed mainly to identify footballers talent and excellent skills. The above results, conducted the following proposals for the overall development of youth football academies in Greece: a a new management philosophy should require to adopted by football stakeholders, b scientific methods of training and cooperation with scientific institutions should be applied, and c any action should be taken in mind the recent economic crisis in Greece. In conclusion, youth football academies in the region of Thessaly _ in which this study was conducted_ could be under development if new management strategies be adopted by football shareholders.

  10. Validation of the parental knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic usage and resistance among children in Tetovo, the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alili-Idrizi E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes of parents on the use of antibiotics among children that could serve as baseline data and provide further insight in planning and developing strategies for local health education purposes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 500 parents who attended community pharmacies in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia, was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire from October 2013 to January 2014. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge and attitude statements of parents towards antibiotics. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS program, version 19.0. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Nearly 40% of the parents demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge. The highest correct response in the knowledge part was the awareness of parents in using antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection (61.2%. However, most of the parents did not know that antibiotics cannot cure viral infections (59.6%. About 48.2% of the parents were aware of the antibiotic resistance as s result of the overuse. Concerning attitudes, 60.8% reported keeping any leftover antibiotics, 77.0% agreed that taking antibiotics when having cold symptoms could help their children recover faster, while, 74.6% wrongly agreed with the statement of appropriate use of antibiotics for prophylaxis’ measure. Conclusions: This study has documented the main areas that merit attention when parental knowledge on antibiotic use for their children is the concern, reflecting in some inappropriate attitudes as well. The findings highlight the need to devise effective interventions to decrease misconceptions regarding antibiotic use and to increase parents’ awareness for the risks of inappropriate use of antibiotics in children specifically and in the community at large.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB or leaves (EOL of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL, also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL, was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml. EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml. The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%. The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%. No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion : The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils.

  12. Genetic diversity of common bean accessions from former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as revealed by molecular and morphological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maras Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of common bean has a long tradition in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM and is still nowadays important part of the human diet. In a study reported here 71 accessions from the FYROM were assessed for genetic diversity with the aim to provide information on genetic structure of Macedonian common bean germplasm and to depict its peculiarities. A total of 71 accessions were assessed using 13 microsatellite and 16 morphological markers. The average number of alleles per microsatellite was 5.8, and ranged from three to 16 alleles. High capacity of selected markers for distinguishing genotypes was identified by the calculation of a very low value of probability of identity. The relationship among 71 studied accessions was assessed by hierarchical cluster analysis. A very clear separation of accessions into two groups was observed in the UPGMA dendrogram. The larger represented Andean gene pool and contained 40 accessions (56% of total, while the other 31 accessions (44% of total composed Mesoamerican gene pool. The two groups were successfully discriminated by eight morphological traits. Within the larger Andean cluster in the UPGMA dendrogram a sub-group of 16 climbing accessions was separated from 24 bush accessions. The absence of the string in the pods of the climbers suggests that this sub-group comprises snap beans grown primarily for their fresh pods. There were eight morphological traits in total that distinguished the two Andean sub-groups. Assessment of genetic relationship among accessions, their classification into respective gene pool and identification of morphological peculiarities provided valuable information for the management of plant gene bank and Macedonian bean breeding program.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) grown in R. Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Floresha; Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkov, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB) or leaves (EOL) of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL), also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL), was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml). EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml). The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%). The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%). No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion: The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type) clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils. PMID:25598638

  14. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja STANKOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of the children with autism.The basic tasks of this research are: to determine whether the employers would employ a person with autism; weather employers and the employees know what autism is; weather according to employers and employees people with autism are able to perform their job duties in complete and weather the parents of children with autism would like their child to be employed.We conducted this research in a period of 3 months and included 130 respondents. Obtained data were collected, grouped, tabled and processed with standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Exact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and the interpretation of the results, we concluded that in the Republic of Macedonia do not exist positive atmosphere, for employment of the persons with autism, the employers do not want to employ a person with autism. The professionals must engage more deeply in this problematic in order to achieve a complete integration of the people with autism in the society.

  15. Geogenic and Anthropogenic Moss Responsiveness to Element Distribution Around a Pb-Zn Mine, Toranica, Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovska, Svetlana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Balabanova, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Moss species (Homalothecium lutescens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium glareosum, and Campthotecium lutescens) were used as suitable sampling media for biomonitoring the origin of heavy-metal pollution in the lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine "Toranica" near the Kriva Palanka town, Eastern Macedonia. The contents of 20 elements-silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), Pb, strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and (Zn) were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Data processing was applied with combinations of multivariate statistical methods: factor analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. Moss' responsiveness to the atmospheric distribution of the selected elements was investigated in correlation to the specific geology of the region (soil dusting). Lithogenic distribution was characterized with the distribution of three dominant geochemical associations: F1: Al-Li-V-Cr-Ni-Co, F2: Ba-Ca-Sr, and F3: Cd-Zn-Pb-Cu. Spatial distribution was constructed for visualization of the factor deposition. Furthermore, air distribution (passive biomonitoring) versus soil geochemistry of the analyzed elements was examined. Significant correlations were singled out for Pb, Zn, and Cd and for Mg(moss)/Na(soil). Characteristic lithological anomaly characterized the presence of the oldest geological volcanic rocks. Zone 1 (Pb-Zn mine surrounding) presents a unique area with hydrothermal action of Pb-Zn mineralization leading to polymetallic enrichments in soil. This phenomenon strongly affects the environment, which is a natural geochemical imprint in this unique area (described with the strong dominance of the geochemical association Cd-Zn-Pb-Cu).

  16. Renewed Geodetic Unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. V.; Stiros, S. C.; Moschas, F.; Saltogianni, V.; Feng, L.; Farmer, G. T.; Psimoulis, P.; Jiang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Santorini Caldera, in the southern Aegean, is part of a well-developed, and very active volcanic system fueled by subduction along the Hellenic arc that is responsible for the largest volcanic eruption in human history (~1650 B.C.). After approximately 50 years of relative seismic quiescence within the caldera and an episode of minor inflation, the volcano has recently reawakened with an exponentially increasing inflation signal, beginning in January 2011. The GPS network, including 3 continuous stations and biennial surveys of 19 campaign stations, showed essentially no deformation between 2006 and 2010. Following a cluster of microseismicity within the caldera two surveys in June and August 2011 were made, while two additional permanent GPS stations were installed. From this data, we found uplift and nearly-radial expansion up to 1 cm/month. This deformation is well-explained by a Mogi-source at the northern part of the caldera, with an approximately 6-10 million m3 volumetric growth at approximately 4 km depth, and tendency for development of a new dome offshore. It is likely that stresses from this magma source are responsible for a cluster of microseismity that began in January 2011 along a radial lineament of young volcanics, called the 'Kameni Line'.

  17. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  18. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  19. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece.

  20. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  1. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  2. Spatial Inequality in the Accessibility to Hospitals in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the spatial accessibility to public health care facilities in Greece. We look at population groups disaggregated by age and socioeconomic characteristics. The purpose of the analysis is to identify potential spatial inequalities in the accessibility to public hospitals among population groups or service areas. The data refer to the accessibility of all residents to public hospitals in Greece. The spatial datasets include the location of settlements (communities), the administrative boundaries of municipalities and the location of public hospitals. The methodology stems from spatial analysis theory (gravity models), economics theory (inequalities) and geocomputation practice (GIS and programming). Several accessibility measures have been calculated using the newly developed R package SpatialAcc, which is available in CRAN. The results are interesting and tend to show an urban-rural and social class divide: younger, working age population as well as people with the highest educational attainment have better accessibility to public hospitals compared to older or low educated residents. This finding has serious policy making implications and should be taken into account in the future spatial (re)organisation of hospitals in Greece.

  3. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ilias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects which are currently in practice are those of Thessaloniki, Chalkida, Malia, Livadia, Amfisa, Kalikratia, and Chersonissos. In Thessaloniki, at the most important wastewater reuse site, the secondary effluent of the city’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP (165,000 m3/day is used for agricultural irrigation after mixing with freshwater at a 1:5 ratio. The main crops irrigated are rice, corn, alfalfa and cotton. A few other projects are under planning, such as that at Iraklion, Agios Nikolaos and several island regions. Finally, it should be mentioned that there are several cases of indirect reuse, especially in central Greece. However, the reuse potential in Greece is limited, since effluent from Athens’s WWTP, serving approximately half of the country’s population, is not economically feasible due to the location of the plant.

  4. Analysis on smoking policies: a comparison between Armenia, Greece and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofanidis D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper discusses anti-smoking policies in Greece, Armenia and N. Zealand. A historicalperspective showing different cultural and traditional differences is also provided. Aims: The aim was to examinesmoking policies/practises in countries with polar opposite official and public attitudes towards smoking. A criticalanalysis approach was used. Discussion: Greece has responded slowly towards contemporary smoking policies.New Zealand is a country with a long standing public debate concerning tobacco legislation or self regulation and withstrong anti-tobacco policies in situ. Armenia is among the top five tobacco consuming countries worldwide, withalmost three quarters of the population smoking. It is also one of the latest countries to adopt a formal anti-smokingpolicy which was twice rejected by the local parliament and is still not fully implemented although it has becomeofficial law since 2005. Conclusions: Many Greeks perceive smoking legislation as an imposition on their rights ingeneral. It is clear that anti-tobacco policies in Greece need to consider the resistance of the adult population toconstraint on their perceived freedom. This factor and the many other reported in this paper clearly indicate that newpolicies should target the young especially those of junior school age.

  5. Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: A prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Elias Mallas; Konstantinos Giorgiotis; Georgios Karamanolis; Dimitrios Trigonis; Apostolos Markadas; Vana Sipsa; Sotirios A. Raptis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence of ulcerative colitis UC in the prefecture of Trikala, Central Greece.METHODS: A prospective and population basedepidemiological study of UC from 1990 to the end of 1994was conducted. Trikala is a semirural prefecture of Central Greece with a population of 138 946 (census 1991). Three gastroenterologists (one hospital based, two private doctors)of the prefecture participated in this study.RESULTS: During the study period, 66 new histologically verified cases of UC were recorded. The mean annual incidence of the disease in 1990-1994 was 11.2 per 105inhabitants (95%CI: 8.7-14.3). There was no difference between men and women (annual incidence: 10.5 and 12.0 per 105 inhabitants respectively), either among urban,semirural or rural populations (annual incidence: 11.7,17.1 and 9.9 per 105 inhabitants respectively). The majority (56%) of the patients never smoked and a quarter were ex-smokers. About a half of all cases had proctitis.CONCLUSION: UC is common in Central Greece and its incidence is similar to that in North-Western European countries.

  6. Post-fire management and recovery of a pine forest in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Spanos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of management after fire in Pinus halepensis forests were assessed in northern Greece. Seeding, logging and building of log barriers were applied in burned sites and compared to a control site. Two years after treatment application, 70–80% of the ground in all sites was covered with vegetation. Seeding with herbaceous plants did not increase plant cover. Logging and building of log barriers negatively affected herbaceous species but increased woody species. During the first spring after fire, the highest numbers of P. halepensis seedlings were observed in the control site and the lowest number in the logged site. Logging and log barrier building had a negative effect on pine regeneration compared to control and seeding treatments. Woody plant composition was similar in control and seeding sites, with dominance of P. halepensis and Cistus species. A different pattern was observed in the logging and log-barrier sites with a low number of seeders and a high number of resprouter species.

  7. Endocrine disrupting compounds in the atmosphere of the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapasidou, M.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a complex urban atmosphere. Target compounds were alkylphenols (NP, tOP, nOP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and phthalates (DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP). EDCs were determined in ambient PM10 from two sampling sites, one urban-traffic and one urban-industrial, located in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. At both sites, DEHP and NP were found to be the predominant EDCs in airborne PM10. Concentrations of NP did not exhibit any spatial difference, whereas concentrations of DEHP were significantly higher at the urban-traffic site. Wind direction was not found to have any significant effect on ambient EDCs concentrations suggesting impact from local sources rather than transport; however some peak concentrations might be attributed to short-distance sources. The gas/particle partition coefficient, Kp, and the gaseous phase of EDCs were calculated by employing two approaches based on literature data (a) for the subcooled liquid vapor pressure ( PL0) and (b) the octanol-air partition coefficient ( KOA). It appeared that the g/ p partition of phthalates estimated by the KOA approach is in better agreement with experimental partition data reported by other investigators. Absorption in organic matter was found to be significant partition mechanism at the urban-traffic site.

  8. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G

    2014-10-01

    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature.

  9. Variations of 210Pb concentrations in surface air at Thessaloniki, Greece (40°N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastefanou C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb were measured over the year 2009 in ground level air at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece (40°62′ N, 22°95′E. The mean activity concentrations of 210Pb in surface air have been found to be 671 ± 213 μBq m−3. The highest values of monthly atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn and the lowest in the spring period. The higher values of 210Pb during autumn were attributed to frequent inversion conditions of the surface layers, resulting in an enrichment of radon and its decay products in surface air. The lower values during the winter months might be due to the low emanation of radon from the frozen or snow-covered soil. The minima of 210Pb concentrations during spring might reflect on higher washout during this period, which results in less emanation of radon from saturated with water soil, resulting in less production of 210Pb near ground-level air. The relative high values during summer are probably due to the higher 222Rn exhalation from the ground and due to the higher air mixing within the troposphere, which has as a result to carry down to the surface layer 210Pb whose origin is older air masses which entered into the free troposphere.

  10. Fate of natural organic matter at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Papadakis, N; Voutsa, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of natural organic matter (NOM) and subsequent changes during the various treatment processes at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP). Monthly sampling campaigns were conducted for 1 year at six sites along DWTP of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece including raw water from the Aliakmonas River that supplies DWTP and samples from various treatment processes (pre-ozonation, coagulation, sand filtration, ozonation, and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration). The concentration of NOM and its characteristics as well as the removal efficiency of various treatment processes on the basis of dissolved organic carbon, UV absorbance, specific ultra-violet absorbance, fluorescence intensity, hydrophobicity, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon, and formation potential of chlorination by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were studied. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in reservoir of the Aliakmonas River ranged from 1.46 to 1.84 mg/L, exhibiting variations regarding UV, fluorescence, and hydrophobic character through the year. Along DWTP, a significant reduction of aromatic, fluorophoric, and hydrophobic character of NOM was observed resulting in significant elimination of THM (63%) and HAAs (75%) precursors.

  11. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2017-03-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  12. From Mesoproterozoic magmatism to collisional Cretaceous anatexis: Tectonomagmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Moulas, Evangelos; Larionov, Alexander; Quadt, Albrecht

    2014-08-01

    The magmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, in northern Greece, is constrained with secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) U-Pb dating on zircons of various granitoids whose structural positions were defined with respect to the regional main foliation. Ages pertain to four groups: (i) Mesoproterozoic (circa 1430 Ma) crystallization of granites inferred from inherited magmatic zircon cores that have been partially molten during the (ii) Neoproterozoic at circa 685 Ma (metamorphic zircon rims) and subsequently intruded by a Neoproterozoic leucogranite (circa 600 Ma). (iii) Late- or post-Variscan calc-alkaline granitoids (315-301 Ma) were in turn intruded by a subvolcanic dike at about 280 Ma. In the Early Permian the ɛNd(t) in magmas decreased from -7.3 to -1.3, hinting to mantle-derived melts produced during extension. Rifting is further heralded by two acidic and one mafic dike containing Lower-Middle Triassic zircons (246-242 Ma). (iv) Early Cretaceous anatectic melts at 117 ± 8 Ma formed during regional metamorphism. This age is the first report of in situ anatexis in the Pelagonian Zone. Cretaceous anatexis developed during the Mesozoic collision of Pelagonia with the Eurasian margin. Major- and trace-element geochemistry of amphibolites further attests for the complex pre-Alpine tectonic history with Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline and back-arc geochemical signature and Triassic alkali-magmatism.

  13. Vent development during the Minoan eruption (1640 BC) of Santorini, Greece, as suggested by ballistic blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Minoan eruption on Santorini, Greece, was a major Plinian caldera-forming event that occurred at ca. 1640 BC. The eruption is generally divided into four distinct phases: (1) Plinian phase; (2) phreatomagmatic base-surge; (3) ash-flow phase; and (4) non-welded ignimbrite. Many ballistic blocks, mostly consisting of older lava-fragments with diameters up to several meters, were ejected during phases 2 and 3. As caldera collapse followed the eruption, the precise vent location is unknown, but its position during phase 1 has been inferred from the pumice isopachs of the Plinian deposits. The location of the vent during the following phases has been estimated by measuring thickness variations, flow directions within the pyroclastic flows and impact directions of ballistic blocks. In this study, the vent location has been estimated by analysis of the size distribution of the ballistic blocks. Phase 2 blocks show no clear size-dependant distribution pattern. Blocks ranging between 0.15 and 1.60 m in diameter are found throughout almost the entire deposit, but are concentrated in the southeastern parts and within a circle of 14 km diameter, thus suggesting a maximum range of at least 6-7 km. The center of that circle is regarded as the most probable ejection region. It is proposed that the subaerial vent of phase 1 developed into an fracture opening to the SW along the general tectonic trend. Very large blocks, up to 3 m in diameter (or possibly more) were also ejected during phase 3, with the largest ones being found only in the northern half of the island group near the caldera rim. It therefore appears that at least one other vent opened in the northern half of the caldera, possibly as a new SW-NE-trending fracture.

  14. Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.

    2012-04-01

    Santorini volcanic group form the central part of the modern Aegean volcanic arc, developed within the Hellenic arc and trench system, because of the ongoing subduction of the African plate beneath the European margin throughout Cenozoic. It comprises three distinct volcanic structures occurring along a NE-SW direction: Christianna form the southwestern part of the group, Santorini occupies the middle part and Koloumbo volcanic rift zone extends towards the northeastern part. The geology of the Santorini volcano has been described by a large number of researchers with petrological as well as geochronological data. The offshore area of the Santorini volcanic field has only recently been investigated with emphasis mainly inside the Santorini caldera and the submarine volcano of Kolumbo. In September 2011, cruise NA-014 on the E/V Nautilus carried out new surveys on the submarine volcanism of the study area, investigating the seafloor morphology with high-definition video imaging. Submarine hydrothermal vents were found on the seafloor of the northern basin of the Santorini caldera with no evidence of high temperature fluid discharges or massive sulphide formations, but only low temperature seeps characterized by meter-high mounds of bacteria-rich sediment. This vent field is located in line with the normal fault system of the Kolumbo rift, and also near the margin of a shallow intrusion that occurs within the sediments of the North Basin. Push cores have been collected and they will provide insights for their geochemical characteristics and their relationship to the active vents of the Kolumbo underwater volcano. Similar vent mounds occur in the South Basin, at shallow depths around the islets of Nea and Palaia Kameni. ROV exploration at the northern slopes of Nea Kameni revealed a fascinating underwater landscape of lava flows, lava spines and fractured lava blocks that have been formed as a result of 1707-1711 and 1925-1928 AD eruptions. A hummocky topography at

  15. First scientific meeting of Yugoslav nephrologists, Struga, Republic of Macedonia, 26-28.IX 1977--introduction to the development of nephrology--in former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, M H

    2012-01-01

    The first scientific meeting of nephrologists in Yugoslavia with international participation was held in Struga, Republic of Macedonia, on Lake Ohrid, 26 to 28 September 1977. During the Third Symposium on Endemic Nephropathy, which was held in Nis on 5 to 8 November 1975 at the Radon Hotel, representatives of the nephrology sections of the republics founded the Yugoslav Society of Nephrology. Academician Vojislav Danilovic from Belgrade was elected as the Association's first President. It was decided that the first scientific meeting of Yugoslav Nephrologists be held in Struga, Macedonia, 1977, and the first Nephrology Congress in Belgrade in 1979. It was also agreed that congresses be held every four years, and to organize scientific meetings between congresses. In this way, the Nephrology Association of Yugoslavia gained the opportunity for a lot of activities every two years. The Proceedings of the First Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Nephrologists contained 6 plenary lectures and 84 papers presented during the three sections of the scientific meeting, 31 about hypertension and kidneys, 19 about immunology in nephrology and 34 about dialysis. The first scientific meeting of Yugoslav nephrologists with international participation was the first major review of the achievements of Nephrology in Yugoslavia, assessment of its results, work incentives and the creation of a vision for future development. The meeting strengthened the ties among the colleagues, new acquaintances were created, and new ideas for further cooperation appeared.

  16. The Fundamental Human Right to Marry and to Family Life and their Protection in the Legal Framework of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albana Metaj-Stojanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to family life is a fundamental human right, recognized by a series of international and European acts, which not only define and ensure its protection, but also emphasize the social importance of the family unit and the institution of marriage. The right to family life has evolved rapidly, since it was first introduced as an international human right by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The family structure and the concept of family life have changed dramatically over the last few decades, influenced by the everchanging social reality of our time and the decline of the institution of marriage. Aside from the traditional European nuclear family composed of two married persons of opposite sex and their marital children, new forms of family structures have arisen. LGTB families are at the centre of the ongoing debate on re-defining marriage and the concept of family life. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree of protection accorded to family life and to the right to marry, which has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the pursuit of happiness by free men by both, international acts ratified by the Republic of Macedonia and the legal system of the country. The methodology applied is qualitative research and use of the analytical, historical and comparative methods. The paper concludes that in general Republic of Macedonia has a solid legal framework, in compliance with the international law, that protects and promotes the right to family life.

  17. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  18. Archeointensities during the Neolithic period in Greece: new data to constraint the secular variation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjat, G.; Aidona, E.; Camps, P.; Poidras, T.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2011-12-01

    Archaeomagnetism has been continuously developed over the last three decades. Backed archaeological features such as pottery, kilns or burnt structures, provide reliable data as they usually carry a strong and stable thermo-remanent magnetization acquired during the last firing. Numerous studies have provided high quality data for both the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field essentially in Europe (e. g. compilations Genevey et al 2008, G3, Kovacheva et al, 2009, G3). In particular, Greece provides a lot of archaeological materials and numerous data are available (e. g. Aitken et al 1984, PEPI, Aitken et al 1989, PEPI, De Marco et al, 2008, Phys. Chem. Earth) from archaeomagnetic features or historical lava flows (Spassov et al, 2010, G3). The Greek secular variation curves (SVCs) are available for the last 8 millennia for the intensity and the last 6 millenia for the direction. Nevertheless, the coverage of the archaeological periods remains with several gaps for periods older than 2500 BC (Genevey et al, 2008, G3 and Kovacheva et al, 2009, G3). In this study, we present paleointensity results from Neolithic settlements in Northern Greece. Samples have been collected from four different archaeological sites: burnt structures and ceramics in Avgi (Kastoria, 5400-5100 B.C.) and Vasili (Farsala, 6000 B.C.), one kiln with the associated ceramics from Sossandra (Aridaia, 5000-4600 B.C.) and one ceramic collection from Dikili Tash (Kavala, 4800 B.C.). The samples have been subjected to a standard magnetic analysis in order to define the stability of the magnetic carriers and fulfil all the required criteria for the estimation of the palaeointensity. We obtained two reliable palaeointensities for the Avgi and Vasili sites of 38 and 48 μT respectively and a high mean paleointensity value arround 85 μT for the Dikili Tash site. These results are compared with the SVCs from neighbouring countries as well as with recent compilations and global models. We

  19. Complexity and anomalous diffusion of the Florina (Greece) microseismic activity associated with CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognized that the diffusion of pressurized fluids in the Earth's crust can induce earthquakes. Characteristic cases can be drawn from earthquake swarm sequences associated with volcanic activity, oil and gas injections and extractions and CO2 emissions in the crust. Such sequences are typically characterized by strong variations and clustering effects in time and space and can neither be described by a dominant earthquake nor by any simple scaling relation, as the Omori scaling known for aftershock sequences. In 2013-2014 such a sequence occurred in northern Greece, in the area of Florina and has been associated with CO2 gases emissions through the fault and fracture network below the Florina basin (Mesimeri et al., 2017). A detailed microseismic analysis reveals the structure of the seismic cloud that is distributed in two clusters, the first of a N-S direction dipping to the north and the second of an E-W direction and almost vertical, gently dipping to the south. Furthermore, the two clusters present distinct periods of activation, which may be associated with different phases of CO2 emissions. The spatiotemporal properties of the earthquake activity inside the two clusters indicate correlated sequences in time and space, with asymptotic power-law distributions of the time and distance intervals between their successive events (e.g., Vallianatos et al., 2016). Moreover, the mean squared displacement of the earthquake activity with time for the two clusters indicate the slow migration of microseismicity. The latter process corresponds to slow sub-diffusion inside the fault segments, which may act as pathways for the migration of CO2 gases towards the surface. References Mesimeri, M., Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Tsaklidis, G., Tsapanos, T., 2017. Detailed microseismicity study in the area of Florina (Greece): Evidence for fluid driven seismicity. Tectonophysics, 694, 424-435. Vallianatos F., Papadakis G., Michas G., 2016. Generalized

  20. Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Klontza, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece) correspondance: Corresponding author. (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Department of Chemistry--> , University of Patras--> , Rio--> - GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Marine Sciences Departmen...