WorldWideScience

Sample records for macc1 specific small

  1. Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manisha; Kobelt, Dennis; Walther, Wolfgang; Voss, Cynthia; Smith, Janice; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dahlmann, Mathias; Radetzki, Silke; Preissner, Robert; von Kries, Jens Peter; Schlag, Peter Michael; Stein, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    MACC1 (Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1) is a key driver and prognostic biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis in a large variety of solid tumor types, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no MACC1 inhibitors have been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to target MACC1 expression using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput screening with the ChemBioNet library of more than 30,000 compounds. The small molecules lovastatin and rottlerin emerged as the most potent MACC1 transcriptional inhibitors. They remarkably inhibited MACC1 promoter activity and expression, resulting in reduced cell motility. Lovastatin impaired the binding of the transcription factors c-Jun and Sp1 to the MACC1 promoter, thereby inhibiting MACC1 transcription. Most importantly, in CRC-xenografted mice, lovastatin and rottlerin restricted MACC1 expression and liver metastasis. This is-to the best of our knowledge-the first identification of inhibitors restricting cancer progression and metastasis via the novel target MACC1. This drug repositioning might be of therapeutic value for CRC patients.

  2. SNPs in the coding region of the metastasis-inducing gene MACC1 and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Felicitas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the main cancers in the Western world. About 90% of the deaths arise from formation of distant metastasis. The expression of the newly identified gene metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a prognostic indicator for colon cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed for the first time the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of MACC1 for clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, we screened met proto-oncogene (Met, the transcriptional target gene of MACC1, for mutations. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of MACC1 in 154 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III and the crucial exons of Met in 60 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III. We analyzed the association of MACC1 polymorphisms with clinical data, including metachronous metastasis, UICC stages, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and patients’ survival (n = 154, stages I, II and III. Furthermore, we performed biological assays in order to evaluate the functional impact of MACC1 SNPs on the motility of colorectal cancer cells. Results We genotyped three MACC1 SNPs in the coding region. Thirteen % of the tumors had the genotype cg (rs4721888, L31V, 48% a ct genotype (rs975263, S515L and 84% a gc or cc genotype (rs3735615, R804T. We found no association of these SNPs with clinicopathological parameters or with patients’ survival, when analyzing the entire patients’ cohort. An increased risk for a shorter metastasis-free survival of patients with a ct genotype (rs975263 was observed in younger colon cancer patients with stage I or II (P = 0.041, n = 18. In cell culture, MACC1 SNPs did not affect MACC1-induced cell motility and proliferation. Conclusion In summary, the identification of coding MACC1 SNPs in primary colorectal tumors does not improve the prediction for metastasis formation or for patients’ survival compared to MACC1 expression analysis alone. The ct genotype (rs

  3. MACC1 facilitates chemoresistance and cancer stem cell‑like properties of colon cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiankai; Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Hongyi; Du, Binbin; Zhang, Lijuan; Ma, Wen; Hu, Yongguo; Feng, Shifang; Miao, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    With regards to colon cancer, resistance to 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑based chemotherapy and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered important factors underlying therapy failure. Metastasis‑associated colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been associated with poor prognosis and the promotion of metastasis within several types of cancer. However, the biological behavior of MACC1 in chemoresistance and CSC‑like properties remains unclear. In the present study, various methods including gene knockdown, gene overexpression, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MTT assay, have been adopted. According to the results of the present study, MACC1 was depleted in two colon cancer cell lines resistant to 5‑FU; subsequently, CSC‑like properties and 5‑FU sensitivity were investigated. Within 5‑FU‑resistant cells, cell death was facilitated by MACC1 knockdown. Furthermore, sphere formation and the expression levels of pluripotent markers, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 44, CD133 and Nanog were reduced due to MACC1 depletion. Additionally, it was indicated that the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway may be associated with 5‑FU resistance and CSC‑like properties via MACC1.

  4. MACC1 facilitates chemoresistance and cancer stem cell-like properties of colon cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiankai; Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Hongyi; Du, Binbin; Zhang, Lijuan; Ma, Wen; Hu, Yongguo; Feng, Shifang; Miao, Guoying

    2017-01-01

    With regards to colon cancer, resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered important factors underlying therapy failure. Metastasis-associated colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been associated with poor prognosis and the promotion of metastasis within several types of cancer. However, the biological behavior of MACC1 in chemoresistance and CSC-like properties remains unclear. In the present study, various methods including gene knockdown, gene overexpression, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MTT assay, have been adopted. According to the results of the present study, MACC1 was depleted in two colon cancer cell lines resistant to 5-FU; subsequently, CSC-like properties and 5-FU sensitivity were investigated. Within 5-FU-resistant cells, cell death was facilitated by MACC1 knockdown. Furthermore, sphere formation and the expression levels of pluripotent markers, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 44, CD133 and Nanog were reduced due to MACC1 depletion. Additionally, it was indicated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway may be associated with 5-FU resistance and CSC-like properties via MACC1. PMID:28990068

  5. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  6. Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Ewart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital gene expression (DGE profiling has become an established tool to study RNA expression. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of small RNA DGE profiles from two different rat strains (BN-Lx and SHR from six different rat tissues (spleen, liver, brain, testis, heart, kidney. We describe the expression patterns of known and novel micro (miRNAs and piwi-interacting (piRNAs. Results We confirmed the expression of 588 known miRNAs (54 in antisense orientation and identified 56 miRNAs homologous to known human or mouse miRNAs, as well as 45 new rat miRNAs. Furthermore, we confirmed specific A to I editing in brain for mir-376a/b/c and identified mir-377 as a novel editing target. In accordance with earlier findings, we observed a highly tissue-specific expression pattern for all tissues analyzed. The brain was found to express the highest number of tissue-specific miRNAs, followed by testis. Notably, our experiments also revealed robust strain-specific differential miRNA expression in the liver that is caused by genetic variation between the strains. Finally, we identified two types of germline-specific piRNAs in testis, mapping either to transposons or in strand-specific clusters. Conclusions Taken together, the small RNA compendium described here advances the annotation of small RNAs in the rat genome. Strain and tissue-specific expression patterns furthermore provide a strong basis for studying the role of small RNAs in regulatory networks as well as biological process like physiology and neurobiology that are extensively studied in this model system.

  7. Embedded Volttron specification - benchmarking small footprint compute device for Volttron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodworth, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-17

    An embedded system is a small footprint computing unit that typically serves a specific purpose closely associated with measurements and control of hardware devices. These units are designed for reasonable durability and operations in a wide range of operating conditions. Some embedded systems support real-time operations and can demonstrate high levels of reliability. Many have failsafe mechanisms built to handle graceful shutdown of the device in exception conditions. The available memory, processing power, and network connectivity of these devices are limited due to the nature of their specific-purpose design and intended application. Industry practice is to carefully design the software for the available hardware capability to suit desired deployment needs. Volttron is an open source agent development and deployment platform designed to enable researchers to interact with devices and appliances without having to write drivers themselves. Hosting Volttron on small footprint embeddable devices enables its demonstration for embedded use. This report details the steps required and the experience in setting up and running Volttron applications on three small footprint devices: the Intel Next Unit of Computing (NUC), the Raspberry Pi 2, and the BeagleBone Black. In addition, the report also details preliminary investigation of the execution performance of Volttron on these devices.

  8. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Richard; Mičieta, Jozef; Jandačka, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass), which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  9. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass, which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  10. Specific lysosomal transport of small neutral amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisoni, R.L.; Flickinger, K.S.; Thoene, J.G.; Christensen, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of amino acid exodus from lysosomes have allowed us previously to describe transport systems specific for cystine and another for cationic amino acids in fibroblast lysosomes. They are now able to study amino acid uptake into highly purified fibroblast lysosomes obtained by separating crude granular fraction on gradients formed by centrifugation in 35% isoosmotic Percoll solutions. Analog inhibition and saturation studies indicate that L-[ 14 C]proline (50 μM) uptake by fibroblast lysosomes at 37 0 C in 50 mM citrate/tris pH 7.0 buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose is mediated by two transport systems, one largely specific for L-proline and the other for which transport is shared with small neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine and threonine. At 7 mM, L-proline inhibits L-[ 14 C]proline uptake almost completely, whereas ala, ser, val, thr, gly, N-methylalanine and sarcosine inhibit proline uptake by 50-65%. The system shared by alanine, serine and threonine is further characterized by these amino acids strongly inhibiting the uptakes of each other. Lysosomal proline transport is selective for the L-isomer of the amino acid, and is scarcely inhibited by 7 mM arg, glu, asp, leu, phe, his, met, (methylamino) isobutyrate, betaine or N,N-dimethylglycine. Cis or trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline inhibit proline uptake only slightly. In sharp contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane in which Na + is required for most proline and alanine transport, lysosomal uptake of these amino acids occurs independently of Na +

  11. Small Molecules for Early Endosome-Specific Patch Clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth S; Chao, Yu-Kai; Grishchuk, Yulia; Becker, Lars; Heller, Stefan; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2017-07-20

    To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles. The two compounds act rapidly, specifically, and are readily applicable in contrast to genetic approaches or previously used compounds such as vacuolin, which enlarges EE, RE, and LE/LY. We apply this approach here to measure currents mediated by TRPML channels, in particular TRPML3, which we found to be functionally active in both EE and LE/LY in overexpressing cells as well as in endogenously expressing CD11b+ lung-tissue macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specifically targeted gene therapy for small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.L.; Zandi, R.; Gjetting, T.

    2009-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis. Hence, there is great demand for new therapies that can replace or supplement the current available treatment regimes. Gene therapy constitutes a promising strategy and relies on the principle of introducing exogenous...

  13. Worldsid small female side impact dummy specifications and prototype evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, B.W.; Meijer, R.; Bermond, F.; Bortenschlager, K.; Hynd, D.; Martinez, L.; Ferichola, G.

    2007-01-01

    The WorldSID program was set up to develop a new, worldwide acceptable, advanced technology, side impact crash test dummy for improved assessment of injury risk to car occupants in lateral collisions. Following the release of the mid-sized male WorldSID, the development of the small female WorldSID

  14. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  15. The expression pattern of small nucleolar and small Cajal body-specific RNAs characterizes distinct molecular subtypes of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, D; Todoerti, K; Tuana, G; Agnelli, L; Mosca, L; Lionetti, M; Fabris, S; Colapietro, P; Miozzo, M; Ferrarini, M; Tassone, P; Neri, A

    2012-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules and generally located in the introns of host genes. It is now emerging that altered sno/scaRNAs expression may have a pathological role in cancer. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNAs expression in multiple myeloma (MM) by profiling purified malignant plasma cells from 55 MMs, 8 secondary plasma cell leukemias (sPCLs) and 4 normal controls. Overall, a global sno/scaRNAs downregulation was found in MMs and, even more, in sPCLs compared with normal plasma cells. Whereas SCARNA22 resulted the only sno/scaRNA characterizing the translocation/cyclin D4 (TC4) MM, TC2 group displayed a distinct sno/scaRNA signature overexpressing members of SNORD115 and SNORD116 families located in a region finely regulated by an imprinting center at 15q11, which, however, resulted overall hypomethylated in MMs independently of the SNORD115 and SNORD116 expression levels. Finally, integrative analyses with available gene expression and genome-wide data revealed the occurrence of significant sno/scaRNAs/host genes co-expression and the putative influence of allelic imbalances on specific snoRNAs expression. Our data extend the current view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and add novel information to the bio-molecular complexity of plasma cell dyscrasias

  16. Development stage-specific proteomic profiling uncovers small, lineage specific proteins most abundant in the Aspergillus Fumigatus conidial proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Moo-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent infectious cause of death in severely immunocompromised individuals such as leukemia and bone marrow transplant patients. Germination of inhaled conidia (asexual spores in the host is critical for the initiation of infection, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this process. Results To gain insights into early germination events and facilitate the identification of potential stage-specific biomarkers and vaccine candidates, we have used quantitative shotgun proteomics to elucidate patterns of protein abundance changes during early fungal development. Four different stages were examined: dormant conidia, isotropically expanding conidia, hyphae in which germ tube emergence has just begun, and pre-septation hyphae. To enrich for glycan-linked cell wall proteins we used an alkaline cell extraction method. Shotgun proteomic resulted in the identification of 375 unique gene products with high confidence, with no evidence for enrichment of cell wall-immobilized and secreted proteins. The most interesting discovery was the identification of 52 proteins enriched in dormant conidia including 28 proteins that have never been detected in the A. fumigatus conidial proteome such as signaling protein Pil1, chaperones BipA and calnexin, and transcription factor HapB. Additionally we found many small, Aspergillus specific proteins of unknown function including 17 hypothetical proteins. Thus, the most abundant protein, Grg1 (AFUA_5G14210, was also one of the smallest proteins detected in this study (M.W. 7,367. Among previously characterized proteins were melanin pigment and pseurotin A biosynthesis enzymes, histones H3 and H4.1, and other proteins involved in conidiation and response to oxidative or hypoxic stress. In contrast, expanding conidia, hyphae with early germ tubes, and pre-septation hyphae samples were enriched for proteins responsible for

  17. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-01-01

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [ 35 S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35 S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. The use of [ 35 S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35 S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  18. Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-11-15

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

  19. The Small Protein SgrT Controls Transport Activity of the Glucose-Specific Phosphotransferase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Chelsea R; Park, Seongjin; Fei, Jingyi; Vanderpool, Carin K

    2017-06-01

    The bacterial small RNA (sRNA) SgrS has been a fruitful model for discovery of novel RNA-based regulatory mechanisms and new facets of bacterial physiology and metabolism. SgrS is one of only a few characterized dual-function sRNAs. SgrS can control gene expression posttranscriptionally via sRNA-mRNA base-pairing interactions. Its second function is coding for the small protein SgrT. Previous work demonstrated that both functions contribute to relief of growth inhibition caused by glucose-phosphate stress, a condition characterized by disrupted glycolytic flux and accumulation of sugar phosphates. The base-pairing activity of SgrS has been the subject of numerous studies, but the activity of SgrT is less well characterized. Here, we provide evidence that SgrT acts to specifically inhibit the transport activity of the major glucose permease PtsG. Superresolution microscopy demonstrated that SgrT localizes to the cell membrane in a PtsG-dependent manner. Mutational analysis determined that residues in the N-terminal domain of PtsG are important for conferring sensitivity to SgrT-mediated inhibition of transport activity. Growth assays support a model in which SgrT-mediated inhibition of PtsG transport activity reduces accumulation of nonmetabolizable sugar phosphates and promotes utilization of alternative carbon sources by modulating carbon catabolite repression. The results of this study expand our understanding of a basic and well-studied biological problem, namely, how cells coordinate carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Further, this work highlights the complex activities that can be carried out by sRNAs and small proteins in bacteria. IMPORTANCE Sequencing, annotation and investigation of hundreds of bacterial genomes have identified vast numbers of small RNAs and small proteins, the majority of which have no known function. In this study, we explore the function of a small protein that acts in tandem with a well-characterized small RNA during metabolic

  20. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (1). Major specifications and system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Yujiro; Yan, Xing L.; Tachibana, Yukio

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2030s. The design philosophy is that the HTR50S is a high advanced reactor, which is reducing the R and D risk based on the HTTR design, upgrading the performance and reducing the cost for commercialization by utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR operation and the GTHTR300 design. The major specifications of the HTR50S were determined and targets of the technology demonstration using the HTR50S (e.g., the increasing the power density, reduction of the number of uranium enrichment in the fuel, increasing the burn up, side-by-side arrangement between the reactor pressure vessel and the steam generator) were identified. In addition, the system design of HTR50S, which offers the capability of electricity generation, cogeneration of electricity and steam for a district heating and industries, was performed. Furthermore, a market size of small-sized HTGR systems was investigated. (author)

  1. Pharmacogenomic identification of small molecules for lineage specific manipulation of subventricular zone germinal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Azim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages. We identified multiple signaling pathways that trigger distinct downstream transcriptional networks to regulate the diversity of neural cells originating from the SVZ. Next, we used a novel in silico genomic analysis, searchable platform-independent expression database/connectivity map (SPIED/CMAP, to generate a catalogue of small molecules that can be used to manipulate SVZ microdomain-specific lineages. Finally, we demonstrate that compounds identified in this analysis promote the generation of specific cell lineages from NSCs in vivo, during postnatal life and adulthood, as well as in regenerative contexts. This study unravels new strategies for using small bioactive molecules to direct germinal activity in the SVZ, which has therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Small-worldness characteristics and its gender relation in specific hemispheric networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, F; Vecchio, F; Bramanti, P; Rossini, P M

    2015-12-03

    Aim of this study was to verify whether the topological organization of human brain functional networks is different for males and females in resting state EEGs. Undirected and weighted brain networks were computed by eLORETA lagged linear connectivity in 130 subjects (59 males and 71 females) within each hemisphere and in four resting state networks (Attentional Network (AN), Frontal Network (FN), Sensorimotor Network (SN), Default Mode Network (DMN)). We found that small-world (SW) architecture in the left hemisphere Frontal network presented differences in both delta and alpha band, in particular lower values in delta and higher in alpha 2 in males respect to females while in the right hemisphere differences were found in lower values of SW in males respect to females in gamma Attentional, delta Sensorimotor and delta and gamma DMNs. Gender small-worldness differences in some of resting state networks indicated that there are specific brain differences in the EEG rhythms when the brain is in the resting-state condition. These specific regions could be considered related to the functions of behavior and cognition and should be taken into account both for research on healthy and brain diseased subjects. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  4. Rapid and specific purification of Argonaute-small RNA complexes from crude cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; Salomon, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave complementary target RNAs. Here, we describe a method to purify active RISC containing a single, unique small RNA guide sequence. We begin by capturing RISC using a complementary 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide tethered to beads. Unlike other methods that capture RISC but do not allow its recovery, our strategy purifies active, soluble RISC in good yield. The method takes advantage of the finding that RISC partially paired to a target through its siRNA guide dissociates more than 300 times faster than a fully paired siRNA in RISC. We use this strategy to purify fly Ago1- and Ago2-RISC, as well as mouse AGO2-RISC. The method can discriminate among RISCs programmed with different guide strands, making it possible to deplete and recover specific RISC populations. Endogenous microRNA:Argonaute complexes can also be purified from cell lysates. Our method scales readily and takes less than a day to complete.

  5. Enteroendocrine cells are specifically marked by cell surface expression of claudin-4 in mouse small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Nagatake

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine cells are solitary epithelial cells scattered throughout the gastrointestinal tract and produce various types of hormones, constituting one of the largest endocrine systems in the body. The study of these rare epithelial cells has been hampered by the difficulty in isolating them because of the lack of specific cell surface markers. Here, we report that enteroendocrine cells selectively express a tight junction membrane protein, claudin-4 (Cld4, and are efficiently isolated with the use of an antibody specific for the Cld4 extracellular domain and flow cytometry. Sorted Cld4+ epithelial cells in the small intestine exclusively expressed a chromogranin A gene (Chga and other enteroendocrine cell-related genes (Ffar1, Ffar4, Gpr119, and the population was divided into two subpopulations based on the activity of binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1. A Cld4+UEA-1- cell population almost exclusively expressed glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide gene (Gip, thus representing K cells, whereas a Cld4+UEA-1+ cell population expressed other gut hormone genes, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (Gcg, pancreatic polypeptide-like peptide with N-terminal tyrosine amide (Pyy, cholecystokinin (Cck, secretin (Sct, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1. In addition, we found that orally administered luminal antigens were taken up by the solitary Cld4+ cells in the small intestinal villi, raising the possibility that enteroendocrine cells might also play a role in initiation of mucosal immunity. Our results provide a useful tool for the cellular and functional characterization of enteroendocrine cells.

  6. Small-sided games for young athletes: is game specificity influential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Kilding, Andrew E; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify and compare the physiological, physical and technical demands of a sport-specific and non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young athletes. Ten male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak, 54.4 ± 4.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) completed 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 soccer and "bucketball" SSGs twice. Games lasted for 16 min and were performed in a randomised order, at least 48 h apart. Movement patterns and heart rate were measured using 4 Hz global positioning systems. Technical skill executions were assessed by video analysis and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Total distance (4.9 ± 4.1% and 8.3 ± 6.6%), distance at 7-12.9 km · h(-1) (14.5 ± 12.5% and 14.9 ± 16.1%), total possessions (14.7 ± 18.0% and 12.9 ± 18.9%) and percentage of successful passes (24.1 ± 11.7% and 30.1 ± 17.6%) were higher for bucketball compared to soccer (3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6, respectively). Total distance at 13-17.9 km · h(-1) was higher for 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 bucketball (32.3 ± 21.2%). There was likely substantial difference for %HRpeak (89.5 ± 3.1 vs. 87.4 ± 2.8 b · min(-1)) and time above 90% HRpeak (570 ± 288 s vs. 361 ± 288 s) between bucketball and soccer (3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6, respectively). Young players travelled further at higher overall speeds, experienced higher physiological workloads and performed more successful technical executions during the non-sport-specific SSG.

  7. Potent and specific inhibition of glycosidases by small artificial binding proteins (affitins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Agustín; Pacheco, Sabino; Mechaly, Ariel E; Obal, Gonzalo; Béhar, Ghislaine; Mouratou, Barbara; Oppezzo, Pablo; Alzari, Pedro M; Pecorari, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Glycosidases are associated with various human diseases. The development of efficient and specific inhibitors may provide powerful tools to modulate their activity. However, achieving high selectivity is a major challenge given that glycosidases with different functions can have similar enzymatic mechanisms and active-site architectures. As an alternative approach to small-chemical compounds, proteinaceous inhibitors might provide a better specificity by involving a larger surface area of interaction. We report here the design and characterization of proteinaceous inhibitors that specifically target endoglycosidases representative of the two major mechanistic classes; retaining and inverting glycosidases. These inhibitors consist of artificial affinity proteins, Affitins, selected against the thermophilic CelD from Clostridium thermocellum and lysozyme from hen egg. They were obtained from libraries of Sac7d variants, which involve either the randomization of a surface or the randomization of a surface and an artificially-extended loop. Glycosidase binders exhibited affinities in the nanomolar range with no cross-recognition, with efficient inhibition of lysozyme (Ki = 45 nM) and CelD (Ki = 95 and 111 nM), high expression yields in Escherichia coli, solubility, and thermal stabilities up to 81.1°C. The crystal structures of glycosidase-Affitin complexes validate our library designs. We observed that Affitins prevented substrate access by two modes of binding; covering or penetrating the catalytic site via the extended loop. In addition, Affitins formed salt-bridges with residues essential for enzymatic activity. These results lead us to propose the use of Affitins as versatile selective glycosidase inhibitors and, potentially, as enzymatic inhibitors in general.

  8. Potent and specific inhibition of glycosidases by small artificial binding proteins (affitins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Correa

    Full Text Available Glycosidases are associated with various human diseases. The development of efficient and specific inhibitors may provide powerful tools to modulate their activity. However, achieving high selectivity is a major challenge given that glycosidases with different functions can have similar enzymatic mechanisms and active-site architectures. As an alternative approach to small-chemical compounds, proteinaceous inhibitors might provide a better specificity by involving a larger surface area of interaction. We report here the design and characterization of proteinaceous inhibitors that specifically target endoglycosidases representative of the two major mechanistic classes; retaining and inverting glycosidases. These inhibitors consist of artificial affinity proteins, Affitins, selected against the thermophilic CelD from Clostridium thermocellum and lysozyme from hen egg. They were obtained from libraries of Sac7d variants, which involve either the randomization of a surface or the randomization of a surface and an artificially-extended loop. Glycosidase binders exhibited affinities in the nanomolar range with no cross-recognition, with efficient inhibition of lysozyme (Ki = 45 nM and CelD (Ki = 95 and 111 nM, high expression yields in Escherichia coli, solubility, and thermal stabilities up to 81.1°C. The crystal structures of glycosidase-Affitin complexes validate our library designs. We observed that Affitins prevented substrate access by two modes of binding; covering or penetrating the catalytic site via the extended loop. In addition, Affitins formed salt-bridges with residues essential for enzymatic activity. These results lead us to propose the use of Affitins as versatile selective glycosidase inhibitors and, potentially, as enzymatic inhibitors in general.

  9. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell density is the critical parameter controlling tendon morphogenesis. Knowing its neighbors allows a cell to regulate correctly its proliferation and collagen production. A missing link to understanding this process is a molecular description of the sensing mechanism. Previously, this mechanism was shown in cell culture to rely on a diffusible factor (SNZR [sensor] with an affinity for the cell layer. This led to purifying conditioned medium over 4 columns and analyzing the final column fractions for band intensity on SDS gels versus biological activity – a 16 kD band strongly correlated between assays. N-terminal sequencing – EPLAVVDL – identified a large gene (424 AA, extremely conserved between chicken and human. In this paper we probe whether this is the correct gene. Can the predicted large protein be cleaved to a smaller protein? EPLAVVDL occurs towards the C-terminus and cleavage would create a small 94 AA protein. This protein would run at ∼10 kD, so what modifications or cofactor binding accounts for its running at 16 kD on SDS gels? This protein has no prominent hydrophobic regions, so can it be secreted? To validate its role, the chicken cDNA for this gene was tagged with myc and his and transfected into a human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS. U2OS cells expressed the gene but not passively: differentiating into structures resembling spongy bone and expressing alkaline phosphatase, an early bone marker. Intracellularly, two bands were observed by Western blotting: the full length protein and a smaller form (26 kD. Outside the cell, a small band (28 kD was detected, although it was 40% larger than expected, as well as multiple larger bands. These larger forms could be converted to the predicted smaller protein (94 AA + tags by changing salt concentrations and ultrafiltering – releasing a cofactor to the filtrate while leaving a protein factor in the retentate. Using specific degradative enzymes and mass spectrometry, the

  10. High specificity but low sensitivity of mutation-specific antibodies against EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise; Høgdall, Estrid; Mellemgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of more sensitive methods including real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry with mutation-specific antibodies might be a promising detection method. We evaluated 210 samples with NSCLC from an unselected Caucasian population. Extracted DNA was analyzed for EGFR mutations by RT-PCR (Therascreen EGFR......, and staining score (multipum of intensity (graded 0-3) and percentages (0-100%) of stained tumor cells) was calculated. Positivity was defined as staining score >0. Specificity of exon19 antibody was 98.8% (95% confidence interval=95.9-99.9%) and of exon21 antibody 97.8% (95% confidence interval=94...... was demonstrated. However, sensitivity was low, especially for exon19 deletions, and thus these antibodies cannot yet be used as screening method for EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Refinement of sensitivity for the mutation-specific antibodies is warranted to improve molecular diagnosis using EGFR immunohistochemistry....

  11. Factors associated with disease-specific survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a global public health problem and is associated with high mortality. Lung cancer could be largely avoided by reducing the prevalence of smoking. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of social, behavioral, and clinical factors on the survival time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at Cancer Hospital I of the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. This was a retrospective hospital cohort study involving 1,194 patients. The 60-month disease-specific survival probabilities were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method for three stage groups. The importance of the studied factors was assessed with a hierarchical theoretical model after adjustment by Cox multiple regression. The estimated 60-month specific-disease lethality rate was 86.0%. The 60-month disease-specific survival probability ranged from 25.0% (stages I/II) to 2.5% (stage IV). The performance status, the intention to treat, and the initial treatment modality were the major prognostic factors identified in the study population. In this cohort of patients, the disease-specific survival probabilities were extremely low. We identified no factors that could be modified after the diagnosis in order to improve survival. Primary prevention, such as reducing the prevalence of smoking, is still the best method to reduce the number of people who will suffer the consequences of lung cancer. O câncer de pulmão é um problema de saúde pública global e é associado a elevada mortalidade. Ele poderia ser evitado em grande parte com a redução da prevalência do tabagismo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos de fatores sociais, comportamentais e clínicos sobre o tempo de sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas atendidos, entre 2000 e 2003, no Hospital do Câncer I do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, localizado na

  12. Method to reduce non-specific tissue heating of small animals in solenoid coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ananda; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Mallipudi, Rajiv; Cornejo, Christine; Bordelon, David; Armour, Michael; Morua, Katherine; Deweese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Solenoid coils that generate time-varying or alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) are used in biomedical devices for research, imaging and therapy. Interactions of AMF and tissue produce eddy currents that deposit power within tissue, thus limiting effectiveness and safety. We aim to develop methods that minimise excess heating of mice exposed to AMFs for cancer therapy experiments. Numerical and experimental data were obtained to characterise thermal management properties of water using a continuous, custom water jacket in a four-turn simple solenoid. Theoretical data were obtained with method-of-moments (MoM) numerical field calculations and finite element method (FEM) thermal simulations. Experimental data were obtained from gel phantoms and mice exposed to AMFs having amplitude >50 kA/m and frequency of 160 kHz. Water has a high specific heat and thermal conductivity, is diamagnetic, polar, and nearly transparent to magnetic fields. We report at least a two-fold reduction of temperature increase from gel phantom and animal models when a continuous layer of circulating water was placed between the sample and solenoid, compared with no water. Thermal simulations indicate the superior efficiency in thermal management by the developed continuous single chamber cooling system over a double chamber non-continuous system. Further reductions of heating were obtained by regulating water temperature and flow for active cooling. These results demonstrate the potential value of a contiguous layer of circulating water to permit sustained exposure to high intensity alternating magnetic fields at this frequency for research using small animal models exposed to AMFs.

  13. Systematic development of small molecules to inhibit specific microscopic steps of Aβ42 aggregation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Johnny; Chia, Sean; Limbocker, Ryan; Mannini, Benedetta; Ahn, Minkoo; Perni, Michele; Hansson, Oskar; Arosio, Paolo; Kumita, Janet R; Challa, Pavan Kumar; Cohen, Samuel I A; Linse, Sara; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2017-01-10

    The aggregation of the 42-residue form of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) is a pivotal event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The use of chemical kinetics has recently enabled highly accurate quantifications of the effects of small molecules on specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. Here, we exploit this approach to develop a rational drug discovery strategy against Aβ42 aggregation that uses as a read-out the changes in the nucleation and elongation rate constants caused by candidate small molecules. We thus identify a pool of compounds that target specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. We then test further these small molecules in human cerebrospinal fluid and in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of AD. Our results show that this strategy represents a powerful approach to identify systematically small molecule lead compounds, thus offering an appealing opportunity to reduce the attrition problem in drug discovery.

  14. Comparison of dengue virus type 2-specific small RNAs from RNA interference-competent and -incompetent mosquito cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn C Scott

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous RNA interference (RNAi pathway is an important antiviral defense against arboviruses in mosquitoes, and virus-specific small interfering (siRNAs are key components of this pathway. Understanding the biogenesis of siRNAs in mosquitoes could have important ramifications in using RNAi to control arbovirus transmission. Using deep sequencing technology, we characterized dengue virus type 2 (DENV2-specific small RNAs produced during infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and A. aegypti Aag2 cell cultures and compared them to those produced in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line. We show that the size and mixed polarity of virus-specific small RNAs from DENV-infected A. aegypti cells indicate that they are products of Dicer-2 (Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA, whereas C6/36 cells generate DENV2-specific small RNAs that are longer and predominantly positive polarity, suggesting that they originate from a different small RNA pathway. Examination of virus-specific small RNAs after infection of the two mosquito cell lines with the insect-only flavivirus cell fusing agent virus (CFAV corroborated these findings. An in vitro assay also showed that Aag2 A. aegypti cells are capable of siRNA production, while C6/36 A. albopictus cells exhibit inefficient Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA. Defective expression or function of Dcr2, the key initiator of the RNAi pathway, might explain the comparatively robust growth of arthropod-borne viruses in the C6/36 cell line, which has been used frequently as a surrogate for studying molecular interactions between arboviruses and cells of their mosquito hosts.

  15. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-11-13

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5' end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5' untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability.

  16. [Specific features of mammographic visualization of "small" breast tumors developing on the background of fibrocystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, D G; Velichko, S A; Slonimskaia, E M; Frolova, I G; Luneva, S V; Garbukov, E Iu; Doroshenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    All complications diagnosed at early stages of breast cancer were associated with small tumors, especially with those arising in the aftermath of fibrocystic disease. Hence, our task was to study the XR-semiotics of lesions of less than 15 mm in diameter and of the same origin. 100 mammograms of breast cancer patients with benign disease of the breast were studied. The presence of moderate-to-severe fibrocystic disease significantly affected the visualization of lesions of less than 10 mm in diameter. Since the XR-semiotics of small tumors failed to reveal malignancy features, all lesions visualized by mammography required additional diagnostic procedures using ultrasound and invasive radiology.

  17. Specifics of Management in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazarević-Moravčević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under modern conditions for performing business, an enterprise regardless of its size or business activity must be systematically directed and run. Small and medium-size enterprises have certain characteristics that make them considerably different compared to large systems, therefore it is not realistic to expect that the management process in such organizations would develop in the same way as in the large systems. The fact is that the small business often does not involve a small investment, and the management of small enterprises is constantly faced with the problem of "poverty of resources" that leads to the conclusion that the success of SMEs is predominantly determined by the managerial skills of managers/owners. Assuming that the owners/managers of SMEs adequately perceive the capabilities of their enterprise, make the right decisions, finding effective solutions in terms of organization and apply modern approaches to control and the success of the company definitely will follow. In this paper theoretical and empirical research has been carried out with the aim to identify the basic characteristics of successful management of SMEs in Serbia. The research results indicate that the managerial capacity of managers/owners of SMEs is the main strength of the company, and one of the key sources of growth and development. When the influence of external factors is very unfavorable for business development, the management as an internal resource of organization is increasingly gaining importance in creating business success and competitive advantage.

  18. Specific sensitivity of small cell lung cancer cell lines to the snake venom toxin taipoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas T; Pedersen, Nina; Perin, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    and relatively specifically expressed in SCLC, consistent with the neuroendocrine features of this cancer. Normally, NPR is exclusively expressed in neurons, where it associates with the homologous proteins neuronal pentraxins 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2) in complexes capable of binding the snake venom neurotoxin...

  19. Specificities of the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SME are the engine of the European economy. They are an essential source of jobs, create entrepreneurial spirit and innovation in the EU and are thus crucial for fostering competitiveness and employment. In the enlarged European Union of 27 countries, some 20 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs and represent 99 % of all enterprises. However, they are often confronted with market imperfections. SMEs frequently have difficulties in obtaining capital or credit, particularly in the early start–up phase. Their limited resources may also restrict access to new technology or innovation. It is therefore necessary to monitor the development of SMEs in individual EU countries and highlighting their problems and mainly to their importance.During the recent period of time there have been many researchers from the FBE Mendel University in Brno, who focused on the analysis of the small and medium-sized enterprise, e.g. Bohušová (2007; Chládková (2009; Nerudová a Bohušová (2008; Kubíčková a Peprný (2006; Zrůst a Pyšný (2008. This paper is the part of the Research proposal MSM 6215648904 being solved at the FBE Mendel University in Brno.

  20. A small asparagine-rich protein required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, B; Mou, B; Canevascini, S; Bernatzky, R

    1999-11-09

    Although S-locus RNases (S-RNases) determine the specificity of pollen rejection in self-incompatible (SI) solanaceous plants, they alone are not sufficient to cause S-allele-specific pollen rejection. To identify non-S-RNase sequences that are required for pollen rejection, a Nicotiana alata cDNA library was screened by differential hybridization. One clone, designated HT, hybridized strongly to RNA from N. alata styles but not to RNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a species known to lack one or more factors necessary for S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Sequence analysis revealed a 101-residue ORF including a putative secretion signal and an asparagine-rich domain near the C terminus. RNA blot analysis showed that the HT-transcript accumulates in the stigma and style before anthesis. The timing of HT-expression lags slightly behind S(C10)-RNase in SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10) and is well correlated with the onset of S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the style. An antisense-HT construct was prepared to test for a role in pollen rejection. Transformed (N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10)) hybrids with reduced levels of HT-protein continued to express S(C10)-RNase but failed to reject S(C10)-pollen. Control hybrids expressing both S(C10)-RNase and HT-protein showed a normal S-allele-specific pollen rejection response. We conclude that HT-protein is directly implicated in pollen rejection.

  1. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decho, Alan W; Beckman, Erin M; Chandler, G Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae

  2. Snorc is a novel cartilage specific small membrane proteoglycan expressed in differentiating and articular chondrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, J; Taipaleenmäki, H; Roering, P

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype is a major issue in prevention of degeneration and repair of articular cartilage. Although the critical pathways in chondrocyte maturation and homeostasis have been revealed, the in-depth understanding is deficient and novel modifying components...... subgroups. Cartilage specific expression was highest in proliferating and prehypertrophic zones during development, and in adult articular cartilage, expression was restricted to the uncalcified zone, including chondrocyte clusters in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Studies with experimental chondrogenesis...... chondrocytes and adult articular chondrocytes with possible functions associated with development and maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype....

  3. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  4. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  5. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  6. Affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS): high-throughput screening for specific small molecule interactions with frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, T; Kawabata, S; Taira, S; Okuno, A; Mikawa, R; Murayama, S; Tanaka, K; Takikawa, O

    2015-11-07

    A novel screening system, using affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS), has been developed to identify protein aggregates or organ structures in unfixed human tissue. Frozen tissue sections are positioned on small (millimetre-scale) stainless steel chips and incubated with an extensive library of small molecules. Candidate molecules showing specific affinity for the tissue section are identified by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). As an example application, we screened over a thousand compounds against Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue and identified several compounds with high affinity for AD brain sections containing tau deposits compared to age-matched controls. It should also be possible to use AIMS to isolate chemical compounds with affinity for tissue structures or components that have been extensively modified by events such as oxidation, phosphorylation, acetylation, aggregation, racemization or truncation, for example, due to aging. It may also be applicable to biomarker screening programs.

  7. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation......, initial dendritic development, and dendritic spine maturation. In contrast, Rac1 is dispensable for early steps of neuronal development but is important for late steps of dendritic growth and spine maturation. These results establish cell-autonomous and stage-specific functions for the small Rho GTPases...

  8. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Herzog, Dominik; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    -renewal and proliferation of later stage, but not early migratory NCSCs. This stage-specific requirement for small Rho GTPases is due to changes in NCSCs that, during development, acquire responsiveness to mitogenic EGF acting upstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1. Thus, our data reveal distinct mechanisms for growth control......The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially...

  9. Untargeted LC-QTOF (ESI + MS Analysis of Small Serum Metabolites Related to Prostate Cancer and Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria Maxim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer has an increasing incidence and there is an urgent need for development of new serum biomarkers for early diagnostic as the ones known are ineffective. The aim of the study was to use untargeted metabolomics in order to identify and characterize small metabolite fingerprints in patients with normal vs pathologic values of PSA ( previously determined by electrochemiluminiscence. A cohort of one hundred patients with different Prostate Specific amtigen values were investigated by untargeted metabolomics. The serum small metabolite profile determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, LC-QTOF(ESI+MS in order to identify specific biomarkers, for normal patient group (PSA = 0-4 ng.ml and four pathologic groups, having PSA values from 4 to >1000 ng/ml. The major molecules identified in the samples were polar phospholipids, maily lysophosphatidyl choline derivatives, having m/z values from 496 to 524, like LPC(O-16:0/O-1:0, LPC(18:1/2:0 or PS(18:1(9Z/0:0, LPC(18:2(9Z,12Z/0:0 and their isomers and  LPC(O-18:1(11Z/2:0, respectively. Also, small molecules (free fatty acids and prostaglandin derivatives were identified and are significantly different in pathologic vs normal serum samples. Generally the pathologic samples had increased concentrations of all above mentioned molecules. The Principal Component analysis showed , by plot and loadings scores, significant clustering of normal vs pathological groups.

  10. A Feasibility Study of a Field-specific Weather Service for Small-scale Farms in a Topographically Complex Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. O.; Shim, K. M.; Shin, Y. S.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Adequate downscaling of synoptic forecasts is a prerequisite for improved agrometeorological service to rural areas in South Korea where complex terrain and small farms are common. Geospatial schemes based on topoclimatology were used to scale down the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) temperature forecasts to the local scale (~30 m) across a rural catchment. Local temperatures were estimated at 14 validation sites at 0600 and 1500 LST in 2013/2014 using these schemes and were compared with observations. A substantial reduction in the estimation error was found for both 0600 and 1500 temperatures compared with uncorrected KMA products. Improvement was most remarkable at low lying locations for the 0600 temperature and at the locations on west- and south-facing slopes for the 1500 temperature. Using the downscaled real-time temperature data, a pilot service has started to provide field-specific weather information tailored to meet the requirements of small-scale farms. For example, the service system makes a daily outlook on the phenology of crop species grown in a given field using the field-specific temperature data. When the temperature forecast is given for tomorrow morning, a frost risk index is calculated according to a known phenology-frost injury relationship. If the calculated index is higher than a pre-defined threshold, a warning is issued and delivered to the grower's cellular phone with relevant countermeasures to help protect crops against frost damage. The system was implemented for a topographically complex catchment of 350km2with diverse agricultural activities, and more than 400 volunteer farmers are participating in this pilot service to access user-specific weather information.

  11. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  12. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific

  13. Plasmablasts During Acute Dengue Infection Represent a Small Subset of a Broader Virus-specific Memory B Cell Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramapraba Appanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic in tropical countries worldwide and the four dengue virus serotypes often co-circulate. Infection with one serotype results in high titers of cross-reactive antibodies produced by plasmablasts, protecting temporarily against all serotypes, but impairing protective immunity in subsequent infections. To understand the development of these plasmablasts, we analyzed virus-specific B cell properties in patients during acute disease and at convalescence. Plasmablasts were unrelated to classical memory cells expanding in the blood during early recovery. We propose that only a small subset of memory B cells is activated as plasmablasts during repeat infection and that plasmablast responses are not representative of the memory B cell repertoire after dengue infection.

  14. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  15. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Hurtig, Monica; Elgue, Graciela; Li, Su-Chen; Veronesi, Giulia; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2010-12-30

    Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2) as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC), to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA) for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  16. [Analysis of tissue-specific differentially methylated genes with differential gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L G; Zou, Z Q; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, C L; Shen, J G; Qi, L; Qi, M; Xue, Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are two subtypes of non-small cell lung carcinomas which are regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related malignancy worldwide. The aim of this study is to detect the differentially methylated loci (DMLs) and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) of these two tumor sets, and then to illustrate the different expression level of specific methylated genes. Using TCGA database and Illumina HumanMethylation 27 arrays, we first screened the DMGs and DMLs in tumor samples. Then, we explored the BiologicalProcess terms of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes using Functional Gene Ontology (GO) catalogues. Hypermethylation intensively occurred in CpG-island, whereas hypomethylation was located in non-CpG-island. Most SCC and ADC hypermethylated genes involved GO function of DNA dependenit regulation of transcription, and hypomethylated genes mainly 'enriched in the term of immune responses. Additionally, the expression level of specific differentially methylated genesis distinctbetween ADC and SCC. It is concluded that ADC and SCC have different methylated status that might play an important role in carcinogenesis.

  17. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetelat, John, E-mail: john.chetelat@ec.gc.c [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  18. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetelat, John; Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  19. Detection of EGFR mutations with mutation-specific antibodies in stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Santiago

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunohistochemistry (IHC with mutation-specific antibodies may be an ancillary method of detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients. Methods EGFR mutation status was analyzed by DNA assays, and compared with IHC results in five non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines and tumor samples from 78 stage IV NSCLC patients. Results IHC correctly identified del 19 in the H1650 and PC9 cell lines, L858R in H1975, and wild-type EGFR in H460 and A549, as well as wild-type EGFR in tumor samples from 22 patients. IHC with the mAb against EGFR with del 19 was highly positive for the protein in all 17 patients with a 15-bp (ELREA deletion in exon 19, whereas in patients with other deletions, IHC was weakly positive in 3 cases and negative in 9 cases. IHC with the mAb against the L858R mutation showed high positivity for the protein in 25/27 (93% patients with exon 21 EGFR mutations (all with L858R but did not identify the L861Q mutation in the remaining two patients. Conclusions IHC with mutation-specific mAbs against EGFR is a promising method for detecting EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients. However these mAbs should be validated with additional studies to clarify their possible role in routine clinical practice for screening EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients.

  20. Assessing Specific Oligonucleotides and Small Molecule Antibiotics for the Ability to Inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dana; Lee, Chow H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP) and its orthologs have confirmed their functional role in mRNA stability and localization. CRD-BP is present in extremely low levels in normal adult tissues, but it is over-expressed in many types of aggressive human cancers and in neonatal tissues. Although the exact role of CRD-BP in tumour progression is unclear, cumulative evidence suggests that its ability to physically associate with target mRNAs is an important criterion for its oncogenic role. CRD-BP has high affinity for the 3′UTR of the oncogenic CD44 mRNA and depletion of CRD-BP in cells led to destabilization of CD44 mRNA, decreased CD44 expression, reduced adhesion and disruption of invadopodia formation. Here, we further characterize the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction and assess specific antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule antibiotics for their ability to inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction. CRD-BP has a high affinity for binding to CD44 RNA nts 2862–3055 with a Kd of 645 nM. Out of ten antisense oligonucleotides spanning nts 2862–3055, only three antisense oligonucleotides (DD4, DD7 and DD10) were effective in competing with CRD-BP for binding to 32P-labeled CD44 RNA. The potency of DD4, DD7 and DD10 in inhibiting the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro correlated with their ability to specifically reduce the steady-state level of CD44 mRNA in cells. The aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin effectively inhibited the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro. Assessing the potential inhibitory effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics including neomycin on the CRD-BP-CD44 mRNA interaction in cells proved difficult, likely due to their propensity to non-specifically bind nucleic acids. Our results have important implications for future studies in finding small molecules and nucleic acid-based inhibitors that interfere with protein-RNA interactions. PMID:24622399

  1. Sex-specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: the impact of environment in a small geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buretic-Tomljanovic, Alena; Giacometti, Jasminka; Ostojic, Sasa; Kapovic, Miljenko

    2007-01-01

    Craniometric variation in humans reflects different genetic and environmental influences. Long-term climatic adaptation is less likely to show an impact on size and shape variation in a small local area than at the global level. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of the particular environmental factors to body height and craniofacial variability in a small geographic area of Croatia. A total of 632 subjects, aged 18-21, participated in the survey. Body height, head length, head breadth, head height, head circumference, cephalic index, morphological face height, face breadth, and facial index were analysed regarding geographic, climatic and dietary conditions in different regions of the country, and correlated with the specific climatic variables (cumulative multiyear sunshine duration, cumulative multiyear average precipitation, multiyear average air temperatures) and calcium concentrations in drinking water. Significant differences between groups classified according to geographic, climatic or dietary affiliation, and the impact of the environmental predictors on the variation in the investigated traits were assessed using multiple forward stepwise regression analyses. Higher body height measures in both sexes were significantly correlated with Mediterranean diet type. Mediterranean diet type also contributed to higher head length and head circumference measures in females. Cephalic index values correlated to geographic regions in both sexes, showing an increase from southern to eastern Croatia. In the same direction, head length significantly decreased in males and head breadth increased in females. Mediterranean climate was associated with higher and narrower faces in females. The analysis of the particular climatic variables did not reveal a significant influence on body height in either sex. Concurrently, climatic features influenced all craniofacial traits in females and only head length and facial index in males. Mediterranean climate

  2. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2 as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC, to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. CONCLUSION: Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  3. Placenta-specific protein 1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zha, Tian-Qi; He, Xiang; Chen, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Wu, Wei-Bing; Nie, Feng-Qi; Wang, Qian; Zang, Chong-Shuang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; He, Jing; Li, Wei; Jiang, Wen; Lu, Kai-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma-associated proteins have emerged as crucial players in governing fundamental biological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis in human cancers. Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a cancer-related protein, which is activated and upregulated in a variety of malignant tissues, including prostate cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal, epithelial ovarian and breast cancer. However, its biological role and clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and progression are still unknown. In the present study, we found that PLAC1 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues, and its expression level was associated with advanced pathological stage and it was also correlated with shorter progression-free survival of lung cancer patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PLAC1 expression by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and impaired invasive ability in NSCLC cells partly via regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related protein expression. Our findings present that increased PLAC1 could be identified as a negative prognostic biomarker in NSCLC and regulate cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, we conclusively demonstrated that PLAC1 plays a key role in NSCLC development and progression, which may provide novel insights on the function of tumor-related gene-driven tumorigenesis. PMID:29138842

  4. Esculetin exerts anti-proliferative effects against non-small-cell lung carcinoma by suppressing specificity protein 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ra H; Jeon, Young-Joo; Cho, Jin H; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, MinSeok S; Chung, Hak-Jae; Oh, Keon B; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Seo, Jae-Min; Ko, Sungho; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin. Our data showed that esculetin-treated cells exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly suppressed by esculetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of p27 and p21, two key regulators of the cell cycle, were up-regulated by the esculetin-mediated down-regulation of Sp1; the level of a third cell-cycle regulator, survivin, was decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that esculetin could be a potent anti-proliferative agent in patients with NSCLC.

  5. Optimal Classes of Chemotherapeutic Agents Sensitized by Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Akt In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that transduces survival signals from survival/growth factors. Deregulation and signal imbalance in cancer cells make them prone to apoptosis. Upregulation or activation of Akt to aid the survival of cancer cells is a common theme in human malignancies. We have developed small-molecule Akt inhibitors that are potent and specific. These Akt inhibitors can inhibit Akt activity and block phosphorylation by Akt on multiple downstream targets in cells. Synergy in apoptosis induction was observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin or camptothecin. Akt inhibitor-induced enhancement of topoisomerase inhibitor cytotoxicity was also evident in long-term cell survival assay. Synergy with paclitaxel in apoptosis induction was evident in cells pretreated with paclitaxel, and enhancement of tumor delay by paclitaxel was demonstrated through cotreatment with Akt inhibitor Compound A (A-443654. Combination with other classes of chemotherapeutic agents did not yield any enhancement of cytotoxicity. These findings provide important guidance in selecting appropriate classes of chemotherapeutic agents for combination with Akt inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  6. A small-molecule compound inhibits a collagen-specific molecular chaperone and could represent a potential remedy for fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Ogawa, Koji; Takeuchi, Koh; Takagi, Motoki; Yoshida, Masahito; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Hirayama, Shoshiro; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Shimada, Ichio; Doi, Takayuki; Goshima, Naoki; Natsume, Tohru; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-08

    Fibrosis can disrupt tissue structure and integrity and impair organ function. Fibrosis is characterized by abnormal collagen accumulation in the extracellular matrix. Pharmacological inhibition of collagen secretion therefore represents a promising strategy for the management of fibrotic disorders, such as liver and lung fibrosis. Hsp47 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident collagen-specific molecular chaperone essential for correct folding of procollagen in the ER. Genetic deletion of Hsp47 or inhibition of its interaction with procollagen interferes with procollagen triple helix production, which vastly reduces procollagen secretion from fibroblasts. Thus, Hsp47 could be a potential and promising target for the management of fibrosis. In this study, we screened small-molecule compounds that inhibit the interaction of Hsp47 with collagen from chemical libraries using surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore), and we found a molecule AK778 and its cleavage product Col003 competitively inhibited the interaction and caused the inhibition of collagen secretion by destabilizing the collagen triple helix. Structural information obtained with NMR analysis revealed that Col003 competitively binds to the collagen-binding site on Hsp47. We propose that these structural insights could provide a basis for designing more effective therapeutic drugs for managing fibrosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Detecting Rice stripe virus (RSV) in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) with high specificity by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Cai; Xizhi, Ma; Lin, Kang; Kejing, Deng; Shouyuan, Zhao; Changben, Li

    2003-09-01

    Rice stripe disease, caused by Rice stripe virus (RSV), may lead to severe or even crippling losses in many rice-cultured countries and regions. As the most important vector of RSV, the small brown planthopper (SBPH) (Laodelphax striatellus) is largely responsible for the epidemic phase of the disease. Therefore, a rapid identification of RSV in the SBPH is of a great need for disease forecasting. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is described to amplify a RSV gene in individual L. striatellus. By using primers matched to the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene in RNA1, a 445 bp product was detected in viruliferous SBPHs. Meanwhile, the PCR products produced by the SBPH actin primers constructed across the boundary of an intron and an exon were used as RNA specific positive control for each stage of the experiment to ensure the validity of the negative results. Duplex RT-PCR conditions were established for the simultaneous detection of RSV and actin. This approach can be used for the early detection of RSV in L. striatellus and the subsequent rice stripe disease forecasting.

  8. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  9. Community-specific hydraulic conductance potential of soil water decomposed for two Alpine grasslands by small-scale lysimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck, Georg; Leitinger, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Hofmann, Magdalena; Newesely, Christian; Deutschmann, Mario; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich

    2018-02-01

    For central Europe in addition to rising temperatures an increasing variability in precipitation is predicted. This will increase the probability of drought periods in the Alps, where water supply has been sufficient in most areas so far. For Alpine grasslands, community-specific imprints on drought responses are poorly analyzed so far due to the sufficient natural water supply. In a replicated mesocosm experiment we compared evapotranspiration (ET) and biomass productivity of two differently drought-adapted Alpine grassland communities during two artificial drought periods divided by extreme precipitation events using high-precision small lysimeters. The drought-adapted vegetation type showed a high potential to utilize even scarce water resources. This is combined with a low potential to translate atmospheric deficits into higher water conductance and a lower biomass production as those measured for the non-drought-adapted type. The non-drought-adapted type, in contrast, showed high water conductance potential and a strong increase in ET rates when environmental conditions became less constraining. With high rates even at dry conditions, this community appears not to be optimized to save water and might experience drought effects earlier and probably more strongly. As a result, the water use efficiency of the drought-adapted plant community is with 2.6 gDW kg-1 of water much higher than that of the non-drought-adapted plant community (0.16 gDW kg-1). In summary, the vegetation's reaction to two covarying gradients of potential evapotranspiration and soil water content revealed a clear difference in vegetation development and between water-saving and water-spending strategies regarding evapotranspiration.

  10. BAC CGH-array identified specific small-scale genomic imbalances in diploid DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, Emma; Karlsson, Sara; Partheen, Karolina; Nilsson, Staffan; Szpirer, Claude; Behboudi, Afrouz

    2012-01-01

    Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene) in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding) and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH) analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) CGH-array platform. Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO) band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors. Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve genes with a critical role in mammary tumor development. Genetic

  11. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  12. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  13. Cellular cross talk in the small intestinal mucosa: postnatal lymphocytic immigration elicits a specific epithelial transcriptional response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Maltesen, Henrik R; Balmer, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    -PCR analysis. The DNA microarray data were analyzed bioinformatically by using a combination of projections to latent structures analysis and functional annotation analysis. The results show that infiltrating lymphocytes appear in the mouse small intestine in the late postweaning period and give rise...

  14. Habitat-specific biomass, survival and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during summer in a small coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We observed significant habitat-scale variation in the density, survival, and growth of 811 passive integrated transponder tagged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) enclosed for 63—68 days at natural density in 59 individual habitats (pools and riffles) in a small coastal California stream in summer 2001. The initial habitat-scale...

  15. A remote arene-binding site on prostate specific membrane antigen revealed by antibody-recruiting small molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, A.X.; Murelli, R.P.; Bařinka, Cyril; Michel, J.; Cocleaza, A.; Jorgensen, W.L.; Lubkowski, J.; Spiegel, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 36 (2010), s. 12711-12716 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Prostate -specific membrane antigen * antibody recruiting molecules * Structure-activity relationship Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.019, year: 2010

  16. The importance of specific human capital, planning and familiarity in Dutch small firm ownership transfers : a seller’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen; Martijn Driessen; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transfer process and the importance of human capital and succession planning as firm resource from the seller’s perspective. It further differentiates amongst two types of human capital - specific and generic - to predict the transfer duration, obtained price and

  17. A useful PET probe [11C]BU99008 with ultra-high specific radioactivity for small animal PET imaging of I2-imidazoline receptors in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Zhang, Yiding; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Hatori, Akiko; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Ogawa, Masanao; Kurihara, Yusuke; Nengaki, Nobuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A positron emission tomography (PET) probe with ultra-high specific radioactivity (SA) enables measuring high receptor specific binding in brain regions by avoiding mass effect of the PET probe itself. It has been reported that PET probe with ultra-high SA can detect small change caused by endogenous or exogenous ligand. Recently, Kealey et al. developed [ 11 C]BU99008, a more potent PET probe for I 2 -imidazoline receptors (I 2 Rs) imaging, with a conventional SA (mean 76 GBq/μmol) showed higher specific binding in the brain. Here, to detect small change of specific binding for I 2 Rs caused by endogenous or exogenous ligand in an extremely small region, such as hypothalamus in the brain, we synthesized and evaluated [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA as a useful PET probe for small-animal PET imaging of I 2 Rs. Methods: [ 11 C]BU99008 was prepared by [ 11 C]methylation of N-desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl iodide. Biodistribution, metabolite analysis, and brain PET studies were conducted in rats. Results: [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA in the range of 5400–16,600 GBq/μmol were successfully synthesized (n = 7), and had appropriate radioactivity for in vivo study. In the biodistribution study, the mean radioactivity levels in all investigated tissues except for the kidney did not show significant difference between [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA and that with conventional SA. In the metabolite analysis, the percentage of unchanged [ 11 C]BU99008 at 30 min after the injection of probes with ultra-high and conventional SA was similar in rat brain and plasma. In the PET study of rats' brain, radioactivity level (AUC 30–60 min ) in the hypothalamus of rats injected with [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA (64 [SUV ∙ min]) was significantly higher than that observed for that with conventional SA (50 [SUV ∙ min]). The specific binding of [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA (86% of total binding) for I 2 R was higher than that of

  18. A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Prevo, Remko; Lee, Yin-Fai

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of radiotherapy treatment could be significantly improved if tumor cells could be rendered more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) without altering the sensitivity of normal tissues. However, many of the key therapeutically exploitable mechanisms that determine intrinsic tumor...... radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B......) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA...

  19. 1 kb of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter directs post-weaning decline and small intestinal-specific expression in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Mehlum, A; Spodsberg, N

    1994-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a genetic condition making approximately one half of the human population intolerant to milk because of abdominal symptoms. The cause is a post-weaning down-regulation of the intestinal-specific enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) reducing the intestinal capacity...... to hydrolyze lactose. We here demonstrate that the stretch -17 to -994 in the pig LPH-promoter carries cis-elements which direct a small intestinal-specific expression and a post-weaning decline of a linked rabbit beta-globin gene. These data demonstrate that the post-weaning decline of LPH is mainly due...

  20. Specific Detection of Serum Antibodies against BKPyV, A Small DNA Tumour Virus, in Patients Affected by Choroidal Nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pietrobon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocular or choroidal nevus (CN is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of the eye. The cause of CN onset/progression, which arises from the transformation of ocular melanocytes, is not known. A fraction of CN patients may develop uveal melanoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between CN and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV, a small DNA tumor virus. Serum IgG antibodies which react with BKPyV antigens were analyzed. An indirect E.L.I.S.A. using synthetic peptides that mimic BKPyV antigens was employed. Serum antibodies against BKPyV were also investigated by haemagglutination inhibition (HAI assay. Sera were from CN patients and healthy subject (HS were the control. A statistically significant higher prevalence of antibodies against BKPyV capsid protein antigens in serum samples from CN patients was detected, compared to HS, using two independent techniques, indirect E.L.I.S.A. and HAI (87.3% CN vs. 62.1% HS and 91.5% CN vs. 64.4% HS, respectively; p < 0.005. Our data suggest an association exists between CN and BKPyV indicating that this small DNA tumor virus could be responsible in the onset of this benign neoplastic lesion affecting eye melanocytes. This investigation reports the association between choroidal nevi and BKPyV infection for the first time. These data are innovative in this field and may represent a starting point for further investigation into the putative role of BKPyV in CN onset/progression.

  1. Appendix S-NH-1 and S-NH-2 of the experiment operating specification for the semiscale MOD-2C small break LOCA without HPI experiment series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owca, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This document is Appendix S-NH--1 and S-NH-2 of the Experiment Operating Specification (EOS) for the Small Break LOCA without high pressure injection (HPI) series. It contains detailed information on the S-NH-1 and S-NH-2 experiment operation and facility configuration necessary to meet the series objectives stated in the main EOS body. 14 refs., 17 figs

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of normality tests and consequences on reference interval accuracy at small sample size: a computer-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boedec, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    According to international guidelines, parametric methods must be chosen for RI construction when the sample size is small and the distribution is Gaussian. However, normality tests may not be accurate at small sample size. The purpose of the study was to evaluate normality test performance to properly identify samples extracted from a Gaussian population at small sample sizes, and assess the consequences on RI accuracy of applying parametric methods to samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian. Samples of n = 60 and n = 30 values were randomly selected 100 times from simulated Gaussian, lognormal, and asymmetric populations of 10,000 values. The sensitivity and specificity of 4 normality tests were compared. Reference intervals were calculated using 6 different statistical methods from samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian, and their accuracy was compared. Shapiro-Wilk and D'Agostino-Pearson tests were the best performing normality tests. However, their specificity was poor at sample size n = 30 (specificity for P Box-Cox transformation) on all samples regardless of their distribution or adjusting, the significance level of normality tests depending on sample size would limit the risk of constructing inaccurate RI. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Site-specific tagging proteins with a rigid, small and stable transition metal chelator, 8-hydroxyquinoline, for paramagnetic NMR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yin; Huang, Feng [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin) (China); Huber, Thomas [Australian National University, Research School of Chemistry (Australia); Su, Xun-Cheng, E-mail: xunchengsu@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin) (China)

    2016-02-15

    Design of a paramagnetic metal binding motif in a protein is a valuable way for understanding the function, dynamics and interactions of a protein by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. Several strategies have been proposed to site-specifically tag proteins with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. Here we report a simple approach of engineering a transition metal binding motif via site-specific labelling of a protein with 2-vinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2V-8HQ). The protein-2V-8HQ adduct forms a stable complex with transition metal ions, Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). The paramagnetic effects generated by these transition metal ions were evaluated by NMR spectroscopy. We show that 2V-8HQ is a rigid and stable transition metal binding tag. The coordination of the metal ion can be assisted by protein sidechains. More importantly, tunable paramagnetic tensors are simply obtained in an α-helix that possesses solvent exposed residues in positions i and i + 3, where i is the residue to be mutated to cysteine, i + 3 is Gln or Glu or i − 4 is His. The coordination of a sidechain carboxylate/amide or imidazole to cobalt(II) results in different structural geometries, leading to different paramagnetic tensors as shown by experimental data.

  4. New Perspectives on Specific Immune-Depletion Technique Using Monoclonal Antibodies against Small Active Molecules in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main focuses in Chinese Medicine research is the identification of efficacious components in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM. Studies in such area are difficult due to the complexity and the synergistic characteristics of CHM. Current methods to track and separate active components are not adequate to meet the needs of revealing effects and identify substances and pharmacological mechanisms, which directly restrict the modernization and globalization of CHM. In this paper, a new methodology to deplete a single active component via immunoassay was introduced. The specific active component in a CHM mixture can then be identified and studied through comparative analyses of the pharmacological effects before and after immune depletion. With this new methodology, degree of contribution of a particular component to the whole complex herbal mixture can be elucidated, and its synergistic property with other components can be determined. The new method can reflect not only the overall combined pharmacological effects of CHM but also the effect of individual component. It is an effective way to explain the degree of contribution of one specific component to the overall activity of a CHM prescription.

  5. Specific and Nonspecific B-Cell Function in the Small Intestines of Patients with Whipple's Disease ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhaar, Anika; Moos, Verena; Schinnerling, Katina; Allers, Kristina; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Fenollar, Florence; LaScola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Schneider, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Whipple's disease is a chronic multisystemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei that is characterized by arthritis, weight loss, and diarrhea. The immunological defects in the duodenal mucosa, the site of major replication of the agent underlying the pathogenesis of Whipple's disease, are poorly understood. Mucosal immunoglobulins are essential for the defense against intestinal pathogens; therefore, we analyzed the B-cell response in duodenal specimens and sera of Whipple's disease patients. Whereas systemic immunoglobulin production was affected only marginally, duodenal biopsy specimens of Whipple's disease patients contained reduced numbers of immunoglobulin-positive plasma cells and secreted less immunoglobulin compared to healthy controls but showed a weak secretory IgA response toward T. whipplei. This T. whipplei-specific intestinal immune response was not observed in controls. Thus, we were able to demonstrate that general mucosal immunoglobulin production in Whipple's disease patients is impaired. However, this deficiency does not completely abolish T. whipplei-specific secretory IgA production that nonetheless does not protect from chronic infection. PMID:20696822

  6. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neha Gupta, Hassan Hatoum, Grace K DyDepartment of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007 is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel. A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.Keywords: ABI-007, Abraxane, nab

  7. Small molecule-directed specification of sclerotome-like chondroprogenitors and induction of a somitic chondrogenesis program from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangang; Li, Songhui; Trilok, Suprita; Tanaka, Makoto; Jokubaitis-Jameson, Vanta; Wang, Bei; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generate rostral paraxial mesoderm-like progeny in 5-6 days of differentiation induced by Wnt3a and Noggin (Nog). We report that canonical Wnt signaling introduced either by forced expression of activated β-catenin, or the small-molecule inhibitor of Gsk3, CHIR99021, satisfied the need for Wnt3a signaling, and that the small-molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, LDN193189, was able to replace Nog. Mesodermal progeny generated using such small molecules were chondrogenic in vitro, and expressed trunk paraxial mesoderm markers such as Tcf15 and Meox1, and somite markers such as Uncx, but failed to express sclerotome markers such as Pax1. Induction of the osteochondrogenically committed sclerotome from somite requires sonic hedgehog and Nog. Consistently, Pax1 and Bapx1 expression was induced when the isolated paraxial mesodermal progeny were treated with SAG1 (a hedgehog receptor agonist) and LDN193189, then Sox9 expression was induced, leading to cartilaginous nodules and particles in the presence of BMP, indicative of chondrogenesis via sclerotome specification. By contrast, treatment with TGFβ also supported chondrogenesis and stimulated Sox9 expression, but failed to induce the expression of Pax1 and Bapx1. On ectopic transplantation to immunocompromised mice, the cartilage particles developed under either condition became similarly mineralized and formed pieces of bone with marrow. Thus, the use of small molecules led to the effective generation from ESCs of paraxial mesodermal progeny, and to their further differentiation in vitro through sclerotome specification into growth plate-like chondrocytes, a mechanism resembling in vivo somitic chondrogenesis that is not recapitulated with TGFβ. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer-specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Camilla L; Gjetting, Torben; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen

    2010-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant cancer for which there is no curable treatment. Novel therapies are therefore in great demand. In the present study we investigated the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine...... deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug. Experimental design: The YCD gene or the YCD-YUPRT gene was placed under regulation of the SCLC-specific promoter insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1...

  9. Small RNA analysis in Petunia hybrida identifies unusual tissue-specific expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and of a 24mer RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Philip; Zubko, Elena; Westhead, David R.; Meyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two pools of small RNAs were cloned from inflorescences of Petunia hybrida using a 5′-ligation dependent and a 5′-ligation independent approach. The two libraries were integrated into a public website that allows the screening of individual sequences against 359,769 unique clones. The library contains 15 clones with 100% identity and 53 clones with one mismatch to miRNAs described for other plant species. For two conserved miRNAs, miR159 and miR390, we find clear differences in tissue-specific distribution, compared with other species. This shows that evolutionary conservation of miRNA sequences does not necessarily include a conservation of the miRNA expression profile. Almost 60% of all clones in the database are 24-nucleotide clones. In accordance with the role of 24mers in marking repetitive regions, we find them distributed across retroviral and transposable element sequences but other 24mers map to promoter regions and to different transcript regions. For one target region we observe tissue-specific variation of matching 24mers, which demonstrates that, as for 21mers, 24mer concentrations are not necessarily identical in different tissues. Asymmetric distribution of a putative novel miRNA in the two libraries suggests that the cloning method can be selective for the representation of certain small RNAs in a collection. PMID:19369427

  10. 99mTc-labeling and evaluation of a HYNIC modified small-molecular inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jianping; Hu, Silong; He, Simin; Bao, Xiao; Ma, Guang; Luo, Jianmin; Cheng, Jingyi; Zhang, Yingjian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established target in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated a novel 99m Tc-labeled small molecular inhibitor of PSMA. Methods: This new small-molecular inhibitor of PSMA, 6-hydrazinonicotinate-Aminocaproic acid-Lysine-Urea-Glutamate (HYNIC-ALUG) was radiolabeled by 99m Tc and was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using PCa models (PC-3 and LNCaP). Radiation dosimetry was assessed in mice. Results: 99m Tc-HYNIC-ALUG showed excellent stability in different media. A cell assay preliminarily displayed its specificity for PSMA. The inhibitor showed good pharmacokinetics making it suitable for in vivo imaging. PC-3-derived tumors showed no obvious radioactive uptake; however, the LNCaP-derived tumors showed very high radioactive uptake which was significantly decreased by the selective PSMA inhibitor 2-PMPA. Biodistribution in LNCaP xenografts showed an optimum tumor-to-blood ratio of 24.23 ± 3.54 at 2 h. Tumor uptake was also decreased in the inhibition experiment with 2-PMPA (19.45 ± 2.14%ID/g versus 1.42 ± 0.15%ID/g at 2 h). The effective dose of the 99m Tc-HYNIC-ALUG was 8.4E-04 mSv/MBq. Conclusions: A new 99m Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor with specific accumulation in PSMA-positive tumors and low background in other organs was synthesized. The radiopharmaceutical also showed very low radiation dosimetry. This agent may significantly improve the diagnosis, staging, and subsequent monitoring of therapeutic effects in PCa patients.

  11. Small Interfering RNA Specific for N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor 2B Offers Neuroprotection to Dopamine Neurons through Activation of MAP Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia T.W. Ng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B-specific siRNA was applied in parkinsonian models. Our previous results showed that reduction in expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1, the key subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, by antisense oligos amelio-rated the motor symptoms in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rat, an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD [Lai et al.: Neurochem Int 2004;45:11-22]. To further the investigation on the efficacy of gene silencing, small interference RNA (siRNA specific for the NR2B subunit was designed and administered in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The present results show that administration of NR2B-specific siRNA decreased the number of apomorphine-induced rotations in the lesioned rats and that there was a significant reduction in NR2B proteins levels after NR2B-specific siRNA administration. Furthermore, attenuation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons was found in both the striatal and substantia nigra regions of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats that had been continuously infused with siRNA for 7 days. In addition, a significant upregulation of p-p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2; Thr202/Tyr204 and p-CREB (Ser133 in striatal neurons was found. These results suggest that application of the gene silencing targeting NR2B could be a potential treatment of PD, and they also revealed the possibility of NR2B-specific siRNA being involved in the prosurvival pathway.

  12. Cluster-specific small airway modeling for imaging-based CFD analysis of pulmonary air flow and particle deposition in COPD smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Babak; Choi, Jiwoong; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small airway diameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a crucial step toward patient-specific CFD simulations of regional airflow and particle transport. We proposed to use computed tomography (CT) imaging-based cluster membership to identify structural characteristics of airways in each cluster and use them to develop cluster-specific airway diameter models. We analyzed 284 COPD smokers with airflow limitation, and 69 healthy controls. We used multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) to classify smokers into 4 clusters. With representative cluster patients and healthy controls, we performed multiple regressions to quantify variation of airway diameters by generation as well as by cluster. The cluster 2 and 4 showed more diameter decrease as generation increases than other clusters. The cluster 4 had more rapid decreases of airway diameters in the upper lobes, while cluster 2 in the lower lobes. We then used these regression models to estimate airway diameters in CT unresolved regions to obtain pressure-volume hysteresis curves using a 1D resistance model. These 1D flow solutions can be used to provide the patient-specific boundary conditions for 3D CFD simulations in COPD patients. Support for this study was provided, in part, by NIH Grants U01-HL114494, R01-HL112986 and S10-RR022421.

  13. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...... stage patients and 71% in limited stage patients. Frequent initial monitoring of the substances showed an increase in the concentrations of pretherapeutic elevated CK-BB and NSE on day 1 or 2 followed by a sharp decrease within 1 week. These changes were correlated to objective clinical response...... determined within 4-8 weeks. The results indicate that serum CK-BB and NSE are potential markers for SCC at the time of diagnosis and that changes in the concentrations during the first course of cytostatic therapy are promising as biochemical tests for early detection of response to chemotherapy....

  14. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Meldgaard, Peter; Hager, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    samples with allele-specific PCR assays. METHODS: Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence...... of mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas(®) EGFR Tissue Test and cobas(®) EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). RESULTS: Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were...... identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue...

  15. SU-E-T-746: The Use of Radiochromic Film Analyzed with Three Channel Dosimetry as a Secondary Patient-Specific QA Tool for Small SBRT Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadsell, M; Holcombe, C; Chin, E; Hsu, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As diagnostic techniques become more sensitive and targeting methods grow in accuracy, target volumes continue to shrink and SBRT becomes more prevalent. Due to this fact, patient-specific QA must also enhance resolution and accuracy in order to verify dose delivery in these volumes. It has been suggested that when measuring small fields at least two separate detectors be used to verify delivered dose. Therefore, we have instituted a secondary patient QA verification for small (<3cm) SBRT fields using Gafchromic EBT2 film. Methods: Films were cross-calibrated using a Farmer chamber in plastic water at reference conditions as defined by TG-51. Films were scanned, and an RGB calibration curve was created according to best practices published by Ashland, Inc. Four SBRT cases were evaluated both with the Scandidos Delta4 and with EBT2 films sandwiched in plastic water. Raw values obtained from the film were converted to dose using an in-house algorithm employing all three color channels to increase accuracy and dosimetric range. Gamma and dose profile comparisons to Eclipse dose calculations were obtained using RIT and compared to values obtained with the Delta4. Results: Film gamma pass rates at 2% and 2mm were similar to those obtained with the Delta4. However, dose difference histograms showed better absolute dose agreement, with the average mean film dose agreeing with calculation to 0.3% and the Delta4 only agreeing to 3.1% across the cases. Additionally, films provided more resolution than the Delta4 and thus their dose profiles better succeeded in diagnosing dose calculation inaccuracies. Conclusion: We believe that the implementation of secondary patient QA using EBT2 film analyzed with all three color channels is an invaluable tool for evaluation of small SBRT fields. Furthermore, we have shown that this method can sometimes provide a more detailed and faithful reproduction of plan dose than the Delta4

  16. Upregulation of bacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 responses that are enriched in CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin-Yun; Huang, Da-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-01

    The microbial community in the mucosal surfaces is involved in the development of human cancers, including gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. The respiratory tract in the lung also hosts a distinctive microbial community, but the correlation between this community and lung cancer is largely unknown. Here, we examined the Th1 and Th17 responses toward several bacterial antigens, in CD4 + T cells sourced from the peripheral blood (PB), the lung cancer (LC) tissue, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Compared to healthy controls, the NSCLC patients presented significantly higher frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells reacting to Streptococcus salivarius and S. agalactiae, in the PB, LC, and GI tract. Further investigation showed that the upregulation in anti-bacteria response was likely antigen-specific for two reasons. Firstly, the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells reacting to Escherichia coli, a typical GI bacterium, were not upregulated in the PB and the LC of NSCLC patients. Secondly, the S. salivarius and S. agalactiae responses could be partially blocked by Tü39, a MHC class II blocking antibody, suggesting that antigen-specific interaction between CD4 + T cells and antigen-presenting cells was required. We also found that S. salivarius and S. agalactiae could potently activate the monocytes to secrete higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor, which were Th1- and Th17-skewing cytokines. Interestingly, whereas CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells represented <20% of total CD4 + T cells, they represented 17%-82% of bacteria-specific Th1 or Th17 cells. Together, these data demonstrated that NSCLC patients presented a significant upregulation of bacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 responses that were enriched in CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast-specific gamma-imaging: molecular imaging of the breast using 99mTc-sestamibi and a small-field-of-view gamma-camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Phan, Trinh D; Blanchard, Deborah A; Miley, Abbe

    2009-12-01

    Breast-specific gamma-imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging, is breast scintigraphy using a small-field-of-view gamma-camera and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. There are many different types of breast cancer, and many have characteristics making them challenging to detect by mammography and ultrasound. BSGI is a cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific technique that complements other imaging modalities currently being used to identify malignant lesions in the breast. Using the current Society of Nuclear Medicine guidelines for breast scintigraphy, Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital began conducting BSGI, breast scintigraphy with a breast-optimized gamma-camera. In our experience, optimal imaging has been conducted in the Breast Center by a nuclear medicine technologist. In addition, the breast radiologists read the BSGI images in correlation with the mammograms, ultrasounds, and other imaging studies performed. By modifying the current Society of Nuclear Medicine protocol to adapt it to the practice of breast scintigraphy with these new systems and by providing image interpretation in conjunction with the other breast imaging studies, our center has found BSGI to be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The development of a small-field-of-view gamma-camera, designed to optimize breast imaging, has resulted in improved detection capabilities, particularly for lesions less than 1 cm. Our experience with this procedure has proven to aid in the clinical work-up of many of our breast patients. After reading this article, the reader should understand the history of breast scintigraphy, the pharmaceutical used, patient preparation and positioning, imaging protocol guidelines, clinical indications, and the role of breast scintigraphy in breast cancer diagnosis.

  18. Contribution of small conductance K+ channels to sinoatrial node pacemaker activity: insights from atrial-specific Na+ /Ca2+ exchange knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Angelo G; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Heidi; Zaini, Audrey; Kim, Brian; Yue, Xin; Philipson, Kenneth D; Goldhaber, Joshua I

    2017-06-15

    Repolarizing currents through K + channels are essential for proper sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking, but the influence of intracellular Ca 2+ on repolarization in the SAN is uncertain. We identified all three isoforms of Ca 2+ -activated small conductance K + (SK) channels in the murine SAN. SK channel blockade slows repolarization and subsequent depolarization of SAN cells. In the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) knockout mouse, cellular Ca 2+ accumulation during spontaneous SAN pacemaker activity produces intermittent hyperactivation of SK channels, leading to arrhythmic pauses alternating with bursts of pacing. These findings suggest that Ca 2+ -sensitive SK channels can translate changes in cellular Ca 2+ into a repolarizing current capable of modulating pacemaking. SK channels are a potential pharmacological target for modulating SAN rate or treating SAN dysfunction, particularly under conditions characterized by abnormal increases in diastolic Ca 2+ . Small conductance K + (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity has been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells. Apamin also slowed diastolic depolarization and reduced pacemaker rate in isolated SAN cells and intact tissue. We investigated whether the Ca 2+ -sensitive nature of SK channels could explain arrhythmic SAN pacemaker activity in the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) knockout (KO) mouse, a model of cellular Ca 2+ overload. SAN cells isolated from the NCX KO exhibited higher SK current than wildtype (WT) and apamin

  19. Quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemical detection of EGFR gene mutations in the non-small cell lung cancers using mutation-specific antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu YG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Gang Qu,1 Qian Zhang,2 Qi Pan,3 Xian-Da Zhao,4 Yan-Hua Huang,2 Fu-Chun Chen,3 Hong-Lei Chen41Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Wuhan Nano Tumor Diagnosis Engineering Research Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Thoracosurgery, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Wenling, Wenling, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status plays an important role in therapeutic decision making for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Since EGFR mutation-specific antibodies (E746-A750del and L858R have been developed, EGFR mutation detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC is a suitable screening test. On this basis, we want to establish a new screening test, quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemistry (QDs-IHC, to assess EGFR gene mutation in NSCLC tissues, and we compared it to traditional IHC and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS.Materials and methods: EGFR gene mutations were detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS in 65 cases of NSCLC composed of 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and ten pleural effusion cell blocks, including 13 squamous cell carcinomas, two adenosquamous carcinomas, and 50 adenocarcinomas.Results: Positive rates of EGFR gene mutations detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS were 40.0%, 36.9%, and 46.2%, respectively, in 65 cases of NSCLC patients. The sensitivity of QDs-IHC when detecting EGFR mutations, as compared to ADx-ARMS, was 86.7% (26/30; the specificity for both antibodies was 100.0% (26/26. IHC sensitivity was 80.0% (24/30 and the specificity was 92.31% (24/26. When detecting EGFR mutations, QDs-IHC and ADx-ARMS had perfect consistency (κ=0.882; P<0.01. Excellent agreement was observed

  20. Specific efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in advanced neuroendocrine tumours of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Dautzenberg, Kristina; Haslerud, Torjan; Aouf, Anas; Sabet, Amin; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Simon, Birgit [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Mayer, Karin [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Increasing evidence supports the value of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET), but there are limited data on its specific efficacy in NET of small intestinal (midgut) origin. This study aims to define the benefit of PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate for this circumscribed entity derived by a uniformly treated patient cohort. A total of 61 consecutive patients with unresectable, advanced small intestinal NET G1-2 stage IV treated with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate (4 intended cycles at 3-month intervals, mean activity per cycle 7.9 GBq) were analysed. Sufficient tumour uptake on baseline receptor imaging and either documented tumour progression (n = 46) or uncontrolled symptoms (n = 15) were prerequisites for treatment. Response was evaluated according to modified Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) criteria and additionally with Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. Assessment of survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model for uni- and multivariate analyses. Toxicity was assessed according to standardized follow-up laboratory work-up including blood counts, liver and renal function, supplemented with serial {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance measurements. The median follow-up period was 62 months. Reversible haematotoxicity (≥ grade 3) occurred in five patients (8.2 %). No significant nephrotoxicity (≥ grade 3) was observed. Treatment response according to modified SWOG criteria consisted of partial response in 8 (13.1 %), minor response in 19 (31.1 %), stable disease in 29 (47.5 %) and progressive disease in 5 (8.2 %) patients. The disease control rate was 91.8 %. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was 33 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 25-41] and 61 months (95 % CI NA), respectively. Objective response was associated with longer survival (p = 0.005). Independent predictors of shorter PFS were

  1. SU-G-TeP2-08: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Detector for Small Field Stereotactic Patient-Specific Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Y; Gardner, S; Huang, Y; Kim, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a commercial plastic scintillator detector (PSD) for small-field stereotactic patient-specific quality assurance using flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods: A total of ten spherical targets (volume range:[0.03cc–2cc]) were planned using Dynamic Conformal Arc(DCA-10 plans) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy(VMAT-10 plans) techniques in Eclipse(AAA v.11, 1mm dose calculation grid size). Additionally, 15 previously-treated cranial and spine SRS plans were evaluated (6 DCA, 9 VMAT, volume range:[0.04cc–119.02cc]). All measurements were acquired using Varian Edge equipped with HDMLC. Three detectors were used: PinPoint ion chamber (PTW;active volume 0.015cc), Exradin W1 PSD (Standard Imaging;active volume 0.002cc), and Gafchromic EBT3 film (Ashland). PinPoint and PSD were positioned perpendicular to beam axis in a Lucy phantom (Standard Imaging). Films were placed at isocenter in solid water. Calibration films were delivered for absolute dose analysis. Results: For large spherical targets(>1.5cc) with DCA, all detectors agreed within 1% of AAA calculations. As target volume decreased, PSD measured higher doses than AAA (maximum difference: 3.3% at 0.03cc target), while PinPoint chamber measured lower doses (maximum difference:-3.8% at 0.03cc target). Inter-detector differences between pinpoint and PSD increased with decreasing target size; differences>5% were observed for targets<0.09cc. Similar trends for inter-detector behavior were observed for clinical plans. For target sizes<0.08cc, PSD measured>5% higher dose than PinPoint chamber (maximum difference: 9.25% at 0.04cc target). Film demonstrated agreement of −0.19±1.47% with PSD for all spherical targets, and agreement within −0.98±2.25% for all 15 clinical targets. Unlike DCA, VMAT plans did not show improved AAA-to-detector agreements for large targets. Conclusion: For all targets, the PSD measurements agreed with film within 1.0%, on average. For small

  2. Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhimei; Treiber, David; McCarter, John D; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Saleem, Ramsey A; McCoy, Rebecca E; Zhang, Yuling; Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Leith, Matthew; Follstad, Brian D; Dell, Brad; Grisim, Brent; Zupke, Craig; Heath, Carole; Morris, Arvia E; Reddy, Pranhitha

    2015-01-01

    The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, that is, viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining VCD, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts on product quality from clone to clone, we identified an approach that directly targets the cell cycle G1-checkpoint by selectively inhibiting the function of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 with a small molecule compound. Results from studies on multiple recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines demonstrate that the selective inhibitor can mediate a complete and sustained G0/G1 arrest without impacting G2/M phase. Cell proliferation is consistently and rapidly controlled in all recombinant cell lines at one concentration of this inhibitor throughout the production processes with specific productivities increased up to 110 pg/cell/day. Additionally, the product quality attributes of the mAb, with regard to high molecular weight (HMW) and glycan profile, are not negatively impacted. In fact, high mannose is decreased after treatment, which is in contrast to other established growth control methods such as reducing culture temperature. Microarray analysis showed major differences in expression of regulatory genes of the glycosylation and cell cycle signaling pathways between these different growth control methods. Overall, our observations showed that cell cycle arrest by directly targeting CDK4/6 using selective inhibitor compound can be utilized consistently and rapidly to optimize process parameters, such as cell growth, qP, and glycosylation profile in

  3. Predictive and prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers is EGFR mutation-specific in resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Richeng; Wang, Xinyue; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background The predictive and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin-19 fragments (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has been investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, few studies have directly focused on the association between these markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status or mutation subtypes. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 1016 patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC who underwent complete resection between 2008 and 2012. Correlations between serum tumor marker levels and EGFR mutations and survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. Results Cyfra21-1 levels (P = 0.032 for disease-free survival [DFS]; P CEA levels (P CEA (P = 0.005) and clinical stage were predictive factors of DFS, while elevated CEA (P = 0.005) and Cyfra21-1 (P = 0.027) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion Cyfra21-1 and CEA exhibit different predictive and prognostic values between EGFR-mutated and wild-type adenocarcinomas, as well as between EGFR mutation subtypes. The prognostic impact of preoperative serum tumor markers should be evaluated together with EGFR mutation status. PMID:27072585

  4. Solvation study of the non-specific lipid transfer protein from wheat by intermolecular NOEs with water and small organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepinsh, Edvards; Sodano, Patrick; Tassin, Severine; Marion, Didier; Vovelle, Francoise; Otting, Gottfried

    1999-01-01

    Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) were measured between the protons of various small solvent or gas molecules and the non-specific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP) from wheat. Intermolecular NOEs were observed with the hydrophobic pocket in the interior of wheat ns-LTP, which grew in intensity in the order cyclopropane (saturated solution) < methane (140 bar) < ethane (40 bar) < acetonitrile (5% in water) < cyclohexane (saturated solution) < benzene (saturated solution). No intermolecular NOEs were observed with dioxane (5% in water). The intermolecular NOEs were negative for all of the organic molecules tested. Intermolecular NOEs between wheat ns-LTP and water were weak or could not be distinguished from exchange-relayed NOEs. As illustrated by the NOEs with cyclohexane versus dioxane, the hydrophobic pocket in wheat ns-LTP preferably binds non-polar molecules. Yet, polar molecules like acetonitrile can also be accommodated. The pressure dependence of the NOEs between methane and wheat ns-LTP indicated incomplete occupancy, even at 190 bar methane pressure. In general, NOE intensities increased with the size of the ligand molecule and its vapor pressure. NMR of the vapor phase showed excellent resolution between the signals from the gas phase and those from the liquid phase. The vapor concentration of cyclohexane was fivefold higher than that of the dioxane solution, supporting the binding of cyclohexane versus uptake of dioxane

  5. Gd-doped GaN studied with element specificity: Very small polarization of Ga, paramagnetism of Gd and the formation of magnetic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, A., E-mail: ney@maglomat.d [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Kammermeier, T.; Ollefs, K.; Ney, V.; Ye, S. [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Dhar, S. [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Roever, M.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. Physikalisches Institut and Virtual Institute of Spinelectronics (VISel), Georg August Universitaet Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    Element specific X-ray linear dichroism (XLD), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Ga K- and Ga and Gd L{sub 3}-edges and magnetic resonance measurements have been carried out on Gd:GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with different Gd concentrations. XMCD studies at the Ga K-edge reveal only a very weak magnetic polarization, which is too small to account for the colossal moments reported before by SQUID. In the dilute limit we can show by XLD that the majority of the Gd dopant atoms go to substitutional Ga sites. XMCD studies demonstrate that the Gd sublattice behaves paramagnetic which is in contrast to integral SQUID measurements. The absence of ferromagnetic order at room temperature is corroborated by magnetic resonance studies. First signatures of phase separation are visible. At higher Gd concentrations phase separation is found by XLD. In such samples ferromagnetic-like order is consistently found by SQUID, XMCD and magnetic resonance which is characteristic for a blocked superparamagnetic ensemble. In turn, phase separated ferromagnetic Gd/GdN clusters cannot account for magnetic order observed at and above 300 K by SQUID.

  6. Imaging small human prostate cancer xenografts after pretargeting with bispecific bombesin-antibody complexes and targeting with high specific radioactivity labeled polymer-drug conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Vishwesh; Gada, Keyur; Panwar, Rajiv; Ferris, Craig; Khaw, Ban-An; Varvarigou, Alexandra; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew; Tekabe, Yared

    2012-01-01

    Pretargeting with bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsMAb) for tumor imaging was developed to enhance target to background activity ratios. Visualization of tumors was achieved by the delivery of mono- and divalent radiolabeled haptens. To improve the ability to image tumors with bsMAb, we have combined the pretargeting approach with targeting of high specific activity radiotracer labeled negatively charged polymers. The tumor antigen-specific antibody was replaced with bombesin (Bom), a ligand that binds specifically to the growth receptors that are overexpressed by many tumors including prostate cancer. Bom-anti-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) bispecific antibody complexes were used to demonstrate pretargeting and imaging of very small human prostate cancer xenografts targeted with high specific activity 111 In- or 99m Tc-labeled negatively charged polymers. Bispecific antibody complexes consisting of intact anti-DTPA antibody or Fab' linked to Bom via thioether bonds (Bom-bsCx or Bom-bsFCx, respectively) were used to pretarget PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice. Negative control mice were pretargeted with Bom or anti-DTPA Ab. 111 In-Labeled DTPA-succinyl polylysine (DSPL) was injected intravenously at 24 h (7.03 ± 1.74 or 6.88 ± 1.89 MBq 111 In-DSPL) after Bom-bsCx or 50 ± 5.34 MBq of 99m Tc-DSPL after Bom-bsFCx pretargeting, respectively. Planar or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT gamma images were obtained for up to 3 h and only planar images at 24 h. After imaging, all mice were killed and biodistribution of 111 In or 99m Tc activities were determined by scintillation counting. Both planar and SPECT/CT imaging enabled detection of PC-3 prostate cancer lesions less than 1-2 mm in diameter in 1-3 h post 111 In-DSPL injection. No lesions were visualized in Bom or anti-DTPA Ab pretargeted controls. 111 In-DSPL activity in Bom-bsCx pretargeted tumors (1.21 ± 0.36%ID/g) was 5.4 times that in tumors pretargeted with

  7. Age-Specific Associations of Renal Impairment With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Lau, Kui Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline; Liu, Ming; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age. In a population-based study of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]), we evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral SVD, including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular space. We studied the age-specific associations of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and total SVD burden (total SVD score) adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and premorbid blood pressure (mean blood pressure during 15 years preevent). Of 1080 consecutive patients, 1028 (95.2%) had complete magnetic resonance imaging protocol and creatinine measured at baseline. Renal impairment was associated with total SVD score (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.75; P <0.001), but only at age <60 years (<60 years: OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.69-9.32; P =0.002; 60-79 years: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.41; P =0.963; ≥80 years: OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59-1.54; P =0.832). The overall association of renal impairment and total SVD score was also attenuated after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premorbid average systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.02; P =0.067), but the independent association of renal impairment and total SVD score at age <60 years was maintained (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21-7.98; P =0.018). Associations of renal impairment and SVD were consistent for each SVD marker at age <60 years but

  8. Small RNA sequence analysis of adenovirus VA RNA-derived miRNAs reveals an unexpected serotype-specific difference in structure and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Kamel

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAds encode for one or two highly abundant virus-associated RNAs, designated VA RNAI and VA RNAII, which fold into stable hairpin structures resembling miRNA precursors. Here we show that the terminal stem of the VA RNAs originating from Ad4, Ad5, Ad11 and Ad37, all undergo Dicer dependent processing into virus-specific miRNAs (so-called mivaRNAs. We further show that the mivaRNA duplex is subjected to a highly asymmetric RISC loading with the 3'-strand from all VA RNAs being the favored strand, except for the Ad37 VA RNAII, where the 5'-mivaRNAII strand was preferentially assembled into RISC. Although the mivaRNA seed sequences are not fully conserved between the HAds a bioinformatics prediction approach suggests that a large fraction of the VA RNAII-, but not the VA RNAI-derived mivaRNAs still are able to target the same cellular genes. Using small RNA deep sequencing we demonstrate that the Dicer processing event in the terminal stem of the VA RNAs is not unique and generates 3'-mivaRNAs with a slight variation of the position of the 5' terminal nucleotide in the RISC loaded guide strand. Also, we show that all analyzed VA RNAs, except Ad37 VA RNAI and Ad5 VA RNAII, utilize an alternative upstream A start site in addition to the classical +1 G start site. Further, the 5'-mivaRNAs with an A start appears to be preferentially incorporated into RISC. Although the majority of mivaRNA research has been done using Ad5 as the model system our analysis demonstrates that the mivaRNAs expressed in Ad11- and Ad37-infected cells are the most abundant mivaRNAs associated with Ago2-containing RISC. Collectively, our results show an unexpected variability in Dicer processing of the VA RNAs and a serotype-specific loading of mivaRNAs into Ago2-based RISC.

  9. Pregnancy-specific stress, fetoplacental haemodynamics, and neonatal outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies: a secondary analysis of the multicentre Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Levine, Terri A

    2017-06-21

    To examine associations between maternal pregnancy-specific stress and umbilical (UA PI) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices (MCA PI), cerebroplacental ratio, absent end diastolic flow (AEDF), birthweight, prematurity, neonatal intensive care unit admission and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies. It was hypothesised that maternal pregnancy-specific stress would be associated with fetoplacental haemodynamics and neonatal outcomes.

  10. Atomic stations with advanced reactors of small and medium power - potential power supply for specific functions. An introductory statement from the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ch.-K.; )

    2015-01-01

    The introductory statement of the Director of the Nuclear Energy Department of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department is devoted to the main issues and problems of the development of nuclear power plants with small-power reactors, their construction and operation in the world [ru

  11. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupper, M.H.; Rudd, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely considered to potentially benefit reef fisheries through emigration, yet the empirical basis for predicting the extent of this for small reserves is weak. The effects of fishing pressure and habitat on biomass and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of three species of exploited

  12. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Antiviral activity of Small interfering RNAs: Specificity testing using heterologous virus reveals interferon-related effects overlooked by conventional mismatch controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected cell cultures, while two of three corresponding mismatched siRNAs did not have this effect. This suggested specific interference, but similar results were obtained when the same siRNAs were tested against...... a heterologous virus. Further analyses revealed that the siRNAs induced a non-target-specific anti-viral effect correlating with upregulation of the interferon induced Mx gene....

  14. Microarray data re-annotation reveals specific lncRNAs and their potential functions in non-small cell lung cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dongbo; Xie, Mingxuan; He, Baimei; Gao, Ying; Yu, Qiao; He, Bixiu; Chen, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The most common subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to AC and SCC are still largely unknown, especially the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The present study identified differentially expressed lncRNAs between lung AC and SCC by re-annotation of NSCLC microarray data analysis profiling. The potential func...

  15. Detector to detector corrections: a comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azangwe, Godfrey; Grochowska, Paulina; Georg, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    -doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm3 to 0.3 cm3). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios...... measurements, the authors recommend the use of detectors that require relatively little correction, such as unshielded diodes, diamond detectors or microchambers, and solid state detectors such as alanine, TLD, Al2O3:C, or scintillators....

  16. Molecular Detection of Neuron-Specific ELAV-Like-Positive Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito D’Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-ELAV (neuronal-Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision-like genes belong to a family codifying for onconeural RNA-binding proteins. Anti-Hu-antibodies (anti-Hu-Ab are typically associated with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuropathy (PEM/PSN, and low titres of anti-Hu-Ab, were found in newly diagnosed Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC. The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive and quantitative molecular real-time PCR assay to detect SCLC cells in peripheral blood (PB through nELAV-like transcripts quantification.

  17. In vivo screening of modified siRNAs for non-specific antiviral effect in a small fish model: number and localization in the strands are important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Pakula, Malgorzata Maria

    2012-01-01

    but often only examining the expression of specific immunologically relevant genes in selected cell populations typically blood cells from treated animals or humans. Assays using a relevant physiological state in biological models as read-out are not common. Here we use a fish model where the innate...

  18. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiu

    Full Text Available Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24, nitrogen balance (n = 6, and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6 were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1 was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  19. Induction of CML28-specific cytotoxic T cell responses using co-transfected dendritic cells with CML28 DNA vaccine and SOCS1 small interfering RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongsheng; Zhang Donghua; Wang Yaya; Dai Ming; Zhang Lu; Liu Wenli; Liu Dan; Tan Huo; Huang Zhenqian

    2006-01-01

    CML28 is an attractive target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. SOCS1 represents an inhibitory control mechanism for DC antigen presentation and the magnitude of adaptive immunity. In this study, we evaluated the potential for inducing CML28-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses by dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccination. We constructed a CML28 DNA vaccine and a SOCS1 siRNA vector and then cotransfect monocyte-derived DCs. Flow cytometry analysis showed gene silencing of SOCS1 resulted in higher expressions of costimulative moleculars in DCs. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) indicated downregulation of SOCS1 stronger capability to stimulate proliferation of responder cell in DCs. The CTL assay revealed transfected DCs effectively induced autologous CML28-specific CTL responses and the lytic activities induced by SOCS1-silenced DCs were significantly higher compared with those induced by SOCS1-expressing DCs. These results in our study indicates gene silencing of SOCS1 remarkably enhanced the cytotoxicity efficiency of CML28 DNA vaccine in DCs

  20. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  1. Evaluation of a high-resolution, breast-specific, small-field-of-view gamma camera for the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brem, R.F.; Kieper, D.A.; Rapelyea, J.A.; Majewski, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to review the state of the art in nuclear medicine imaging of the breast (scintimammography) and to evaluate a novel, high-resolution, breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with 58 breast lesions in whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a HRBGC prototype. Nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal/benign) or positive (suspicious/malignant) by two radiologists, blinded to mammographic and histologic results with both the conventional and high-resolution. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: Included in this study were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. Specificity of both systems was 93.3% (28/30). In the 18 nonpalpable cancers, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and HRBGC, respectively. In cancers ≤ 1cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four of the cancers (median size, 8.5 mm) detected with the HRBGC were missed by the conventional camera Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breasts lesions with a high resolution, breast-specific gamma camera results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer with greater improvement demonstrated in nonpalpable and ≤1 cm cancers

  2. Association of Lung Inflammatory Cells with Small Airways Function and Exhaled Breath Markers in Smokers - Is There a Specific Role for Mast Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nussbaumer-Ochsner

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the airways. We evaluated whether airway inflammation in smokers is related to lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath.Thirty-seven smokers undergoing lung resection for primary lung cancer were assessed pre-operatively by lung function testing including single-breath-nitrogen washout test (sb-N2-test, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO and pH/8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Lung tissue sections containing cancer-free large (LA and small airways (SA were stained for inflammatory cells. Mucosal (MCT respectively connective tissue mast cells (MCTC and interleukin-17A (IL-17A expression by mast cells was analysed using a double-staining protocol.The median number of neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells infiltrating the lamina propria and adventitia of SA was higher than in LA. Both MCTC and MCT were higher in the lamina propria of SA compared to LA (MCTC: 49 vs. 27.4 cells/mm2; MCT: 162.5 vs. 35.4 cells/mm2; P<0.005 for both instances. IL-17A expression was predominantly detected in MCTC of LA. Significant correlations were found for the slope of phase III % pred. of the sb-N2-test (rs= -0.39, for the FEV1% pred. (rs= 0.37 and for FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=0.38 with MCT in SA (P<0.05 for all instances. 8-isoprostane concentration correlated with the mast cells in the SA (rs=0.44, there was no correlation for pH or FeNO with cellular distribution in SA.Neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells are more prominent in the SA indicating that these cells are involved in the development of small airway dysfunction in smokers. Among these cell types, the best correlation was found for mast cells with lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Furthermore, the observed predominant expression of IL-17A in mast cells warrants further investigation to elucidate their role in smoking-induced lung injury, despite the

  3. Early lesion-specific 18F-FDG PET response to chemotherapy predicts time to lesion progression in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Lotte; Vogelius, Ivan Richter; Fischer, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients with mult...... patient response involves a loss of biological information on heterogeneity between lesions. Poor lesion-specific response after one cycle chemotherapy may identify lesions that would benefit from an individualized radiotherapy strategy.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients...... with multiple lesions is dependent on lesion-specific response to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 81 patients with 184 lesions referred to curative chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC 2010-2012. (18)F-FDG PET scans were performed at diagnosis and after one series of chemotherapy. Response of each...

  4. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) a fast acting, promising, powerful, specific, and effective "small molecule" anti-cancer agent taken from labside to bedside: introduction to a special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Peter L

    2012-02-01

    Although the "Warburg effect", i.e., elevated glucose metabolism to lactic acid (glycolysis) even in the presence of oxygen, has been recognized as the most common biochemical phenotype of cancer for over 80 years, its biochemical and genetic basis remained unknown for over 50 years. Work focused on elucidating the underlying mechanism(s) of the "Warburg effect" commenced in the author's laboratory in 1969. By 1985 among the novel findings made two related most directly to the basis of the "Warburg effect", the first that the mitochondrial content of tumors exhibiting this phenotype is markedly decreased relative to the tissue of origin, and the second that such mitochondria have markedly elevated amounts of the enzyme hexokinase-2 (HK2) bound to their outer membrane. HK2 is the first of a number of enzymes in cancer cells involved in metabolizing the sugar glucose to lactic acid. At its mitochondrial location HK2 binds at/near the protein VDAC (voltage dependent anion channel), escapes inhibition by its product glucose-6-phosphate, and gains access to mitochondrial produced ATP. As shown by others, it also helps immortalize cancer cells, i.e., prevents cell death. Based on these studies, the author's laboratory commenced experiments to elucidate the gene basis for the overexpression of HK2 in cancer. These studies led to both the discovery of a unique HK2 promoter region markedly activated by both hypoxic conditions and moderately activated by several metabolites (e.g., glucose), Also discovered was the promoter's regulation by epigenetic events (i.e., methylation, demethylation). Finally, the author's laboratory turned to the most important objective. Could they selectively and completely destroy cancerous tumors in animals? This led to the discovery in an experiment conceived, designed, and conducted by Young Ko that the small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), the subject of this mini-review series, is an incredibly powerful and swift acting anticancer agent

  5. Graft versus host disease in a rat small bowel transplant model after T-cell depleted donor specific bone marrow infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakonyi Neto Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cytoreductive regimen of irradiation associated to unmodified bone marrow infusion (UBM does not prevent the occurrence of graft versus host disease (GVHD after transplant. PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the potential advantages of a long-term immunossupression and T-cell depleted bone marrow infusion (TCDBMI in preventing the occurrence of GVHD after small bowel transplantation (SBTx. METHODS: Heterotopic SBTX was performed with Lewis rats as recipients and DA as donors and distributed into 5 groups according to the irradiation, duration of immunossupression and the use of UBM or TCDBMI: G1 (n=6, without irradiation and G2 (n=9, G3 (n=4, G4 (n=5 and G5 (n=6 was given 250 rd of irradiation. Groups 1,2,4 and G3 and 5 were infused with 100 x 10(6 UBM and TCDBM respectively. Animals in G1, 2, 3 were immunossupressed with 1mg/ FK506/Kg/IM for 5 days and G4 and G5 for 15 days. Anti CD3 monoclonal antibodies and immunomagnetic beads were used for T-cell depletion.Animals were examined for rejection, GVHD, chimerism characterization and ileal and skin biopsies. RESULTS: Minimal to mild rejection was observed in all groups; however, GVHD were present only in irradiated groups. Long-term immunossupression changed the severity of GVHD in G4 and G5. Rejection was the cause of death in G1 while GVHD in G2, 3, 4 and 5, not avoided by the use of TCDBMI. Total chimerism and T-cell chimerism was statistically higher in irradiated groups when compared to G1. CONCLUSION: Extended immunossupression associated to low dose of irradiation decrease the severity of GVHD, not avoided by the use of TCDBMI.

  6. 5α-Reductase inhibitor is less effective in men with small prostate volume and low serum prostatic specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor C; Liao, Chun-Hou; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-09-01

    Large total prostate volumes (TPVs) or high serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels indicate high-risk clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This prospective study investigated the treatment outcome of combined 5α-reductase inhibitor and α-blocker in patients with and without large TPVs or high PSA levels. Men aged ≥ 45 years with International Prostate Symptom scores (IPSS) ≥ 8, TPV ≥ 20 mL, and maximum flow rate ≤ 15 mL/s received a combination therapy (dutasteride plus doxaben) for 2 years. Patients with baseline PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL underwent prostatic biopsy for excluding malignancy. The changes in the parameters from baseline to 24 months after combination therapy were compared in those with and without TPV ≥ 40 mL or PSA levels ≥ 1.5 ng/mL. A total of 285 patients (mean age 72 ± 9 years) completed the study. Combination therapy resulted in significant continuous improvement in IPSS, quality of life index, maximum flow rate, and postvoid residual (all p < 0.0001) regardless of baseline TPV or PSA levels. However, only patients with baseline TPV ≥ 40 mL had significant improvements in IPSS-storage subscore, voided volume, reduction in TPV, transitional zone index, and PSA levels. In addition, patients with baseline TPV < 40 mL and PSA < 1.5 ng/mL had neither a reduction in TPV nor a decrease in serum PSA level. A high TPV indicates more outlet resistance, whereas elevated serum PSA level reflects glandular proliferation. Thus, patients with TPV<40 mL and low PSA levels has less benefit from 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy. The therapeutic effect of combined treatment may arise mainly from the α-blocker in these patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Keratin 34betaE12/keratin7 expression is a prognostic factor of cancer-specific and overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen Ege; Holst, Rene

    2016-01-01

    proliferation, migration, and possibly cancer invasion, factors impacting prognosis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from a retrospective Danish cohort of 177 patients with completely resected NSCLC, stage I-IIIA tumors, were analyzed for keratin 7 (K7...... that stage II-IIIA (HR 2.3), 34βE12+/K7+ (HR 1.6), and 34βE12-/K7+ (HR 2.0) were prognostic factors of poor CSS (p overall survival (p ...: Keratin 34βE12/K7 expression is a prognostic parameter in resected early stage NSCLC that allows identification of high-risk NSCLC patients with poor cancer-specific and overall survival....

  8. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  9. The diagnostic value of small bowel wall vascularity after sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection in patients with Crohn's disease. Correlation with the therapeutic effectiveness of specific anti-inflammatory treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio; Migaleddu, Vincenzo; Baratella, Elisa; Pizzolato, Riccardo; Rossi, Alexia; Grotto, Maurizio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of small bowel wall vascularity after microbubble contrast agent injection in evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness of specific anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with Crohn's disease. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients (7 male and 8 female; mean age ± SD, 40 years ± 6) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of Crohn's disease - Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) > 150 (n = 12 patients) or 5 mm) were included. In each patient the terminal loop was scanned by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) after sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection before and after 6-month anti-inflammatory treatment. The vascularity of the terminal loop was quantified in gray-scale levels (0-255) by a manually drawn ROI encompassing the thickened bowel wall and it was correlated with CDAI. Result: Before the beginning of the specific treatment all patients revealed diffuse transparietal contrast enhancement after microbubble injection, except for 3 patients who revealed contrast enhancement limited to the submucosa. In 13 patients the slope of the first ascending tract and the area under the enhancement curve were significantly lower after anti-inflammatory treatment (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) with a significant correlation with the CDAI score (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.05). In 2 patients no significant vascularity changes were found even though a mild reduction of CDAI score was identified (from 200 to 150 gray-scale levels). Conclusion: CEUS is a useful method to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of specific medical anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with Crohn's disease.

  10. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  11. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  12. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  13. Small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  14. Pregnancy-specific stress, fetoplacental haemodynamics, and neonatal outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies: a secondary analysis of the multicentre Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; Segurado, Ricardo; Daly, Sean; Geary, Michael P; Kennelly, Mairead M; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth C; Malone, Fergal D; Alderdice, Fiona A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2017-06-21

    To examine associations between maternal pregnancy-specific stress and umbilical (UA PI) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices (MCA PI), cerebroplacental ratio, absent end diastolic flow (AEDF), birthweight, prematurity, neonatal intensive care unit admission and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies. It was hypothesised that maternal pregnancy-specific stress would be associated with fetoplacental haemodynamics and neonatal outcomes. This is a secondary analysis of data collected for a large-scale prospective observational study. This study was conducted in the seven major obstetric hospitals in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Participants included 331 women who participated in the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction. Women with singleton pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks gestation, estimated fetal weight <10th percentile and no major structural or chromosomal abnormalities were included. Serial Doppler ultrasound examinations of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries between 20 and 42 weeks gestation, Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) scores between 23 and 40 weeks gestation and neonatal outcomes. Concerns about physical symptoms and body image at 35-40 weeks were associated with lower odds of abnormal UAPI (OR 0.826, 95% CI 0.696 to 0.979, p=0.028). PDQ score (OR 1.073, 95% CI 1.012 to 1.137, p=0.017), concerns about birth and the baby (OR 1.143, 95% CI 1.037 to 1.260, p=0.007) and concerns about physical symptoms and body image (OR 1.283, 95% CI 1.070 to 1.538, p=0.007) at 29-34 weeks were associated with higher odds of abnormal MCA PI. Concerns about birth and the baby at 29-34 weeks (OR 1.202, 95% CI 1.018 to 1.421, p=0.030) were associated with higher odds of AEDF. Concerns about physical symptoms and body image at 35-40 weeks were associated with decreased odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR 0.635, 95% CI 0

  15. Sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 domains reveal highly species-specific variations within the genus Agrocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P; Labarère, J

    1998-11-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same species were the same length and had the same sequence, while variations were found among the 10 species. Alignment of the sequences showed that nucleotide motifs encountered in the smallest sequence of each variable domain were also found in the largest sequence, indicating that the sequences evolved by insertion-deletion events. Determination of the secondary structure of each domain revealed that the insertion-deletion events commonly occurred in regions not directly involved in the secondary structure (i.e., the loops). Moreover, conserved sequences ranging from 4 to 25 nucleotides long were found at the beginning and end of each domain and could constitute genus-specific sequences. Comparisons of the V4, V6, and V9 secondary structures resulted in identification of the following four groups: (i) group I, which was characterized by the presence of additional P23-1 and P23-3 helices in the V4 domain and the lack of the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. aegerita, A. chaxingu, and A. erebia; (ii) group II, which had the P23-3 helix in V4 and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. pediades; (iii) group III, which did not have additional helices in V4, had the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. paludosa, A. firma, A. alnetorum, and A. praecox; and (iv) group IV, which lacked both the V4 additional helices and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. vervacti and A. dura. This grouping of species was supported by the structure of a consensus tree based on the variable domain sequences. The

  16. Targeting annexin A7 by a small molecule suppressed the activity of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C in vascular endothelial cells and inhibited atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E⁻/⁻mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Huang, S; Wang, S; Zhao, J; Su, L; Zhao, B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Miao, J

    2013-09-19

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a key factor in apoptosis and autophagy of vascular endothelial cells (VECs), and involved in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E⁻/⁻ (apoE⁻/⁻) mice. But the endogenous regulators of PC-PLC are not known. We recently found a small chemical molecule (6-amino-2, 3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1, 4-benzoxazine, ABO) that could inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis and promote autophagy in VECs, and further identified ABO as an inhibitor of annexin A7 (ANXA7) GTPase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that ANXA7 is an endogenous regulator of PC-PLC, and targeting ANXA7 by ABO may inhibit atherosclerosis in apoE⁻/⁻ mice. In this study, we tested our hypothesis. The results showed that ABO suppressed oxLDL-induced increase of PC-PLC level and activity and promoted the co-localization of ANXA7 and PC-PLC in VECs. The experiments of ANXA7 knockdown and overexpression demonstrated that the action of ABO was ANXA7-dependent in cultured VECs. To investigate the relation of ANXA7 with PC-PLC in atherosclerosis, apoE⁻/⁻ mice fed with a western diet were treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day ABO. The results showed that ABO decreased PC-PLC levels in the mouse aortic endothelium and PC-PLC activity in serum, and enhanced the protein levels of ANXA7 in the mouse aortic endothelium. Furthermore, both dosages of ABO significantly enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis in the mouse aortic endothelium. As a result, ABO significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and effectively preserved a stable plaques phenotype, including reduced lipid deposition and pro-inflammatory macrophages, increased anti-inflammatory macrophages, collagen content and smooth muscle cells, and less cell death in the plaques. In conclusion, ANXA7 was an endogenous regulator of PC-PLC, and targeting ANXA7 by ABO inhibited atherosclerosis in apoE⁻/⁻ mice.

  17. Effect of maternal and post weaning folate supply on gene-specific DNA methylation in the small intestine of weaning and adult Apc+/Min and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Ann Mckay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the developmental origins of adult health and disease hypothesis which argues for a causal relationship between adverse early life nutrition and increased disease risk in adulthood. Modulation of epigenetic marks, e.g. DNA methylation and consequential altered gene expression, has been proposed as a mechanism mediating these effects. Via its role as a methyl donor, dietary folate supply may influence DNA methylation. As aberrant methylation is an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC pathogenesis, we hypothesised low maternal and/or post-weaning folate intake may influence methylation of genes involved in CRC development. We investigated the effects of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation on selected gene methylation in the small intestine (SI of wild type (WT and Apc+/Min mice at weaning and as adults. We also investigated the effects of folate depletion post-weaning on gene methylation in adult mice. Female C57Bl6/J mice were fed low or normal folate diets from mating with Apc+/Min males to the end of lactation. A sub set of offspring were killed at weaning. Remaining offspring were weaned on to low or normal folate diets, resulting in 4 treatment groups of Apc+/Min and WT mice. p53 was more methylated in weaning and adult WT compared with Apc+/Min mice (p>0.001. Igf2 and Apc were hypermethylated in adult Apc+/Mi n compared with WT mice (p=0.004 & p=0.012 respectively. Low maternal folate reduced p53 methylation in adults (p=0.04. Low post-weaning folate increased Apc methylation in Apc+/Min mice only (p=0.008 for interaction. These observations demonstrate that folate depletion in early life can alter epigenetic marks in a gene specific manner. Also, the differential effects of altered folate supply on DNA methylation in WT and Apc+/Min mice suggest that genotype may modulate epigenetic responses to environmental cues and may have implications for the development of personalised nutrition.

  18. Small Schools, Real Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  19. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  20. The marketing strategy of a small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafilović Igor

    2008-01-01

    Small enterprise shows some specific characteristics which are necessary for creation of marketing strategy. The goal of this work is an attempt of marketing strategy analysis of the small enterprises. The necessary request of the analysis is to define the small enterprise. There have also been analyzed the specific orders for small enterpriser. Special part of work is dedicated to a small enterprises management strategy and the other one to their marketing communications. There are mentioned...

  1. A chimeric fusion of the hASH1 and EZH2 promoters mediates high and specific reporter and suicide gene expression and cytotoxicity in small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.T.; Pedersen, N.; Juel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy is a promising experimental modality for treatment of systemic malignancies such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We have identified the human achaete-scute homolog 1 (hASH1) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) genes as highly upregulated in SCLC compar...

  2. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  3. The marketing strategy of a small enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafilović Igor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small enterprise shows some specific characteristics which are necessary for creation of marketing strategy. The goal of this work is an attempt of marketing strategy analysis of the small enterprises. The necessary request of the analysis is to define the small enterprise. There have also been analyzed the specific orders for small enterpriser. Special part of work is dedicated to a small enterprises management strategy and the other one to their marketing communications. There are mentioned some specific advantages and problems of the small enterprises, too.

  4. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  5. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  6. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  7. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  8. Sequence and Secondary Structure of the Mitochondrial Small-Subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 Domains Reveal Highly Species-Specific Variations within the Genus Agrocybe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Patrice; Labarère, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same specie...

  9. Chapter 4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Heating and Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States); Metoyer, Jarred [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The specific measure described here involves improving the overall efficiency in air-conditioning systems as a whole (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and supply fan). The efficiency rating is expressed as the energy efficiency ratio (EER), seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), and integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER). The higher the EER, SEER or IEER, the more efficient the unit is.

  10. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  11. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  12. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  13. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  14. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  15. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Nishimura, Satoshi; Brown, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  16. Small-scale screening of anticancer drugs acting specifically on neural stem/progenitor cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells using a time-course cytotoxicity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, various types of hiPSC-derived cells have been established for regenerative medicine and drug development. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-NSPCs have shown benefits for regenerative therapy of the central nervous system. However, owing to their intrinsic proliferative potential, therapies using transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs carry an inherent risk of undesired growth in vivo. Therefore, it is important to find cytotoxic drugs that can specifically target overproliferative transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs without damaging the intrinsic in vivo stem-cell system. Here, we examined the chemosensitivity of hiPSC-NSPCs and human neural tissue—derived NSPCs (hN-NSPCs to the general anticancer drugs cisplatin, etoposide, mercaptopurine, and methotrexate. A time-course analysis of neurospheres in a microsphere array identified cisplatin and etoposide as fast-acting drugs, and mercaptopurine and methotrexate as slow-acting drugs. Notably, the slow-acting drugs were eventually cytotoxic to hiPSC-NSPCs but not to hN-NSPCs, a phenomenon not evident in the conventional endpoint assay on day 2 of treatment. Our results indicate that slow-acting drugs can distinguish hiPSC-NSPCs from hN-NSPCs and may provide an effective backup safety measure in stem-cell transplant therapies.

  17. Small-scale screening of anticancer drugs acting specifically on neural stem/progenitor cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells using a time-course cytotoxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukusumi, Hayato; Handa, Yukako; Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2018-01-01

    Since the development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), various types of hiPSC-derived cells have been established for regenerative medicine and drug development. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-NSPCs) have shown benefits for regenerative therapy of the central nervous system. However, owing to their intrinsic proliferative potential, therapies using transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs carry an inherent risk of undesired growth in vivo . Therefore, it is important to find cytotoxic drugs that can specifically target overproliferative transplanted hiPSC-NSPCs without damaging the intrinsic in vivo stem-cell system. Here, we examined the chemosensitivity of hiPSC-NSPCs and human neural tissue-derived NSPCs (hN-NSPCs) to the general anticancer drugs cisplatin, etoposide, mercaptopurine, and methotrexate. A time-course analysis of neurospheres in a microsphere array identified cisplatin and etoposide as fast-acting drugs, and mercaptopurine and methotrexate as slow-acting drugs. Notably, the slow-acting drugs were eventually cytotoxic to hiPSC-NSPCs but not to hN-NSPCs, a phenomenon not evident in the conventional endpoint assay on day 2 of treatment. Our results indicate that slow-acting drugs can distinguish hiPSC-NSPCs from hN-NSPCs and may provide an effective backup safety measure in stem-cell transplant therapies.

  18. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  19. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  20. Radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  2. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  3. Small millets, big potential

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  4. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  5. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  6. Ethylene production, ACC and MACC content of freesia buds and florets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and MACC (1-(malonylamino)-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) content of buds and florets of detached inflorescences were studied. Most of the ethylene produced by the inflorescences came from small buds at the apex. This

  7. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  8. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  9. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  10. Closing small open economy models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martín

    2001-01-01

    The small open economy model with incomplete asset markets features a steady state that depends on initial conditions and equilibrium dynamics that possess a random walk component. A number of modifications to the standard model have been proposed to induce stationarity. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of these alternative approaches. Five different specifications are considered: (1) A model with an endogenous discount factor (Uzawa-type preferences); (2) A model with a debt-ela...

  11. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  12. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  14. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  15. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  16. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  17. Structural peculiarities in magnetic small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneda, K.; Morrish, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials, consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites, are currently a developing subject. Evidence has been accumulating that they possess properties that can differ substantially from those of bulk materials. This paper illustrates how Moessbauer spectroscopy can yield useful information on the structural peculiarities associated with these small particles. As illustrations, metallic iron and iron-oxide systems are considered in detail. The subjects discussed include: (1) Phase stabilities in small particles, (2) deformed or nonsymmetric atomic arrangements in small particles, and (3) peculiar magnetic structures or non-collinear spin arrangements in small magnetic oxide particles that are correlated with lower specific magnetizations as compared to the bulk values. (orig.)

  18. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void.

  19. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  20. Small but super

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  1. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  2. Minijets at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  3. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  4. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  5. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  6. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  7. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  8. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  9. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  10. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  11. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  12. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  13. Myositis specific autoantibodies; specificity and clinical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as

  14. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  15. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  16. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  17. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  18. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  19. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  20. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  1. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  2. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  3. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  4. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  5. Encouraging the Domestic Small Turbine Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, T.

    2001-01-01

    The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines

  6. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAEL T. SCHAPER; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  7. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  8. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  10. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  12. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  13. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  14. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  15. The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

  16. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  17. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  18. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  19. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  20. 76 FR 14323 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... government small business assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to... its field of operation and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG07 Small Business Size Standards...

  1. Small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Preventing falls Small bowel resection - discharge Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge When ...

  2. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  3. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  4. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. On small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, N.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  6. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  7. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  9. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  10. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  11. Small hydro in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  12. South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

  13. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-11-02

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  14. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Birowosuto, Muhammad D.; Lo, Shu-Zee A.; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.; Bruno, Annalisa; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Soci, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  15. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  16. UNBIASED ESTIMATORS OF SPECIFIC CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Jernot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles is given.

  17. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  18. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  19. How specific is specific self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison

    2017-01-01

    academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent......Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-SE) within a higher education context. Rasch measurement models were employed focusing on measurement invariance and dimensionality. Results with one students sample showed the MSLQ-SE to be not one, but two separate unidimensional subscales, measuring specific...

  20. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  1. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  2. Small reactor operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  3. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  4. Programming in the Small

    OpenAIRE

    Gersten, David B.; Langer, Steve G.

    2010-01-01

    Academic medical centers, in general, and radiation oncology research, in particular, rely heavily on custom software tools and applications. The code development is typically the responsibility of a single individual or at most a small team. Often these individuals are not professional programmers but physicists, students, and physicians. While they possess domain expertise and algorithm knowledge, they often are not fully aware of general “safe coding” practices—nor do they need the full co...

  5. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  6. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  7. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  8. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  9. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  10. Balanced Scorecard implementation in small companies: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanie Argüello-Solano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC has been used for performance measurement and strategy management for many years. This literature review analyzed studies about the implementation of the BSC in small companies, identifying implementation cases of BSC reported in small enterprises, factors of influence of small enterprises to implement the BSC model, main stages of implementation of the BSC in small enterprises, and future research lines. As a result 23 papers, 12 academic theses and 8 industry reports were identified. Our results shown that small enterprises can take advantage of its specific characteristics to implement the BSC and the implementation process in small companies may differ from the original BSC implementation process. There is little literature on the implementation of the BSC in small businesses, thus it is necessary additional empirical evidence on the effectiveness of CMI implementations in small businesses.

  11. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  12. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  13. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  14. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  15. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  16. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  17. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Going with small ICBMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Support for the small ICBM (SICBM) is coming from government bureaucrats, contractors, MX opponents, ''build-down'' supporters, and those who have no confidence in arms control. Despite this support, which the author sees as a failure of administration policies, the SICBM has most of the technological and basing drawbacks of the MX. Mobile and superhardening basing techniques are as questionable for the SICBM as for the MX. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that their deployment will increase stability and enhance the arms control process

  19. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  20. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of small-molecule epigenetic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiyappan, Boobalan

    2013-01-01

    The field of epigenetics has expanded rapidly to reveal multiple new targets for drug discovery. The functional elements of the epigenomic machinery can be catagorized as writers, erasers and readers, and together these elements control cellular gene expression and homeostasis. It is increasingly clear that aberrations in the epigenome can underly a variety of diseases, and thus discovery of small molecules that modulate the epigenome in a specific manner is a viable approach to the discovery of new therapeutic agents. In this Digest, the components of epigenetic control of gene expression will be briefly summarized, and efforts to identify small molecules that modulate epigenetic processes will be described. PMID:24300735

  2. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data......BACKGROUND: Small RNA attracts increasing interest based on the discovery of RNA silencing and the rapid progress of our understanding of these phenomena. Although recent studies suggest the possible existence of yet undiscovered types of small RNAs in higher organisms, many studies to profile...... shows that well-characterized non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snoRNA, and snRNA are cleaved at sites specific to the class of ncRNA. In particular, tRNA cleavage is regulated depending on tRNA type and tissue expression. We also found small RNAs mapped to genomic regions that are transcribed in both...

  3. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  4. Superconductivity of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavens, C.R.; Fenton, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Eliashberg gap equations are used to investigate the contribution of surface-phonon softening to the size dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of small metallic particles. Because of our limited quantitative knowledge of phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling in the surface region, the effect cannot be calculated with certainty. Previous calculations which agree with experiment depend on a fortuitous choice of input parameters which cannot be justified at present. For this reason the absence of any observable size effect for T/sub c/ in Pb is especially important. This null effect is obtained in Pb if the electron-phonon coupling strength is the same in the surface region as in the bulk. This assumption can be tested experimentally because it means that the energy gap of Pb should not be independent of particle size but rather should increase significantly with decreasing radius. Hence, measurement of the size dependence of the energy gap for well-characterized small particles of Pb could provide information regarding the importance of the phonon-softening mechanism, at least for Pb

  5. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  6. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  7. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  8. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  9. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  10. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  11. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  12. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  13. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  14. Tumor of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis

    2009-01-01

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  15. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  16. Resource-Use Efficiency in Rice Production Under Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    specific objectives of the study were to determine resource use efficiency, describe ... economic level. ... this key variable with a view to stepping ... focused on small-scale irrigation systems for ... farmers were assumed to be operating under.

  17. RNA targeting by small molecules: Binding of protoberberine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Studies on RNA targeting by small molecules to specifically control certain cellular functions is an .... form secondary structures such as stem-loop, hairpin, etc. ..... paired third strand of the triplex without affecting the stability.

  18. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  19. Towards quality in marketing: a small firm context

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Josephine Ann

    1994-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the small firm sector is vital to the well being, both social and economic, of most countries. Fostering and developing indigenous small firms has been a consistent industrial policy goal of successive Irish governments. For many years, informed commentators have stressed the need for strategic market planning and customer orientation if a company is to survive in a vigorously competitive market place. However, specific studies on the Irish small firm sector have...

  20. Ciclesonide improves measures of small airway involvement in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.; Douma, W. R.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Vonk, J. M.; Oudkerk, M.; Postma, D. S.

    Ciclesonide is delivered as a small-particle inhaled corticosteroid and improves lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness. The objective of the present study was to assess whether ciclesonide can specifically improve small airway function in asthma. A total of 16 mild-to-moderate asthma patients

  1. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  2. Hand in Glove? Small Building Contractors, Mobile Technology and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian; Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    for construction are developing as well. A recent review shows a small portfolio of systems using mobile computing to support specifically the construction project processes. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of mobile computing at small construction contractors. The paper presents a quantitative...

  3. Snell Envelope with Small Probability Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Moral, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Del-Moral@inria.fr; Hu, Peng, E-mail: Peng.Hu@inria.fr [Universite de Bordeaux I, Centre INRIA Bordeaux et Sud-Ouest and Institut de Mathematiques de Bordeaux (France); Oudjane, Nadia, E-mail: Nadia.Oudjane@edf.fr [EDF R and D Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a new algorithm to compute the Snell envelope in the specific case where the criteria to optimize is associated with a small probability or a rare event. This new approach combines the Stochastic Mesh approach of Broadie and Glasserman with a particle approximation scheme based on a specific change of measure designed to concentrate the computational effort in regions pointed out by the criteria. The theoretical analysis of this new algorithm provides non asymptotic convergence estimates. Finally, the numerical tests confirm the practical interest of this approach.

  4. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  5. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  6. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  7. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  8. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  9. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by the SBA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY...

  10. 77 FR 42211 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size standards) for private sector... operated; (2) not dominant in its field of operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG36 Small Business Size Standards: Arts...

  11. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG43 Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  12. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size... operated, (2) not dominant in its field of operation, and (3) within a specific small business definition... Vol. 76 Wednesday, No. 197 October 12, 2011 Part VI Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121...

  13. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... eligibility for Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... to SBA's Administrator the responsibility for establishing small business definitions. The Act also...

  14. Small and medium business in the contractual relationship system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obalyaeva Julia, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the role of small and medium business in the national economy. The comparative analysis of the indicators characterizing the development of small business in Russia, South Korea and France is given are compared. Two laws that support small and medium businesses in public purchasing. The author’s vision of the problems of development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation and specification of the path of the national economy development is presented. Two schemes, revealing the organization of interaction of large corporate sector and the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises in the system of contractual relations and analysis of internal and external factors in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises are presented. The experience of conducting digital auctions with participation of small businesses on an digital platform CJSC "Sberbank AST" is considered.

  15. THE COMPUTER AND SMALL BUSINESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  16. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  17. Modified Small Business Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Belayet Ali; Oveget Das; Md. Shamim Hossain

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  18. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  19. Toward Generalization of Iterative Small Molecule Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jonathan W; Blair, Daniel J; Burke, Martin D

    2018-02-01

    Small molecules have extensive untapped potential to benefit society, but access to this potential is too often restricted by limitations inherent to the customized approach currently used to synthesize this class of chemical matter. In contrast, the "building block approach", i.e., generalized iterative assembly of interchangeable parts, has now proven to be a highly efficient and flexible way to construct things ranging all the way from skyscrapers to macromolecules to artificial intelligence algorithms. The structural redundancy found in many small molecules suggests that they possess a similar capacity for generalized building block-based construction. It is also encouraging that many customized iterative synthesis methods have been developed that improve access to specific classes of small molecules. There has also been substantial recent progress toward the iterative assembly of many different types of small molecules, including complex natural products, pharmaceuticals, biological probes, and materials, using common building blocks and coupling chemistry. Collectively, these advances suggest that a generalized building block approach for small molecule synthesis may be within reach.

  20. Toward Generalization of Iterative Small Molecule Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jonathan W.; Blair, Daniel J.; Burke, Martin D.

    2018-01-01

    Small molecules have extensive untapped potential to benefit society, but access to this potential is too often restricted by limitations inherent to the customized approach currently used to synthesize this class of chemical matter. In contrast, the “building block approach”, i.e., generalized iterative assembly of interchangeable parts, has now proven to be a highly efficient and flexible way to construct things ranging all the way from skyscrapers to macromolecules to artificial intelligence algorithms. The structural redundancy found in many small molecules suggests that they possess a similar capacity for generalized building block-based construction. It is also encouraging that many customized iterative synthesis methods have been developed that improve access to specific classes of small molecules. There has also been substantial recent progress toward the iterative assembly of many different types of small molecules, including complex natural products, pharmaceuticals, biological probes, and materials, using common building blocks and coupling chemistry. Collectively, these advances suggest that a generalized building block approach for small molecule synthesis may be within reach. PMID:29696152

  1. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  2. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  3. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  6. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  7. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  8. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...

  9. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future......An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult...

  10. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  11. specific low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: IMPLICATION FOR DIRECT HEALTH. CARE COST ... abundant evidence suggesting the benefits of therapeu- tic exercise on pain and ... Exercise and behavioural therapies in chronic pain. 174.

  12. Site Specific Vendor's License

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains information of a site-specific vendor's license which is required if an individual sells or offers to sell goods or services from a stationary...

  13. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  14. Small 'l' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  15. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  16. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Bosco, E. Del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, M.; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  17. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  18. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  19. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  20. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  1. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  2. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  3. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  4. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  5. Small airways disease: time for a revisit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockley JA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James A Stockley,1 Brendan G Cooper,1 Robert A Stockley,2 Elizabeth Sapey3 1Department of Lung Function and Sleep, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Birmingham, 3Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK Abstract: It is increasingly acknowledged that delays in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory lung conditions have hampered our understanding of pathogenesis and thus our ability to design efficacious therapies. This is particularly true for COPD, where most patients are diagnosed with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction and little is known about the inflammatory processes present in early disease. There is great interest in developing screening tests that can identify those most at risk of developing COPD before airflow obstruction has developed for the purpose of research and clinical care. Landmark pathology studies have suggested that damage to the small airways precedes the development of airflow obstruction and emphysema and, thus, presents an opportunity to identify those at risk of COPD. However, despite a number of physiological tests being available to assess small airways function, none have been adopted into routine care in COPD. The reasons that tests of small airways have not been utilized widely include variability in test results and a lack of validated reference ranges from which to compare results for some methodologies. Furthermore, population studies have not consistently demonstrated their ability to diagnose disease. However, the landscape may be changing. As the equipment that delivers tests of small airways become more widely available, reference ranges are emerging and newer methodologies specifically seek to address variability and difficulty in test performance. Moreover, there is evidence that while tests of small airways may not be helpful across the full range of established disease severity

  6. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  7. Tax incentives for the economic activity of small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanshapieva Mazika Musabekovna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In article it is shown that the developed structure of the Russian small business doesn't answer problems of modernization of economy, taking into account features of subjects of small business necessity of strengthening of a role of a tax policy for regulation of their activity is given reason. The expediency of introduction in the Tax code of the Russian Federation of concepts «subjects of small business», «the small innovative enterprise» is proved. Necessity of specification of conditions and signs of reference of the organizations to subjects of small-scale business is revealed at application of the simplified system of the taxation. The expediency of change of existing approaches to formation of tax base at application of the general system of the taxation is established and recommendations about tax stimulation of economic activity of subjects of small business are offered.

  8. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  9. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  10. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  11. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  12. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2009-01-01

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design that add......An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... of place in human geography and recent research in interaction design focusing on embodied interaction. Central themes in this grounding revolve around place and its relation to embodiment and practice, as well as the social, cultural and material aspects conditioning the enactment of place. Selected...

  13. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  14. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  15. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first Level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second Level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  16. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  17. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  18. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some of the tests use interactions between the child and puppets and other toys to focus on specific rules of grammar, especially ... is not treated early, it can affect a child’s performance in school. ... language development. This kind of classroom program might enlist normally ...

  19. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  20. New usable technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.A.; Tomasi, L.T.; Bernier, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    After 2 yr of preparation, 1988 finally saw the nuclear industry writing operator-oriented technical specifications. This effort is a continuation of previous efforts to develop improved and usable standard technical specifications (STSs), and is being conducted by the four nuclear steam supply system vendor owners' groups under the auspices of the Nuclear Management Resources Council. Each participant is currently preparing a set of improved STSs based on a writer's guide that was developed through a combined industry effort. In May of 1987, a Human Factors Improvements to Technical Specifications (HFITS) task group was formed to prepare a writer's guide for improved, industrywide STSs. This task group was composed of two representatives from each owners' group, one with a human factors background and one with some operations background. Two documents were prepared in 6 months, a human factors report laying the groundwork for the considerations to go into technical specifications and a writer's guide for their preparation. This paper reports on the application of this writer's guide to the writing of improved STS

  1. Insights into the classification of small GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Heider

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Heider1, Sascha Hauke3, Martin Pyka4, Daniel Kessler21Department of Bioinformatics, Center for Medical Biotechnology, 2Institute of Cell Biology (Cancer Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Institute of Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 4Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital of Münster, Münster, GermanyAbstract: In this study we used a Random Forest-based approach for an assignment of small guanosine triphosphate proteins (GTPases to specific subgroups. Small GTPases represent an important functional group of proteins that serve as molecular switches in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes, including intracellular transport, movement and signaling events. These proteins have further gained a special emphasis in cancer research, because within the last decades a huge variety of small GTPases from different subgroups could be related to the development of all types of tumors. Using a random forest approach, we were able to identify the most important amino acid positions for the classification process within the small GTPases superfamily and its subgroups. These positions are in line with the results of earlier studies and have been shown to be the essential elements for the different functionalities of the GTPase families. Furthermore, we provide an accurate and reliable software tool (GTPasePred to identify potential novel GTPases and demonstrate its application to genome sequences.Keywords: cancer, machine learning, classification, Random Forests, proteins

  2. Small reactors and the 'second nuclear era'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions of the nuclear industry's demise are premature and distort both history and politics. The industry is reemerging in a form commensurate with the priorities of those people and nations controlling the global forces of production. The current lull in plant orders is due primarily to the world recession and to factors related specifically to reactor size. Traditional economies of scale for nuclear plants have been greatly exaggerated. Reactor vendors and governments in Great Britain, France, West Germany, Japan, the United States, Sweden, Canada, and the Soviet Union are developing small reactors for both domestic applications and export to the Third World. The prefabricated, factory-assembled plants under 500 MWe may alleviate many of the existing socioeconomic constraints on nuclear manufacturing, construction, and operation. In the industrialized world, small reactors could furnish a qualitatively new energy option for utilities. But developing nations hold the largest potential market for small reactors due to the modest size of their electrical systems. These units could double or triple the market potential for nuclear power in this century. Small reactors will both qualitatively and quantitatively change the nature of nuclear technology transfers, offering unique advantages and problems vis-a-vis conventional arrangements. (author)

  3. Preliminary Study of Potential Market for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Brown, N. W.

    2008-01-01

    Small reactors are an energy supply for a specific purpose and oriented for a different market than large reactors. Small reactors will provide a local solution for developed and developing countries, such as, in remote areas, on small grids, or for non-electricity applications such as, district heating, seawater desalination and process heat. Single or medium sized power stations with small reactors should be compared with single fissile or renewable energy source and not be compared with large reactors. CRIEPI and LLNL have studied the business opportunities for small reactors. The small reactor concept is planned for initial use in small remote communities and in developing countries with small power distribution grid. Rapid installation and simple operation of the small plants is intended to support use in these communities without requiring development of a substantial nuclear technology infrastructure. In this study, two approaches were used in the assessment of the potential market. The first approach took a global look at the need for small nuclear plants. Then selected countries and sites were identified based on countries expressing interest in small reactors to the IAEA and consideration of sites in the US and Japan. (1) Tunisia, Mexico, Indonesia, Uruguay, Egypt and Argentina have demonstrated interest in nuclear power. Selecting one of these is dependent on political and socioeconomic factors, some of which have been identified, that require direct interaction with the countries to establish if they represent real opportunities. (2) The states of Hawaii and Alaska in the United States have high power cost and remote or island communities that may benefit from small nuclear plants. Alaska has shown greater interest in power alternatives including small than Hawaii and there is clearly less public resistance to nuclear power in Alaska. (3) The countries in Central America are actively expanding their power grids but have not demonstrated great interest

  4. Cockpit management and Specific Behavioral Objectives (SBOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary tools used to accomplish the task of effective training is the specific behavioral objective (SBO). An SBO is simply a statement which specifically identifies a small segment of the final behavior sought, and a little more. The key word is specific. The company pinpoints exactly what it is it wants the pilot to do after completing training, and what it should evaluate from the point of view of both the program and the pilot. It tells the junior crewmember exactly, specifically, what he should monitor and support insofar as the management function is concerned. It gives greater meaning to the term second in command. And finally, it tells the supervisory pilot exactly what he should observe, evaluate, and instruct, insofar as the management function is concerned.

  5. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  7. Software engineering with application-specific languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J.; Barker, Linda; Mitchell, Deborah; Pollack, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Application-Specific Languages (ASL's) are small, special-purpose languages that are targeted to solve a specific class of problems. Using ASL's on software development projects can provide considerable cost savings, reduce risk, and enhance quality and reliability. ASL's provide a platform for reuse within a project or across many projects and enable less-experienced programmers to tap into the expertise of application-area experts. ASL's have been used on several software development projects for the Space Shuttle Program. On these projects, the use of ASL's resulted in considerable cost savings over conventional development techniques. Two of these projects are described.

  8. Argonaute: The executor of small RNA function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azali; Dzaki, Najat; Azzam, Ghows

    2016-08-20

    The discovery of small non-coding RNAs - microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) - represents one of the most exciting frontiers in biology specifically on the mechanism of gene regulation. In order to execute their functions, these small RNAs require physical interactions with their protein partners, the Argonaute (AGO) family proteins. Over the years, numerous studies have made tremendous progress on understanding the roles of AGO in gene silencing in various organisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress of AGO-mediated gene silencing and other cellular processes in which AGO proteins have been implicated with a particular focus on progress made in flies, humans and other model organisms as compliment. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of small molecule epigenetic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Woster, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    The field of epigenetics has expanded rapidly to reveal multiple new targets for drug discovery. The functional elements of the epigenomic machinery can be categorized as writers, erasers and readers, and together these elements control cellular gene expression and homeostasis. It is increasingly clear that aberrations in the epigenome can underly a variety of diseases, and thus discovery of small molecules that modulate the epigenome in a specific manner is a viable approach to the discovery of new therapeutic agents. In this Digest, the components of epigenetic control of gene expression will be briefly summarized, and efforts to identify small molecules that modulate epigenetic processes will be described. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Small software firms are vulnerable to environmental uncertainty. While agile methods and other technologies offer suggestions to this challenge, we know little about how these firms combine project and firm level capabilities to effectively respond to changes. On this backdrop, we examine a small...... Danish software firm, TeachTech Inc., through the lens of Haeckel's sense-and-respond approach. Our analysis suggests that: the firm has appropriate sense-and-respond cycles, but improving process modularity and human resource flexibility, could increase its ability to respond faster and more effectively......; the firm focuses on specific business goals, but these are not clearly explicated and expressed as empowering governing values enabling a quick and coordinated response; complex and demanding challenges are related to dynamically reassigning commitments and the supporting mechanisms are insufficient...

  11. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  12. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  13. Optimising India's small hydro resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history is given of an initiation to develop small scale hydropower projects in the Himalayas. The experience of the Indian project managers in utilising international funds from the Global Environment Facility could serve as a model for other small remote communities in the rest of the world. Lessons learned are reported. (UK)

  14. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  15. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  16. Financial management for small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  17. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, M.; Jamar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savli, M; Jamar, B [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-06-15

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  20. What Is a Small Business?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Derek Newman

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  1. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  2. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  3. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  4. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  6. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  7. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  8. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  9. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  10. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  11. Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.

  12. Emergence of Film Industries in Small Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Brambini, Annalisa; Maher, Sean

    Studies on the spatial organisation of film industries have grown steadily during the last decade. This has resulted in a highly valuable stream of research concerned with the clustering of the film industry. This literature has, however, neglected to pay attention to the specificities...... of the challenges faced by small countries aimed at building up a film industry in the context of global dominance by media conglomerates located in major audio-visual hubs such as Hollywood, New York and Paris. The conventional cluster and regional innovation systems-literature highlight respectively reduced...

  13. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  14. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  15. Substructural Logical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    and independently in the context of CLF by Schack-Nielsen [SN07] and by Cruz and Hou [CH12]; Schack-Nielsen proves the equivalence of the two specifi...cations, whereas Cruz and Hou used the connection informally. The contribution of this section is to describe a general transformation (of which...Functional Programming (LFP’86), pages 13–27. ACM, 1986. 5.1 [CDE+11] Manuel Clavel, Francisco Durán, Steven Eker, Patrick Lincoln, Narciso Martı́- 290 Oliet

  16. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  17. Domain-based small molecule binding site annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumontier Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate small molecule binding site information for a protein can facilitate studies in drug docking, drug discovery and function prediction, but small molecule binding site protein sequence annotation is sparse. The Small Molecule Interaction Database (SMID, a database of protein domain-small molecule interactions, was created using structural data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB. More importantly it provides a means to predict small molecule binding sites on proteins with a known or unknown structure and unlike prior approaches, removes large numbers of false positive hits arising from transitive alignment errors, non-biologically significant small molecules and crystallographic conditions that overpredict ion binding sites. Description Using a set of co-crystallized protein-small molecule structures as a starting point, SMID interactions were generated by identifying protein domains that bind to small molecules, using NCBI's Reverse Position Specific BLAST (RPS-BLAST algorithm. SMID records are available for viewing at http://smid.blueprint.org. The SMID-BLAST tool provides accurate transitive annotation of small-molecule binding sites for proteins not found in the PDB. Given a protein sequence, SMID-BLAST identifies domains using RPS-BLAST and then lists potential small molecule ligands based on SMID records, as well as their aligned binding sites. A heuristic ligand score is calculated based on E-value, ligand residue identity and domain entropy to assign a level of confidence to hits found. SMID-BLAST predictions were validated against a set of 793 experimental small molecule interactions from the PDB, of which 472 (60% of predicted interactions identically matched the experimental small molecule and of these, 344 had greater than 80% of the binding site residues correctly identified. Further, we estimate that 45% of predictions which were not observed in the PDB validation set may be true positives. Conclusion By

  18. Small bowel volvulus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.) [de

  19. Exploiting Specific Interactions toward Next-Generation Polymeric Drug Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, Sebastian; Krause, Eberhard; Hackbarth, Steffen; Roeder, Beate; Hirsch, Anna K. H.; Boerner, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    A generic method describes advanced tailoring of polymer drug carriers based on polymer-block-peptides. Combinatorial means are used to select suitable peptide segments to specifically complex small-molecule drugs. The resulting specific drug formulation agents render insoluble drugs water-soluble

  20. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  1. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  2. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  3. Small data, data infrastructures and big data (Working Paper 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Lauriault, Tracey P.

    2014-01-01

    The production of academic knowledge has progressed for the past few centuries using small data studies characterized by sampled data generated to answer specific questions. It is a strategy that has been remarkably successful, enabling the sciences, social sciences and humanities to advance in leaps and bounds. This approach is presently being challenged by the development of big data. Small data studies will, however, continue to be important in the future because of their utility in answer...

  4. Small data in the era of big data

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Lauriault, Tracey P.

    2015-01-01

    Academic knowledge building has progressed for the past few centuries using small data studies characterized by sampled data generated to answer specific questions. It is a strategy that has been remarkably successful, enabling the sciences, social sciences and humanities to advance in leaps and bounds. This approach is presently being challenged by the development of big data. Small data studies will however, we argue, continue to be popular and valuable in the fut...

  5. Appendix B : small beam tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2007) require that confinement : reinforcement be placed around prestressing strands in the bottom bulb of pretensioned concrete : beams. Although the AASHTO specifications contain prescriptive requiremen...

  6. Small Bowel Follow-Through

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Small bowel follow-through uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  7. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  8. Urban Waters Small Grants 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  9. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG)

  10. Urgent problems at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P. V.

    1999-01-01

    Regge theory provides an excellent fit to small-x structure-function data from Q 2 = 0 right up to the highest available values, but it also teaches us that conventional approaches to perturbative evolution are incorrect

  11. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  12. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  13. An Improvement to Interval Estimation for Small Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hui-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because it is difficult and complex to determine the probability distribution of small samples,it is improper to use traditional probability theory to process parameter estimation for small samples. Bayes Bootstrap method is always used in the project. Although,the Bayes Bootstrap method has its own limitation,In this article an improvement is given to the Bayes Bootstrap method,This method extended the amount of samples by numerical simulation without changing the circumstances in a small sample of the original sample. And the new method can give the accurate interval estimation for the small samples. Finally,by using the Monte Carlo simulation to model simulation to the specific small sample problems. The effectiveness and practicability of the Improved-Bootstrap method was proved.

  14. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  15. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  16. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.

    1993-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  17. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  18. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  19. Who needs a small reactor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet.

    1991-01-01

    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  20. Specification of brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    BCRU recommends that the following specification of gamma-ray brachytherapy sources be adopted. Unless otherwise stated, the output of a cylindrical source should be specified in air kerma rate at a point in free space at a distance of 1 m from the source on the radial plane of symmetry, i.e. the plane bisecting the active length and perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of the source. For a wire source the output should be specified for a 1 cm length. For any other construction of source, the point at which the output is specified should be stated. It is also recommended that the units in which the air kerma rate is expressed should be micrograys per hour (..mu..Gy/h).

  1. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  2. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  3. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenbach, K.

    1980-03-01

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  4. Naturally occurring, tumor-specific, therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, Konstantinos; Panethymitaki, Chrysoula; Tavassoli, Mahvash

    2011-05-01

    The emerging approach to cancer treatment known as targeted therapies offers hope in improving the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers. Recent understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has led to the development of targeted novel drugs such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, mimetics, antisense and small interference RNA-based strategies, among others. These compounds act on specific targets that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of cancers and resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. Delivered individually or combined with chemo- and/or radiotherapy, such novel drugs have produced significant responses in certain types of cancer. Among the most successful novel compounds are those which target tyrosine kinases (imatinib, trastuzumab, sinutinib, cetuximab). However, these compounds can cause severe side-effects as they inhibit pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor, which are also important for normal functions in non-transformed cells. Recently, a number of proteins have been identified which show a remarkable tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. This toxicity is independent of tumor type or specific genetic changes such as p53, pRB or EGFR aberrations. These tumor-specific killer proteins are either derived from common human and animal viruses such as E1A, E4ORF4 and VP3 (apoptin) or of cellular origin, such as TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and MDA-7 (melanoma differentiation associated-7). This review aims to present a current overview of a selection of these proteins with preferential toxicity among cancer cells and will provide an insight into the possible mechanism of action, tumor specificity and their potential as novel tumor-specific cancer therapeutics.

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  6. On the development of small nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    There are weighty reasons for and against the building of small nuclear power stations. Factors such as specific investment costs, opportunities for and areas of application, geographical conditions as well as those relating to infrastructure, security and availability play an important role in the planning, construction and running of a nuclear power station. For the usual large power stations, the comparatively low specific investment costs and a proven technology are favorable factors which minimize the investment risk. The article presents an overview of reasons for using small power stations and also considers the difficulties which would arise in practice. (orig.) [de

  7. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo

    1984-01-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type. (J.P.N.)

  8. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...

  9. 75 FR 66411 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice: Availability of Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide for the Women...

  10. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...

  11. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  13. Site specific plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  14. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  15. Specific CT findings of eclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Shozo; Imaya, Hisatoshi

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of specific computed tomographic (CT) findings of eclampsia were reported. Case 1 was a 25-year-old primipara in the 10th month of pregnancy, and Case 2 was a 36-year-old primipara in the 9th month of pregnancy. Both were brought to our hospital because of attacks of preeclampsia and eclampsia. On admission, they were in a comatose state. Computed tomography (CT) on admission showed low- and high-density areas in the basal ganglia regions in Case 1 and low-density areas in the same regions in Case 2. In Case 1, cerebral angiograms obtained two days after the attack showed diffuse cerebral vasospasms in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries of both sides and the basilar artery. In Case 2, however, cerebral angiograms obtained three days after the attack showed no abnormal findings. The patients were saved by crisis-overcoming emergency treatment and care. The neurological condition gradually improved. Repeated CT three weeks after the onset showed only a slight low-density area and a small high-density area in the left basal ganglia region in Case 1, while the low-density areas in the bilateral basal ganglia regions disappeared in Case 2. Seven weeks after the attack, cerebral angiography was again performed, but the diffuse vasospasms had disappeared. The clinical courses were good, and the patients were discharged about eight weeks after the onset, by which time their consciousness had become clear and the neurological deficits had been well overcome. Cerebrovascular disorders caused by toxemia of pregnancy is rare; when they do occur, the main lesions of the brain are edema, focal ischemia, thrombosis, and hemorrhage. They may be related to cerebral vasospasm, and subsequent ischemic changes are observed at times with eclampsia. (author)

  16. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  17. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  18. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  19. Small systems at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preghenella, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    In these proceedings, I report on a selection of recent LHC results in small systems from ALICE [1], ATLAS [2] and CMS [3] experiments. Due to the fact that the investigation of QCD in small systems at high multiplicity is becoming an increasingly large subject, interesting the heavy-ion community and more in general the high-energy physics community, not all the related topics can be discussed in this paper. The focus will be given to some of the measurements addressing the physics of collective phenomena in small systems and to the recent results on strangeness enhancement in proton-proton collisions. The reader must be informed that a large number of interesting results did not find space in the discussion reported here.

  20. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    approach and we propose for SME managers to investigate Foucault’s notion of “care of the self”. Originality/value: We conceptualize how SBSR is caught in a ‘governmentality dilemma’ where simultaneous expectations to govern others (e.g. through standards) and the self (e.g. through intrinsic motivations......) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere.......Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...

  1. An efficient method for isolating antibody fragments against small peptides by antibody phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We generated monoclonal scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibodies from an antibody phage display library towards three small synthetic peptides derived from the sequence of s1-casein. Key difficulties for selection of scFv-phages against small peptides were addressed. Small peptides do....... The scFvs were sequenced and characterized, and specificity was characterized by ELISA. The methods developed in this study are universally applicable for antibody phage display to efficiently produce antibody fragments against small peptides....

  2. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  3. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Specific Electrostatic Molecular Recognition in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Hoeck, Casper; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    The identification of pairs of small peptides that recognize each other in water exclusively through electrostatic interactions is reported. The target peptide and a structure-biased combinatorial ligand library consisting of ≈78 125 compounds were synthesized on different sized beads. Peptide......-bead binding assay and by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies revealed a putative mode of interaction for this unusual electrostatic binding event. High binding specificity occurred through a combination of topological matching and electrostatic and hydrogen-bond complementarities. From MD...

  5. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  6. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business... Business Jobs Act of 2010, which pertain to small business subcontracting. SBA is proposing to amend its...

  7. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  8. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  9. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  10. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  11. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed, and some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  12. Connections for Small Vertex Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is a first attempt at calssifying connections on small vertex models i.e., commuting squares of the form displayed in (1.2) below. ... obtain necessary conditions for two such `model connections' in (2, ) to be ... Current Issue : Vol.

  13. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  14. Effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  15. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  16. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  17. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  18. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  19. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update

  20. Netbooks: Small but Powerful Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks, sometimes called "mini-notebooks," are lightweight, small, and low-priced computers. Some writers ridicule them by calling them "one of the hottest tech toys of the year" (Saltzman, 2008). Others enthusiastically embrace them as "my perfect new travel companion" (Grossman, 2009). Netbooks are not toys. They are honest-to-goodness real…

  1. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  2. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  3. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  4. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  5. Small Business Location and Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…

  6. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  7. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business

  8. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  9. Revolution in the Small Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Herbert K.

    1982-01-01

    Small and medium-sized institutions are seen as likely to experience major organizational change during the next few years in three areas: contracting out, academic franchising, and reacting to declining instruction. Colleges need to explore interinstitutional cooperation, new educational media, structural innovation, productivity improvement, and…

  10. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  11. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  12. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  13. Joint research using small tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Van Oost, G.; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, Martin; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2005), S245-S254 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference contributions. Vilamoura, 1.11.2004-6.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : small tokamaks * thermonuclear fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2005

  14. 18 CFR 4.106 - Standard terms and conditions of case-specific exemption from licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Hydroelectric Power... licensing. Any case-specific exemption from licensing granted for a small hydroelectric power project is... falsehoods were made by or on behalf of the applicant. (h) Article 8. Any exempted small hydroelectric power...

  15. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  16. (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective inhibition of specific gene by adenoassociated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA. ... To perform functional tests on siRNA, which was expressed by the viral vector, recombinant AAVs, coding for siRNA against exogenous gene, EGFP, and endogenous gene, p53, were established and ...

  17. Learning Characteristics of Small Business Managers: Principles for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Lynn M.; Hide, Sophie; Legg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on the second half of a two-part study that identified relevant content for safety audit training in small businesses. The specific aim of the paper is to determine the preferred learning styles and approaches of managers in these businesses in order to identify some principles which could be used to tailor…

  18. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  19. The Role of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is aimed at finding out the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises, through their employment activities, helped to address poverty reduction. In trying to establish the thrust of the paper we used secondary data and the adoption of econometric model, specifically simple linear regression, to empirically explain ...

  20. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colanesi, Sarah; Taylor, Kerrie L; Temperley, Nicholas D

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish and investig......Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish...... and investigate the effects of a few of these compounds in further detail. We identified and confirmed 57 compounds that altered pigment cell patterning, number, survival, or differentiation. Additional tissue targets and toxicity of small molecules are also discussed. Given that the majority of cell types...

  1. How small is small? A short history of quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    All speak about quantum jumps, but scarcely anyone knows, what it is. The strange rules in the world of quanta evade from our imagination power: space and time are stirred together, mass becomes to energy and vice versa. Kenneth W. Ford has developed a unique approach, in order to explain these phenomena understandably and entertainingly: Otherwise than all other books on this theme illustrates ''How small is small?'' the laws of quantum physics by the picture of the particle family. We learn to know the quarks, the leptons, and bosons, and the residue of the kinship, and we get an outlook in the future of quantum theory. Kenneth W. Ford explains, why this theory revolutionized the physics of the 20th century. He presents the most important researchers and gives fascinating insights in the world ''below the surface''

  2. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have been selected. Their applications range from biosensing and diagnostics to therapy and target-oriented drug delivery. More recently, selections using complex targets such as live cells have become feasible. This paper summarizes progress in cell-SELEX techniques and highlights recent developments, particularly in the field of medically relevant aptamers with a focus on therapeutic and drug-delivery applications.

  3. Phase-II Associative Memory ASIC Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, Alberto; Warren, Matthew; Green, Barry; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Motuk, Halil Erdem; Frontini, Luca; Liberali, Valentino; Crescioli, Francesco; Fedi, Giacomo; Sotiropoulou, Calliope-louisa; De Canio, Francesco; Traversi, Gianluca; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Kubota, Takashi; Calderini, Giovanni; Palla, Fabrizio; Checcucci, Bruno; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Mcnamara, Peter Charles

    2018-01-01

    This documents defines the specifications for the Associative Memory ASIC for Phase-II. The work-flow toward the final ASIC is organized in the following three steps • AM08 prototype: small area MPW prototype to test all the full custom features, the VHDL logic and the I/O. This chip must be fully functional with smaller memory area than the final ASIC; • AM09pre pre-production: full area ASIC to be fabricated with a full-mask set pilot run. Production corner wafers will be created; • AM09 production: full area ASIC with refinements for the mass production. The AM09 will be developed built on the AM08 extending the memory area, therefore the specification of both versions must be compatible.

  4. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  5. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  6. Small-Molecule Binding Aptamers: Selection Strategies, Characterization, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eRuscito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded, synthetic oligonucleotides that fold into 3-dimensional shapes capable of binding non-covalently with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. They are generated via an in vitro process known as the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, from which candidates are screened and characterized, and then applied in aptamer-based biosensors for target detection. Aptamers for small molecule targets such as toxins, antibiotics, molecular markers, drugs, and heavy metals will be the focus of this review. Their accurate detection is ultimately needed for the protection and wellbeing of humans and animals. However, issues such as the drastic difference in size of the aptamer and small molecule make it challenging to select, characterize, and apply aptamers for the detection of small molecules. Thus, recent (since 2012 notable advances in small molecule aptamers, which have overcome some of these challenges, are presented here, while defining challenges that still exist are discussed

  7. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends......, complemented by qualitative case studies in six small towns. Our findings show how favourable development paths are a combination of a positive development in population, provision of daily commodities and attractive housing, and a high number of local voluntary social organisations. Introducing the concept......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  8. Teaching Small Business Ownership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Topics discussed include integrating small business ownership with existing programs; establishing awareness, exploration, and orientation activities; and preparation for small business ownership. A curriculum guide developed for teaching small business ownership and management is also described. (TA)

  9. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Associate Administrator for the Office of Small Business Programs shall nominate a qualified individual in... Small Business Programs shall assign a Small Business Technical Advisor to each contracting activity...

  10. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  11. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  12. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  13. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... small business concerns owned and controlled by women, and to women wishing to start a small business... Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda] Part XVII Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda [[Page 79864

  14. SFN-SIQ, SFNSL and skin biopsy of 55 cases with small fibre involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Li, Yifan; Liu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Yang, Fei; Liu, Jiexiao; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xusheng

    2018-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: To date, there are no validated screening scales for small fibre neuropathy. This study investigated the small-fibre neuropathy and the symptom inventory questionnaire as well as the small fibre neuropathy screening list for small fibre neuropathy diagnosis. Fifty-five patients were divided into small fibre neuropathy and mixed fibre damage groups. Relevant scales, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies were performed. Relationships between the intraepidermal nerve fibre density and different scales as well as the diagnostic and cut-off values (score at which Youden's index is largest) were determined. Compared with healthy Chinese participants, 20 patients were diagnosed with small fibre neuropathy. Intraepidermal nerve fibre density was moderately and highly correlated with the small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire and small fibre neuropathy screening list, respectively. The diagnostic values were moderate and high for the small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire (cut-off value = 5, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 81.8%) and small fibre neuropathy screening list (cut-off value = 8, sensitivity = 94.1%, specificity = 90.9%), respectively. There were no significant differences in the visual analogue scale between the small fibre neuropathy group, mixed small and large fibre neuropathy group, pure large fibre neuropathy group and the normal group. Small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire and small fibre neuropathy screening list represent potential small fibre neuropathy screening tools. Abbreviations EMG electromyography ENA anti-extractable nuclear antigens ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate IENFD intraepidermal nerve fibre density IGT impaired glucose tolerance NCS nerve conduction studies NDS neuropathy disability score OGTT oral glucose tolerance test PGP protein gene product PN peripheral neuropathy ROC receiver operating characteristic curve ROC-AUC area under the ROC curve SFN small

  15. Activation analysis with small mobile reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.

    1990-01-01

    A small nuclear reactor (a low-power reactor without heat removal devices) usually has thermal power output under 100 W and an average in-core thermal neutron flux below 10 9 n/cm 2 s. Conventional activation analysis is restricted to determination of specific elements with large neutron capture cross sections in sizable samples. In-vivo prompt gamma activation analysis (IVPGAA) can be used for diagnosis of elemental composition of the human body, particularly the essential elements Ca, Cl, N, and P in the whole body, and toxic Cd and Hg in contaminated organs. In this chapter, activation analysis using an external neutron beam from the Tsing Hua Mobile Educational Reactor (THMER) for in vivo activation is described. Characteristics of the mobile reactor, in-vivo medical diagnosis, and radiation safety are emphasized. 17 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  16. The Lifferth Dome for Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. L.; Olsen, C. S.; Iverson, E. P.; Paget, A.; Lifferth, W.; Brown, P. J.; Moody, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    The Lifferth Dome is a pull-off roof designed for small telescopes and other observational equipment. It was specifically designed for the needs of the ROVOR project. The roof itself is completely removed from the observatory housing walls and cranked off to the side below the optical horizon. This is done using two swing arms on either side of the observatory that work in unison to lift the roof off the structure and rotate down and away into a cleared location. The torque is provided by a threaded rod connected to an electric motor at the back of the building. As the motor rotates, the threads turn through a threaded sleeve connected directly to the support arms. Advantages to this design are no lost horizon, no roller surfaces to keep clean, low power and simple limit switches. Operation is by computer control using by National Instruments LabVIEW via the internet. We present its design and construction.

  17. Airfoil selection methodology for Small Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado Fuentes, Valentin; Troya, Cesar; Moreno, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    On wind turbine technology, the aerodynamic performance is fundamental to increase efficiency. Nowadays there are several databases with airfoils designed and simulated for different applications; that is why it is necessary to select those suitable for a specific application. This work presents...... a new methodology for airfoil selection used in feasibility and optimization of small wind turbines with low cut-in speed. On the first stage, airfoils data is tested on XFOIL software to check its compatibility with the simulator; then, arithmetic mean criteria is recursively used to discard...... underperformed airfoils; the best airfoil data was exported to Matlab for a deeper analysis. In the second part, data points were interpolated using "splines" to calculate glide ratio and stability across multiple angles of attack, those who present a bigger steadiness were conserved. As a result, 3 airfoils...

  18. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  19. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  20. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  1. Highly parallel translation of DNA sequences into small molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Weisinger

    Full Text Available A large body of in vitro evolution work establishes the utility of biopolymer libraries comprising 10(10 to 10(15 distinct molecules for the discovery of nanomolar-affinity ligands to proteins. Small-molecule libraries of comparable complexity will likely provide nanomolar-affinity small-molecule ligands. Unlike biopolymers, small molecules can offer the advantages of cell permeability, low immunogenicity, metabolic stability, rapid diffusion and inexpensive mass production. It is thought that such desirable in vivo behavior is correlated with the physical properties of small molecules, specifically a limited number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, a defined range of hydrophobicity, and most importantly, molecular weights less than 500 Daltons. Creating a collection of 10(10 to 10(15 small molecules that meet these criteria requires the use of hundreds to thousands of diversity elements per step in a combinatorial synthesis of three to five steps. With this goal in mind, we have reported a set of mesofluidic devices that enable DNA-programmed combinatorial chemistry in a highly parallel 384-well plate format. Here, we demonstrate that these devices can translate DNA genes encoding 384 diversity elements per coding position into corresponding small-molecule gene products. This robust and efficient procedure yields small molecule-DNA conjugates suitable for in vitro evolution experiments.

  2. Dilemmas, Confusion, and Misconceptions Related to Small Airways Directed Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavorini, Federico; Pedersen, Søren; Usmani, Omar S.

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result of innova......During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result...... of innovation in small-particle aerosol formulations that better target the distal lung and also advanced physiologic methods of assessing small airway responses. Increasing the precision of drug deposition may improve targeting of specific diseases or receptor locations, decrease airway drug exposure...... benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment. However, a number of questions remain unanswered about the pragmatic approach relevant for clinicians to consider the role of small airways directed therapy in the day-to-day management of asthma and COPD. We thus have tried to clarify the dilemmas...

  3. The evolution of the small business and entrepreneurship field: A bibliometric investigation of articles published in the International Small Business Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Volery, Thierry; Mazzarol, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the evolution of the small business management and entrepreneurship fields as reflected in articles published in its premier journal, the International Small Business Journal. It investigates the evolution of the fields through bibliometric examination of all 660 articles published between 1982 and 2012. While small business management has remained the main focus of the journal, there has been a significant growth in the number of articles focusing specif...

  4. Small Microprocessor for ASIC or FPGA Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard; Blair-Smith, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    A small microprocessor, suitable for use in applications in which high reliability is required, was designed to be implemented in either an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The design is based on commercial microprocessor architecture, making it possible to use available software development tools and thereby to implement the microprocessor at relatively low cost. The design features enhancements, including trapping during execution of illegal instructions. The internal structure of the design yields relatively high performance, with a significant decrease, relative to other microprocessors that perform the same functions, in the number of microcycles needed to execute macroinstructions. The problem meant to be solved in designing this microprocessor was to provide a modest level of computational capability in a general-purpose processor while adding as little as possible to the power demand, size, and weight of a system into which the microprocessor would be incorporated. As designed, this microprocessor consumes very little power and occupies only a small portion of a typical modern ASIC or FPGA. The microprocessor operates at a rate of about 4 million instructions per second with clock frequency of 20 MHz.

  5. Diverticular Disease of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Emilio Ferreira-Aparicio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A diverticulum is a bulging sack in any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site for the formation of diverticula is the large intestine. Small intestine diverticular disease is much less common than colonic diverticular disease. The most common symptom is non-specific epigastric pain and a bloating sensation. Major complications include diverticulitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute perforation, pancreatic or biliary (in the case of duodenal diverticula disease, intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, localized abscess, malabsorption, anemia, volvulus and bacterial overgrowth. We describe the clinical case of a 65-year-old female patient with a diagnosis on hospital admittance of acute appendicitis and a intraoperative finding of diverticular disease of the small intestine, accompanied by complications such as intestinal perforation, bleeding and abdominal sepsis. This was surgically treated with intestinal resection and ileostomy and a subsequent re-intervention comprising perforation of the ileostomy and stomal remodeling. The patient remained hospitalized for approximately 1 month with antibiotics and local surgical wound healing, as well as changes in her diet with food supplements and metabolic control. She showed a favorable clinical evolution and was dismissed from the hospital to her home. We include here a discussion on trends in medical and surgical aspects as well as early handling or appropriate management to reduce the risk of fatal complications.

  6. Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL) is a facility designed to conduct experimental small-scale propulsion and power generation systems research....

  7. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  8. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area – the recommendation is not in the bathroom. Purchase a bottle containing the fewest tests; date the ... their specialty, but may have little or no experience with the specific and interrelated problems seen in ...

  9. Dosimetry of small circular beams of high energy photons for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: the use of small ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Gaboriauid, G.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Boutaudon, S.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    The irradiation of small targets in the brain in a singe fraction (radiosurgery) or with a fractionated approach (stereotactic radiosurgery) with small beams of photons requires specific conditions to measure and to model the dosimetric data needed for treatment planning. In this work we present the method and materials adopted in our institution since 1988 to perform the dosimetry of high energy (6-23) circular photon beams with diameters ranging from 10 to 40 mm at the isocenter of linear accelerators, and its evolution as new dosimetric material became commercially available. in circular ionization chambers of small dimensions. We want to answer the following questions: Which are the minimal basic data needed to model small circular beams of high energy photons? Can we extrapolate or convert data from conventional data of larger beams? Which are the detectors well adapted for these kind of measurements and for which range of beam sizes?

  10. Going global - growing small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Going Global Energy Steering Committee was established to help small and medium-sized Canadian enterprises to compete in the electrical power industry in the Asia-Pacific region primarily, but also in Eastern Europe and Latin America. The aim is to provide market intelligence, and help with forming consortia for financing. A small to medium-sized business can be defined as one with 50 to 500 employees. Big businesses no longer have the same competitive advantages that they once had, because automated systems can make short production runs just as cost-effective as long ones, and because computerization, automation and rising productivity mean that fewer workers are required than formerly

  11. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  12. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Major scientific advances have been made over the past few years in the areas of small bowel physiology, pathology, microbiology and clinical sciences. Over 1000 papers have been reviewed and a selective number are considered here. Wherever possible, the clinical relevance of these advances have been identified. There have been a number of important and/or interesting developments in the past year that have clinical significance.

  13. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  14. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ESOI energy stored on invested IC integrated circuit RC radio controlled RPM revolutions per minute UPS uninterruptible power supply...used in microgrid systems. The additional electrical power produced could be enough to offset the power required to start up heavy machinery, or power...include automobile 3 turbochargers and small permanent magnet motors commonly used in remote controlled devices. The pairing of these two technologies

  15. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  16. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  17. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Martínez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria; metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature.

  18. Small wind turbines - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication first proposes an overview of the technical context of small wind turbines (from less than 1 kW to 36 kW). It discusses issues related to mast height, indicates the various technologies in terms of machine geometry (vertical or horizontal axis), of mast and foundations, of mechanism of orientation with respect to the wind. It also outlines that power curves are not always reliable due to a lack of maturity of techniques and technologies. Other issues are discussed: wind characteristics, and the assessment of the national potential source. The next parts address the regulatory and economic context, environmental impacts (limited impact on landscape, noise), propose an overview of actors and market (supply and demand of small wind turbines in the USA and in France, actors involved in the chain value in France), and give some recommendations for the development of small wind turbines in France. The last part proposes a technical focus on self-consumption by professional in rural areas (production and consumption in farms)

  19. Defining RNA-Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Luo, Yiling; Tran, Tuan; Haniff, Hafeez S; Nakai, Yoshio; Fallahi, Mohammad; Martinez, Gustavo J; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif-small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule-RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs.

  20. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.