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Sample records for maccs2 package includes

  1. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  2. Code manual for MACCS2: Volume 1, user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I.; Young, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the use of the MACCS2 code. The document is primarily a user`s guide, though some model description information is included. MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, distributed by government code centers since 1990, was developed to evaluate the impacts of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding public. The principal phenomena considered are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short- and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. No other U.S. code that is publicly available at present offers all these capabilities. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or operated by the Department of Energy or the Department of Defense. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency-response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. Other improvements are in the areas of phenomenological modeling and new output options. Initial installation of the code, written in FORTRAN 77, requires a 486 or higher IBM-compatible PC with 8 MB of RAM.

  3. Application of Korean Specific Data to Economic Cost Estimation by KOSCA-MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Default values for various data provided by MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2) such as population, weather, food, and economic cost are far from current domestic condition. In the case of economic cost data, related default values came from MACCS and WASH-1400. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developed a Korean-specific level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) code package based on MACCS2 to reflect domestic condition for off-site consequence analysis. To this end, we performed a study on the domestic specific technical issues for level 3 PSA, which are a dose conversion factor, food chain model, atmospheric dispersion model, and domestic-specific economic effect model. Based on the study, we developed a level 3 PSA code, so-called KOSCAMACCS2 (Korean-specific Off-Site Consequence Analysis based on MACCS2). The purpose of this paper is to introduce economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and application of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation with KOSCA-MACCS2. In this paper, we introduced economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and suggested the application plan of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation. To this end, we considered data sources for those economic cost variables to reflect Korea-specific features such as data by Statistics Korea or Bank of Korea etc. For the decontamination related variables, we applied foreign literatures to apply data, which are Extern-E and UNESCO Chernobyl Forum data. Based on the data resources we estimated data for input variables related to economic cost estimation.

  4. Establishment of Infrastructure for Domestic-Specific Level 3 PSA based on MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung-Cheol; Han, Seok-Jung; Choi, Sun-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wan-Seob [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Research activities related to the Level 3 PSA have naturally disappeared since the use of risk surrogates. Recently, Level 3 PSA was only performed to the extent of the purpose of operating license for the plant under construction. Since the Fukushima accident, concern about a comprehensive site-specific Level 3 PSA has been raised for some compelling reasons, especially the evaluation of the domestic multi-unit site risk effect including other site radiological sources (e.g., spent fuel pool, multi-units). Unfortunately, there are no domestic-specific consequence analysis code and input database required to perform a site-specific Level 3 PSA. The paper focuses on the development of the input data management system for domestic-specific Level 3 PSA based MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System). The authors call it KOSCA-MACCS2 (Korea Off-Site Consequence Analysis based in MACCS2). It serves as an integrated platform for a domestic-specific Level 3 PSA. Also, it provides the pre-processing modules to automatically generate MACCS2 input from diverse types of the domestic-specific data including numerical map data, e.g., meteorological data, numerical population map, digital land use map, economic statistics and so on. Note that some functions should be still developed and added on it, e.g., post-processing module to convert MACCS2 outputs to graphic report forms, and so on. Henceforth, it is necessary to develop a Korean-specific Level 3 PSA code as a substitution for the foreign software, MACCS2.

  5. BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, Kevin

    2009-04-30

    The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.

  6. ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, John HC [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-01

    In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.

  7. Reevaluation of the emergency planning zone for nuclear power plants in Taiwan using MACCS2 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chen, Ing-Jane; Chen, Huan-Tong; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2006-04-01

    According to government regulations, the emergency planning zone (EPZ) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) must be designated before operation and reevaluated every 5 years. Corresponding emergency response planning (ERP) has to be made in advance to guarantee that all necessary resources are available under accidental releases of radioisotope. In this study, the EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs, Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan, in Taiwan was reevaluated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) developed by Sandia National Laboratory. Meteorological data around the nuclear power plant were collected during 2003. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, and timing duration, were based on previous PRA information of each plant. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk and societal risk were calculated. By comparing the results to the protective action guide and related safety criteria, 1.5, 1.5, and 4.5km were estimated for Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan NPPs, respectively. We suggest that a radius of 5.0km is a reasonably conservative value of EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs in Taiwan.

  8. Comparison of the MACCS2 atmospheric transport model with Lagrangian puff models as applied to deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Garzon, Caroline D; Lagdon, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This paper examines one such case involving the U.S. Department of Energy's pretreatment facility of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2) was run using conservative parameter values in prescribed guidance to demonstrate that the dose from a postulated airborne release would not exceed the guideline dose of 0.25 Sv. External review of default model parameters identified the deposition velocity of 1.0 cm s as being non-conservative. The deposition velocity calculated using resistance models was in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 cm s-1. A value of 0.1 cm s-1 would result in the dose guideline being exceeded. To test the overall conservatism of the MACCS2 transport model, the 95th percentile hourly average dispersion factor based on one year of meteorological data was compared to dispersion factors generated from two state-of-the-art Lagrangian puff models. The 95th percentile dispersion factor from MACCS2 was a factor of 3 to 6 higher compared to those of the Lagrangian puff models at a distance of 9.3 km and a deposition velocity of 0.1 cm s-1. Thus, the inherent conservatism in MACCS2 more than compensated for the high deposition velocity used in the assessment. Applications of models like MACCS2 with a conservative set of parameters are essentially screening calculations, and failure to meet dose criteria should not trigger facility design changes but prompt a more in-depth analysis using probabilistic methods with a defined margin of safety in the target dose. A sample application of the probabilistic approach is provided.

  9. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  10. Estimation of the Radiological Consequences of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Min, Byung-Il; Park, Kihyun; Yang, Byung-Mo; Suh, Kyung-suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Three of them have undergone fuel melting and hydrogen explosions. A significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere from FDNPP and dispersed all over the world. In this study, we assessed the offsite consequences of Fukushima disaster in the region within a 30-km radius of FDNPP using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code Systems 2(MACCS2) code, which is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code. The reflection of the realistic regional characteristics, such as long-term meteorological data, site- and population-specific data, and radiation safety regulatory, is essential to accurately analyze the off-site consequences. The assessment that reflects regional characteristics would contribute to identify main causes of exposure doses and to find the effective countermeasures for minimizing the accidental off-site consequences.

  11. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  12. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  13. 75 FR 71464 - Shorewood Packaging, a Subsidiary of International Paper Company, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 54187). The workers produce cigarette cartons. The initial investigation resulted in a... Employment and Training Administration Shorewood Packaging, a Subsidiary of International Paper Company... Packaging, a subsidiary of International Paper Company, Danville, Virginia, meet the worker...

  14. 49 CFR 173.242 - Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards. 173.242 Section 173.242 Transportation Other... medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards. When § 172.101 of this subchapter...

  15. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  16. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  17. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  18. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  19. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  20. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  1. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg/kg and was dispersed throughout indicating its use in food processing machinery as the likely source. Retail confectionery products wrapped in waxed paper (containing 12-44% w/w) gave rise to levels of 12-1300 mg/kg mineral hydrocarbon in the individually wrapped sweets. Migration into boiled sweets was lowest at 10-130 mg/kg, whilst soft chews and toffee products contained 110-1300 mg/kg. The distribution of wax hydrocarbons (principally n-alkanes) in the confectionery coincided exactly with that for the paper wrapping, with a range of C23 to C33 (95% material) centred around C26. This indicated that the transfer to the food occurred largely by adhesion rather than by diffusion since the latter would be expected to favour preferential migration of the low molecular weight components. In simulated home-use experiments with waxed bags sold in the United States for domestic use, migration into sandwiches and cake amounted to 40 mg/kg (1% transfer of wax). Use of these waxed bags in the microwave oven (as recommended) gave rise to contamination of foods from 210 to 1650 mg/kg (up to 60% transfer of wax).

  2. Bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus efficiently package various bacterial genes and mobile genetic elements including SCCmec with different frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašlaňová, Ivana; Doškař, Jiří; Varga, Marian; Kuntová, Lucie; Mužík, Jan; Malúšková, Denisa; Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human and veterinary pathogen in which new strains with increasing virulence and antimicrobial resistance occur due to acquiring new genes by horizontal transfer. It is generally accepted that temperate bacteriophages play a major role in gene transfer. In this study, we proved the presence of various bacterial genes of the S. aureus COL strain directly within the phage particles via qPCR and quantified their packaging frequency. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that transducing bacteriophages φ11, φ80 and φ80α of serogroup B, in contrast to serogroup A bacteriophage φ81, efficiently package selected chromosomal genes localized in 4 various loci of the chromosome and 8 genes carried on variable elements, such as staphylococcal cassette chromosome SCCmec, staphylococcal pathogenicity island SaPI1, genomic islands vSaα and vSaβ, and plasmids with various frequency. Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage particles ranged between 1.05 × 10(2) for the tetK plasmid gene and 3.86 × 10(5) for the SaPI1 integrase gene. The new and crucial finding that serogroup B bacteriophages can package concurrently ccrA1 (1.16 × 10(4)) and mecA (1.26 × 10(4)) located at SCCmec type I into their capsids indicates that generalized transduction plays an important role in the evolution and emergence of new methicillin-resistant clones.

  3. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    to address this need. A numerical tool based on two approaches (Wave and Modal) is developed. It allows a fast computation of the vibroacoustic response for multilayer structures over full frequency spectrum and for various kinds of excitations (monople, rain on the roof, diffuse acoustic filed, turbulent boundary layer) . A comparison between results obtained by the developed model, experimental tests and the finite element method is given and discussed. The results are very promising with respect to the potential of such a model for industrial use as a prediction tool, and even for design. The code can be also integrated within an SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) strategy in order to model a full vehicle by computing in particular the insertion loss and the equivalent damping added by the sound package. Keywords: Transfer Matrix Method, Wave Approach,Turbulent Boundary Layer, Rain on the Roof, Monopole, Insertion loss, Double-wall, Sound Package.

  5. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  6. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  7. Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R; Yang, J M

    2004-02-02

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145 requires an evaluation of the offsite atmospheric dispersion coefficient, {Chi}/Q, as a part of the acceptance criteria in the accident analysis. In it, it requires in sequence computations of (1) the overall site 95th percentile {Chi}/Q, (2) the maximum of the sixteen sector 99.5th percentile {Chi}/Q, and (3) comparison and selection of the worst of the two values for reporting in the safety analysis report (SAR). In all cases, the site-specific meteorology and sector-specific site boundary distances are employed in the evaluation. There are sixteen 22.5-sectors, the nearest site boundary of which is determined within the 45-arc centered on each of the sixteen compass directions.

  8. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  9. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  10. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  11. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  12. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  13. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  14. The experimental charge-density approach in the evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Application of a new module of the XD programming package to several solids including a pentapeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y A; Volkov, A; Wu, G; Coppens, P

    2000-11-01

    A new module interfaced to the XD programming package has been used in the evaluation of intermolecular interactions and lattice energies of the crystals of p-nitroaniline, L-asparagine monohydrate and the pentapeptide Boc-Gln-D-Iva-Hyp-Ala-Phol (Boc = butoxycarbonyl, Iva = isovaline = ethylalanine, Phol = phenylalaninol). The electrostatic interactions are evaluated with the atom-centered distributed multipoles from KRMM (kappa'-restricted multipole model) refinements, using the Buckingham expression for non-overlapping charge densities. Results for p-nitroaniline are compared with Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional (DFT) and Moller-Plesset (MP2) supermolecular calculations and with HF and DFT periodic calculations. The HF and DFT methods fail to predict the stability of the p-nitroaniline crystal but the results of the experimental charge-density approach (ECDA) are in good agreement with both MP2 interaction energies and the experimental lattice energy. ECDA results for L-asparagine monohydrate compare well with those from DFT supermolecular and periodic HF calculations. The disorder of the terminal group in the pentapeptide, which persists at the experimental temperature of 20 K, corresponds to an energy difference of only 0.35 kJ mol(-1), which is too small to be reproduced with current methods.

  15. Instructional Materials for Career Education and Occupational and Personal Guidance: A Revised Catalog of Materials included in Traveling Package Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Abigail, Comp.; Pellant, William, Comp.

    Approximately 75 instructional materials(including books, filmstrips, cassettes, and tapes) said to be appropriate for career education programs for pre-vocational and vocational special education students are listed in the areas of vocational guidance, personal guidance, and reading, math and other specialized job-related skills. Materials on…

  16. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  17. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  18. Development of methods for reducing energy consumption in relation to the drying process involved in packaging production. Explanation of process technology in relation to flexography, serigraphy and photogravure including the laminating and varnishing processes which follow. Udvikling af metoder til nedsaettelse af energiforbruget ved toerring i emballagekonvertering. Indfoering i procesteknik inden for flexo-, dyb- og silketryk samt de efterfoelgende laminerings- og lakeringsprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, P.; Nielsen, K.

    1985-02-01

    Three package printing processes, including the drying processes, are described, and it is concluded that ''nip roll coating'' could be used to help reduce overall energy consumption. It is also suggested that processes utilized in the Danish packaging industry need serious further investigation. (AB).

  19. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  20. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  1. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  2. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  3. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  4. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  5. Portobello Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2010-01-01

    ...-based foams. Bayer earned dual degrees in mechanical engineering and product design in 2007 and, with classmate Gavin Mclntyre, started the company Ecovative Design to market his creation. EcoCradle, the company's organic packaging material, was named one of the top inventions of 2009 by Popular Science. Its insulation material, Greensulate, got a ...

  6. The ACCESS study a Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in people who present to hospital after self-harm: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Varsha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves pose a common and important problem. Previous reviews of interventions have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and regular written communications after the self-harm attempt may be an effective treatment. This protocol describes a large pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, regular written communication, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in people who present to hospital after self-harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a large representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be hospital attendance following repetition of self-harm, in the 12 months after recruitment with secondary outcomes of self reported self-harm, hopelessness, anxiety, depression, quality of life, social function and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit large numbers and does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. However the primary analysis is a true intention to treat analysis of everyone randomised which includes both those who consent and do not consent to participate in the study. This provides information about how the intervention will work in practice in a representative population which is a major advance in this study compared to what has

  7. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  8. Te Ira Tangata: A Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in Maori who present to hospital after self harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikiriwhi Karen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial

  9. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  10. Seafood Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  11. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  12. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  13. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  14. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  15. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  16. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  17. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  18. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  19. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  20. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  1. Introducing Experience Goals into Packaging Design

    OpenAIRE

    Joutsela, Markus; Roto, Virpi; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Consumer experiences are an increasingly important driving force for commerce, affecting also packaging design. Yet, experience design for packages is rarely studied. Specifically, there is a gap in research regarding the integration of experiential goals, Xgoals, into the packaging design process. Open questions include how to describe Xgoals in design briefs when package design is outsourced, how to deal with changes during the design process, and how to evaluate whether the delivered desig...

  2. ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

  3. Problem-based learning packages: considerations for neophyte package writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstberger-Sims, C; McMillan, M A

    1993-02-01

    Adopting problem-based learning (PBL) as the major educational approach in the implementation of a nursing curriculum requires the development of numerous learning stimulus packages. When reviewing the experience of the Division of Nursing within the Faculty of Health at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur in Australia, several considerations for package writers were identified and are discussed. These include needs assessment, integration of the curricula content strands, multi-media learning stimuli, context, role and the incorporation of ongoing client management. The need for nurturance of writers and peer review of the developed packages is also addressed, as is a review of the impact of different learning stimuli.

  4. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  5. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  6. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  7. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  8. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  10. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word-for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M&O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document.

  11. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  12. DNA packaging by lambda-like bacteriophages: mutations broadening the packaging specificity of terminase, the lambda-packaging enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Reynolds, Erin; Schrock, Morgan; Sippy, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The DNA-packaging specificities of phages lambda and 21 depend on the specific DNA interactions of the small terminase subunits, which have support helix-turn-recognition helix-wing DNA-binding motifs. lambda-Terminase with the recognition helix of 21 preferentially packages 21 DNA. This chimeric terminase's ability to package lambdaDNA is reduced approximately 20-fold. Phage lambda with the chimeric terminase is unable to form plaques, but pseudorevertants are readily obtained. Some pseudorevertants have trans-acting suppressors that change codons of the recognition helix. Some of these codons appear to remove an unfavorable base-pair contact; others appear to create a novel nonspecific DNA contact. Helper-packaging experiments show that these mutant terminases have lost the ability to discriminate between lambda and 21 during DNA packaging. Two cis-acting suppressors affect cosB, the small subunit's DNA-binding site. Each changes a cosB(lambda)-specific base pair to a cosB(21)-specific base pair. These cosB suppressors cause enhanced DNA packaging by 21-specific terminase and reduce packaging by lambda-terminase. Both the cognate support helix and turn are required for strong packaging discrimination. The wing does not contribute to cosB specificity. Evolution of packaging specificity is discussed, including a model in which lambda- and 21-packaging specificities diverged from a common ancestor phage with broad packaging specificity.

  13. DNA Packaging by λ-Like Bacteriophages: Mutations Broadening the Packaging Specificity of Terminase, the λ-Packaging Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Reynolds, Erin; Schrock, Morgan; Sippy, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The DNA-packaging specificities of phages λ and 21 depend on the specific DNA interactions of the small terminase subunits, which have support helix-turn-recognition helix-wing DNA-binding motifs. λ-Terminase with the recognition helix of 21 preferentially packages 21 DNA. This chimeric terminase's ability to package λDNA is reduced ∼20-fold. Phage λ with the chimeric terminase is unable to form plaques, but pseudorevertants are readily obtained. Some pseudorevertants have trans-acting suppressors that change codons of the recognition helix. Some of these codons appear to remove an unfavorable base-pair contact; others appear to create a novel nonspecific DNA contact. Helper-packaging experiments show that these mutant terminases have lost the ability to discriminate between λ and 21 during DNA packaging. Two cis-acting suppressors affect cosB, the small subunit's DNA-binding site. Each changes a cosBλ-specific base pair to a cosB21-specific base pair. These cosB suppressors cause enhanced DNA packaging by 21-specific terminase and reduce packaging by λ-terminase. Both the cognate support helix and turn are required for strong packaging discrimination. The wing does not contribute to cosB specificity. Evolution of packaging specificity is discussed, including a model in which λ- and 21-packaging specificities diverged from a common ancestor phage with broad packaging specificity. PMID:19841094

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  15. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  16. Child-resistant and tamper-resistant packaging: A systematic review to inform tobacco packaging regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Ambs, Anita; Dresler, Carolyn M; Backinger, Cathy L

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of special packaging (child-resistant, adult-friendly) and tamper-resistant packaging on health and behavioral outcomes in order to identify research gaps and implications for packaging standards for tobacco products. We searched seven databases for keywords related to special and tamper-resistant packaging, consulted experts, and reviewed citations of potentially relevant studies. 733 unique papers were identified. Two coders independently screened each title and abstract for eligibility. They then reviewed the full text of the remaining papers for a second round of eligibility screening. Included studies investigated a causal relationship between type of packaging or packaging regulation and behavioral or health outcomes and had a study population composed of consumers. Studies were excluded on the basis of publication type, if they were not peer-reviewed, and if they had low external validity. Two reviewers independently coded each paper for study and methodological characteristics and limitations. Discrepancies were discussed and resolved. The review included eight studies: four assessing people's ability to access the contents of different packaging types and four evaluating the impact of packaging requirements on health-related outcomes. Child-resistant packaging was generally more difficult to open than non-child-resistant packaging. Child-resistant packaging requirements have been associated with reductions in child mortality. Child-resistant packaging holds the expectation to reduce tobacco product poisonings among children under six. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-01-01

    Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expan...

  18. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  20. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  1. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  2. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  3. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  4. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Stanislav; Majnarić, Igor; Golubović, Kristijan

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid print...

  5. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  6. New Polymer Materials for Microelectronics Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Researchers at the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS) have made breakthrough progress in developing the manufacturing technology of advanced polymer materials for microelectronics packaging applications. The advanced integrated circuit (IC) packaging polymer materials, including photoimageable polyimide resins and liquid epoxy underfills, are a key issue for FC-BGA/CSP(flip chip-ball grill array/chip scale packaging) which is the main stream for the next generation of microelectronics devices. With the down-sizing, thinning and high I/O (input/output) of IC chips, microelectronics packaging is now facing a big technology challenge.

  7. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dutang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory, simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms the most recent version of the package.

  8. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  9. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  10. Simulation and Training Package on Corex Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A software package has been developed for simulation on the Corex process. The simulation and training package on the process of shaft furnace using Corex off gas were introduced. The package consists of three main modules, namely the numerical simulation, the system modeling and optimization, and the training module, which are integrated with graphical interfaces. In addition, the equipment starting and stopping operation and typical trouble-shooting were also included in the package, whereby a practical environment can be established for training of operation and management stuff.

  11. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  12. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage.

  13. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  14. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  15. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  17. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  18. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  19. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  20. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  1. Photonics and Nanophotonics and Information and Communication Technologies in Modern Food Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarapulova, Olha; Sherstiuk, Valentyn; Shvalagin, Vitaliy; Kukhta, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    ...) with packaging industry and food production was made. The perspective of combining the latest advances of nanotechnology, including nanophotonics, and ICT for creating modern smart packaging was shown...

  2. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  3. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  4. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  5. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  6. The Development of Basic Animal Husbandry Learning Package

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Suryaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Pengembangan Paket Pembelajaran Dasar-dasar Peternakan Abstract: The purpose this research is to generate a package of learning development basics animal husbandry in accordance with the characteristics of the students and the subject and test the fea-sibility of the resulting learning package. The development of learning packages using the model of Dick, Carey & Carey (2001). The results of product assessment the package of learning the basics of animal husbandry is included in the quali...

  7. Installation package for a solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  8. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  9. Controller for solar heating-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains performance specifications and detailed drawings for two instruments: (1) differential controller, and (2) temperature monitor, for solar-powered water-heating systems. Included in package are schematics, wiring diagrams, test procedures, and parts list.

  10. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  11. OECA Annual Report 2015 Data Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package shows information on enforcement actions and cases from 2015. They include civil enforcement actions taken by EPA at facilities,...

  12. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  13. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  14. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  15. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  16. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  17. PROSPECTS OF POLYMER PACKAGING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main types of materials used in the manufacture of packaging. Analyzed trends in further development of packaging materials. Shows how to improve the quality of plastic packaging materials in today's market.

  18. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  19. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  20. Package Design Affects Accuracy Recognition for Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endestad, Tor; Wortinger, Laura A; Madsen, Steinar; Hortemo, Sigurd

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to test if highlighting and placement of substance name on medication package have the potential to reduce patient errors. An unintentional overdose of medication is a large health issue that might be linked to medication package design. In two experiments, placement, background color, and the active ingredient of generic medication packages were manipulated according to best human factors guidelines to reduce causes of labeling-related patient errors. In two experiments, we compared the original packaging with packages where we varied placement of the name, dose, and background of the active ingredient. Age-relevant differences and the effect of color on medication recognition error were tested. In Experiment 1, 59 volunteers (30 elderly and 29 young students), participated. In Experiment 2, 25 volunteers participated. The most common error was the inability to identify that two different packages contained the same active ingredient (young, 41%, and elderly, 68%). This kind of error decreased with the redesigned packages (young, 8%, and elderly, 16%). Confusion errors related to color design were reduced by two thirds in the redesigned packages compared with original generic medications. Prominent placement of substance name and dose with a band of high-contrast color support recognition of the active substance in medications. A simple modification including highlighting and placing the name of the active ingredient in the upper right-hand corner of the package helps users realize that two different packages can contain the same active substance, thus reducing the risk of inadvertent medication overdose. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  2. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  3. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  4. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  5. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  6. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  7. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  8. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  9. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  10. Galeri Matrix Generation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-09-01

    The Galeri package defines a collection of serial and distributed linear algebra objects to be used for software verification and validation. Galeri is used in several of the examples of the Amesos, IFPACK and ML packages, and in the Trilinos tutorial, Didasko. Galeri can be used for the generation of linear system with known propeties and data distribution for convergence analysis of interative solvers of Krylov type and domain decomposition and multigrid preconditioners.

  11. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    . Although recycling could be energetically more favorable than composting for these materials, it may not be practical because of excessive sorting and cleaning requirements. Therefore, the main focus is to dispose them by composting. So far, there is no formal agreement between companies, governments and consumers as to how this packaging composting will take place; therefore, the main drivers for their use have been green marketing and pseudo-environmental consciousness related to high fuel prices. Packaging compostability could be an alternative for the disposal of biobased materials as long as society as a whole is willing to formally address the challenge to clearly understand the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package, and to include these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities.

  12. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  13. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  14. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  17. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  18. The bacteriophage DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venigalla B; Feiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    An ATP-powered DNA translocation machine encapsidates the viral genome in the large dsDNA bacteriophages. The essential components include the empty shell, prohead, and the packaging enzyme, terminase. During translocation, terminase is docked on the prohead's portal protein. The translocation ATPase and the concatemer-cutting endonuclease reside in terminase. Remarkably, terminases, portal proteins, and shells of tailed bacteriophages and herpes viruses show conserved features. These DNA viruses may have descended from a common ancestor. Terminase's ATPase consists of a classic nucleotide binding fold, most closely resembling that of monomeric helicases. Intriguing models have been proposed for the mechanism of dsDNA translocation, invoking ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes of portal or terminase powering DNA motion. Single-molecule studies show that the packaging motor is fast and powerful. Recent advances permit experiments that can critically test the packaging models. The viral genome translocation mechanism is of general interest, given the parallels between terminases, helicases, and other motor proteins.

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  20. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety

  1. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  2. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  3. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  4. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  5. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  6. Applications of Nanomaterials in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Choi, Jungwook; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials have drawn great interest in recent years due to their extraordinary properties that make them advantageous in food packaging applications. Specifically, nanoparticles can impart significant barrier properties, as well as mechanical, optical, catalytic, and antimicrobial properties into packaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nanoclay account for the majority of the nano-enabled food packaging on the market, while others, such as nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium, share less of the current market. In current food packaging, these nanomaterials are primarily used to impart antimicrobial function and to improve barrier properties, thereby extending the shelf life and freshness of packaged food. On the other hand, there is growing concern about the migration of nanomaterials from food contact materials to foodstuffs and its associated potential risks. Indeed, insufficient data about environmental and human safety assessments of migration and exposure of nanomaterials are hindering their market growth. To overcome this barrier, the public believes that legislation from government agencies is critical. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and functions of major nanomaterials that are commonly applied to food packaging, including available and near- future products. Migration research, safety issues, and public concerns are also discussed.

  7. Surgical packages for laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Packages′ are in fashion today for most surgical procedures in various corporate hospitals and this has included laparoscopic procedures too. A package system enables the hospitals to get cost settlements done more easily. Also, it is more convenient for the patients who are aware upfront of the charges. The principal disadvantages seems to be for the surgeon, who may face displeasure of the patient, hospital or insurance agencies apart from forfeiting his personal charges if (a he is a novice in laparoscopic surgery and takes extra time to complete a procedure, (b unforeseen problems occur during surgery, or (c new pathologies are discovered on exploration.

  8. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  9. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  10. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  11. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  12. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  13. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Zhang; G. Z.Xiao; Jiaren Liu; C. P. Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  14. The influence of vacuum packaging on microbiological status and sensory properties of fresh beef

    OpenAIRE

    Baltić, Tatjana; Borović, Branka; Spirić, Danka; Parunović, Nenad; Karan, Dragica; Mitrović, Radmila; Radičević, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The packaging method can significantly affect the shelf life of fresh meat, and consequently the microbiological status and sensory properties of the packaged meat. In our country, for extending the shelf life of meat and meat products, the vacuum-packaging and packaging in the modified atmosphere are usually used. Vacuum-packaging favours the growth of facultative anaerobic bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta, as proven spoilage bacteria...

  15. Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish

    OpenAIRE

    Heising, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an intelligent packaging that is able to communicate information about the packed food. An intelligent packaging could be used to monitor quality attributes of the food and translate this into a message about the quality of the pac...

  16. Developing a training package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; Donskoy, Anne-Laure

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a training package for service users and carers with an interest in NHS health and social care research. It demonstrates how the developers used their unique experience and expertise as service users and carers to inform their work. Design/methodology/approach Service users and carers, NHS Research and Development Forum working group members, supported by health professionals, identified a need for research training that was tailored to other service user and carer needs. After reviewing existing provision and drawing on their training and support experience, they developed a training package. Sessions from the training package were piloted, which evaluated positively. In trying to achieve programme accreditation and training roll-out beyond the pilots, the group encountered several challenges. Findings The training package development group formed good working relationships and a co-production model that proved sustainable. However, challenges were difficult to overcome owing to external factors and financial constraints. Practical implications Lessons learnt by the team are useful for other service users and carer groups working with health service professionals. Training for service users and carers should be designed to meet their needs; quality and consistency are also important. The relationships between service user and carer groups, and professionals are important to understanding joint working. Recognising and addressing challenges at the outset can help develop strategies to overcome challenges and ensure project success. Originality/value The training package was developed by service users and carers for other service users and carers. Their unique health research experience underpinned the group's values and training development.

  17. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  18. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-03431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-05-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-03431. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. All observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. Except for modest corrosion of the lead shield (which is typical of these packages following several years service), no evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the KArea Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-03431 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1.

  19. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  20. Packaging design as a Marketing tool and Desire to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakova, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consumer perception on different design elements of a milk package and to provide essential information for the companies about the consumer attraction and importance of design attributes from the consumer point of view. The theoretical framework was based on the secondary data (articles and books) and included core concepts of packaging, packaging design, consumer behavior, consumer perception, and consumer attraction. The mixed method was sele...

  1. The C-Cat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, K; Huang, T; Buttler, D

    2011-09-16

    We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's use on two standard Word Sense Disambiguation tasks and apply the Castanet algorithm to a corpus.

  2. Transformation of food packaging from passive to innovative via nanotechnology: concepts and critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Kadam, Dattatreya M; Swai, Hulda; Hilonga, Askwar

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues. However, in food industry the features behind smart packaging are narrowly defined to be distinguished from intelligent packaging as in other scientific fields, where smart materials are under critical investigations. This review presents some scientific concepts and features pertaining innovative food packaging. The review opens new research window in innovative food packaging to cover the existing disparities for further precise research and development of food packaging industry.

  3. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Geert; Widding, Sofie Hartvig

    "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  4. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  5. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  6. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  7. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  8. Packaging as object of innovative marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Tielietov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Increasing of food production in excess of the required amounts of human consumption, increases the amount of packaging materials, what reduces the available natural resources and pollute the environment. The purpose of this article is to review the package as one of the elements of innovative marketing activities. The results of the analysis. In this paper, the container object of innovative marketing (including media advertising problems of reuse and recycling, which should improve the ecological status of any country. It is shown that packaging as an important source of information about the product, manufacturer, instructions for use, storage time, the composition of the product and etc. is the subject of innovative marketing. No less a role in packaging and implemented a visual image of the product, which is a specific combination of colors, font, geometric shapes and other visual elements of the series. This is also an important feature of competitive goods. It is confirmed that the coming decades, humanity will not solve the question of reducing the depletion of natural resources due to reasonable restrictions consumption, implementing energy technology and maximize the use of recycled materials and recycling of used packaging, the world may be on the brink of ecological disaster. At the regional and local levels there is a need to do something for effective packaging recycling. Conclusions and directions of further researches. In a globalized world, there is a need to solve the problem of the optimal combination of innovative marketing for new packaging and the urgent need to conserve resources for its production in order to improve the general state of the environment.

  9. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  10. Package-X: A Mathematica package for the analytic calculation of one-loop integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren H.

    2015-12-01

    Package-X, a Mathematica package for the analytic computation of one-loop integrals dimensionally regulated near 4 spacetime dimensions is described. Package-X computes arbitrarily high rank tensor integrals with up to three propagators, and gives compact expressions of UV divergent, IR divergent, and finite parts for any kinematic configuration involving real-valued external invariants and internal masses. Output expressions can be readily evaluated numerically and manipulated symbolically with built-in Mathematica functions. Emphasis is on evaluation speed, on readability of results, and especially on user-friendliness. Also included is a routine to compute traces of products of Dirac matrices, and a collection of projectors to facilitate the computation of fermion form factors at one-loop. The package is intended to be used both as a research tool and as an educational tool.

  11. Package-X: A Mathematica package for the analytic calculation of one-loop integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Hiren H

    2015-01-01

    Package-X, a Mathematica package for the analytic computation of one-loop integrals dimensionally regulated near 4 spacetime dimensions is described. Package-X computes arbitrarily high rank tensor integrals with up to three propagators, and gives compact expressions of UV divergent, IR divergent, and finite parts for any kinematic configuration involving real-valued external invariants and internal masses. Output expressions can be readily evaluated numerically and manipulated symbolically with built-in Mathematica functions. Emphasis is on evaluation speed, on readability of results, and especially on user-friendliness. Also included is a routine to compute traces of products of Dirac matrices, and a collection of projectors to facilitate the computation of fermion form factors at one-loop. The package is intended to be used both as a research tool and as an educational tool.

  12. A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF PACKAGE INSERTS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbool Ali M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available formation is a Package Insert. It is a printed leaflet that contains information based on regulatory guidelines for the safe and effective use of a drug. Incomplete and incorrect product information may have serious consequences including disability or death. In India, the concept of package insert is governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (1940 and Rules (1945. Keeping this in mind, this study was designed to assess the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. AIM To evaluate the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. OBJECTIVES To evaluate drug information in package inserts according to headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and 6.3 of Schedule D, Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. MATERIAL AND METHODS Package inserts accompanying allopathic medicines were obtained from a drug store and three pharmacies around a tertiary care centre in Western India on request over a 1-month period. The package inserts were included in the study and analysed for the presentation and completeness of information according to the headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and Section 6.3 of Schedule D, The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. RESULTS 110 package inserts were analysed in the study. None of the reviewed package insert contained all the sections as required by the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules. CONCLUSION To avoid medication errors due to deficits in drug information in package inserts, tighter monitoring of package inserts by regulatory authorities is recommended. Steps should be taken to ensure that the information in the package inserts follows a standard layout for easy and convenient comprehension.

  13. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  14. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  15. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  16. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  17. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  18. Active and intelligent packaging for food: Is it the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.R. de; Boumans, H.; Slaghek, T.; Veen, J. van; Rijk, R.; Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the legal consequences of a new EU framework regulation on food contact materials which includes controls on active and intelligent packaging. Recent developments in active and intelligent packaging systems are described, two examples of which aim at achieving

  19. Process Variability and Capability in Candy Production and Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Ronald S.

    2016-01-01

    In this short, in-class activity, students use fun size packages of M&Ms to study process variability, including a real-world application of C[subscript pk]. How process variability and legal requirements force the company to put "Not Labeled for Individual Retail Sale" on each fun size package is discussed, as is the economics of…

  20. Active and intelligent packaging for food: Is it the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.R. de; Boumans, H.; Slaghek, T.; Veen, J. van; Rijk, R.; Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the legal consequences of a new EU framework regulation on food contact materials which includes controls on active and intelligent packaging. Recent developments in active and intelligent packaging systems are described, two examples of which aim at achieving improve

  1. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  2. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  3. Active and intelligent packaging for food: Is it the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.R. de; Boumans, H.; Slaghek, T.; Veen, J. van; Rijk, R.; Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the legal consequences of a new EU framework regulation on food contact materials which includes controls on active and intelligent packaging. Recent developments in active and intelligent packaging systems are described, two examples of which aim at achieving improve

  4. Hermetic-coaxial package design for microwave transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Semiconductor package has been developed for high power semiconductor devices that operate in the GHz-frequency range at several watts. Package includes stud, insulating ring, electrically conductive washer, insulating washer, braze ring, and cap. It is mechanically strong and can be used with variety of circuits.

  5. Battery-package design provides for cell cooling and constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1968-01-01

    Lightweight battery-package provides for even cooling of individual alkaline cells, constraint against cell expansion, and convenient placement of cells. The battery package also provides for venting of the cells and includes instrumentation to measure cell temperature, pressure, and voltage.

  6. Packaging considerations of fiber-optic laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Veli; Tukkiniemi, Kari; Vaehaekangas, Jouko; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The continuous progress in material and component technology has generated new laser-based applications that require special packaging techniques. Hybrid integration offers a flexible method to accomplish custom design needs. This paper discusses several aspects in fiber optic packaging including optical, thermal, and mechanical issues. Special emphasis is on optical coupling between a laser diode and a single-mode fiber.

  7. Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.

  8. Conceptual exploration package for data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Grenier, Dominic; Bosse, Eloi

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we present a software package designed to explore data fusion area applied to different contexts. This tool, called CEPfuse (Conceptual Exploration Package for Data Fusion) provides a good support to become familiar with all concepts and vocabulary linked to data fusion. Developed with Matlab 5.2, it's also a good tool to test, compare and analyze algorithms. Although the core of this package is evidential reasoning and identity information fusion, it has been conceived to develop all the interesting part of the Multi-Sensor Data Fusion system. Actually, because we concentrate our research work on identity information fusion, the principal included algorithms are Dempster- Shafer rules of combination, Shafer-Logan algorithms for hierarchical structures, and several decision rules.

  9. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  13. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  14. Submersible Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Butyraldehyde E,K Aniline Hydrochloride E Butyric Acid V,E Fluid codes are defined in paragraph 40.2.1 and are listed in order of recommended use . 20...Furfuryl Alcohol E Ethyl Chloride E,B,N Gallic Acid V,FE Ethyl Chiorocarbonate V,F Gasoline BV,F Ethyl Chioroformate V,F Glycerine B,E Ethylene Chloride...This document describes packaging techniques that would allow sophisticated electronics to be used and transported reliably underwater. 20. DISTRIBUTION

  15. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  16. TASC Graphics Software Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    RD-I55 861 TSC GRPHICS SOFTWRE PCKRGE(U) NLYTIC SCIENCES i/I RD 𔄀-t CORP RERDING MA M R TANG DEC 82 TR-1946-6U~~cLss AFG L-TR-gi-1388 Fi9629-89-C...extensions were made to allow TGSP to use color graphics. 2.1 INTERACTIVE TGSP NCAR was designed to be a general plot package for use with many different...plotting devices. It is designed to accept high level commands and generate an intermediate set of commands called metacode and to then use device

  17. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  18. Minimal Processing and Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables by Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanky Bhat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging should protect the product from contamination and prevent it from spoilage. Packaging has normally been expected to be inert towards the packaged product, but the potential for packaging to put in to the quality retention and the convenience of packaged goods was not utilized. In response to the dynamic changes in current market trends and consumer demand, the area of Active Packaging (AP is becoming increasingly significant. Active packaging changes the condition of the packed foods with the use of the incorporation of certain additives into the packaging films or inside the packaging headspaces so as to extend the product's shelf life. Principal AP systems include those that involve moisture absorption and control, oxygen scavenging, carbon dioxide and ethanol generation, and antimicrobial (AM migrating and non-migrating systems.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  20. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  1. Signal processor packaging design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  2. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. 3D microelectronic packaging from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive reference for graduate students and professionals in both academia and industry on the fundamentals, processing details, and applications of 3D microelectronic packaging, an industry trend for future microelectronic packages. Chapters written by experts cover the most recent research results and industry progress in the following areas: TSV, die processing, micro bumps, direct bonding, thermal compression bonding, advanced materials, heat dissipation, thermal management, thermal mechanical modeling, quality, reliability, fault isolation, and failure analysis of 3D microelectronic packages. Numerous images, tables, and didactic schematics are included throughout. This essential volume equips readers with an in-depth understanding of all aspects of 3D packaging, including packaging architecture, processing, thermal mechanical and moisture related reliability concerns, common failures, developing areas, and future challenges, providing insights into key areas for future resea...

  4. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  5. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegrada...

  6. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  7. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  8. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  9. Strategic framework and methodical bases of technological package development management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Artyukhov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article deals with the problem of technological package management. Based on the concept of integrated innovation we consider the evolutionary approach for technology package management. Directions of evaluation process of package are presented. Scheme of improving of technological package is proposed. The process of technological package development is considered in case of development of granulation equipment that includes a variety of technologies, which are incorporated into the technological package “Granulator”. For technological package development the technology package lifecycle, technology map of package and technology trajectory are interrelated considered. The results of the analysis. The technology package we propose to consider as a kind of system, the development of which is evolutionary. According to UNIDO recommendations [8] analysis of acceptability of technology includes an assessment of technical and economic features of technology package in context of production in national environment. As a basic tool of technology package development authors propose to consider technology transfer as part of integrated innovation approach. Enterprises of modern sectors, especially high-tech, at the same time use a large number of technologies, distributed according to functional application, but only some of these technologies are critical in terms of specialization. Therefore, for management technology package authors propose to divide into the classes with appropriate management instruments (optimization object and development strategy. The authors investigated such key product indicators of granulation systems technological trajectory analysis: – dimensions and performance, reliability and ease of operation; – product criterias; – versatility – one granulator may be established to work with different performance and wide range of products; – ecological purity – waste formation during

  10. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  11. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  12. Improved Subset Autoregression: With R Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. McLeod

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The FitAR R (R Development Core Team 2008 package that is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network is described. This package provides a comprehensive approach to fitting autoregressive and subset autoregressive time series. For long time series with complicated autocorrelation behavior, such as the monthly sunspot numbers, subset autoregression may prove more feasible and/or parsimonious than using AR or ARMA models. The two principal functions in this package are SelectModel and FitAR for automatic model selection and model fitting respectively. In addition to the regular autoregressive model and the usual subset autoregressive models (Tong 1977, these functions implement a new family of models. This new family of subset autoregressive models is obtained by using the partial autocorrelations as parameters and then selecting a subset of these parameters. Further properties and results for these models are discussed in McLeod and Zhang (2006. The advantages of this approach are that not only is an efficient algorithm for exact maximum likelihood implemented but that efficient methods are derived for selecting high-order subset models that may occur in massive datasets containing long time series. A new improved extended {BIC} criterion, {UBIC}, developed by Chen and Chen (2008 is implemented for subset model selection. A complete suite of model building functions for each of the three types of autoregressive models described above are included in the package. The package includes functions for time series plots, diagnostic testing and plotting, bootstrapping, simulation, forecasting, Box-Cox analysis, spectral density estimation and other useful time series procedures. As well as methods for standard generic functions including print, plot, predict and others, some new generic functions and methods are supplied that make it easier to work with the output from FitAR for bootstrapping, simulation, spectral density estimation and Box

  13. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  14. Exposure to chemicals in food packaging as a sustainability trade-off in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Muncke, Jane; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals in packaging, including ‘eco-friendly’ and recycled food packaging, can migrate into food and expose humans. LCA has been fundamental to indicate more ‘eco-friendly’ packages, but currently LCA does not consider exposure to chemical migrants and methods have not yet been...... for consumption. For screening, we include exposure via environmental emissions from the production of the raw material HIPS, thermoforming into packaging, 14 day refrigeration by consumers, and disposal via incineration. The purpose of this screening is not to obtain a detailed and accurate LCA of HIPS...... methods to model the product intake fraction (PiF) as the fraction of chemical mass taken in through food packaging versus its initial mass in the food packaging. Results demonstrated that in the given cases consumer exposure to chemicals in packaging through consuming packaged food can be greater than...

  15. Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an intell

  16. Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an

  17. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  18. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  19. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  20. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  1. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  2. Design package for programmable controller and hydronic subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information used in the evaluation of design of Sunkeeper Control's electronic controllers and hydronic packages is discussed. This information includes system performance specifications, a design data brochure, drawings, and qualification and acceptance test procedures.

  3. Installation package for a solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Package consists of installation, operation and maintenance manuals for four commercial solar energy subsystems, including flat plate solar collector pebble bed thermal-storage. Manual gives design information, sizing data, specification drawings, and other material for subsystem.

  4. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  5. Bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging: scanning for the terminal cohesive end site during packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, M; Widner, W

    1982-06-01

    Bacteriophage lambda packages the DNA of the related phage 21 poorly [Hohn, B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 93--106]. To understand the nature of the packaging defect, the interaction of the cohesive end site (cos) specific for phage 21 (cos phi 21) with phage lambda terminase has been investigated. The ability of lambda terminase to cleave cos phi 21 was studied in vitro; lambda terminase cleaved cos phi 21 only 1% as well as it cleaved the phage lambda cohesive end site (cos lambda). In vitro packaging experiments showed that the lambda and 21 packaging specificities observed in vivo are also found in vitro. The cos cleavage reaction was modified so that competition experiments could be performed; these experiments showed that cos phi 21 was unable to bind lambda terminase, thus identifying the nature of the defect. Previous work [Feiss, M., Fisher, R. A., Siegele, D. A., Nichols, B. P. & Donelson, J. E. (1979) Virology 92, 56--67] has shown that the base pairs giving lambda or 21 packaging specificity are at the left end of the chromosome, outside the 22-base-pair symmetry region that includes the annealed cohesive ends. Therefore, terminase binding to cos requires interactions with base pairs to the Nu1 side of the cohesive end symmetry segment. The evidence supports the proposition that cos consists of adjacent sites for binding of terminase and for nicking by terminase. Because cos phi 21 can be cut by lambda terminase to terminate DNA packaging, it is proposed that the terminase that binds and nicks at the initial cos site is brought into contact with the terminal cos site by the packaging process. Terminase recognizes and nicks the cohesive end sequence of the terminal cos without requiring the binding site.

  6. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof, DN 2940; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised...

  7. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof by... Investigation: Having considered the complaint, the U.S. International Trade Commission, on March 22,...

  8. Cluster-lensing: A Python Package for Galaxy Clusters & Miscentering

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jes; VanderPlas, Jake

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new open source package for calculating properties of galaxy clusters, including NFW halo profiles with and without the effects of cluster miscentering. This pure-Python package, cluster-lensing, provides well-documented and easy-to-use classes and functions for calculating cluster scaling relations, including mass-richness and mass-concentration relations from the literature, as well as the surface mass density $\\Sigma(R)$ and differential surface mass density $\\Delta\\Sigma(R)$...

  9. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  10. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  11. Development in the Active Packaging of Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the ... mildly preserved convenience foods that ... antimicrobial packaging concepts, .... material needs to have an 02-barrier of.

  12. A critical appraisal of medication package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjit Narzaree

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Package Inserts (PIs refers to officially specified document that accompanies a drug for relevant, updated and unbiased information for rational drug use based on regulatory guidelines as per section 6.2 and 6.3 of schedule D of Indian Drug and cosmetic Act 1945. But some studies had shown non-uniformity with suboptimal level of informations which frequently can lead to medication errors. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the completeness of PIs.Aim: To critically evaluate package inserts of allopathic medicines.Material and Methods: 100 allopathic drug PIs were collected from pharmacies in Rohtak and were checked for the presence of each heading as per schedule D criteria, followed by scrutiny of the information included under the heading. Indian guidelines were also compared with US FDA guidelines for PIs.Scoring of package inserts: The informations were evaluated for completeness and scored as 1 if present otherwise scored as zero for no information or partial information. Scores for each heading were calculated by totaling the scores of all the package inserts. The total scores were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages.Results:  On an average PIs analyzed for the completeness of the criteria scored 10 (Mean± SD = 9.73±2.48 out of 16. Absence of common layout and headings caused inconvenience. In comparison to US FDA guidelines it lacked, disclaimer statement, boxed warning, revision date, approval date, toll-free number etc.Conclusion: PIs don’t seem to be serving effectively because of multiple deficiencies like completeness, uniformity, absence of headings.Keywords: Critical appraisal, package inserts.

  13. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  14. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  15. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  16. New packaging technologies for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, S J

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the major influencers that will drive change in meat packaging. A review of the current state of fresh-meat packaging in the US has shown a continued evolution to case ready packaging, with 60% of the packages audited being in the case ready format, versus 49% just two years earlier. Additionally, the market is moving to a higher degree of convenience in the meat case, and reducing the linear feet devoted to fresh meat (69% fresh meat linear feet two years ago, versus 63% in 2004). Additional evidence for the growth of convenience items was shown by a 48% growth in shelf stable meal kits between 1998 and 2003. Packaging innovations have been developed to meet these needs for convenience, but have largely been implemented outside of the meat industry. These include, but are not limited to, lines of hand-held soups, self-heating cans and cartons that are replacing the traditional steel can for retort purposes. The recent developments of films that are ovenable in traditional as well as microwave ovens are critical to the further advancement of convenience meat items. Material costs are also driving the need for packaging innovations. Polyethylene costs rose 20% during the second half of 2003, which is largely due to increased petroleum costs. As petroleum costs are sustained at the current high levels, renewable packaging for food, such as materials based on polylactide, will become more feasible. Labor costs and availability at retail will continue to drive the demand for case ready packaging innovations. The recent regulatory approval of carbon monoxide in fresh meat packaging in the US will enable greater usage of low oxygen packaging formats and should provide greater retail acceptance of case ready in the US.

  17. Maldives. Package on population education for special interest groups developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Population Education Program of the Non-Formal Education Center has developed a package of Population Education for Special Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's guide. The learning package is especially developed for teaching population education for out-of-school populations. Special interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples, adolescents, and working youth. Produced under the guidance of UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods. The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD, and respect for old people. Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials. The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming, survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based population education courses.

  18. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically.

  19. Technical Review Report for the Model 9975-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, January 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M

    2009-05-22

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, Revision 0, dated January 2008 (S-SARP-G-00003, the SARP). The review includes an evaluation of the SARP, with respect to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71, and in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9975-96 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. Earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, the Model 9966, the Model 9967, and the Model 9968 Packagings, were originally designed and certified in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with the then newer safety requirements were proposed. The updated package designs at the time were the Model 9972, the Model 9973, the Model 9974, and the Model 9975 Packagings, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification Program, under the Office of Safety Management and Operations. The safety analysis of the Model 9975-85 Packaging is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, B(M)F-85, Revision 0, dated December 2003. The Model 9975-85 Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) package identification number, USA/9975/B(M)F-85, for the transportation of Type B quantities of uranium metal/oxide, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, plutonium/uranium metals, plutonium/uranium oxides, plutonium composites, plutonium/tantalum composites, {sup 238}Pu oxide/beryllium metal.

  20. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  1. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  2. Hermetic electronics package with dual-sided electrical feedthrough configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2016-11-22

    A hermetic electronics package includes a metal case with opposing first and second open ends, with each end connected to a first feedthrough construction and a second feedthrough construction. Each feedthrough contruction has an electrically insulating substrate and an array of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending therethrough, with the electrically insulating substrates connected to the opposing first and second open ends, respectively, of the metal case so as to form a hermetically sealed enclosure. A set of electronic components are located within the hermetically sealed enclosure and are operably connected to the feedthroughs of the first and second feedthrough constructions so as to electrically communicate outside the package from opposite sides of the package.

  3. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  4. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. topicmodels: An R Package for Fitting Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Grun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic models allow the probabilistic modeling of term frequency occurrences in documents. The fitted model can be used to estimate the similarity between documents as well as between a set of specified keywords using an additional layer of latent variables which are referred to as topics. The R package topicmodels provides basic infrastructure for fitting topic models based on data structures from the text mining package tm. The package includes interfaces to two algorithms for fitting topic models: the variational expectation-maximization algorithm provided by David M. Blei and co-authors and an algorithm using Gibbs sampling by Xuan-Hieu Phan and co-authors.

  7. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  8. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  9. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  10. Destructive examination of shipping package 9975-02101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02101 as part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program. This package is one of ten high-wattage packages that were selected for field surveillance in FY15, and was identified to contain several non-conforming conditions. Most of these conditions (mold, stains, drum corrosion, calculated fiberboard dimensions and fiberboard damage) relate to the accumulation of water in the outer and lower portions of the cane fiberboard assembly. In the short term, this causes local but reversible changes in the fiberboard properties. Long-term effects can include the permanent loss of fiberboard properties (thus far observed only in the bottom fiberboard layers) and reduced drum integrity due to corrosion. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Three of the other nine FY15 high-wattage packages examined in the K-Area Complex showed similar behavior. Corrosion of the overpack drum has been seen primarily in those packages with relatively severe fiberboard degradation. Visual examination of the drums in storage for external corrosion should be considered as a screening tool to identify additional packages with potential fiberboard degradation. Where overpack drum corrosion has been observed, it is typically heaviest adjacent to the stitch welds along the bottom edge. It is possible that changes to the stitch weld design would reduce the degree of corrosion in this area, but would not eliminate it. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement with the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  11. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Center CEFPACK - Center for Flexible Packaging CAEFF - Center for Advanced Engineering Films and Fibers T cr - recrystallization temperature...conditions. The tandem line has 1½” primary extruder with a Barr ET screw and a pineapple mixing tip. The gas inject is about 2/3 of the way down the...stretch and shrink film, the equipment at the Center for Flexible Packaging (CEFPACK) and the Center for Advanced Engineering Films and Fibers (CAEFF) at

  13. Software package requirements and procurement

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of specifying requirements and deploying these requirements in the procurement of software packages. Despite the fact that software construction de novo is the exception rather than the rule, little or no support for the task of formulating requirements to support assessment and selection among existing software packages has been developed. We analyse the problems arising in this process and review related work. We outline the key components of a programme of ...

  14. Effects of packaging methods on shelf life of ratite meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horbańczuk Olaf K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed in the world. Ratite meat is recognised as a dietetic product because of low level of fat, high share of PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and higher amounts of iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. The abundance of bioactive compounds, e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation processes. Moreover, pH over 6 creates favourable environment for fast microbial growth during storage conditions affecting its shelf life. However, availability of information on ratite meat shelf life among consumers and industry is still limited. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide current information about the effect of ratite meat packaging type, i.e. air packaging, vacuum packaging with skin pack, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, on its shelf life quality during storage, including technological and nutritional properties.

  15. Adapting MCM-D technology to a piezoresistive accelerometer packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; Plaza, J. A.; Cabruja, E.; Esteve, J.

    2003-07-01

    A silicon-on-silicon multichip module for a piezoresistive accelerometer is presented in this paper. This packaging technology, a type of wafer level packaging, offers fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible silicon substrates, so a pre-amplification stage can be included at substrate level. The electrical contacts and a partial sealing of the sensor mobile structures are performed at the same step using flip-chip technology, so the cost is reduced. As accelerometers are stress-sensitive devices, great care must be taken in the fabrication process and materials. Thus, test structures have been included to study the packaging effects. In this paper we report on the compatibility of accelerometer and wafer level packaging technologies.

  16. Packaging food for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  17. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  18. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-08-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters.

  19. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-04-29

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including possibly 700 additional elements from PUREX, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). The basin water, particularly in the K East Basin, contains significant quantities of dissolved nuclear isotopes and radioactive fuel corrosion particles. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East area. In order to initiate K Basin cleanup on schedule, the two-year fuel-shipping campaign must begin by December 1997. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  20. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  1. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  2. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  3. Localized CO2 laser bonding process for MEMS packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li; A. P. MALSHE; S. CUNNINGHAM; A. MORRIS

    2006-01-01

    The packaging poses a critical challenge for commercialization of MEMS products. Major problems with the packaging process include degraded reliability caused by the excess stress due to thermal mismatch and altered performance of the MEMS device after packaging caused by thermal exposure. The localized laser bonding technique for ceramic MEMS packaging to address above-mentioned challenges was investigated. A continuous wave CO2 laser was used to locally heat sealing material for ceramic MEMS package lid to substrate bonding. To determine the laser power density and scanning speed,finite element analysis thermal models were constructed to simulate the localized laser bonding process. Further,the effect of external pressure at sealing ring on the bonding formation was studied. Pull testing results show that the scanning speed and external pressure have significant influence on the pull strength at the bonding interface. Cross-sectional microscopy of the bonding interface indicates that the packages bonded with relatively low scanning speed and external pressure conditions have higher bonding quality. This research demonstrates the potential of localized laser bonding process for ceramic MEMS packaging.

  4. Waste forms, packages, and seals working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, N. [Center Antonio, TX (United States); McNeil, M.B. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of radioactive waste forms and packaging. Also included is a description of the use of natural analogs in waste packaging, container materials and waste forms.

  5. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  6. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  7. Integration of packaging design and planning into transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, R.F. (USDOE Richland Field Office, WA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In the past, numerous programs, projects, and design concepts for packaging and materials production have taken place without all the principal participants being involved in the up-front planning process. Many major facilities and packagings have been designed without the involvement of Transportation professionals. Unfortunately, Transportation has been overlooked and in most cases is a critical element that should have been included in the Planning process. (J.P.N.).

  8. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  10. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  11. fgui: A Method for Automatically Creating Graphical User Interfaces for Command-Line R Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J; Laird, Nan M

    2009-04-01

    The fguiR package is designed for developers of R packages, to help rapidly, and sometimes fully automatically, create a graphical user interface for a command line R package. The interface is built upon the Tcl/Tk graphical interface included in R. The package further facilitates the developer by loading in the help files from the command line functions to provide context sensitive help to the user with no additional effort from the developer. Passing a function as the argument to the routines in the fgui package creates a graphical interface for the function, and further options are available to tweak this interface for those who want more flexibility.

  12. The large subunit of bacteriophage lambda's terminase plays a role in DNA translocation and packaging termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Carol; Feiss, Michael

    2002-02-22

    The DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage lambda, terminase, is a heteromultimer composed of a small subunit, gpNu1, and a large subunit, gpA, products of the Nu1 and A genes, respectively. The role of terminase in the initial stages of packaging involving the site-specific binding and cutting of the DNA has been well characterized. While it is believed that terminase plays an active role in later post-cleavage stages of packaging, such as the translocation of DNA into the head shell, this has not been demonstrated. Accordingly, we undertook a generalized mutagenesis of lambda's A gene and found ten lethal mutations, nine of which cause post-cleavage packaging defects. All were located in the amino-terminal two-thirds of gpA, separate from the carboxy-terminal region where mutations affecting the protein's endonuclease activity have been found. The mutants fall into five groups according to their packaging phenotypes: (1) two mutants package part of the lambda chromosome, (2) one mutant packages the entire chromosome, but very slowly compared to wild-type, (3) two mutants do not package any DNA, (4) four mutants, though inviable, package the entire lambda chromosome, and (5) one mutant may be defective in both early and late stages of DNA packaging. These results indicate that gpA is actively involved in late stages of packaging, including DNA translocation, and that this enzyme contains separate functional domains for its early and late packaging activities.

  13. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  14. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  15. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section...

  16. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  17. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  18. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  19. Assessing medication packaging and labelling appropriateness in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athuraliya, N; Walkom, E J; Dharmaratne, S; Robertson, J

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of poor dispensing practices with inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines, and limited advice on their usage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the labelling and packaging of medicines identified during a survey of 1322 households in six regions of Sri Lanka between 2010 and 2013 conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for household surveys. We compared medicines obtained from public and private sources and asked interviewees if they understood how to take the medicines. Packaging was considered adequate when the primary package was an envelope or closable container holding only one medicine. Adequate labels were legible and included medicine name, dose and expiration date. Interviewers assessed whether respondents knew how to take the medicines. Of 1322 households, 1253 households (94.8%) had at least one medicine; 84% were classified as western medicines and 16% traditional medicines. Of 5756 western medicines identified, 82.1% were adequately packaged, 43.3% adequately labelled and 41.4% both adequately packaged and labelled. Participants stated that they understood the label and knew how to take 96% of the medicines. Private medicine sources had more adequately packaged medicines than public sources (87.7% vs 73.5%; OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.23, 2.99) and more adequately labelled medicines (52.2% vs 27.4%; OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.57, 3.26). Inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines remain a concern in Sri Lanka. Commitment to Good Pharmacy Practices, investments in staff education and training and adequate dispensing resources (containers and labels), particularly in the public sector, are needed to address sub-optimal dispensing practices. Ageing populations with more chronic diseases requiring polypharmacy and complex medicine regimens increase the need for appropriately packaged and labelled medicines.

  20. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  1. The quality and testing PH-SFT infrastructure for the external LHC software packages deployment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; MENDEZ LORENZO, Patricia; MATO VILA, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The PH-SFT group is responsible for the build, test, and deployment of the set of external software packages used by the LHC experiments. This set includes ca. 170 packages including Grid packages and Montecarlo generators provided for different versions. A complete build structure has been established to guarantee the quality of the packages provided by the group. This structure includes an experimental build and three daily nightly builds, each of them dedicated to a specific ROOT version including v6.02, v6.04, and the master. While the former build is dedicated to the test of new packages, versions and dependencies (basically SFT internal used), the three latter ones are the responsible for the deployment to AFS of the set of stable and well tested packages requested by the LHC experiments so they can apply their own builds on top. In all cases, a c...

  2. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  3. DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Spakowitz, Andrew James; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2005-01-01

    We study the packaging of DNA into a bacteriophage capsid using computer simulation, specifically focusing on the potential impact of twist on the final packaged conformation. We perform two dynamic simulations of packaging a polymer chain into a spherical confinement: one where the chain end is rotated as it is fed, and one where the chain is fed without end rotation. The final packaged conformation exhibits distinct differences in these two cases: the packaged conformation from feeding with...

  4. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  5. Giant cell tumor in adipose package Hoffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Escobar, G.; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino₁, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of adipose Hoffa package are very uncommon, with isolated cases reported in the literature. His presentation in pediatric patients knee is exceptional. The most frequently described tumors are benign including vellonodular synovitis. The extra-articular localized variant there of is known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is characterized by locally aggressive nature, and has been described in reports of isolated cases. Objective: A case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in adipose presentation package Hoffa in pediatric patients is presented in this paper. Methods: male patient eleven years with right knee pain after sports practice was evaluated. Physical examination, showed limited extension -30º, joint effusion, stable negative Lachman maneuver without peripheral knee laxity. MRI hyperintense on tumor is observed in T2 and hypointense on T1 homogeneous and defined edges content displayed prior to LCA related to adipose Hoffa package. Results: The tumor specimen was obtained and histopathology is defined as densely cellular tissue accumulation of xantomisados fibrocollagenous with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, compatible with giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Conclusion: The presentation of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath in Hoffa fat pad is exceptional. However, his suspicion allows adequate preoperative surgical planning, as a whole resection is the only procedure that has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrence of this disease.

  6. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste preve

  7. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  8. An Object-oriented minimization package for HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark S Fischler and David Sachs

    2003-07-02

    A portion of the HEP community has perceived the need for a minimization package written in C++ and taking advantage of the Object-Oriented nature of that language. To be acceptable for HEP, such a package must at least encompass all the capabilities of Minuit. Aside from the slight plus of not relying on outside Fortran compilation, the advantages that a C++ package based on O-O design would confer over the multitude of available C++ Minuit-wrappers include: Easier extensibility to different algorithms and forms of constraints; and usage modes which would not be available in the global-common-based Minuit design. An example of the latter is a job pursuing two ongoing minimization problems simultaneously. We discuss the design and implementation of such a package, which extends Minuit only in minor ways but which greatly diminishes the programming effort (if not the algorithm thought) needed to make more significant extensions.

  9. DOT-7A Type A packaging design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide instruction for designing a U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packaging. Another purpose for this Design Guide is to support the evaluation and testing activities that are performed on new designs by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test facility. This evaluation and testing program is called the DOT-7A Program. When an applicant has determined that a DOT-7A packaging is needed and not commercially available, a design may be created according to this document. The design should include a packaging drawing, specifications, analysis report, operating instructions, and a Packaging Qualification Checklist; all of which should be forwarded to a DOE/HQ approved test facility for evaluation and testing. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

  10. 2015 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2015, 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging, which was held on October 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was jointly organized by the China Academy of Printing Technology, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, and Hangzhou Dianzi University. With 3 keynote talks and 200 presented papers on graphic communications, packaging technologies and materials, the conference attracted more than 400 scientists.  These proceedings cover the recent research outcomes on color science and technology, image-processing technology, digital-media technology, printing-engineering technology, packaging-engineering technology etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, materials science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  11. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  12. Reference waste package environment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  13. Danish consumers' attitudes to the functional and environmental characteristics of food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of Danish consumers' attitudes to packaging and the importance of the environmental and functional characteristics of packaging for their purchasing decisions. The aim is to evaluate whether and how purch behaviour can be influenced in such a way...... as to limit the environmental problems caused by packaging. The study deals with consumers' attitudes to (a) packaging in general, and (b) the specific packaging which consumers take home with them (primar packaging). Consumers' attitudes to various industrial, transportation and storage packgaging...... are not explicitly included in the analysis. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results for the environmental authorities a and packaging manufacturers....

  14. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  15. The neutron instrument simulation package, NISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Philip A.; Daemen, Luke L.

    2004-10-01

    The Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP) performs complete source-to-detector simulations of neutron instruments, including neutrons that do not follow the expected path. The original user interface (MC_Web) is a web-based application, http://strider.lansce.lanl.gov/NISP/Welcome.html. This report describes in detail the newer stand-alone Windows version, NISP_Win. Instruments are assembled from menu-selected elements, including neutron sources, collimation and transport elements, samples, analyzers, and detectors. Magnetic field regions may also be specified for the propagation of polarized neutrons including spin precession. Either interface writes a geometry file that is used as input to the Monte Carlo engine (MC_Run) in the user's computer. Both the interface and the engine rely on a subroutine library, MCLIB. The package is completely open source. New features include capillary optics, temperature dependence of Al and Be, revised source files for ISIS, and visualization of neutron trajectories at run time. Also, a single-crystal sample type has been successfully imported from McStas (with more generalized geometry), demonstrating the capability of including algorithms from other sources, and NISP_Win may render the instrument in a virtual reality file. Results are shown for two instruments under development.

  16. The neutron instrument simulation package, NISP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, P. A. (Philip A.); Daemen, L. L. (Luc L.)

    2004-01-01

    The Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP) performs complete source-to-detector simulations of neutron instruments, including neutrons that do not follow the expected path. The original user interface (MC{_}Web) is a web-based application, http://strider.lansce.lanl.gov/NISP/Welcome.html. This report describes in detail the newer standalone Windows version, NISP{_}Win. Instruments are assembled from menu-selected elements, including neutron sources, collimation and transport elements, samples, analyzers, and detectors. Magnetic field regions may also be specified for the propagation of polarized neutrons including spin precession. Either interface writes a geometry file that is used as input to the Monte Carlo engine (MC{_}Run) in the user's computer. Both the interface and the engine rely on a subroutine library, MCLIB. The package is completely open source. New features include capillary optics, temperature dependence of Al and Be, revised source files for ISIS, and visualization of neutron trajectories at run time. Also, a single-crystal sample type has been successfully imported from McStas (with more generalized geometry), demonstrating the capability of including algorithms from other sources, and NISP{_}Win may render the instrument in a virtual reality file. Results are shown for two instruments under development.

  17. Nonparametric Econometrics: The np Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristen Hayfield

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R np package via a series of applications that may be of interest to applied econometricians. The np package implements a variety of nonparametric and semiparametric kernel-based estimators that are popular among econometricians. There are also procedures for nonparametric tests of significance and consistent model specification tests for parametric mean regression models and parametric quantile regression models, among others. The np package focuses on kernel methods appropriate for the mix of continuous, discrete, and categorical data often found in applied settings. Data-driven methods of bandwidth selection are emphasized throughout, though we caution the user that data-driven bandwidth selection methods can be computationally demanding.

  18. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  19. Virus DNA packaging: the strategy used by phage lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, C E; Cue, D; Feiss, M

    1995-06-01

    Phage lambda, like a number of other large DNA bacteriophages and the herpesviruses, produces concatemeric DNA during DNA replication. The concatemeric DNA is processed to produce unit-length, virion DNA by cutting at specific sites along the concatemer. DNA cutting is co-ordinated with DNA packaging, the process of translocation of the cut DNA into the preformed capsid precursor, the prohead. A key player in the lambda DNA packaging process is the phage-encoded enzyme terminase, which is involved in (i) recognition of the concatemeric lambda DNA; (ii) initiation of packaging, which includes the introduction of staggered nicks at cosN to generate the cohesive ends of virion DNA and the binding of the prohead; (iii) DNA packaging, possibly including the ATP-driven DNA translocation; and (iv) following translocation, the cutting of the terminal cosN to complete DNA packaging. To one side of cosN is the site cosB, which plays a role in the initiation of packaging; along with ATP, cosB stimulates the efficiency and adds fidelity to the endonuclease activity of terminase in cutting cosN. cosB is essential for the formation of a post-cleavage complex with terminase, complex I, that binds the prohead, forming a ternary assembly, complex II. Terminase interacts with cosN through its large subunit, gpA, and the small terminase subunit, gpNu1, interacts with cosB. Packaging follows complex II formation. cosN is flanked on the other side by the site cosQ, which is needed for termination, but not initiation, of DNA packaging. cosQ is required for cutting of the second cosN, i.e. the cosN at which termination occurs. DNA packaging in lambda has aspects that differ from other lambda DNA transactions. Unlike the site-specific recombination system of lambda, for DNA packaging the initial site-specific protein assemblage gives way to a mobile, translocating complex, and unlike the DNA replication system of lambda, the same protein machinery is used for both initiation and

  20. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  1. Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

    We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

  2. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  3. Academic stimulus package

    CERN Document Server

    Cham, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The fourth collection of the popular comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper, which chronicles life (or the lack thereof) in academia. Includes the popular strip series Quantum Gradnamics, ANOVA: Analysis of Value, Seminar Bingo and many more. Whether you managed to escape academia, are struggling through it, or are thinking of applying to it, this smart comic strip will have you laughing all the way.

  4. Temperature environment for 9975 packages stored in KAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-10

    Plutonium materials are stored in the K Area Complex (KAC) in shipping packages, typically the 9975 shipping package. In order to estimate realistic degradation rates for components within the shipping package (i.e. the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals), it is necessary to understand actual facility temperatures, which can vary daily and seasonally. Relevant facility temperature data available from several periods throughout its operating history have been reviewed. The annual average temperature within the Crane Maintenance Area has ranged from approximately 70 to 74 °F, although there is significant seasonal variation and lesser variation among different locations within the facility. The long-term average degradation rate for 9975 package components is very close to that expected if the component were to remain continually at the annual average temperature. This result remains valid for a wide range of activation energies (which describes the variation in degradation rate as the temperature changes), if the activation energy remains constant over the seasonal range of component temperatures. It is recommended that component degradation analyses and service life estimates incorporate these results. Specifically, it is proposed that future analyses assume an average facility ambient air temperature of 94 °F. This value is bounding for all packages, and includes margin for several factors such as increased temperatures within the storage arrays, the addition of more packages in the future, and future operational changes.

  5. A promiscuous DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zhang

    Full Text Available Complex viruses are assembled from simple protein subunits by sequential and irreversible assembly. During genome packaging in bacteriophages, a powerful molecular motor assembles at the special portal vertex of an empty prohead to initiate packaging. The capsid expands after about 10%-25% of the genome is packaged. When the head is full, the motor cuts the concatemeric DNA and dissociates from the head. Conformational changes, particularly in the portal, are thought to drive these sequential transitions. We found that the phage T4 packaging machine is highly promiscuous, translocating DNA into finished phage heads as well as into proheads. Optical tweezers experiments show that single motors can force exogenous DNA into phage heads at the same rate as into proheads. Single molecule fluorescence measurements demonstrate that phage heads undergo repeated initiations, packaging multiple DNA molecules into the same head. These results suggest that the phage DNA packaging machine has unusual conformational plasticity, powering DNA into an apparently passive capsid receptacle, including the highly stable virus shell, until it is full. These features probably led to the evolution of viral genomes that fit capsid volume, a strikingly common phenomenon in double-stranded DNA viruses, and will potentially allow design of a novel class of nanocapsid delivery vehicles.

  6. Packaging configurations and handling requirements for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic safety concepts for radioactive material are that the package is the primary protection for the public, that the protection afforded by the package should be proportional to the hazard and that the package must be proved by performance. These principles are contained in Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations which classify hazards of various radioactive materials and link packaging requirements to the physical form and quantities being shipped. Packaging requirements are reflected in performance standards to guarantee that shipments of low hazard quantities will survive the rigors of normal transportation and that shipments of high hazard quantities will survive extreme severity transportation accidents. Administrative controls provide for segregation of radioactive material from people and other sensitive or hazardous material. They also provide the necessary information function to control the total amounts in a conveyance and to assure that appropriate emergency response activities be started in case of accidents or other emergencies. Radioactive materials shipped in conjunction with the nuclear reactor programs include, ores, concentrates, gaseous diffusion feedstocks, enriched and depleted uranium, fresh fuel, spent fuel, high level wastes, low level wastes and transuranic wastes. Each material is packaged and shipped in accordance with regulations and all hazard classes, quantity limits and packaging types are called into use. From the minimal requirements needed to ship the low hazard uranium ores or concentrates to the very stringent requirements in packaging and moving high level wastes or spent fuel, the regulatory system provides a means for carrying out transportation of radioactive material which assures low and controlled risk to the public.

  7. The Macro - Games Course Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    Part of an Economic Education Series, the course package is designed to teach basic concepts and fundamental principles of macroeconomics and how they can be applied to various world problems. For use with college students, learning is gained through lectures, discussion, simulation games, programmed learning, and text. Time allotment is a 15-week…

  8. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    ) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...

  9. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  10. Comparison of different LED Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  11. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  12. Magnetic Package data quality overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Olsen, Nils

    The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field Ins...

  13. Dynamic analysis of the reciprocating compressor package on the offshore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Q.; Feng, J.; Jia, X.; Peng, X.

    2017-08-01

    Reciprocating compressor packages are key equipment for the offshore platforms which are used for the pressurization and transportation of natural gas. Dynamic analyses of high-speed and flexible supported offshore compressor packages are more complex than that of compressors on land. The dynamic analysis techniques of the offshore reciprocating compressor package were studied including numerical modelling, excitation forces calculation, support boundary determination of the compressor package and load transmission between the compressor package and the offshore platform. The finite element model of the compressor package with multiple types of elements such as the pipe, beam and shell elements were established. Excitation forces mainly including gas forces inside cylinders, crosshead forces, acoustic shaking forces and unbalanced inertia forces were calculated. In order to investigate the influence of the flexibility of the platform on dynamic characteristics of the compressor package and set reasonable boundaries for the support structure, three kinds of support boundaries were compared. The support points of columns and vertical beams on the layer of deck where the compressor package is installed were determined to be the most suitable ones. Super-element method was applied to implement the load transmission from the compressor package to the platform. The analysis techniques herein were successfully applied to the dynamic analysis of an offshore reciprocating compressor package in an engineering project.

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  15. Intellectual package that uses knowledge of an object region and functional models in the planning of computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhshtab, Yu.A.; Gorlin, A.I.; Kamynin, S.S.; Koryagin, D.A.; Lyubimskiy, E.Z.

    1981-09-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A method is proposed for constructing a system for filling a package of applied programs. The system is capable of automatic planning of computations, based on the use of knowledge of regarding the object region of the package and regarding the semantics of modules appearing in the functional filling of the package. An experimental package constructed in accordance with proposed principles is described, and an example of work with them is included.

  16. A site required for termination of packaging of the phage lambda chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cue, D; Feiss, M

    1993-10-15

    Lambda chromosomes are cut and packaged from concatemeric DNA by phage enzyme terminase. Terminase initiates DNA packaging by binding at a site called cosB and introducing staggered nicks at an adjacent site, cosN, to generate the left cohesive end of the DNA molecule to be packaged. After DNA packaging terminase recognizes and cuts the terminal cosN, an event that does not require a wild-type cosB. In this work a site, called cosQ, has been identified that is required for termination of DNA packaging. cosQ, defined by mutations in a sequence called R4, is located approximately 30 bp upstream from cosN. The order of sites is cosQ-cosN-cosB. Helper packaging of repressed, tandem prophage chromosomes demonstrated that a cosQ point mutation affects DNA packaging only when placed at the terminal cos site, whereas cosB mutations only affect packaging initiation. In vitro packaging studies confirmed that cosQ mutations do not affect packaging initiation. In vivo studies indicated that cosQ mutations do not affect cutting of initial cos sites but do cause a defect in packaging termination. cosQ mutants accumulated expanded phage heads, indicating that cosQ mutations affect a step that occurs after packaging of a substantial length of phage DNA. These results show that cosQ mutations define a site required for use of cos sites present at the ends of lambda chromosomes undergoing packaging. Available evidence suggests that other viruses, including phages T3 and T7 and the herpesviruses, may ultimately prove to use cosQ-like sites for packaging termination.

  17. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  18. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  19. Packaging & Other Structures. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Gary

    This book explores all kinds of packaging materials including bags, boxes, etc. and how they are used to protect and display products. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of packaging and structures; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for…

  20. Review of DOE waste package program. Subtask 1.1. National waste package program, April-September 1983. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    The current effort is part of an ongoing task to review the national high-level waste package effort. It includes evaluations of reference waste form, container, and packing material components with respect to determining how they may contribute to the containment and controlled release of radionuclides after waste packages have been emplaced in salt, basalt, and tuff repositories. In the current Biannual Report a section on carbon steel container corrosion has been included to complement prior work on TiCode-12 and Type 304 stainless steel. The use of crushed tuff as a packing material is discussed and waste package component interaction test data are included. Licensing data requirements to estimate the degree of compliance with NRC performance objectives are specified. 41 figures, 24 tables.

  1. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  2. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  4. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the Federal...

  5. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  6. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will...

  7. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any...

  8. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  9. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  10. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging conditions. 355.20 Section 355.20 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.20 Packaging... accord with § 355.60. (b) Tight container packaging. To minimize moisture contamination, all...

  11. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  12. ICT and the paperboard and packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Sanna Kallioranta; Richard Vlosky

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the reasons for the development of ICT and e-business systems in the paper and paperboard packaging industry and to discuss future scenarios that may serve to guide forest- sector research in this topical area. The paper and paperboard packaging industry encompasses producers of primary paper and paperboard packaging materials...

  13. Disposability Characteristics of Military Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-06

    packaging material but repre- sents only a minor segment of all packaging materials. In terms of U. S. tonnage, wood packaging materials account for...motftontttctl Anotywu of Solid Hoof COMactwn. David H. Markt and Jon C. Uabman (of Jonnt Hopkint Univartity), for tha U.S. Dapartmant of Hoatth, Education

  14. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 65.130 Section 65.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  15. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  16. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  17. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 33.6 Section 33.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container...

  18. Food and drink packaging: who is complaining and who should be complaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Belinda; Ridgway, Keith; Nelson, Amy; Baldwin, James

    2002-09-01

    This paper reports a questionnaire survey of shoppers at four supermarket stores in the UK. Regression analyses were used to determine factors in consumer complaints with the packaging of food and drink products. Neuroticism and treatment in hospital for an accident involving packaging in the last 3 years were significant associates. Analyses on who was most likely to suffer accidents or injuries while opening food and drink packaging indicated that handedness (that is, being left handed made accidents more likely) and scoring low on a measure of personal control during decision-making were significant associates. Analyses on who suffered the most serious accidents and injuries whilst opening food and drink packaging revealed that the decision-making style of social resistance (that is, the extent to which you resist asking for help from others) was related to susceptibility to the most severe accidents. These findings imply that individual factors (including both personal characteristics and personality traits) should be taken into account when considering the openability of packaging. The results of this study indicate that manufacturers should ensure that novel packaging closures have been tested on left handers in order to discover any unique difficulties for this sub-group, that packaging opening tools specifically for left-handed people should be made available and that manufacturers of packaging should always look at a 'worst case scenario' for their packaging closures as it is evident that some people will continue to struggle with difficult packaging until either they open it or they have injured themselves.

  19. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  20. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  1. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  2. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  3. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  4. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  5. The bacteriophage DNA packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Large dsDNA bacteriophages and herpesviruses encode a powerful ATP-driven DNA-translocating machine that encapsidates a viral genome into a preformed capsid shell or prohead. The key components of the packaging machine are the packaging enzyme (terminase, motor) and the portal protein that forms the unique DNA entrance vertex of prohead. The terminase complex, comprised of a recognition subunit (small terminase) and an endonuclease/translocase subunit (large terminase), cuts viral genome concatemers. The terminase-viral DNA complex docks on the portal vertex, assembling a motor complex containing five large terminase subunits. The pentameric motor processively translocates DNA until the head shell is full with one viral genome. The motor cuts the DNA again and dissociates from the full head, allowing head-finishing proteins to assemble on the portal, sealing the portal, and constructing a platform for tail attachment. A body of evidence from molecular genetics and biochemical, structural, and biophysical approaches suggests that ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in the packaging motor (large terminase) power DNA motion. Various parts of the motor subunit, such as the ATPase, arginine finger, transmission domain, hinge, and DNA groove, work in concert to translocate about 2 bp of DNA per ATP hydrolyzed. Powerful single-molecule approaches are providing precise delineation of steps during each translocation event in a motor that has a speed as high as a millisecond/step. The phage packaging machine has emerged as an excellent model for understanding the molecular machines, given the mechanistic parallels between terminases, helicases, and numerous motor proteins.

  6. Applications of superconductivity to packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, C.; Koger, H.; Ghoshal, U.; Gibson, D.A.; Smith, L.

    1989-05-01

    The potential applications of high temperature superconductors to packaging - interconnect technology - are reviewed. The authors caution against naive assumptions such as that it is obvious that superconductors will make computers run faster. On the other hand, they present examples in which the use of superconductors can significantly improve digital systems. These examples, however, involve much more than the simple substitution of superconductors for copper. They argue that imaginative uses of superconductors will eventually have a major impact on digital systems.

  7. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  8. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  9. PtProcess: An R Package for Modelling Marked Point Processes Indexed by Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the package PtProcess which uses the R statistical language. The package provides a unified approach to fitting and simulating a wide variety of temporal point process or temporal marked point process models. The models are specified by an intensity function which is conditional on the history of the process. The user needs to provide routines for calculating the conditional intensity function. Then the package enables one to carry out maximum likelihood fitting, goodness of fit testing, simulation and comparison of models. The package includes the routines for the conditional intensity functions for a variety of standard point process models. The package is intended to simplify the fitting of point process models indexed by time in much the same way as generalized linear model programs have simplified the fitting of various linear models. The primary examples used in this paper are earthquake sequences but the package is intended to have a much wider applicability.

  10. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  11. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems.

  12. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses.

  13. ASpect: A new spectrum and line analysis package for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S. J.; Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.; Shaw, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    We examined several publicly available spectral analysis software packages looking for one with enough functionality and versatility to meet the analysis needs of astronomers during the next decade. None of those examined can satisfactorily support the wide variety of panchromatic science programs that are now becoming possible. Furthermore, we concluded that none of these packages can be simply modified to include critical functions because of their original (limited) designs. During the next two years we will write a new spectral analysis package, ASpect, that will incorporate the latest analysis techniques for astronomical spectra in all wavelength domains. The ASpect package has several functional requirements. It must operate on spectra from a wide variety of ground-based and space-based instruments spanning wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. It must accommodate non-linear dispersion relations. It must provide a variety of functions, individually or in combination, with which to fit spectral features and the continuum. It is vitally important that known bad data be masked and that, uncertainties be propagated throughout the calculations in order for astronomers to evaluate the reliability of results. Finally, this new package must provide a powerful, intuitive graphical user interface to handle the burden of data input/output (I/O), on-line 'help,' selection of relevant features for analysis, plotting and graphical interaction, and data base management--all in a comprehensible environment. We anticipate that ASpect will take the form of an external package in IRAF (such as the NOAO and STSDAS packages) and will be layered upon the IRAF virtual Operating System to make it available on as many platforms as possible, while making it resistant to changes in operating systems and compilers. Our choice of IRAF is motivated by its portability, its wide use within the astronomical community, and its rich set of existing user applications.

  14. Quantification of myocardial perfusion defects using three different software packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Annmarie; Aakesson, Liz [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, 205 02, Malmoe (Sweden); Edenbrandt, Lars [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, 205 02, Malmoe (Sweden); Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Software packages are widely used for quantification of myocardial perfusion defects. The quantification is used to assist the physician in his/her interpretation of the study. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantification of reversible perfusion defects by three different commercially available software packages. We included 50 consecutive patients who underwent myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with a 2-day technetium-99m tetrofosmin protocol. Two experienced technologists processed the studies using the following three software packages: Cedars Quantitative Perfusion SPECT, Emory Cardiac Toolbox and 4D-MSPECT. The same sets of short axis slices were used as input to all three software packages. Myocardial uptake was scored in 20 segments for both the rest and the stress studies. The summed difference score (SDS) was calculated for each patient and the SDS values were classified into: normal (<4), mildly abnormal (4-8), moderately abnormal (9-13), and severely abnormal (>13). All three software packages were in agreement that 21 patients had a normal SDS, four patients had a mildly abnormal SDS and one patient had a severely abnormal SDS. In the remaining 24 patients (48%) there was disagreement between the software packages regarding SDS classification. A difference in classification of more than one step between the highest and lowest scores, for example from normal to moderately abnormal or from mildly to severely abnormal, was found in six of these 24 patients. Widely used software packages commonly differ in their quantification of myocardial perfusion defects. The interpreting physician should be aware of these differences when using scoring systems. (orig.)

  15. clusterProfiler: an R package for comparing biological themes among gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangchuang; Wang, Li-Gen; Han, Yanyan; He, Qing-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Increasing quantitative data generated from transcriptomics and proteomics require integrative strategies for analysis. Here, we present an R package, clusterProfiler that automates the process of biological-term classification and the enrichment analysis of gene clusters. The analysis module and visualization module were combined into a reusable workflow. Currently, clusterProfiler supports three species, including humans, mice, and yeast. Methods provided in this package can be easily extended to other species and ontologies. The clusterProfiler package is released under Artistic-2.0 License within Bioconductor project. The source code and vignette are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/clusterProfiler.html.

  16. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  17. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  18. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  19. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  20. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  1. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  2. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  5. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  6. Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jun; Xie Ping; Xue Xiao-Guang; Wang Peng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage φ29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the φ29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  7. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  8. Theory of the Golden Packaging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玮

    2012-01-01

      Color as a design language, in the packaging design field with a strong visual impact, is not only the ele-ments of commodity packaging, is the soul of the sales package, has become an important means of advertising goods image one. And the golden packaging and packaging the most popular the most brilliant. Golden art design to use in packing, we must request in the system designer can grasp the basic theory on the basis of the color, pay attention to the market and adapt to the colour is applied law, gift packaging spirituality and attractive charm, so as to create a good packaging, arouse consumers' desire to buy, in order to meet the increasing material and cultural and spiritual needs.

  9. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  10. EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-05050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-06

    Shipping package 9975-05050 was examined in K-Area following its identification as a high wattage package. Elevated temperature and fiberboard moisture content are key parameters that impact the degradation rate of fiberboard within 9975 packages in a storage environment. The high wattage of this package contributes significantly to component temperatures. After examination in K-Area, the package was provided to SRNL for further examination of the fiberboard assembly. The moisture content of the fiberboard was relatively low (compared to packages examined previously), but the moisture gradient (between fiberboard ID and OD surfaces) was relatively high, as would be expected for the high heat load. The cane fiberboard appeared intact and displayed no apparent change in integrity relative to a new package.

  11. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  12. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  13. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley R; Bain, Robert E S; Fisher, Michael B; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma R; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety. To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands. A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141). Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1) and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7) times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58) and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22). Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62) compared to other water sources used for consumption. Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Williams

    Full Text Available Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety.To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands.A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141. Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1 and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7 times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58 and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22. Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62 compared to other water sources used for consumption.Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  15. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  16. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island DNA packaging system involving cos-site packaging and phage-encoded HNH endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Carpena, Nuria; Alonso, Juan C; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2014-04-22

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are the prototypical members of a widespread family of chromosomally located mobile genetic elements that contribute substantially to intra- and interspecies gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain helper phages and their efficient encapsidation into phage-like infectious particles. Most SaPIs use the headful packaging mechanism and encode small terminase subunit (TerS) homologs that recognize the SaPI-specific pac site and determine SaPI packaging specificity. Several of the known SaPIs do not encode a recognizable TerS homolog but are nevertheless packaged efficiently by helper phages and transferred at high frequencies. In this report, we have characterized one of the non-terS-coding SaPIs, SaPIbov5, and found that it uses two different, undescribed packaging strategies. SaPIbov5 is packaged in full-sized phage-like particles either by typical pac-type helper phages, or by cos-type phages--i.e., it has both pac and cos sites--a configuration that has not hitherto been described for any mobile element, phages included--and uses the two different phage-coded TerSs. To our knowledge, this is the first example of SaPI packaging by a cos phage, and in this, it resembles the P4 plasmid of Escherichia coli. Cos-site packaging in Staphylococcus aureus is additionally unique in that it requires the HNH nuclease, carried only by cos phages, in addition to the large terminase subunit, for cos-site cleavage and melting.

  17. ViennaRNA Package 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ronny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary structure forms an important intermediate level of description of nucleic acids that encapsulates the dominating part of the folding energy, is often well conserved in evolution, and is routinely used as a basis to explain experimental findings. Based on carefully measured thermodynamic parameters, exact dynamic programming algorithms can be used to compute ground states, base pairing probabilities, as well as thermodynamic properties. Results The ViennaRNA Package has been a widely used compilation of RNA secondary structure related computer programs for nearly two decades. Major changes in the structure of the standard energy model, the Turner 2004 parameters, the pervasive use of multi-core CPUs, and an increasing number of algorithmic variants prompted a major technical overhaul of both the underlying RNAlib and the interactive user programs. New features include an expanded repertoire of tools to assess RNA-RNA interactions and restricted ensembles of structures, additional output information such as centroid structures and maximum expected accuracy structures derived from base pairing probabilities, or z-scores for locally stable secondary structures, and support for input in fasta format. Updates were implemented without compromising the computational efficiency of the core algorithms and ensuring compatibility with earlier versions. Conclusions The ViennaRNA Package 2.0, supporting concurrent computations via OpenMP, can be downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/RNA.

  18. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  19. Heat transfer in high density electronics packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get an insight into the thermal characteristic and to evaluate the thermal reliability of the "System in Packaging"(SIP), a new solution of electronics packaging, a heat transfer model of SIP was developed to predict the heat dissipation capacity and to investigate the effect of different factors on the temperature distribution in the electronics. The affecting parameters under consideration include the thermophysical properties of the substrates, the coefficient of convection heat transfer, the thickness of the chip, and the density of power dissipation. ALGOR, a kind of finite element analysis software,was used to do the model simulation. Based on the sinulation and analysis of the heat conduction and convection resistance, criteria for the thermal design were established and possible measurement for enhancing power dissipation was provided, The results show that the heat transfer model provides a new and effective way to the thermal design and thermal analysis of SIP and to the mechanical analysis for the further investigation of SIP.

  20. High-power LED package requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  1. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  2. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by......" date. Pretreatment of the meat, including cutting, chopping, cooking and packaging, was performed according to normal practice in a Danish supermarket. All samples contained DEHA, in general the investigation showed that a high fat content in or at the surface of the meat and/or a high storage...

  3. CAR: A MATLAB Package to Compute Correspondence Analysis with Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Lorenzo-Seva Rovira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Correspondence analysis (CA is a popular method that can be used to analyse relationships between categorical variables. Like principal component analysis, CA solutions can be rotated both orthogonally and obliquely to simple structure without affecting the total amount of explained inertia. We describe a MATLAB package for computing CA. The package includes orthogonal and oblique rotation of axes. It is designed not only for advanced users of MATLAB but also for beginners. Analysis can be done using a user-friendly interface, or by using command lines. We illustrate the use of CAR with one example.

  4. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b)...

  5. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  6. Installation package for Hyde Memorial Observatory, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information for a solar heating system installed in Hyde Memorial Observatory at Lincoln, Nebraska is presented. This package included a system operation and maintenance manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes, and drawings. This prototype solar heating system consisted of the following subsystems: solar collector, control, and storage.

  7. Packaging for Dissemination. Diffusion of Innovations Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew D.; And Others

    This handbook reviews some of the forms that can be used to package educational projects for dissemination to other schools, such as written reports, slide tape presentations, news releases, conference presentations, and workshops. Guidelines and suggestions in the essays on each format are supplemented by the appendices, which include a report…

  8. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... parties were given an opportunity to comment in response to the NPRM on the possible effect the removal of... were to go into effect, remanufactured drums not meeting minimum thickness requirements will have to be... the packaging, including the top and bottom, must have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 Joules...

  9. A Simple Interactive Software Package for Plotting, Animating, and Calculating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Larry

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new open source (free) software package that provides a simple, highly interactive interface for carrying out certain mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics. These tasks include plotting and animating functions, solving systems of coupled algebraic equations, and basic calculus (differentiating and integrating…

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  11. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  12. 49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Large Packaging types are designated: (1) 50G fiberboard (2) [Reserved] (b) Construction requirements... fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings. (i) The walls, including top and bottom, must have a minimum... increase stacking performance may be used but must be external to the liner. (4) The load-bearing surfaces...

  13. Negotiating compensation packages. Bargaining to get the best offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, S

    2001-01-01

    You worked hard to search for a job--sending out resumes, networking with your peers and contacting recruiters. But when the offer finally comes, your work isn't done. Now it's time to negotiate the best salary and employment contract. Take a look at today's standard compensation packages, including bonuses, stock options, relocation expenses and other features. What's negotiable and what's not?

  14. Container Design and Packaging; Art Education: 6693.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    Offered as an exploratory course in the highly technical field of container and packaging design, emphasis is placed on refined knowledge of the basic techniques used in preparing visuals, color camps, and working drawings. Study of related information such as consumer psychology and color, layout, and lettering is included in this studio oriented…

  15. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  16. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois mode Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector. Information in this package includes the Subsystem Design and Development Approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the Preliminary Design Review.

  17. Transportation and packaging headquarters support 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    To develop and implement baseline and state-of-the-art transportation and packaging resources for DOE, and its support contractors. These resources include effective strategies, tools and techniques, packaging and transportation systems, operational methods, policy and guidance focused at providing safety,efficient, regulatory compliant and cost-effective materials transportation.

  18. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and Update FY15 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program, and its subset the NASA Electronic Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG), are NASA's point-of-contacts for reliability and radiation tolerance of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts and their packages. This presentation includes a Fiscal Year 2015 program overview.

  19. DMU - A Package for Analyzing Multivariate Mixed Models in quantitative Genetics and Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per; Jensen, Just; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    The DMU-package for Analyzing Multivariate Mixed Models has been developed over a period of more than 25 years. This paper gives an overview of new features and the recent developments around the DMU-package, including: Genomic prediction (SNP-BLUP, G-BLUP and “One-Step”), Genome-wide association...

  20. Computers in Chemistry Teaching: A Bibliography and Index of CAL Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, N. J.

    This resource document lists 36 books, papers, and reports dealing with various uses of computers in chemistry instruction; and describes several computer program packages available for use in teaching undergraduate, experimental laboratory, physical, and nuclear and X-ray chemistry, including biochemistry. Each program package is presented by…

  1. Current progress on pixel level packaging for uncooled IRFPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Yon, J.-J.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Becker, Sébastien; Hamelin, Antoine; Arnaud, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vacuum packaging is definitely a major cost driver for uncooled IRFPA and a technological breakthrough is still expected to comply with the very low cost infrared camera market. To address this key issue, CEA-LETI is developing a Pixel Level Packaging (PLP) technology which basically consists in capping each pixel under vacuum in the direct continuation of the wafer level bolometer process. Previous CEA-LETI works have yet shown the feasibility of PLP based microbolometers that exhibit the required thermal insulation and vacuum achievement. CEA-LETI is still pushing the technology which has been now applied for the first time on a CMOS readout circuit. The paper will report on the recent progress obtained on PLP technology with particular emphasis on the optical efficiency of the PLP arrangement compared to the traditional microbolometer packaging. Results including optical performances, aging studies and compatibility with CMOS readout circuit are extensively presented.

  2. Preconception care: delivery strategies and packages for care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The notion of preconception care aims to target the existing risks before pregnancy, whereby resources may be used to improve reproductive health and optimize knowledge before conceiving. The preconception period provides an opportunity to intervene earlier to optimize the health of potential mothers (and fathers) and to prevent harmful exposures from affecting the developing fetus. These interventions include birth spacing and preventing teenage pregnancy, promotion of contraceptive use, optimization of weight and micronutrient status, prevention and management of infectious diseases, and screening for and managing chronic conditions. Given existing interventions and the need to organize services to optimize delivery of care in a logical and effective manner, interventions are frequently co-packaged or bundled together. This paper highlights packages of preconception interventions that can be combined and co-delivered to women through various delivery channels and provides a logical framework for development of such packages in varying contexts. PMID:25415178

  3. mmnet: An R Package for Metagenomics Systems Biology Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome plays important roles in human health and disease. Previous microbiome studies focused mainly on single pure species function and overlooked the interactions in the complex communities on system-level. A metagenomic approach introduced recently integrates metagenomic data with community-level metabolic network modeling, but no comprehensive tool was available for such kind of approaches. To facilitate these kinds of studies, we developed an R package, mmnet, to implement community-level metabolic network reconstruction. The package also implements a set of functions for automatic analysis pipeline construction including functional annotation of metagenomic reads, abundance estimation of enzymatic genes, community-level metabolic network reconstruction, and integrated network analysis. The result can be represented in an intuitive way and sent to Cytoscape for further exploration. The package has substantial potentials in metagenomic studies that focus on identifying system-level variations of human microbiome associated with disease.

  4. mmnet: An R Package for Metagenomics Systems Biology Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Fei; Bo, Xiaochen

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome plays important roles in human health and disease. Previous microbiome studies focused mainly on single pure species function and overlooked the interactions in the complex communities on system-level. A metagenomic approach introduced recently integrates metagenomic data with community-level metabolic network modeling, but no comprehensive tool was available for such kind of approaches. To facilitate these kinds of studies, we developed an R package, mmnet, to implement community-level metabolic network reconstruction. The package also implements a set of functions for automatic analysis pipeline construction including functional annotation of metagenomic reads, abundance estimation of enzymatic genes, community-level metabolic network reconstruction, and integrated network analysis. The result can be represented in an intuitive way and sent to Cytoscape for further exploration. The package has substantial potentials in metagenomic studies that focus on identifying system-level variations of human microbiome associated with disease.

  5. Packaging printed circuit boards: A production application of interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrill, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The structure and use of an Interactive Graphics Packaging Program (IGPP), conceived to apply computer graphics to the design of packaging electronic circuits onto printed circuit boards (PCB), were described. The intent was to combine the data storage and manipulative power of the computer with the imaginative, intuitive power of a human designer. The hardware includes a CDC 6400 computer and two CDC 777 terminals with CRT screens, light pens, and keyboards. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 extended with the exception of a few functions coded in COMPASS (assembly language). The IGPP performs four major functions for the designer: (1) data input and display, (2) component placement (automatic or manual), (3) conductor path routing (automatic or manual), and (4) data output. The most complex PCB packaged to date measured 16.5 cm by 19 cm and contained 380 components, two layers of ground planes and four layers of conductors mixed with ground planes.

  6. MASSCLEAN - MASSive CLuster Evolution and ANalysis Package - Description and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    We present MASSCLEAN, a new, sophisticated and robust stellar cluster image and photometry simulation package. This package is able to create color-magnitude diagrams and standard FITS images in any of the traditional optical and near-infrared bands based on cluster characteristics input by the user, including but not limited to distance, age, mass, radius and extinction. At the limit of very distant, unresolved clusters, we have checked the integrated colors created in MASSCLEAN against those from other single stellar population models with consistent results. We have also tested models which provide a reasonable estimate of the field star contamination in images and color-magnitude diagrams. We demonstrate the package by simulating images and color-magnitude diagrams of well known massive Milky Way clusters and compare their appearance to real data. Because the algorithm populates the cluster with a discrete number of tenable stars, it can be used as part of a Monte Carlo Method to derive the probabilistic ...

  7. Design Brief--Packaging: More than Just a Box! Communications: Getting the Message across with Advertising. Technology Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Each technology learning activity in this article includes content description, objectives, required materials, challenge, and evaluation questions. Subjects are designing product packages and communication through advertising. (SK)

  8. The Innovative Approaches to Packaging – Comparison Analysis of Intelligent and Active Packaging Perceptions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucanova Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has always served a practical function - to hold goods together and protect it when moving toward the customer through distribution channel. Today packaging is also a container for promoting the product and making it easier and safer to use. The sheer importance of packaging functions is still growing and consequently the interest of the company is to access to the packaging more innovative and creative. The paper deals with the innovative approaches to packaging resulting in the creation of packaging with interactive active features in the form of active and intelligent packaging. Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.

  9. MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

  10. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  11. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  12. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  13. Kapteyn Package: Tools for developing astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlouw, J. P.; Vogelaar, M. G. R.

    2016-11-01

    The Kapteyn Package provides tools for the development of astronomical applications with Python. It handles spatial and spectral coordinates, WCS projections and transformations between different sky systems; spectral translations (e.g., between frequencies and velocities) and mixed coordinates are also supported. Kapteyn offers versatile tools for writing small and dedicated applications for the inspection of FITS headers, the extraction and display of (FITS) data, interactive inspection of this data (color editing) and for the creation of plots with world coordinate information. It includes utilities for use with matplotlib such as obtaining coordinate information from plots, interactively modifiable colormaps and timer events (module mplutil); tools for parsing and interpreting coordinate information entered by the user (module positions); a function to search for gaussian components in a profile (module profiles); and a class for non-linear least squares fitting (module kmpfit).

  14. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  15. Retail lighting and packaging influence consumer acceptance of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, H L; Amin, K N; Duncan, S E

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of retail light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on consumer acceptance of milk. The study objective was to determine effects of fluorescent and LED lighting under retail storage conditions on consumer acceptance of milk. Consumer acceptance of milk stored under retail conditions was determined through sensory evaluation (2 studies; n=150+ each) and analytical measures (dissolved oxygen, secondary oxidation products, riboflavin retention). Study 1 evaluated milk stored in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packages for 4h under LED light (960 lx). Commercially available HDPE package treatments included translucent HDPE (most commonly used), white HDPE [low concentration (1.3%) TiO2], and yellow HDPE; in addition, HDPE with a higher TiO2 concentration (high white; 4.9% TiO2) and a foil-wrapped translucent HDPE (control) were tested. Translucent and control packages also were tested under fluorescent light. Study 2 evaluated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packages for 4h under fluorescent and LED light (1,460 lx). The PET packaging included 2 treatments (medium, 4.0% TiO2; high, 6.6% TiO2) as well as translucent HDPE (exposed to fluorescent), clear PET (fluorescent and LED), and light-protected control. Overall mean acceptability of milk ranged from "like slightly" to "like moderately" with significantly lower acceptability for milk exposed to fluorescent light. Milk in HDPE and PET packages had comparable overall acceptability scores when exposed to LED light. Only the fluorescent light condition (both PET and HDPE) diminished overall acceptability. Fluorescent light exposure negatively influenced flavor with significant penalty (2.0-2.5 integers) to overall acceptability of milk in translucent HDPE and clear PET. The LED also diminished aftertaste of milk packaged in translucent HDPE. Changes in dissolved oxygen content, as an indication of oxidation, supported the observed differences in consumer acceptance of milk stored under

  16. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  17. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  18. High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

  19. Food Packaging Permeability Behaviour: A Report

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Siracusa

    2012-01-01

    The use of polymer materials in food packaging field is one of the largest growing market area. Actually the optimization behaviour of packaging permeability is of crucial importance, in order to extend the food shelf-life and to reach the best engineering solution. Studying the permeability characterization of the different polymer material (homogeneous and heterogeneous polymer system) to the different packaging gases, in different environmental condition, is crucial to understand if the se...

  20. Package Hermeticity Testing with Thermal Transient Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vass-Varnai, Andras

    2008-01-01

    The rapid incursion of new technologies such as MEMS and smart sensor device manufacturing requires new tailor-made packaging designs. In many applications these devices are exposed to humid environments. Since the penetration of moisture into the package may result in internal corrosion or shift of the operating parameters, the reliability testing of hermetically sealed packages has become a crucial question in the semiconductor industry.

  1. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn C. Payton; Michael G. McManus; Weber, Marc H.; Anthony R. Olsen; Thomas M. Kincaid

    2015-01-01

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical summaries to a series of small maps. The package contains functions dependent on the ggplot2 package to produce a row-oriented graph composed of different panels, or columns, of information. These panels at a minimum t...

  2. Material Design and Technology of Cartonboard Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Marttila, Erno

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the different types of cartonboard packages through the whole line of their manufacturing process from choosing the right materials for the board in to final converting processes. Producing efficient, environmentally friendly and most of all right kind of cartonboard package is the core theme in this work. This work is publicly available and can be used as a reference by anyone who needs to learn the basics and some of the more advanced things of cartonboard packaging....

  3. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  4. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  5. Destructive Examination of Shipping Package 9975-02019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-13

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02019 as part of a comprehensive SRS surveillance program for plutonium material stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). During the field surveillance inspection of this package in KAC, two non-conforming conditions were noted: the axial gap of 1.577 inch exceeded the 1 inch maximum criterion, and two areas of dried glue residue were noted on the upper fiberboard subassembly. This package was subsequently transferred to SRNL for more detailed inspection and destructive examination. In addition to the conditions noted in KAC, the following conditions were noted: - Numerous small spots of corrosion were observed along the bottom edge of the drum. - In addition to the smeared glue residue on the upper fiberboard subassembly, there was also a small dark stain. - Mold was present on the side and bottom of the lower fiberboard subassembly. Dark stains from elevated moisture content were also present in these areas. - A dark spot with possible light corrosion was observed on the primary containment vessel flange, and corresponding rub marks were observed on the secondary containment vessel ID. - The fiberboard thermal conductivity in the radial orientation was above the specified range. When the test was repeated with slightly lower moisture content, the result was acceptable. The moisture content for both tests was within a range typical of other packages in storage. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement within the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  6. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  7. Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/ Packaging Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/Packaging laboratories provide research level semiconductor processing equipment and facilities that do not require a full...

  8. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  9. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...

  10. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  11. Proposed Ancestors of Phage Nucleic Acid Packaging Motors (and Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serwer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I present a hypothesis that begins with the proposal that abiotic ancestors of phage RNA and DNA packaging systems (and cells include mobile shells with an internal, molecule-transporting cavity. The foundations of this hypothesis include the conjecture that current nucleic acid packaging systems have imprints from abiotic ancestors. The abiotic shells (1 initially imbibe and later also bind and transport organic molecules, thereby providing a means for producing molecular interactions that are links in the chain of events that produces ancestors to the first molecules that are both information carrying and enzymatically active, and (2 are subsequently scaffolds on which proteins assemble to form ancestors common to both shells of viral capsids and cell membranes. Emergence of cells occurs via aggregation and merger of shells and internal contents. The hypothesis continues by using proposed imprints of abiotic and biotic ancestors to deduce an ancestral thermal ratchet-based DNA packaging motor that subsequently evolves to integrate a DNA packaging ATPase that provides a power stroke.

  12. Guidance for package approvals in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Approval is required under the transport regulations for a wide range of package designs and operations, and applications for competent authority approval and validation are received from many sources, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. To assist package designers and applicants for approval, and to promote consistency in applications and their assessment, the UK Department for Transport issues guidance on the interpretation of the transport regulations and the requirements of an application for approval and its supporting safety case. The general guidance document, known as the ''Guide to an Application for UK Competent Authority Approval of Radioactive Material in Transport'', has been issued for many years and updated to encompass the provisions of each successive edition of the IAEA transport regulations. The Guide has been referred to in a number of international fora, including PATRAM, and was cited as a ''Good Practice'' in the report of the IAEA TRANSAS Appraisal of the UK in 2002. Specialist guides include the Guide to the Suitability of Elastomeric Seal Materials, which is the subject of a separate paper in this conference, and the Guide to the Approval of Freight Containers as Types IP-2 and IP-3 Packages. This paper discusses the guidance material and summarises the administrative and technical information required in support of applications for approval of package designs, special form and low dispersible radioactive materials, shipments, special arrangements, modifications and validations.

  13. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  14. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  16. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  17. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  18. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  19. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... material may remain on the outside of a package after filling. (c) Mixed contents. (1) An outer non-bulk... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  20. Healthy package, healthy product? Effects of packaging design as a function of purchase setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Deterink, Florien; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by research testifying to the influence of visual packaging appearance and meaning portrayal on food evaluation, here it is argued that effects of packaging design vary depending on purchase context. Realistic packaging variants for a fictitious yoghurt brand varying in health connotation

  1. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-03-06

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging.

  2. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concrete or steel, impacting at an orientation most likely to cause damage. “Deformation”means a cylinder... packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173.40 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this...

  3. River Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-08-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and hydraulic parameters and input values that will be used in river modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by PNNL for DOE. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. The module is based on the legacy code for the Modular Aquatic Simulation System II (MASS2), which is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged model that provides the capability to simulate the lateral (bank-to-bank) variation of flow and contaminants. It simulates river hydrodynamics (water velocities and surface elevations), sediment transport, contaminant transport, biotic transport, and sediment-contaminant interaction, including both suspended sediments and bed sediments. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River. MASS2 requires data on the river flow rate, downstream water surface elevation, groundwater influx and contaminants flux, background concentrations of contaminants, channel bathymetry, and the bed and suspended sediment properties. Stochastic variability for some input parameters such as partition coefficient (kd) values and background radionuclide concentrations is generated by the Environmental Stochastic Preprocessor. River flow is randomized on a yearly basis. At this time, the conceptual model does not incorporate extreme flooding (for example, 50 to 100 years) or dam removal scenarios.

  4. Technical Review Report for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Model 9977 S-SARP-G-00001 Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Hafner, R; West, M

    2007-10-04

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) summarizes the review findings for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Model 9977 B(M)F-96 shipping container. The content analyzed for this submittal is Content Envelope C.1, Heat Sources, in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators or food-pack cans. The SARP under review, i.e., S-SARP-G-00001, Revision 2 (August 2007), was originally referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Material Package. The review presented in this TRR was performed using the methods outlined in Revision 3 of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Packaging Review Guide (PRG) for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages. The format of the SARP follows that specified in Revision 2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Regulatory Guide 7.9, i.e., Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packages for Radioactive Material. Although the two documents are similar in their content, they are not identical. Formatting differences have been noted in this TRR, where appropriate. The Model 9977 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. The Model 9977 Package design includes a single, 6-inch diameter, stainless steel pressure vessel containment system (i.e., the 6CV) that was designed and fabricated in accordance with Section III, Subsection NB, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, 9966, 9967 and 9968 Packages, were originally designed and certified in the 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with new safety requirements, based on International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines, were proposed. The updated package designs were the Model 9972, 9973, 9974 and 9975 Packages, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification

  5. BUMS--Bonner sphere Unfolding Made Simple an HTML based multisphere neutron spectrometer unfolding package

    CERN Document Server

    Sweezy, J; Veinot, K

    2002-01-01

    A new multisphere neutron spectrometer unfolding package, Bonner sphere Unfolding Made Simple (BUMS) has been developed that uses an HTML interface to simplify data input and code execution for the novice and the advanced user. This new unfolding package combines the unfolding algorithms contained in other popular unfolding codes under one easy to use interface. The interface makes use of web browsing software to provide a graphical user interface to the unfolding algorithms. BUMS integrates the SPUNIT, BON, MAXIET, and SAND-II unfolding algorithms into a single package. This package also includes a library of 14 response matrices, 58 starting spectra, and 24 dose and detector responses. BUMS has several improvements beyond the addition of unfolding algorithms. It has the ability to search for the most appropriate starting spectra. Also, plots of the unfolded neutron spectra are automatically generated. The BUMS package runs via a web server and may be accessed by any computer with access to the Internet at h...

  6. Incorporation of Uncertainty and Variability of Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation in WAPDEG Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Helton

    2000-04-19

    This presentation investigates the incorporation of uncertainty and variability of drip shield and waste package degradation in analyses with the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) program (CRWMS M&O 1998). This plan was developed in accordance with Development Plan TDP-EBS-MD-000020 (CRWMS M&O 1999a). Topics considered include (1) the nature of uncertainty and variability (Section 6.1), (2) incorporation of variability and uncertainty into analyses involving individual patches, waste packages, groups of waste packages, and the entire repository (Section 6.2), (3) computational strategies (Section 6.3), (4) incorporation of multiple waste package layers (i.e., drip shield, Alloy 22, and stainless steel) into an analysis (Section 6.4), (5) uncertainty in the characterization of variability (Section 6.5), and (6) Gaussian variance partitioning (Section 6.6). The presentation ends with a brief concluding discussion (Section 7).

  7. An Improved Supplier Driven Packaging Design and Development Method for Supply Chain Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabpour, Vahid; Oghazi, Pejvak; Olsson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    . The propositions were formulated and became the basis for improving Tetra Pak's existing packaging design and development method by better integrating supply chain needs. This was accomplished by using an expanded operational life cycle perspective that includes the entire supply chain. The resulting supply chain......Packaging and the role it plays in supply chain efficiency are overlooked in most design and development research. An opportunity exists to meet the needs of supply chains to increase efficiency. This research presents three propositions on how to reduce the gap between supply chain needs...... and satisfaction in interaction with the product and packaging system. It also proposes a supply chain focused packaging design and development method to better satisfy supply chain needs placed on packaging. An extensive literature review was conducted, and a Tetra Pak derived case study was developed...

  8. The huge Package for High-dimensional Undirected Graph Estimation in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tuo; Liu, Han; Roeder, Kathryn; Lafferty, John; Wasserman, Larry

    2015-01-01

    We describe an R package named huge which provides easy-to-use functions for estimating high dimensional undirected graphs from data. This package implements recent results in the literature, including Friedman et al. (2007), Liu et al. (2009, 2012) and Liu et al. (2010). Compared with the existing graph estimation package glasso, the huge package provides extra features: (1) instead of using Fortan, it is written in C, which makes the code more portable and easier to modify; (2) besides fitting Gaussian graphical models, it also provides functions for fitting high dimensional semiparametric Gaussian copula models; (3) more functions like data-dependent model selection, data generation and graph visualization; (4) a minor convergence problem of the graphical lasso algorithm is corrected; (5) the package allows the user to apply both lossless and lossy screening rules to scale up large-scale problems, making a tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. PMID:26834510

  9. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  10. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under 49 CFR parts 173, 178, and 179. ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging....

  11. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  12. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  13. Long-term value of packaging design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中琼

    2014-01-01

    In science and technology more and more developed today, all the things around us are changing with each passing day. Now as the packaging design is a comprehensive discipline, for example, is to give new meaning. How to make its value is permanent? We raise these issues reflects the development trend of packaging design.

  14. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  15. The power of symbolic packaging cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging can be considered as an element of communication in the marketplace. By communicating through packaging, marketers are able to appeal to consumers at the most crucial moment in the consumer decision journey: the point of sale. At the point of sale, consumers are able to consider the purcha

  16. Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

  17. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  18. Performing Remarkable Feats with Presentation Graphics Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes easy-to-use, easy-to-learn dedicated graphics packages for developing slide presentations shown directly from computers. A general description of the features of five packages and suggestions for software selection are provided. A sidebar provides graphics tips, such as the use of color, typefaces, and formatting, for developing…

  19. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  20. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6030 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.6030 Section 29.6030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6030 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  2. 7 CFR 29.30 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.30 Section 29.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.30 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  3. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  4. MGtoolkit: A python package for implementing metagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga, D.; Nguyen, H.; Roughan, M.

    In this paper we present MGtoolkit : an open-source Python package for implementing metagraphs - a first of its kind. Metagraphs are commonly used to specify and analyse business and computer-network policies alike. MGtoolkit can help verify such policies and promotes learning and experimentation with metagraphs. The package currently provides purely textual output for visualising metagraphs and their analysis results.

  5. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  6. Delidding and Resealing Hybrid Microelectronic Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    package. Survey data showed that the I" x 1" welded metal butterfly package to be the prime candidate, at first glance. More thorough evaluation, however...5th Avenue Chelmsford, MA 01824 King of Prussia, PA 19460 George Erdos M. R. Stahler Garrett Manufacturing Corporation M-8639 255 Atwell Drive General

  7. 49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) through either design of the packaging or of the article, or both. (11) Plastic packagings may not be able... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General packaging requirements for explosives. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1...

  8. Influence of blister package design on usability among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfeld, Lukas; Langguth, Peter; Häusler, Heribert; Hagels, Hansjörg

    2012-08-01

    Blisters packs are commonly used as packaging for oral drug products. Utilization problems among older adults with pharmaceutical packaging are well known from investigations of multi-unit dose containers, but there is a lack of studies focusing on blister packaging. This study was performed to identify design parameters that should be considered when developing blister packaging for drug products intended to be used by older adults. To investigate the relationship between blister pack design and utilization problems among older adults. Community-based study including 141 volunteers (age 80+) living at home and in assisted-living facilities. In random order 5 blister packs of uniform shape but with different opening characteristics (variation of the force required to open the blisters and different mechanisms of opening) were tested by each participant. Opening was evaluated (difficulty, pain perception and overall assessment) by questioning of the participants. Additionally, data were collected as to whether participants managed to take out 4 tablets within 4 min test duration and whether they gave up opening. Reasons for utilization problems were examined by subgroup analysis, frequently made observations, and technological characterization of blisters. Results Blisters with thicker push-through foils were assessed as being inferior. Anyhow, most of participants (>84 %) were capable of opening each type of push-through blister within 4 min. By contrast, many of the participants were unable to open peel (30 %) and child-resistant peel-off push-through blisters (44 %) or gave up trying before the end of the test. In addition to medical conditions, vision and age of participants correlated with utilization problems. Blister pack design, including opening force and opening mechanism, can have significant impact on the usability of blister packs by older adults. The study identified several parameters that should be considered with respect to older adults when

  9. DNA Topology and the Initiation of Virus DNA Packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Seok Oh

    Full Text Available During progeny assembly, viruses selectively package virion genomes from a nucleic acid pool that includes host nucleic acids. For large dsDNA viruses, including tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses, immature viral DNA is recognized and translocated into a preformed icosahedral shell, the prohead. Recognition involves specific interactions between the viral packaging enzyme, terminase, and viral DNA recognition sites. Generally, viral DNA is recognized by terminase's small subunit (TerS. The large terminase subunit (TerL contains translocation ATPase and endonuclease domains. In phage lambda, TerS binds a sequence repeated three times in cosB, the recognition site. TerS binding to cosB positions TerL to cut the concatemeric DNA at the adjacent nicking site, cosN. TerL introduces staggered nicks in cosN, generating twelve bp cohesive ends. Terminase separates the cohesive ends and remains bound to the cosB-containing end, in a nucleoprotein structure called Complex I. Complex I docks on the prohead's portal vertex and translocation ensues. DNA topology plays a role in the TerSλ-cosBλ interaction. Here we show that a site, I2, located between cosN and cosB, is critically important for an early DNA packaging step. I2 contains a complex static bend. I2 mutations block DNA packaging. I2 mutant DNA is cut by terminase at cosN in vitro, but in vivo, no cos cleavage is detected, nor is there evidence for Complex I. Models for what packaging step might be blocked by I2 mutations are presented.

  10. DNA Topology and the Initiation of Virus DNA Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Choon Seok; Sippy, Jean; Charbonneau, Bridget; Crow Hutchinson, Jennifer; Mejia-Romero, Olga Esther; Barton, Michael; Patel, Priyal; Sippy, Rachel; Feiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During progeny assembly, viruses selectively package virion genomes from a nucleic acid pool that includes host nucleic acids. For large dsDNA viruses, including tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses, immature viral DNA is recognized and translocated into a preformed icosahedral shell, the prohead. Recognition involves specific interactions between the viral packaging enzyme, terminase, and viral DNA recognition sites. Generally, viral DNA is recognized by terminase's small subunit (TerS). The large terminase subunit (TerL) contains translocation ATPase and endonuclease domains. In phage lambda, TerS binds a sequence repeated three times in cosB, the recognition site. TerS binding to cosB positions TerL to cut the concatemeric DNA at the adjacent nicking site, cosN. TerL introduces staggered nicks in cosN, generating twelve bp cohesive ends. Terminase separates the cohesive ends and remains bound to the cosB-containing end, in a nucleoprotein structure called Complex I. Complex I docks on the prohead's portal vertex and translocation ensues. DNA topology plays a role in the TerSλ-cosBλ interaction. Here we show that a site, I2, located between cosN and cosB, is critically important for an early DNA packaging step. I2 contains a complex static bend. I2 mutations block DNA packaging. I2 mutant DNA is cut by terminase at cosN in vitro, but in vivo, no cos cleavage is detected, nor is there evidence for Complex I. Models for what packaging step might be blocked by I2 mutations are presented.

  11. Sensory expectation, perception, and autonomic nervous system responses to package colours and product popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia; Verastegui-Tena, Luz; Goedegebure, Robert P.G.; Piqueras Fiszman, Betina; Smeets, Paul A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817740

    2017-01-01

    Consumers’ perception of, and behaviour towards, products are influenced by extrinsic cues, including packaging and social norms. However, the understanding of this process is unsatisfactorily captured by questionnaires. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses can be used to measure implicit

  12. Introducing the B I P (Biomedical Instrumentation Package). Many Important Electronic Functions in One Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described are the use and purposes of the Biomedical Instrumentation Package (BIP) in science classrooms. Science activities are suggested and equipment use is described. A sample laboratory activity, which includes materials, procedure, and discussion, is provided. (SA)

  13. Packaging and Teaching State and Local Government at Tarrant County Junior College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Edwin W.

    1972-01-01

    An autoinstructional approach to teaching state and local government is described. The course consists of 40 instructional packages that include specific objectives as a learning guide for students. (RN)

  14. CKEOS2: an equation of state test program for the CHARTD/CSQ EOS package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.L.

    1976-05-01

    CKEOS2 is a computer program designed to test data for the CHARTD/CSQ equation of state package. A variety of units are allowed to facilitate comparison with experimental data. Many print and plot options are included.

  15. Multivariate Generalizations of the Multiplicative Binomial Distribution: Introducing the MM Package

    OpenAIRE

    Altham, Pat M. E.; Robin K. S. Hankin

    2012-01-01

    We present two natural generalizations of the multinomial and multivariate binomial distributions, which arise from the multiplicative binomial distribution of Altham (1978). The resulting two distributions are discussed and we introduce an R package, MM, which includes associated functionality.

  16. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  17. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  18. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  20. FITSH -- a software package for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (incl. image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. This set of utilities found in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently us...

  1. A perl package and an alignment tool for phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2008-03-27

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, none of which are open-source libraries, and they do not allow for the comparative analysis of phylogenetic networks by computing distances between them or aligning them. In order to improve this situation, we have developed a Perl package that relies on the BioPerl bundle and implements many algorithms on phylogenetic networks. We have also developed a Java applet that makes use of the aforementioned Perl package and allows the user to make simple experiments with phylogenetic networks without having to develop a program or Perl script by him or herself. The Perl package is available as part of the BioPerl bundle, and can also be downloaded. A web-based application is also available (see availability and requirements). The Perl package includes full documentation of all its features.

  2. A perl package and an alignment tool for phylogenetic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Gabriel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, none of which are open-source libraries, and they do not allow for the comparative analysis of phylogenetic networks by computing distances between them or aligning them. Results In order to improve this situation, we have developed a Perl package that relies on the BioPerl bundle and implements many algorithms on phylogenetic networks. We have also developed a Java applet that makes use of the aforementioned Perl package and allows the user to make simple experiments with phylogenetic networks without having to develop a program or Perl script by him or herself. Conclusion The Perl package is available as part of the BioPerl bundle, and can also be downloaded. A web-based application is also available (see availability and requirements. The Perl package includes full documentation of all its features.

  3. Sites and gene products involved in lambdoid phage DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M P; Feiss, M

    1993-04-01

    21 is a temperate lambdoid coliphage, and the genes that encode the head proteins of lambda and 21 are descended from a common ancestral bacteriophage. The sequencing of terminase genes 1 and 2 of 21 was completed, along with that of a segment at the right end of 21 DNA that includes the R4 sequence. The R4 sequence, a site that is likely involved in termination of DNA packaging, was found to be very similar to the R4 sequences of lambda and phi 80, suggesting that R4 is a recognition site that is not phage specific. DNA packaging by 21 is dependent on a host protein, integration host factor. A series of mutations in gene 1 (her mutations), which allow integration host factor-independent DNA packaging by 21, were found to be missense changes that affect predicted alpha-helixes in gp1. gp2, the large terminase subunit, is predicted to contain an ATP-binding domain and, perhaps, a second domain important for the cos-cutting activity of terminase. orf1, an open reading frame analogous in position to FI, a lambda gene involved in DNA packaging, shares some sequence identity with FI. orf1 was inactivated with nonsense and insertion mutations; these mutations were found not to affect phage growth. 21 was also not able to complement a lambda FI mutant.

  4. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  5. Wrapping up your message: sustainable storytelling through packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Schermer, R.; Smit, L.; Vos, L.

    2015-01-01

    Besides contributing to the actual sustainability performance of a product-packaging combination, packaging can also play a role in communicating about sustainability. Such green marketing aspects of packaging may either focus on the sustainability credentials of the

  6. Working with Design: A Package for Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a design approach used to study sheet metal layout in junior high and high school mechanical drafting courses. Students observe packaging in stores, study package construction, and design and produce their own packages. (EA)

  7. RF and microwave integrated circuit development technology, packaging and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gamand, Patrice; Kelma, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    RF and Microwave Integrated Circuit Development bridges the gap between existing literature, which focus mainly on the 'front-end' part of a product development (system, architecture, design techniques), by providing the reader with an insight into the 'back-end' part of product development. In addition, the authors provide practical answers and solutions regarding the choice of technology, the packaging solutions and the effects on the performance on the circuit and to the industrial testing strategy. It will also discuss future trends and challenges and includes case studies to illustrate examples. * Offers an overview of the challenges in RF/microwave product design * Provides practical answers to packaging issues and evaluates its effect on the performance of the circuit * Includes industrial testing strategies * Examines relevant RF MIC technologies and the factors which affect the choice of technology for a particular application, e.g. technical performance and cost * Discusses future trends and challen...

  8. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  9. Device-packaging method and apparatus for optoelectronic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zortman, William A.; Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2017-04-25

    An optoelectronic device package and a method for its fabrication are provided. The device package includes a lid die and an active die that is sealed or sealable to the lid die and in which one or more optical waveguides are integrally defined. The active die includes one or more active device regions, i.e. integral optoelectronic devices or etched cavities for placement of discrete optoelectronic devices. Optical waveguides terminate at active device regions so that they can be coupled to them. Slots are defined in peripheral parts of the active dies. At least some of the slots are aligned with the ends of integral optical waveguides so that optical fibers or optoelectronic devices inserted in the slots can optically couple to the waveguides.

  10. Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shelby J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.

  11. Software Package Completed for Alloy Design at the Atomic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip B.; Good, Brian S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of a multidisciplinary effort involving solid-state physics, quantum mechanics, and materials and surface science, the first version of a software package dedicated to the atomistic analysis of multicomponent systems was recently completed. Based on the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of alloy and surface energetics, this package includes modules devoted to the analysis of many essential features that characterize any given alloy or surface system, including (1) surface structure analysis, (2) surface segregation, (3) surface alloying, (4) bulk crystalline material properties and atomic defect structures, and (5) thermal processes that allow us to perform phase diagram calculations. All the modules of this Alloy Design Workbench 1.0 (ADW 1.0) are designed to run in PC and workstation environments, and their operation and performance are substantially linked to the needs of the user and the specific application.

  12. ELSA: An Integrated, Semi-Automated Nebular Abundance Package

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M D; Henry, R B C; Kwitter, K B

    2006-01-01

    We present ELSA, a new modular software package, written in C, to analyze and manage spectroscopic data from emission-line objects. In addition to calculating plasma diagnostics and abundances from nebular emission lines, the software provides a number of convenient features including the ability to ingest logs produced by IRAF's splot task, to semi-automatically merge spectra in different wavelength ranges, and to automatically generate various data tables in machine-readable or LaTeX format. ELSA features a highly sophisticated interstellar reddening correction scheme that takes into account temperature and density effects as well as He II contamination of the hydrogen Balmer lines. Abundance calculations are performed using a 5-level atom approximation with recent atomic data, based on R. Henry's ABUN program. Improvements planned in the near future include use of a three-region ionization model, similar to IRAF's nebular package, error propagation, and the addition of ultraviolet and infrared line analysi...

  13. SNAP: Spreadsheet Nebular Analysis Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komljenovic, M.; Krawchuk, C.; McCall, M.; Kingsburgh, R.; Richer, Michael; Stevenson, C.

    1996-12-01

    A flexible and extensible software package for two dimensional nebular analyses has been implemented using Visual Basic within Microsoft Excel (version 5). From a calibrated list of fluxes and errors for each spectral row (or object), the program first identifies the lines by their source ions by referring to wavelengths generated from atomic data. The atomic data used in all the calculations is easily updated or augmented by the user. Colour excesses can be computed from a reddening law and ratio of total to selective extinction of a user's choice. For each spectral row, line fluxes can be corrected for stellar absorption and reddening and reported in a format suitable for publication. Temperatures, densities, emission coefficients, and ionic abundances are computed using an adaptation of the FIVEL five-level atom routine. The user has complete control over which spectral lines are used in an analysis -- there are no pre-ordained methods. Abundance analyses can be performed using physical conditions either measured or specified for each spectrum. Since the software is embedded in Microsoft Excel, graphical representations of the data are easily created, and extended analyses using the full functionality of the spreadsheet are easily implemented.

  14. The Fireball integrated code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  15. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M

  16. APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Also, nanomaterials have been already applied in many fields of human life. Nanocomposites have already led to several innovations with potential applications in the food packaging sector. The use of nanocomposite formulations is expected to considerably enhance the shelf-life of many types of food. This improvement can lead to lower weight packages because less material is needed to obtain the same or even better barrier properties. This, in turn, can lead to reduced package cost with less packaging waste. Antimicrobial packaging is another area with high potential for applying nanocomposite technology. Nanostructured antimicrobials have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio when compared with their higher scale counterparts. Therefore, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging systems are supposed to be particularly efficient in their activities against microbial cells. In this review, definition of nanomaterials is presented. Besides, the paper shows examples of nanocomposities and antimicrobial nanopackaging mainly with the use of nanosilver. Moreover, nanoparticles such ZnO, TiO2, MgO and nanosensors in packaging were presented.

  17. Linear latent variable models: the lava-package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus Kähler; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    An R package for specifying and estimating linear latent variable models is presented. The philosophy of the implementation is to separate the model specification from the actual data, which leads to a dynamic and easy way of modeling complex hierarchical structures. Several advanced features...... are implemented including robust standard errors for clustered correlated data, multigroup analyses, non-linear parameter constraints, inference with incomplete data, maximum likelihood estimation with censored and binary observations, and instrumental variable estimators. In addition an extensive simulation...

  18. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-14

    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  19. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Hung Chung; Kai-Shing Yang; Kuo-Hsiang Chien; Ming-Shan Jeng; Ming-Tsang Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and ver...

  20. REPOSITORY LAYOUT SUPPORTING DESIGN FEATURE #13- WASTE PACKAGE SELF SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Owen

    1999-04-09

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a repository layout, for Feature No. 13, that will accommodate self-shielding waste packages (WP) with an areal mass loading of 25 metric tons of uranium per acre (MTU/acre). The scope of this analysis includes determination of the number of emplacement drifts, amount of emplacement drift excavation required, and a preliminary layout for illustrative purposes.