WorldWideScience

Sample records for macc monitoring atmospheric

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R; Yang, J M

    2004-02-02

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145 requires an evaluation of the offsite atmospheric dispersion coefficient, {Chi}/Q, as a part of the acceptance criteria in the accident analysis. In it, it requires in sequence computations of (1) the overall site 95th percentile {Chi}/Q, (2) the maximum of the sixteen sector 99.5th percentile {Chi}/Q, and (3) comparison and selection of the worst of the two values for reporting in the safety analysis report (SAR). In all cases, the site-specific meteorology and sector-specific site boundary distances are employed in the evaluation. There are sixteen 22.5-sectors, the nearest site boundary of which is determined within the 45-arc centered on each of the sixteen compass directions.

  2. The MACC reanalysis: an 8-yr data set of atmospheric composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inness

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year long reanalysis of atmospheric composition data covering the period 2003–2010 was constructed as part of the FP7 funded Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project by assimilating satellite data into a global model and data assimilation system. This reanalysis provides fields of chemically reactive gases, namely carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde, as well as aerosols and greenhouse gases globally at a resolution of about 80 km for both the troposphere and the stratosphere. This paper describes the assimilation system for the reactive gases and presents validation results for the reactive gases analysis fields to document the dataset and to give a first indication of its quality.

    Tropospheric CO values from the MACC reanalysis are on average 10–20% lower than routine observations from commercial aircrafts over airports through most of the troposphere, and have larger negative biases in the boundary layer at urban sites affected by air pollution, possibly due to an underestimation of CO or precursor emissions.

    Stratospheric ozone fields from the MACC reanalysis agree with ozone sondes and ACE-FTS data to within ±10% in most situations. In the troposphere the reanalysis shows biases of −5% to +10% with respect to ozone sondes and aircraft data in the extratropics, but has larger negative biases in the tropics. Area averaged total column ozone agrees with ozone fields from a multi sensor reanalysis data set to within a few percent.

    NO2 fields from the reanalysis show the right seasonality over polluted urban areas of the NH and over tropical biomass burning areas, but underestimate wintertime NO2 maxima over anthropogenic pollution regions and overestimate NO2 in Northern and Southern Africa during the tropical biomass burning seasons.

    Tropospheric HCHO is well simulated in the MACC reanalysis even though no satellite data are

  3. The MACC reanalysis: an 8 yr data set of atmospheric composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inness

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year long reanalysis of atmospheric composition data covering the period 2003–2010 was constructed as part of the FP7-funded Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project by assimilating satellite data into a global model and data assimilation system. This reanalysis provides fields of chemically reactive gases, namely carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde, as well as aerosols and greenhouse gases globally at a horizontal resolution of about 80 km for both the troposphere and the stratosphere. This paper describes the assimilation system for the reactive gases and presents validation results for the reactive gas analysis fields to document the data set and to give a first indication of its quality. Tropospheric CO values from the MACC reanalysis are on average 10–20% lower than routine observations from commercial aircrafts over airports through most of the troposphere, and have larger negative biases in the boundary layer at urban sites affected by air pollution, possibly due to an underestimation of CO or precursor emissions. Stratospheric ozone fields from the MACC reanalysis agree with ozonesondes and ACE-FTS data to within ±10% in most seasons and regions. In the troposphere the reanalysis shows biases of −5% to +10% with respect to ozonesondes and aircraft data in the extratropics, but has larger negative biases in the tropics. Area-averaged total column ozone agrees with ozone fields from a multi-sensor reanalysis data set to within a few percent. NO2 fields from the reanalysis show the right seasonality over polluted urban areas of the NH and over tropical biomass burning areas, but underestimate wintertime NO2 maxima over anthropogenic pollution regions and overestimate NO2 in northern and southern Africa during the tropical biomass burning seasons. Tropospheric HCHO is well simulated in the MACC reanalysis even though no satellite data are assimilated. It shows good agreement with

  4. MACCS : Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening tool for high-frequency revisit data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, B.; Huc, M.; Feuvrier, T.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.; Lonjou, V.; Desjardins, C.

    2015-10-01

    For the production of Level2A products during Sentinel-2 commissioning in the Technical Expertise Center Sentinel-2 in CNES, CESBIO proposed to adapt the Venus Level-2 , taking advantage of the similarities between the two missions: image acquisition at a high frequency (2 days for Venus, 5 days with the two Sentinel-2), high resolution (5m for Venus, 10, 20 and 60m for Sentinel-2), images acquisition under constant viewing conditions. The Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening (MACCS) tool was born: based on CNES Orfeo Toolbox Library, Venμs processor which was already able to process Formosat2 and VENμS data, was adapted to process Sentinel-2 and Landsat5-7 data; since then, a great effort has been made reviewing MACCS software architecture in order to ease the add-on of new missions that have also the peculiarity of acquiring images at high resolution, high revisit and under constant viewing angles, such as Spot4/Take5 and Landsat8. The recursive and multi-temporal algorithm is implemented in a core that is the same for all the sensors and that combines several processing steps: estimation of cloud cover, cloud shadow, water, snow and shadows masks, of water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric correction. This core is accessed via a number of plug-ins where the specificity of the sensor and of the user project are taken into account: products format, algorithmic processing chaining and parameters. After a presentation of MACCS architecture and functionalities, the paper will give an overview of the production facilities integrating MACCS and the associated specificities: the interest for this tool has grown worldwide and MACCS will be used for extensive production within the THEIA land data center and Agri-S2 project. Finally the paper will zoom on the use of MACCS during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Test phase showing the first Level-2A products.

  5. Assimilation of atmospheric methane products in the MACC-II system: from SCIAMACHY to TANSO and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Massart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate Interim Implementation (MACC-II delayed-mode (DM system has been producing an atmospheric methane (CH4 analysis 6 months behind real time since June 2009. This analysis used to rely on the assimilation of the CH4 product from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument on board Envisat. Recently the \\textit{Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique} (LMD CH4 products from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research CH4 products from the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO were added to the DM system. With the loss of Envisat in April 2012, the DM system has to now rely on the assimilation of methane data from TANSO and IASI. This paper documents the impact of this change in the observing system on the methane tropospheric analysis. It is based on four experiments: one free run and three analyses from respectively the assimilation of SCIAMACHY, TANSO and a combination of TANSO and IASI CH4 products in the MACC-II system. The period between December 2010 and April 2012 is studied. This corresponds to a period during which the performance of SCIAMACHY was deteriorating. The SCIAMACHY experiment globally underestimates the tropospheric methane by 35 part per billion (ppb compared to the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO data and the methane column by 23 ppb compared the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON data, when the global bias of the free run against the same HIPPO and TCCON data is respectively −5 ppb and 4 ppb. The assimilated TANSO product changed in October 2011 from version v.1 to version v.2.0. The analysis of version v.1 globally underestimates the tropospheric methane by 18 ppb compared to the HIPPO data and the column by 11 ppb compared to the TCCON data. In contrast, the analysis of version v.2.0 globally overestimates the

  6. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  7. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  8. Global Reactive Gases in the MACC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    In preparation for the planned atmospheric service component of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, the EU FP7 project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) developed a preoperational data assimilation and modelling system for monitoring and forecasting of reactive gases, greenhouse gases and aerosols. The project is coordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the system is built on ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) which has been coupled to the chemistry transport models MOZART-3 and TM5. In order to provide daily forecasts of up to 96 hours for global reactive gases, various satellite retrieval products for ozone (total column and profile data), CO, NO2, CH2O and SO2 are either actively assimilated or passively monitored. The MACC system is routinely evaluated with in-situ data from ground-based stations, ozone sondes and aircraft measurements, and with independent satellite retrievals. Global MACC reactive gases forecasts are used in the planning and analysis of large international field campaigns and to provide dynamical chemical boundary conditions to regional air quality models worldwide. Several case studies of outstanding air pollution events have been performed, and they demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of chemical data assimilation based on current satellite data products. Besides the regular analyses and forecasts of the tropospheric chemical composition, the MACC system is also used to monitor the evolution of stratospheric ozone. A comprehensive reanalysis simulation from 2003 to 2010 provides new insights into the interannual variability of the atmospheric chemical composition.

  9. Statistical comparison of properties of simulated and observed cumulus clouds in the vicinity of Houston during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hongli; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lu, Miao-Ling; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, D13205 The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009304. We present statistical comparisons of properties of clouds generated by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with aircraft observations of nonprecipitating, warm cumulus clouds made in the vicinity of Houston, TX during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), carried out in the summer of 2006. Aircraft data wer...

  10. MACC/MACC-II : the case for composition measurements from the geostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuch, V.; Lahoz, W.; Orphal, J.; Attie, J. E.; El Amraoui, L.; MACC; MACC-II consortia

    2011-12-01

    The MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, 2009-2011) and MACC-II (2011-2014) European projects are operating pre-operational services for atmospheric composition and solar/UV radiation in the context of the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) program. The services are provided using advanced assimilation and forecast systems: one for the global scale, based upon the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of ECMWF, and an ensemble of seven regional air quality models (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE, SILAM) covering Europe. The products comprise analyses, forecasts, delayed mode analyses (taking into account validated data that are not available in Near-Real-Time) and multi-year re-analyses. The large amount of satellite and in-situ composition data currently used for assimilation and/or validation will be briefly presented: greenhouse gases, aerosol, reactive gases and surface air quality. A significant effort in MACC/MACC-II is devoted to models and products evaluation as well as to assimilation of data of various kinds. This effort is hampered by the current global observing system of atmospheric composition, as the overall dataset is mostly comprised of surface in-situ sites (WMO/GAW, air quality networks...) and of satellite products with limited vertical information and time coverage (LEO orbits) -with only few exceptions among which ozone sondes, lidars and MOZAIC-IAGOS aircraft data. The projects for GEO or quasi-GEO composition monitoring developing in Europe (Sentinel-4 and IRS on-board Meteosat Third Generation; the MAGEAQ mission concept), in North America (GEO-CAPE in the US PHEMOS in Canada) and in Asia (GEMS in Korea; projects in Japan and China) are thus regarded as a much needed additional observational component. Combining high spatial and temporal resolutions (as well as some vertical profiling capability in the case of multi-spectral instruments), such instruments would allow to evaluate and

  11. Comparison of the MACCS2 atmospheric transport model with Lagrangian puff models as applied to deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Garzon, Caroline D; Lagdon, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This paper examines one such case involving the U.S. Department of Energy's pretreatment facility of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2) was run using conservative parameter values in prescribed guidance to demonstrate that the dose from a postulated airborne release would not exceed the guideline dose of 0.25 Sv. External review of default model parameters identified the deposition velocity of 1.0 cm s as being non-conservative. The deposition velocity calculated using resistance models was in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 cm s-1. A value of 0.1 cm s-1 would result in the dose guideline being exceeded. To test the overall conservatism of the MACCS2 transport model, the 95th percentile hourly average dispersion factor based on one year of meteorological data was compared to dispersion factors generated from two state-of-the-art Lagrangian puff models. The 95th percentile dispersion factor from MACCS2 was a factor of 3 to 6 higher compared to those of the Lagrangian puff models at a distance of 9.3 km and a deposition velocity of 0.1 cm s-1. Thus, the inherent conservatism in MACCS2 more than compensated for the high deposition velocity used in the assessment. Applications of models like MACCS2 with a conservative set of parameters are essentially screening calculations, and failure to meet dose criteria should not trigger facility design changes but prompt a more in-depth analysis using probabilistic methods with a defined margin of safety in the target dose. A sample application of the probabilistic approach is provided.

  12. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  13. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  14. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jow, H.N. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management.

  16. The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption from the MACC perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Richard; Flemming, Johannes; Benedetti, Angela; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Simmons, Adrian; MACC Consortium

    2010-05-01

    The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on Iceland triggered a strong response from many modelling and observation groups around Europe. MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) is building the atmospheric component of Europe's GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) initiative and has used its pre-operational global assimilation and forecasting system to provide simulations of the development of the volcanic ash plume. Some basic assumptions were made about the height of the injection and the life time of the tracer. These simulations have been provided on a daily basis on the MACC web site. At the same time MACC has also tried to gather relevant observations on top of those that are already assimilated in the pre-operational system. This will allow validation of our plume forecasts as well as assessment of the potential of assimilating these additional observations. The main aim now is to further develop the MACC system to a stage where it can adequately respond to similar events in the future when GMES becomes operational. MACC will then be able to offer support to the official Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres in their task of advising the aviation authorities. In this presentation we will present our plume simulations as well as some initial validation. We will also present some preliminary data assimilation experiments to show the potential and difficulties of data assimilation in case of volcanic eruptions. Finally, we will try to make a first assessment of what is needed in the near future in terms of model development and observations to be fully prepared for events like the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull

  17. Oxygenated fraction and mass of organic aerosol from direct emission and atmospheric processing measured on the R/V Ronald Brown during TEXAQS/GoMACCS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.; Takahama, S.; Liu, S.; Hawkins, L. N.; Covert, D. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2009-04-01

    Submicron particles collected on Teflon filters aboard the R/V Ronald Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) 2006 in and around the port of Houston, Texas, were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence for organic functional groups and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM) concentrations (1-25 μg m-3) for ambient particle samples measured by FTIR showed good agreement with measurements made with an aerosol mass spectrometer. The fractions of organic mass identified as alkane and carboxylic acid groups were 47% and 32%, respectively. Three different types of air masses were identified on the basis of the air mass origin and the radon concentration, with significantly higher carboxylic acid group mass fractions in air masses from the north (35%) than the south (29%) or Gulf of Mexico (26%). Positive matrix factorization analysis attributed carboxylic acid fractions of 30-35% to factors with mild or strong correlations (r > 0.5) to elemental signatures of oil combustion and 9-24% to wood smoke, indicating that part of the carboxylic acid fraction of OM was formed by the same sources that controlled the metal emissions, namely the oil and wood combustion activities. The implication is that a substantial part of the measured carboxylic acid contribution was formed independently of traditionally "secondary" processes, which would be affected by atmospheric (both photochemical and meteorological) conditions and other emission sources. The carboxylic acid group fractions in the Gulf of Mexico and south air masses (GAM and SAM, respectively) were largely oil combustion emissions from ships as well as background marine sources, with only limited recent land influences (based on radon concentrations). Alcohol groups accounted for 14% of OM (mostly associated with oil combustion emissions and background sources), and amine groups accounted for 4% of OM in all air

  18. The diurnal variation in stratospheric ozone from the MACC reanalysis, the ERA-Interim reanalysis, WACCM and Earth observation data: characteristics and intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schanz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the diurnal variation in stratospheric ozone derived from free-running simulations of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM and from reanalysis data of the atmospheric service MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate which both use a similar stratospheric chemistry module. We find good agreement between WACCM and the MACC reanalysis for the diurnal ozone variation in the high-latitude summer stratosphere based on photochemistry. In addition, we consult the ozone data product of the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The ERA-Interim reanalysis ozone system with its long-term ozone parametrization can not capture these diurnal variations in the upper stratosphere that are due to photochemistry. The good dynamics representations, however, reflects well dynamically induced ozone variations in the lower stratosphere. For the high-latitude winter stratosphere we describe a novel feature of diurnal variation in ozone where changes of up to 46.6% (3.3 ppmv occur in monthly mean data. For this effect good agreement between the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the MACC reanalysis suggest quite similar diurnal advection processes of ozone. The free-running WACCM model seriously underestimates the role of diurnal advection processes at the polar vortex at the two tested resolutions. The intercomparison of the MACC reanalysis and the ERA-Interim reanalysis demonstrates how global reanalyses can benefit from a chemical representation held by a chemical transport model. The MACC reanalysis provides an unprecedented description of the dynamics and photochemistry of the diurnal variation of stratospheric ozone which is of high interest for ozone trend analysis and research on atmospheric tides. We confirm the diurnal variation in ozone at 5 hPa by observations of the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES experiment and selected sites of the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC

  19. Monitoring Atmospheric Transmission with FLAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Zirzow, D. C.; Koppa, M.; Buttler-Pena, K.

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of ground-based observations in the optical and near-infrared requires precise and accurate understanding of atmospheric transmission, at least as precise and accurate as that required for the spectral energy distributions of science targets. Traditionally this has used the Langley extrapolation method, observing targets and calibrators over a range of airmass and extrapolating to zero airmass by assuming a plane-parallel homogeneous atmosphere. The technique we present uses direct measurements of the atmosphere to derive the transmission along the line of sight to science targets at a few well-chosen wavelengths. The Facility Lidar Atmospheric Monitor of Extinction (FLAME) is a 0.5m diameter three Nd:YAG wavelength (355nm, 532nm & 1064nm) elastic backscatter lidar system. Laser pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere in the direction of the science target. Photons scattered back toward the receiver by molecules, aerosols and clouds are collected and time-gated so that the backscatter intensity is measured as a function of range to the scattering volume. The system is housed in a mobile calibration lab, which also contains auxiliary instrumentation to provide a NIST traceable calibration of the transmitted laser power and receiver efficiency. FLAME was designed to create a million photons per minute signal from the middle stratosphere, where the atmosphere is relatively calm and dominated by molecules of the well-mixed atmosphere (O2 & N2). Routine radiosonde measurements of the density at these altitudes constrain the scattering efficiency in this region and, combined with calibration of the transmitter and receiver, the only remaining unknown quantity is the two-way transmission to the stratosphere. These measurements can inform atmospheric transmission models to better understand the complex and ever-changing observatory radiative transfer environment. FLAME is currently under active development and we present some of our ongoing measurements.

  20. Code manual for MACCS2: Volume 1, user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I.; Young, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the use of the MACCS2 code. The document is primarily a user`s guide, though some model description information is included. MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, distributed by government code centers since 1990, was developed to evaluate the impacts of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding public. The principal phenomena considered are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short- and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. No other U.S. code that is publicly available at present offers all these capabilities. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or operated by the Department of Energy or the Department of Defense. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency-response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. Other improvements are in the areas of phenomenological modeling and new output options. Initial installation of the code, written in FORTRAN 77, requires a 486 or higher IBM-compatible PC with 8 MB of RAM.

  1. A Web Server for MACCS Magnetometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-3719 was provided to Augsburg College to support the development of a web server for the Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies (MACCS), a two-dimensional array of fluxgate magnetometers located at cusp latitudes in Arctic Canada. MACCS was developed as part of the National Science Foundation's GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) Program, which was designed in part to complement NASA's Global Geospace Science programs during the decade of the 1990s. This report describes the successful use of these grant funds to support a working web page that provides both daily plots and file access to any user accessing the worldwide web. The MACCS home page can be accessed at http://space.augsburg.edu/space/MaccsHome.html.

  2. Atmospheric Monitoring for the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, M; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Font, Ll; Fruck, C; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Hrupec, D; Hose, J; López-Oramas, A; Maneva, G; Martinez, M; Mirzoyan, R; Temnikov, P; Zanin, R

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the atmosphere is very relevant for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Adverse weather conditions (strong wind, high humidity, etc.) may damage the telescopes and must therefore be monitored continuously to guarantee a safe operation, and the presence of clouds and aerosols affects the transmission of the Cherenkov light and consequently the performance of the telescopes. The ATmospheric CAlibration (ATCA) technical working group of the MAGIC collaboration aims to cover all aspects related to atmosphere monitoring and calibration. In this paper we give an overview of the ATCA goals and activities, which include the set-up and maintenance of appropriate instrumentation, proper analysis of its data, the realization of MC studies, and the correction of real data taken under non-optimal atmospheric conditions. The final goal is to reduce the systematic uncertainties in the determination of the $\\gamma$-ray flux and energy, and to increase the duty cycle of the telescopes by establishing o...

  3. Application of Korean Specific Data to Economic Cost Estimation by KOSCA-MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Default values for various data provided by MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2) such as population, weather, food, and economic cost are far from current domestic condition. In the case of economic cost data, related default values came from MACCS and WASH-1400. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developed a Korean-specific level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) code package based on MACCS2 to reflect domestic condition for off-site consequence analysis. To this end, we performed a study on the domestic specific technical issues for level 3 PSA, which are a dose conversion factor, food chain model, atmospheric dispersion model, and domestic-specific economic effect model. Based on the study, we developed a level 3 PSA code, so-called KOSCAMACCS2 (Korean-specific Off-Site Consequence Analysis based on MACCS2). The purpose of this paper is to introduce economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and application of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation with KOSCA-MACCS2. In this paper, we introduced economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and suggested the application plan of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation. To this end, we considered data sources for those economic cost variables to reflect Korea-specific features such as data by Statistics Korea or Bank of Korea etc. For the decontamination related variables, we applied foreign literatures to apply data, which are Extern-E and UNESCO Chernobyl Forum data. Based on the data resources we estimated data for input variables related to economic cost estimation.

  4. ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, John HC [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-01

    In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.

  5. Lidar measurements during a haze episode in Penang, Malaysia and validation of the ECMWF MACC-II model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Wei Ying; Lolli, Simone; Hee, Wan Shen; Lim, Hwee San; Jafri, M. Z. Mat; Benedetti, Angela; Jones, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Haze is a phenomenon which occurs when there is a great amount of tiny particulates suspended in the atmosphere. During the period of March 2014, a long period of haze event occurred in Penang, Malaysia. The haze condition was measured and monitored using a ground-based Lidar system. By using the measurements obtained, we evaluated the performance of the ECMWF MACC-II model. Lidar measurements showed that there was a thick aerosol layer confined in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with extinction coefficients exceeding values of 0.3 km-1. The model however has underestimated the atmospheric conditions in Penang. Backward trajectories analysis was performed to identify aerosols sources and transport. It is speculated that the aerosols came from the North-East direction which was influenced by the North-East monsoon wind and some originated from the central eastern coast of Sumatra along the Straits of Malacca.

  6. Evaluation of the MACC operational forecast system – potential and challenges of global near-real-time modelling with respect to reactive gases in the troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wagner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC/MACCII currently represents the European Union's Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS (http://www.copernicus.eu, which will become fully operational in the course of 2015. The global near-real-time MACC model production run for aerosol and reactive gases provides daily analyses and 5 day forecasts of atmospheric composition fields. It is the only assimilation system world-wide that is operational to produce global analyses and forecasts of reactive gases and aerosol fields. We have investigated the ability of the MACC analysis system to simulate tropospheric concentrations of reactive gases (CO, O3, and NO2 covering the period between 2009 and 2012. A validation was performed based on CO and O3 surface observations from the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW network, O3 surface observations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP and furthermore, NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the satellite sensors SCIAMACHY and GOME-2, and CO total columns derived from the satellite sensor MOPITT. The MACC system proved capable of reproducing reactive gas concentrations in consistent quality, however, with a seasonally dependent bias compared to surface and satellite observations: for northern hemispheric surface O3 mixing ratios, positive biases appear during the warm seasons and negative biases during the cold parts of the years, with monthly Modified Normalised Mean Biases (MNMBs ranging between −30 and 30% at the surface. Model biases are likely to result from difficulties in the simulation of vertical mixing at night and deficiencies in the model's dry deposition parameterization. Observed tropospheric columns of NO2 and CO could be reproduced correctly during the warm seasons, but are mostly underestimated by the model during the cold seasons, when anthropogenic emissions are at a highest, especially over the US, Europe and Asia. Monthly MNMBs of the satellite data

  7. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.

  8. Emissions to the atmosphere - monitoring and abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, P.W. [British Coal Corp., Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Ford, N.W.J. [CRE Group Ltd., Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    In 1996, paper-mills will be subject to the requirements of the UK Environmental Protection Act 1990. This will involve the monitoring and reduction of emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. This paper describes the sources of these emissions - fluidised bed boilers, stoker fuel beds, pulverized fuel -and the available technologies for monitoring and abating them. The cost and effectiveness of pollution control is site specific. Large mills may benefit from the installation of Pound 100k monitoring systems with annual running costs of Pound 50 k; while small mills may achieve the desired results through periodic monitoring by consultants at Pound 10k a year. (author)

  9. Mobile lidar complex for ecological monitoring of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreisho, Anatoly S.; Volodenko, V. A.; Gryaznov, N. A.; Malamed, Evgeny R.; Mendov, Yu. N.; Moshkov, V. L.; Pantaleev, S. M.; Pankratiev, A. V.; Finagin, A. E.; Chakchir, S. Y.; Frolov-Bagreev, Leonid Y.; Konyaev, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    Mobile lidar complex provides monitoring of the atmosphere at the ranges up to 15 km in the wide spectral range from UV to mid IR. Three types of lasers are used for atmosphere probing via a common telescopic and scanner system. First tests of complex operability have shown high reliability of the equipment and realization of the main parameters.

  10. Identification of MACC1 as a novel prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Canliang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1 is a newly identified gene that plays a role in colon cancer metastasis through upregulation of c-MET proto-oncogene (c-MET. However, the value of MACC1 as a potential biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains unknown. Methods MACC1 mRNA expression in 128 HCC tissues was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To show the potential correlation of MACC1 and c-MET, c-MET was also analysed. Results MACC1 was more highly expressed in HCC than in non-HCC tissues (P = 0.009. High MACC1 expression was significantly increased in cases with high alpha fetoprotein (AFP (P = 0.025. A positive correlation was found between MACC1 and c-MET mRNAs (r = 0.235, P = 0.009. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that MACC1 expression was associated with overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS. Moreover, stratified analysis showed that tumour-node-metastasis (TNM stage I patients with high MACC1 levels had shorter OS and DFS than those with low MACC1. Conclusions MACC1 may identify low- and high-risk individuals with HCC and be a valuable indicator for stratifying the prognosis of TNM stage I patients. MACC1 may serve as a novel biomarker for HCC.

  11. Unmanned Platforms Monitor the Arctic Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs; Ivey, Mark D.; Schmid, Beat; McFarlane, Sally A.; Petty, Rickey C.

    2016-02-22

    In the Arctic, drones and tethered balloons can make crucial atmospheric measurement to provide a unique perspective on an environment particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate is rapidly changing all over the globe, but nowhere is that change faster than in the Arctic. The evidence from recent years is clear: Reductions in sea ice (Kwok and Unstersteiner, 2011) and permafrost (Romanovsky et al., 2002), in addition to modification of the terriestrial ecosystem through melting permafrost and shifting vegetation zones (burek et al., 2008; Sturm, et al., 2001), all point to a rapidly evolving.

  12. Atmospheric monitoring in H.E.S.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments applying the IACT method, such as H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System, observe VHE (very high energy, E > 100 GeV photons indirectly, using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. In the H.E.S.S. data reconstruction, the properties of this component are estimated by Monte Carlo simulations of a yearly averaged atmosphere density profile. Deviations of the real atmospheric conditions from this assumed atmospheric model will result in a biased reconstruction of the primary gamma-ray energy and thus the resulting source spectrum. In order to keep the corresponding systematic effects to a minimum, H.E.S.S. operates a set of atmospheric monitoring devices that allows it to characterise the atmospheric conditions during data taking. This information in turn is then used in data selection. Here, a short overview with respect to their usage during source observation and a posteriori analysis data selection will be presented.

  13. Tube bundle system: for monitoring of coal mine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, R Karl; Marchewka, W; Mohamed, K; Addis, J; Karnack, F

    2013-05-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine.

  14. Atmospheric monitoring and model applications at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilhauer, Bianca

    2015-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects high-energy cosmic rays with energies above ˜1017 eV. It is built as a multi-hybrid detector measuring extensive air showers with different techniques. For the reconstruction of extensive air showers, the atmospheric conditions at the site of the Observatory have to be known quite well. This is particularly true for reconstructions based on data obtained by the fluorescence technique. For these data, not only the weather conditions near ground are relevant, most important are altitude-dependent atmospheric profiles. The Pierre Auger Observatory has set up a dedicated atmospheric monitoring programme at the site in the Mendoza province, Argentina. Beyond this, exploratory studies were performed in Colorado, USA, for possible installations in the northern hemisphere. In recent years, the atmospheric monitoring programme at the Pierre Auger Observatory was supplemented by applying data from atmospheric models. Both GDAS and HYSPLIT are developments by the US weather department NOAA and the data are freely available. GDAS is a global model of the atmospheric state parameters on a 1 degree geographical grid, based on real-time measurements and numeric weather predictions, providing a full altitude-dependent data set every 3 hours. HYSPLIT is a powerful tool to track the movement of air masses at various heights, and with it the aerosols. Combining local measurements of the atmospheric state variables and aerosol scattering with the given model data, advanced studies about atmospheric conditions can be performed and high precision air shower reconstructions are achieved.

  15. Verification of ECMWF and ECMWF/MACC's global and direct irradiance forecasts with respect to solar electricity production forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schroedter-Homscheidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful electricity grid integration of solar energy into day-ahead markets requires at least hourly resolved 48 h forecasts. Technologies as photovoltaics and non-concentrating solar thermal technologies make use of global horizontal irradiance (GHI forecasts, while all concentrating technologies both from the photovoltaic and the thermal sector require direct normal irradiances (DNI. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has recently changed towards providing direct as well as global irradiances. Additionally, the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate near-real time services provide daily analysis and forecasts of aerosol properties in preparation of the upcoming European Copernicus programme. The operational ECMWF/IFS (Integrated Forecast System forecast system will in the medium term profit from the Copernicus service aerosol forecasts. Therefore, within the MACC‑II project specific experiment runs were performed allowing for the assessment of the performance gain of these potential future capabilities. Also the potential impact of providing forecasts with hourly output resolution compared to three-hourly resolved forecasts is investigated. The inclusion of the new aerosol climatology in October 2003 improved both the GHI and DNI forecasts remarkably, while the change towards a new radiation scheme in 2007 only had minor and partly even unfavourable impacts on the performance indicators. For GHI, larger RMSE (root mean square error values are found for broken/overcast conditions than for scattered cloud fields. For DNI, the findings are opposite with larger RMSE values for scattered clouds compared to overcast/broken cloud situations. The introduction of direct irradiances as an output parameter in the operational IFS version has not resulted in a general performance improvement with respect to biases and RMSE compared to the widely used Skartveit et al. (1998 global to direct irradiance

  16. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-05-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

  17. Innovative Monitoring of Atmospheric Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dugheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen fluoride (HF is a basic raw material for a wide variety of industrial products, with a worldwide production capacity of more than three million metric tonnes. A novel method for determining particulate fluoride and gaseous hydrogen fluoride in air is presented herewith. Air was sampled using miniaturised 13 mm Swinnex two-stage filter holders in a medium-flow pumping system and through the absorption of particulate fluoride and HF vapours on cellulose ester filters uncoated or impregnated with sodium carbonate. Furthermore, filter desorption from the holders and the extraction of the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivative based on solid-phase microextraction were performed using an innovative robotic system installed on an xyz autosampler on-line with gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS. After generating atmospheres of a known concentration of gaseous HF, we evaluated the agreement between the results of our sampling method and those of the conventional preassembled 37 mm cassette (±8.10%; correlation coefficient: 0.90. In addition, precision (relative standard deviation for n=10, 4.3%, sensitivity (0.2 μg/filter, and linearity (2.0–4000 μg/filter; correlation coefficient: 0.9913 were also evaluated. This procedure combines the efficiency of GC/MS systems with the high throughput (96 samples/day and the quantitative accuracy of pentafluorobenzyl bromide on-sample derivatisation.

  18. Innovative Monitoring of Atmospheric Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonari, Alessandro; Pompilio, Ilenia; Monti, Alessandro; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a basic raw material for a wide variety of industrial products, with a worldwide production capacity of more than three million metric tonnes. A novel method for determining particulate fluoride and gaseous hydrogen fluoride in air is presented herewith. Air was sampled using miniaturised 13 mm Swinnex two-stage filter holders in a medium-flow pumping system and through the absorption of particulate fluoride and HF vapours on cellulose ester filters uncoated or impregnated with sodium carbonate. Furthermore, filter desorption from the holders and the extraction of the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivative based on solid-phase microextraction were performed using an innovative robotic system installed on an xyz autosampler on-line with gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS). After generating atmospheres of a known concentration of gaseous HF, we evaluated the agreement between the results of our sampling method and those of the conventional preassembled 37 mm cassette (±8.10%; correlation coefficient: 0.90). In addition, precision (relative standard deviation for n = 10, 4.3%), sensitivity (0.2 μg/filter), and linearity (2.0–4000 μg/filter; correlation coefficient: 0.9913) were also evaluated. This procedure combines the efficiency of GC/MS systems with the high throughput (96 samples/day) and the quantitative accuracy of pentafluorobenzyl bromide on-sample derivatisation. PMID:27829835

  19. The Atmospheric Monitoring system of the JEM-EUSO telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Toscano, S; Frías, M D Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO observatory on board of the International Space Station (ISS) is a proposed pioneering space mission devoted to the investigation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). Looking downward at the earth's atmosphere with a 60$^\\circ$ Field of View (FoV), the JEM-EUSO telescope will detect the fluorescence and Cherenkov UV emission from UHECR induced Extensive Air Showers (EAS) penetrating in the atmosphere. The capability of reconstructing the properties of the primary cosmic ray depends on the accurate measurement of the atmospheric conditions in the region of EAS development. The Atmospheric Monitoring system of JEM-EUSO will continuously monitor the atmosphere at the location of the EAS candidates and between the EAS and the JEM-EUSO telescope. With an UV LIDAR and an Infrared (IR) Camera the system will monitor the cloud cover and retrieve the cloud top altitude with an accuracy of $\\sim$ 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere with an accuracy of $\\Delta\\tau \\leq$ 0.15 and a re...

  20. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.

    2005-07-01

    For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

  1. The Rapid Atmospheric Monitoring System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10^17 eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the observations for variations in atmospheric conditions, atmospheric monitoring is performed at regular intervals ranging from several minutes (for cloud identification) to several hours (for aerosol conditions) to several days (for vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity). In 2009, the monitoring program was upgraded to allow for additional targeted measurements of atmospheric conditions shortly after the detection of air showers of special interest, e.g., showers produced by very high-energy cosmic rays or showers with atypical longitudinal profiles. The former events are of particular importance for the determination of the energy scale of the Observatory, and the latter are characteristic of unusual air show...

  2. Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Blay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM mission is an ESA pay load which will be installed in the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS. ASIM is optimized to the observation and monitoring of luminescent phenomena in the upper atmosphere, the so called Transient Luminous Event (TLEs and Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes(TGFs. Both TLEs and TGFs have been discovered recently (past two decades and opened a new field of research in high energetic phenomena in the atmosphere. We will review the capabilities of ASIM and how it will help researchers to gain deeper knowledge of TGFs, TLEs, their inter-relationship and how they are linked to severe thunderstorms and the phenomena of lightning.

  3. Comparison of in situ and columnar aerosol spectral measurements during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006: testing parameterizations for estimating aerosol fine mode properties

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Atkinson; P. Massoli; N. T. O'Neill; P. K. Quinn; S. D. Brooks; Lefer, B.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006), the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep) were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments, one located on board the NO...

  4. Strategy implementation for the CTA Atmospheric monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doro Michele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA is the next generation facility of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. It reaches unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA detects Cherenkov light emitted within an atmospheric shower of particles initiated by cosmic-gamma rays or cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the combination of images the Cherenkov light produces in the telescopes, one is able to infer the primary particle energy and direction. A correct energy estimation can be thus performed only if the local atmosphere is well characterized. The atmosphere not only affects the shower development itself, but also the Cherenkov photon transmission from the emission point in the particle shower, at about 10–20 km above the ground, to the detector. Cherenkov light on the ground is peaked in the UV-blue region, and therefore molecular and aerosol extinction phenomena are important. The goal of CTA is to control systematics in energy reconstruction to better than 10%. For this reason, a careful and continuous monitoring and characterization of the atmosphere is required. In addition, CTA will be operated as an observatory, with data made public along with appropriate analysis tools. High-level data quality can only be ensured if the atmospheric properties are consistently and continuously taken into account. In this contribution, we concentrate on discussing the implementation strategy for the various atmospheric monitoring instruments currently under discussion in CTA. These includes Raman lidars and ceilometers, stellar photometers and others available both from commercial providers and public research centers.

  5. Atmospheric monitoring and model applications at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilhauer Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory detects high-energy cosmic rays with energies above ∼1017 eV. It is built as a multi-hybrid detector measuring extensive air showers with different techniques. For the reconstruction of extensive air showers, the atmospheric conditions at the site of the Observatory have to be known quite well. This is particularly true for reconstructions based on data obtained by the fluorescence technique. For these data, not only the weather conditions near ground are relevant, most important are altitude-dependent atmospheric profiles. The Pierre Auger Observatory has set up a dedicated atmospheric monitoring programme at the site in the Mendoza province, Argentina. Beyond this, exploratory studies were performed in Colorado, USA, for possible installations in the northern hemisphere. In recent years, the atmospheric monitoring programme at the Pierre Auger Observatory was supplemented by applying data from atmospheric models. Both GDAS and HYSPLIT are developments by the US weather department NOAA and the data are freely available. GDAS is a global model of the atmospheric state parameters on a 1 degree geographical grid, based on real-time measurements and numeric weather predictions, providing a full altitude-dependent data set every 3 hours. HYSPLIT is a powerful tool to track the movement of air masses at various heights, and with it the aerosols. Combining local measurements of the atmospheric state variables and aerosol scattering with the given model data, advanced studies about atmospheric conditions can be performed and high precision air shower reconstructions are achieved.

  6. GOME-2 total ozone columns from MetOp-A/MetOp-B and assimilation in the MACC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The two Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument (GOME-2 sensors operated in tandem are flying onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites, launched in October 2006 and September 2012 respectively. This paper presents the operational GOME-2/MetOp-A (GOME-2A and GOME-2/MetOp-B (GOME-2B total ozone products provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF. These products are generated using the latest version of the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7. The enhancements in GDP 4.7, including the application of Brion–Daumont–Malicet ozone absorption cross-sections, are presented here. On a global scale, GOME-2B has the same high accuracy as the corresponding GOME-2A products. There is an excellent agreement between the ozone total columns from the two sensors, with GOME-2B values slightly lower with a mean difference of only 0.55 ± 0.29%. First global validation results for 6 months of GOME-2B total ozone using ground-based measurements show that on average the GOME-2B total ozone data obtained with GDP 4.7 slightly overestimate Dobson observations by about 2.0 ± 1.0% and Brewer observations by about 1.0 ± 0.8%. It is concluded that the total ozone columns (TOCs provided by GOME-2A and GOME-2B are consistent and may be used simultaneously without introducing trends or other systematic effects. GOME-2A total ozone data have been used operationally in the Copernicus atmospheric service project MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate – Interim Implementation near-real-time (NRT system since October 2013. The magnitude of the bias correction needed for assimilating GOME-2A ozone is reduced (to about −6 DU in the global mean when the GOME-2 ozone retrieval algorithm changed to GDP 4.7.

  7. Model JC-1 Laser System for Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    differential absorption mode atmospheric pollution laser monitoring system, in which a phase locking technique and single board computer are used for...amplification 1 3. synchronous demodulation 2 4. phase locking amplification 2 5. single board computer 6. function logging Instrument 7. oscillator...were then fed into a DBJ-Z80 single - board computer to undergo a multiple averaging process before going through functional operation, and were logged

  8. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  9. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  10. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  11. MACC1 as a prognostic biomarker for early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 gene (MACC1 has been found to be associated with cancer development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MACC1 in early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: mRNA and protein levels of MACC1 expression in one normal liver epithelial cells THLE3 and 15 HCC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. MACC1 expression was also comparatively studied in 6 paired HCC lesions and the adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze MACC1 expression in 308 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. Statistical analyses were applied to derive association between MACC1 expression scores and clinical staging as well as patient survival. RESULTS: Levels of MACC1 mRNA and protein were higher in HCC cell lines and HCC lesions than in normal liver epithelial cells and the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Significant difference in MACC1 expression was found in patients of different TNM stages (P<0.001. Overall survival analysis showed that high MACC1 expression level correlated with lower survival rate (P = 0.001. Importantly, an inverse correlation between MACC1 level and patient survival remained significant in subjects with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP level. CONCLUSIONS: MACC1 protein may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including in early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

  12. Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 From Space: Challenge & Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Kooi, Susan; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ismail, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is the key radiative forcing for the Earth's climate and may contribute a major part of the Earth's warming during the past 150 years. Advanced knowledge on the CO2 distributions and changes can lead considerable model improvements in predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions have been found for decades owing to limited CO2 observations. To obtain precise measurements of atmospheric CO2, certain challenges have to be overcome. For an example, global annual means of the CO2 are rather stable, but, have a very small increasing trend that is significant for multi-decadal long-term climate. At short time scales (a second to a few hours), regional and subcontinental gradients in the CO2 concentration are very small and only in an order of a few parts per million (ppm) compared to the mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 400 ppm, which requires atmospheric CO2 space monitoring systems with extremely high accuracy and precision (about 0.5 ppm or 0.125%) in spatiotemporal scales around 75 km and 10-s. It also requires a decadal-scale system stability. Furthermore, rapid changes in high latitude environments such as melting ice, snow and frozen soil, persistent thin cirrus clouds in Amazon and other tropical areas, and harsh weather conditions over Southern Ocean all increase difficulties in satellite atmospheric CO2 observations. Space lidar approaches using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique are considered to be capable of obtaining precise CO2 measurements and, thus, have been proposed by various studies including the 2007 Decadal Survey (DS) of the U.S. National Research Council. This study considers to use the Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar to monitor global atmospheric CO2 distribution and variability from space. Development and demonstration of space lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements have been made through joint adventure of NASA Langley Research Center and

  13. Development of micro pulse lidar system for atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Ju; Kim, Duk Hyeon; Nam, Sung Mo; Go, Do Kyung; Yang, Gi Ho; Hong, Kyang He

    1999-12-01

    A compact small micro pulse lidar system is developed for atmospheric monitoring. The developed system can be operated during 24 hrs for four seasons. The maximum detection distance is 5 km at day time and 10 km at night. Specially, the problem of eye safety is solved by using diode pumped low pulse-energy Nd:YAG laser. Two rotational axis, vertical and horizontal, is chosen for 3D mapping of the atmospheric aerosol. The spatial resolution can be optionally changed from 5 m to 300 m, but time resolution which changes from several sec to several minutes depends on the detection distance and background signal. To analyze the obtained lidar signal, processing software is developed and applied to the lidar signal obtained near the chimney. Vertical lidar signal is also obtained and from this data we can find the thickness and change of cloud. (author)

  14. Development of Atmospheric Monitoring System for Auger North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, John; Allen, Clint; Botts, Adam; Carande, Bryce; Calhoun, Mike; Emmert, Lucas; Hamilton, Levi; Heid, T. J.; Koop, John; Morgan, Sarah; Robinson, Shay; Sherman, John; Wiencke, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Northern Fluorescence Detector will measure air-showers over distances of 40 km. Vertical Aerosol profile of the atmosphere at the Pierre Auger Northern site will be measured using the side-scatter method over the 40 km baseline. An atmospheric monitoring telescope (AMT) will use a 3.5 m^2 mirror optimized for UV reflection to focus light from a laser onto a cluster of phototmultiplier tubes. The AMT has been built and final testing and modifications are being carried out before its installation later this year. A remotely programmed, 355 nm YAG laser with a final beam energy of 5 mJ is being used. The automation of the laser and the AMT is controlled via a single board computer (SBC). This talk will present an overview of this R&D program.

  15. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  16. An atmosphere monitoring system for the Sardinia radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, F.; Bolli, P.; Sanna, G.; Serra, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Sardinia radio telescope (SRT) is a new facility managed by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). SRT will detect the extremely faint radio wave signals emitted by astronomical objects in a wide frequency range from decimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Especially at high frequencies (>10 GHz), specific weather conditions and interactions between signal and atmospheric constituents (mainly water and oxygen molecules) affect the radio astronomic observation reducing the antenna performances. Thus, modern ground-based telescopes are usually equipped with systems able to examine in real-time several atmospheric parameters (opacity, integrated water vapor, etc.), and in some cases to forecast the weather conditions (wind, rain, snow, etc.), in order to ensure the antenna safety and support the schedule of the telescope observations. Here, we describe the atmosphere monitoring system (AMS) realized with the aim to improve the SRT operative efficiency. It consists of a network of different sensors such as radiometers, radiosondes, weather stations, GPS and some well-established weather models. After a validation of the scheme, we successfully tested the AMS in two real practical scenarios, comparing the AMS outcomes with those of independent techniques. In the first one we were able to detect an incoming storm front applying different techniques (GPS, radiometer and the weather forecast model), while in the last one we modeled the SRT antenna system temperature at 22 GHz processing the AMS data set.

  17. Consistent evaluation of GOSAT, SCIAMACHY, CarbonTracker, and MACC through comparisons to TCCON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, S. S.; Wunch, D.; O'Dell, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Reuter, M.; Oda, T.; Chevallier, F.; Sherlock, V.; Buchwitz, M.; Osterman, G.; Miller, C.; Wennberg, P.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Morino, I.; Dubey, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Warneke, T.; Sussmann, R.; Robinson, J.; Strong, K.; Schneider, M.; Wolf, J.

    2015-06-01

    Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2 measurements for joint flux inversion, and for establishing an accurate long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. We focus on validating model and satellite observation attributes that impact flux estimates and CO2 assimilation, including accurate error estimates, correlated and random errors, overall biases, biases by season and latitude, the impact of coincidence criteria, validation of seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, yearly growth, and daily variability. We evaluate dry air mole fraction (XCO2) for GOSAT (ACOS b3.5) and SCIAMACHY (BESD v2.00.08) as well as the CarbonTracker (CT2013b) simulated CO2 mole fraction fields and the MACC CO2 inversion system (v13.1) and compare these to TCCON observations (GGG2014). We find standard deviations of 0.9 ppm, 0.9, 1.7, and 2.1 ppm versus TCCON for CT2013b, MACC, GOSAT, and SCIAMACHY, respectively, with the single target errors 1.9 and 0.9 times the predicted errors for GOSAT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. When satellite data are averaged and interpreted according to error2 = a2+ b2 /n (where n are the number of observations averaged, a are the systematic (correlated) errors, and b are the random (uncorrelated) errors), we find that the correlated error term a = 0.6 ppm and the uncorrelated error term b = 1.7 ppm for GOSAT and a = 1.0 ppm, b = 1.4 ppm for SCIAMACHY regional averages. Biases at individual stations have year-to-year variability of ~ 0.3 ppm, with biases larger than the TCCON predicted bias uncertainty of 0.4 ppm at many stations. Using fitting software, we find that GOSAT underpredicts the seasonal cycle amplitude in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) between 46-53° N. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), CT2013b underestimates the seasonal cycle amplitude. Biases are calculated for 3-month intervals and indicate the months that contribute to the observed amplitude differences. The seasonal cycle phase indicates

  18. BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, Kevin

    2009-04-30

    The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.

  19. Use of passive sampling for atmospheric tritium monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira Ideias, P.; Pierrard, O.; Tournieux, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Tenailleau, L. [Marine nationale (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium is one of the most important radionuclide in environmental radiological monitoring. In French civil and military nuclear facilities, the releases levels are between 100 to 100 000 higher than any other radionuclide (rare gas excluded). Moreover these levels will probably increase in the next decades. With an average energy of 6 keV, the beta particle from tritium radioactive decay is difficult to detect and quantify within the environmental levels. To monitor the tritium in the air, French actors (authorities, operator, and experts) commonly use atmospheric bubblers and water vapour condensers. This type of sampling approach is time-consuming and very costly. To simplify and complete these methods, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), had developed an atmospheric tritium monitoring device based on passive sampling. The passive sampler developed consists in a small container designed with a patented specific geometry and filled with 13X molecular sieve. This system is based on free diffusion flow principle (Fick's law). The driving force is the partial pressure gradient existing between the environmental atmosphere and the passive sampler. The constancy of the sampling rate for different moisture conditions assures the representativeness of the proposed device. The desorption bench developed specifically allows the recovery of 99% of the water vapour sampled in the molecular sieve. More than 99% of the sampled tritium (HTO) activity is recovered in the range between 0 and 100 Bq.L{sup -1}. Above 100 Bq.L{sup -1} to 25 k Bq.L{sup -1} (max tested activity), it was verified that no more than 3% of the tritium remains in the molecular sieve.. Thus, the use of passive sampler provides: - a representative sampling method, - a good detection limit (0,01 Bq.m{sup -3}), - no electric power supply needs, - a wide range of sampling duration (1 day to 1 month), - a low-cost method for monitoring. Different performance tests were

  20. A Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Atmospheric Aggressiveness in Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid tropical climate favours the existence of a c orrosive atmosphere that causes deterioration of me tals. This article describes an automated system for moni toring environmental values (temperature and relati ve humidity in order to know the time of wetness (TOW , which is key factor in determining the atmospher ic aggressiveness which are exposed the metals used, f or example, in industrial facilities. System is implemented on a wireless sensor network and the ma in function of the software developed is to count t he time of wetness which is considered the effective t ime in which metals corrode. System was designed considering the user requirements as the selection of the frequency of measurements, the calculation o f TOW and verification of the residual energy of sens or nodes. The results show the effectiveness of the technology used, so that, we can conclude that this type of networks represent a feasible alternative for automated monitoring of corrosion in metals.

  1. Silicon microring refractometric sensor for atmospheric CO(2) gas monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Aktary, Mirwais; Van, Vien

    2016-01-25

    We report a silicon photonic refractometric CO(2) gas sensor operating at room temperature and capable of detecting CO(2) gas at atmospheric concentrations. The sensor uses a novel functional material layer based on a guanidine polymer derivative, which is shown to exhibit reversible refractive index change upon absorption and release of CO(2) gas molecules, and does not require the presence of humidity to operate. By functionalizing a silicon microring resonator with a thin layer of the polymer, we could detect CO(2) gas concentrations in the 0-500ppm range with a sensitivity of 6 × 10(-9) RIU/ppm and a detection limit of 20ppm. The microring transducer provides a potential integrated solution in the development of low-cost and compact CO(2) sensors that can be deployed as part of a sensor network for accurate environmental monitoring of greenhouse gases.

  2. Atmospheric trace gases monitoring by UV-vis spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pinhua; Li, Ang; Wu, Fengcheng; Qin, Min; Hu, Rezhi; Xu, Jin; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-04-01

    Due to rapidly economic development, air pollution has become an important issue in China. Phenomena such as regional haze in winter and high O3 concentration in summer are strongly related to increasing trace species. For better understanding the air pollution formation, it is necessary to know spatial and temporal distribution of trace species in the atmosphere. UV-vis spectroscopic techniques are of great advantages for trace species monitoring to meet several requirements, e.g. versatility, high sensitivity, good temporal resolution and field applicability. We have studied and developed various trace gases monitoring techniques and instruments based on UV-vis spectroscopic technique for in-situ measurements and remote sensing, e.g. LP-DOAS, IBBCEAS, CRDS, MAX-DOAS and mobile DOAS for NO2, SO2, HCHO, HONO, NO3, and N2O5 etc. The principle, instrumentation and inversion algorithm are presented. As typical applications of these techniques, investigation of the evolution of HONO and NO3 radicals over Beijing area, measurements of regional pollution in NCP and YRD are discussed in the aspects of HONO and nocturnal NO3 radical characteristics, trace gases (NO2, SO2 etc.) temporal and spatial distribution, pollution transport pathway, emission sources.

  3. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP Products: Part 2 – Evaluation and demonstration of use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2015-06-01

    collected MODIS data, ranging from 35% over the Northern Africa region to 89% over the European region. High errors of active fire omission and FRP underestimation are found over Europe and South America, and result from SEVIRI's larger pixel area over these regions. An advantage of using FRP for characterising wildfire emissions is the ability to do so very frequently and in near real time (NRT. To illustrate the potential of this approach, wildfire fuel consumption rates derived from the SEVIRI FRP-PIXEL product are used to characterise smoke emissions of the 2007 Peloponnese wildfires within the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS, as a demonstration of what can be achieved when using geostationary active fire data within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS. Qualitative comparison of the modelled smoke plumes with MODIS optical imagery illustrates that the model captures the temporal and spatial dynamics of the plume very well, and that high temporal resolution emissions estimates such as those available from geostationary orbit are important for capturing the sub-daily variability in smoke plume parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD, which are increasingly less well resolved using daily or coarser temporal resolution emissions datasets. Quantitative comparison of modelled AOD with coincident MODIS and AERONET AOD indicates that the former is overestimated by ∼ 20–30%, but captures the observed AOD dynamics with a high degree of fidelity. The case study highlights the potential of using geostationary FRP data to drive fire emissions estimates for use within atmospheric transport models such as those currently implemented as part of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC programme within the CAMS.

  4. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP Products: Part 2 - Evaluation and demonstration of use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-06-01

    data, ranging from 35% over the Northern Africa region to 89% over the European region. High errors of active fire omission and FRP underestimation are found over Europe and South America, and result from SEVIRI's larger pixel area over these regions. An advantage of using FRP for characterising wildfire emissions is the ability to do so very frequently and in near real time (NRT). To illustrate the potential of this approach, wildfire fuel consumption rates derived from the SEVIRI FRP-PIXEL product are used to characterise smoke emissions of the 2007 Peloponnese wildfires within the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), as a demonstration of what can be achieved when using geostationary active fire data within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS). Qualitative comparison of the modelled smoke plumes with MODIS optical imagery illustrates that the model captures the temporal and spatial dynamics of the plume very well, and that high temporal resolution emissions estimates such as those available from geostationary orbit are important for capturing the sub-daily variability in smoke plume parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), which are increasingly less well resolved using daily or coarser temporal resolution emissions datasets. Quantitative comparison of modelled AOD with coincident MODIS and AERONET AOD indicates that the former is overestimated by ∼ 20-30%, but captures the observed AOD dynamics with a high degree of fidelity. The case study highlights the potential of using geostationary FRP data to drive fire emissions estimates for use within atmospheric transport models such as those currently implemented as part of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) programme within the CAMS.

  5. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP products - Part 2: Evaluation and demonstration for use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Jiangping, H.; Fisher, D.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    data, ranging from 35 % over the Northern Africa region to 89 % over the European region. High errors of active fire omission and FRP underestimation are found over Europe and South America and result from SEVIRI's larger pixel area over these regions. An advantage of using FRP for characterising wildfire emissions is the ability to do so very frequently and in near-real time (NRT). To illustrate the potential of this approach, wildfire fuel consumption rates derived from the SEVIRI FRP-PIXEL product are used to characterise smoke emissions of the 2007 "mega-fire" event focused on Peloponnese (Greece) and used within the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) as a demonstration of what can be achieved when using geostationary active fire data within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Qualitative comparison of the modelled smoke plumes with MODIS optical imagery illustrates that the model captures the temporal and spatial dynamics of the plume very well, and that high temporal resolution emissions estimates such as those available from a geostationary orbit are important for capturing the sub-daily variability in smoke plume parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), which are increasingly less well resolved using daily or coarser temporal resolution emissions data sets. Quantitative comparison of modelled AOD with coincident MODIS and AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) AOD indicates that the former is overestimated by ~ 20-30 %, but captures the observed AOD dynamics with a high degree of fidelity. The case study highlights the potential of using geostationary FRP data to drive fire emissions estimates for use within atmospheric transport models such as those implemented in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) series of projects for the CAMS.

  6. A 3-D evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the greater European region using CALIOP/CALIPSO satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Benedetti, Angela; Zanis, Prodromos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Significant amounts of dust are being transferred on an annual basis over the Mediterranean Basin and continental Europe from Northern Africa (Sahara Desert) and Middle East (Arabian Peninsula) as well as from other local sources. Dust affects a number of processes in the atmosphere modulating weather and climate also having an impact on human health and the economy. Therefore, the ability of simulating adequately the amount and optical properties of dust is essential. This work focuses on the evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the regions mentioned above. The evaluation procedure is based on pure dust satellite retrievals from CALIOP/CALIPSO that cover the period 2007-2012. The CALIOP/CALIPSO data utilized here come from an optimized retrieval scheme that was originally developed within the framework of the LIVAS (Lidar Climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for Space-Based LIDAR Simulation Studies) project. CALIOP/CALIPSO dust extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 532 nm are used for the validation of MACC natural aerosol extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 550 nm. Overall, it is shown in this work that space-based lidars may play a major role in the improvement of the MACC aerosol product. This research has been financed under the FP7 Programme MarcoPolo (Grand Number 606953, Theme SPA.2013.3.2-01).

  7. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bixler, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  8. 肿瘤转移的一个靶向治疗位点MACC1%A target site for the treatment of tumor meatastasis: MACC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志云; 白志刚; 张忠涛

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) is a recently discovered gene associated with colon cancer metastasis,there is significant relationship indicated from some studies between MACC1 and different malignant tumors.It may play an important role in the regulation of tumors metastasis.This article reviewed the expression and regulating function of MACC1 in different cancers including colorectal cancer,hepatic cancer,gastric cancer,lung cancer,ovarian cancer,breast cancer,and so on.It may offer clues to find a new target for target treatment of cancer metastasis.%结肠癌转移相关基因-1(MACC1)是新近发现的一个与结肠癌密切相关的基因,研究表明,MACC1与多种恶性肿瘤的转移和复发有密切的相关性,可能在肿瘤转移的共同通路中起着至关重要的调控作用.本研究就MACC1在结肠癌、肝癌、胃癌、肺癌、卵巢癌和乳腺癌等多种恶性肿瘤中的表达与功能调控等方面进行综述,以期为肿瘤转移调控的靶向治疗提供一个新的方向.

  9. 49 CFR 195.583 - What must I do to monitor atmospheric corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to monitor atmospheric corrosion... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.583 What must I do to monitor atmospheric corrosion control? (a) You must inspect each pipeline or portion of pipeline that...

  10. Atmospheric Monitoring at the Site of the MAGIC Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The MAGIC telescopes in La Palma, Canary Islands, measure the Cherenkov light emitted by gamma ray-induced extended air showers in the atmosphere. The good knowledge of the atmospheric parameters is important, both for the correct and safe operations of the telescopes, but also for subsequent data analysis. A weather station measures the state variables of the atmosphere, temperature, humidity and wind, an elastic Lidar system and an infrared pyrometer determine the optical transmission of the atmosphere. Using an AllSky camera, the cloud cover can be estimated. The measured values are completed by data from global atmospheric models based on numeric weather forecasts.

  11. Prognostic Value of MACC1 and c-met Expressions in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng HU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a new gene that is related to the invasion and metastasis of tumors. MACC1 also regulates c-met expression. The aim of this study is to explore the expressions of MACC1 and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-met, and its relationship with invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods MACC1 and c-met expressions were detected in 103 cases of NSCLC and 40 cases of neighboring normal lung cancer tissue using immunohistochemistry. Results MACC1 and c-met expressions were significantly higher in lung cancer tissues than that in neighboring normal tissue (P<0.001. MACC1 and c-met expressions were associated with poor differentiation, advanced T stages, lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stages (P<0.05 of NSCLC, but not with sex, age, smoking, and histological classification (P>0.05. In addition, a positive correlation between MACC1 and c-met expressions was observed (r=0.403, P<0.001. The result from the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the five-year survival rate in patients with positive MACC1 and c-met expressions was remarkanly lower than that in patients with negative expressions (P<0.05. The result from the Cox regression analysis showed that MACC1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC (P=0.026. Conclusion MACC1 and c-met have an important function in the differentiation, invasion, and metastasis of NSCLC. MACC1 and c-met have poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Moreover, MACC1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC.

  12. Estimation of the Radiological Consequences of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Min, Byung-Il; Park, Kihyun; Yang, Byung-Mo; Suh, Kyung-suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Three of them have undergone fuel melting and hydrogen explosions. A significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere from FDNPP and dispersed all over the world. In this study, we assessed the offsite consequences of Fukushima disaster in the region within a 30-km radius of FDNPP using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code Systems 2(MACCS2) code, which is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code. The reflection of the realistic regional characteristics, such as long-term meteorological data, site- and population-specific data, and radiation safety regulatory, is essential to accurately analyze the off-site consequences. The assessment that reflects regional characteristics would contribute to identify main causes of exposure doses and to find the effective countermeasures for minimizing the accidental off-site consequences.

  13. Application of the MACCS code to DOE production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; East, J.M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A three-level probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the special materials production reactor operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River site (SRS) has been completed. The goals of this analysis were to: (1) analyze existing margins of safety provided by the heavy water reactor (HWR) design challenged by postulated severe accidents; (2) compare measures of risk to the general public and on-site workers to guideline values, as well as to those posed by commercial reactor operation; and (3) develop the methodology and data base necessary to determine the equipment, human actions, and engineering systems that contribute significantly to ensuring overall plant safety. In particular, the third point provides the most tangible benefit of a PRA since the process yields a prioritized approach to increasing safety through design and operating practices. This paper describes key aspects of the consequence analysis portion of the SRS PRA: Given the radiological releases quantified through the level-2 PRA analysis, the consequences to the off-site general public and to the on-site SRS workforce are calculated. This analysis, the third level of the PRA, is conducted primarily with the MACCS 1.5 code. The level-3 PRA yields a probabilistic assessment of health and economic effects based on meteorological conditions sampled from site-specific data.

  14. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  15. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  16. MACC1基因siRNA对肺癌SBC-5细胞增殖和迁移的影响%Influence of MACC1 Gene expression on the proliferation and migration of SBC-5 lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑慧; 龙敏; 王希; 林芳; 张惠中

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨MACC1(metastasis-associated in colon cancer l)基因特异性siRNA(small interfering RNA)对肺癌细胞系SBC-5体外增殖和迁移的影响.方法:化学合成MACC1基因特异性siRNA,阳离子脂质体LipofectamineTM 2000转染肺癌细胞系SBC-5细胞,RT-PCR和Western blot方法检测转染后SBC-5细胞中MACC1基因和蛋白的表达情况;MTT法检测细胞的生长增殖状况;划痕试验观察细胞迁移能力的改变.结果:MACC1基因特异性siRNA转染细胞后,SBC-5细胞MACC1的mRNA和蛋白表达水平明显降低,MTT试验和划痕试验观察到转染MACC1-siRNA的SBC-5细胞增殖、迁移能力明显减弱.结论:MACC1基因特异性siRNA可以明显抑制肺癌SBC-5细胞增殖和迁移,MACC1可能成为肺癌治疗的新靶点.%Objective: To investigate the influence of siRNA targeting metastasis - associated in colon cancer Ⅰ ( MACC1 ) gene on proliferation and migration of human lung cancer cell line SBC - 5 in vitro. Methods : The siRNA targeting MACC1 gene and negative control siRNA were chemically synthesized, and were then transiently transfected into human lung cancer cell line SBC - 5 hy LipofectamineTM 2000. Expression of MACC1 mRNA and protein in siRNA transfected cells were examined by RT - PCR and Western blotting analysis. Proliferation and migration of siRNA transfected SBC - 5 cells were examined by MTT and Wound healing assay. Results : Transfection of specific siRNA targeting MACC1 into SBC - 5 cells inhihited MACC1 gene expression and both mRNA and protein expression levels declined markedly. siRNA transfected SBC - 5 cells showed decreased ability of proliferation and migration. Conclusion : The specific siRNA targeting MACC1 gene can significantly inhibit proliferation and migration of SBC - 5 cells, MACC1 may serve as a potential target for gene therapy of lung cancer.

  17. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Rui; Su, Yuqi; Sun, Li; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, has been associated with poor survival of cancer patients by multiple studies. However, the prognostic value of MACC1 in digestive system neoplasms needs systematic evidence to verify. Therefore, we aimed to provide further evidence on this topic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was conducted in multiple databases and eligible studies analyzing survival data and MACC1 expression were included for meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) for clinical outcome was chosen as an effect measure of interest. According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system neoplasms (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.49-2.53) as well as poorer relapse-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33-2.82). The results of subgroup studies categorized by methodology, anatomic structure, and cancer subtype for pooled OS were all consistent with the overall pooled HR for OS as well. No publication bias was detected according to test of funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. In conclusion, high MACC1 expression may serve as a prognostic biomarker to guide individualized management in clinical practice for digestive system neoplasms.

  18. Methods of InSAR atmosphere correction for volcano activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F.; Webley, P.W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    When a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal propagates through the atmosphere on its path to and from the sensor, it is inevitably affected by atmospheric effects. In particular, the applicability and accuracy of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques for volcano monitoring is limited by atmospheric path delays. Therefore, atmospheric correction of interferograms is required to improve the performance of InSAR for detecting volcanic activity, especially in order to advance its ability to detect subtle pre-eruptive changes in deformation dynamics. In this paper, we focus on InSAR tropospheric mitigation methods and their performance in volcano deformation monitoring. Our study areas include Okmok volcano and Unimak Island located in the eastern Aleutians, AK. We explore two methods to mitigate atmospheric artifacts, namely the numerical weather model simulation and the atmospheric filtering using Persistent Scatterer processing. We investigate the capability of the proposed methods, and investigate their limitations and advantages when applied to determine volcanic processes. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  19. Strategy Implementation for the CTA Atmospheric Monitoring Program

    CERN Document Server

    Doro, M; Reyes, R de los; Gaug, M; Maccarone, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation facility of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. It will reach unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA will detect Cherenkov light emitted within an atmospheric shower of particles initiated by cosmic-gamma rays or cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the combination of images the Cherenkov light produces in the telescopes, one is able to infer the primary particle energy and direction. A correct energy estimation can be thus performed only if the local atmosphere is well characterized. The atmosphere not only affects the shower development itself, but also the Cherenkov photon transmission from the emission point in the particle shower, at about 10-20 km above the ground, to the detector. Cherenkov light on the ground is peaked in the UV-blue region, and therefore molecular and aerosol extinction phenomena are important. The goal of CTA is to control systematics in energy reconstr...

  20. Establishment of Infrastructure for Domestic-Specific Level 3 PSA based on MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung-Cheol; Han, Seok-Jung; Choi, Sun-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wan-Seob [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Research activities related to the Level 3 PSA have naturally disappeared since the use of risk surrogates. Recently, Level 3 PSA was only performed to the extent of the purpose of operating license for the plant under construction. Since the Fukushima accident, concern about a comprehensive site-specific Level 3 PSA has been raised for some compelling reasons, especially the evaluation of the domestic multi-unit site risk effect including other site radiological sources (e.g., spent fuel pool, multi-units). Unfortunately, there are no domestic-specific consequence analysis code and input database required to perform a site-specific Level 3 PSA. The paper focuses on the development of the input data management system for domestic-specific Level 3 PSA based MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System). The authors call it KOSCA-MACCS2 (Korea Off-Site Consequence Analysis based in MACCS2). It serves as an integrated platform for a domestic-specific Level 3 PSA. Also, it provides the pre-processing modules to automatically generate MACCS2 input from diverse types of the domestic-specific data including numerical map data, e.g., meteorological data, numerical population map, digital land use map, economic statistics and so on. Note that some functions should be still developed and added on it, e.g., post-processing module to convert MACCS2 outputs to graphic report forms, and so on. Henceforth, it is necessary to develop a Korean-specific Level 3 PSA code as a substitution for the foreign software, MACCS2.

  1. Mg/O2 Battery Based on the Magnesium-Aluminum Chloride Complex (MACC) Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardar, Galin; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Thomson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Mg/O2 cells employing a MgCl2/AlCl3/DME (MACC/DME) electrolyte are cycled and compared to cells with modified Grignard electrolytes, showing that performance of magnesium/oxygen batteries depends strongly on electrolyte composition. Discharge capacity is far greater for MACC/DME-based cells, while...... substantially and likely explains the poor rechargeability. An additional impedance rise consistent with film formation on the Mg negative electrode suggests the presence of detrimental O2 crossover. Minimizing O2 crossover and bypassing charge transfer through the discharge product would improve battery...

  2. Characterization of Atmospheric Infrasound for Improved Weather Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP) is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. A primary objective for this project is to create and demonstrate UAS capabilities needed to support UAS operating in extreme conditions, such as a tornado producing storm system. These storm systems emit infrasound (acoustic signals below human hearing, resources to high-decision-value-information. To achieve this the infrasonic signals with and without severe storms must be understood. This presentation will report findings from the first CLOUD MAP field demonstration, which acquired infrasonic signals while simultaneously sampling the atmosphere with UAS. Infrasonic spectra will be shown from a typical calm day, a continuous source (pulsed gas-combustion torch), singular events, and UAS flights as well as localization results from a controlled source and multiple microphones. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070: CLOUD MAP - Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.

  3. 49 CFR 192.481 - Atmospheric corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... calendar years, but with intervals not exceeding 39 months Offshore At least once each calendar year, but... attention to pipe at soil-to-air interfaces, under thermal insulation, under disbonded coatings, at pipe supports, in splash zones, at deck penetrations, and in spans over water. (c) If atmospheric corrosion...

  4. Targeting MACC1 by RNA interference inhibits proliferation and invasion of bladder urothelial carcinoma in T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Tao; Ding, Xiang; Ni, Qing-Feng; Jin, Shao-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to research on whether MACC1 can serve as a potential target for gene therapy of human bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC). In this study, the expression of MACC1 gene was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in the T24 cell (human BUC cell). The transcription level of MACC1 was detected by RT-PCR. Activities of MACC1, caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax and Met (mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor) protein were measured by Western blot. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry. The cell's invasion ability was performed on Matrigel transwell assay. We also detect MMP2 (metalloproteinase-2) proteins by ELISA. The results showed that the level of MACC1 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced after RNAi. MTT assay showed that the proliferation of T24 cell was decreased due to RNA interference. Apoptosis studies also showed that MACC1 gene interference in T24 loses its anti-apoptotic effects. The expression of apoptosis proteins (Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Bax) increased significantly due to the MACC1 RNAi. The level of Met protein was down-regulated obviously due to RNAi. Transwell assay showed that invasion abilities of T24 cells were reduced obviously due to MACC1 RNAi. Further studies showed that the secretion of MMP-2 was reduced by RNAi. It can conclude that the ability of proliferation and invasion in T24 cells can be inhibited by RNAi-targeting MACC1. As a result, MACC1 can serve as a potential target for gene therapy of human bladder urothelial carcinoma.

  5. Deconvolution of magnetic acoustic change complex (mACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Fabrice; McMahon, Catherine M; Yau, Shu Hui; Johnson, Blake W

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to design a novel experimental approach to investigate the morphological characteristics of auditory cortical responses elicited by rapidly changing synthesized speech sounds. Six sound-evoked magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses were measured to a synthesized train of speech sounds using the vowels /e/ and /u/ in 17 normal hearing young adults. Responses were measured to: (i) the onset of the speech train, (ii) an F0 increment; (iii) an F0 decrement; (iv) an F2 decrement; (v) an F2 increment; and (vi) the offset of the speech train using short (jittered around 135ms) and long (1500ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). The least squares (LS) deconvolution technique was used to disentangle the overlapping MEG responses in the short SOA condition only. Comparison between the morphology of the recovered cortical responses in the short and long SOAs conditions showed high similarity, suggesting that the LS deconvolution technique was successful in disentangling the MEG waveforms. Waveform latencies and amplitudes were different for the two SOAs conditions and were influenced by the spectro-temporal properties of the sound sequence. The magnetic acoustic change complex (mACC) for the short SOA condition showed significantly lower amplitudes and shorter latencies compared to the long SOA condition. The F0 transition showed a larger reduction in amplitude from long to short SOA compared to the F2 transition. Lateralization of the cortical responses were observed under some stimulus conditions and appeared to be associated with the spectro-temporal properties of the acoustic stimulus. The LS deconvolution technique provides a new tool to study the properties of the auditory cortical response to rapidly changing sound stimuli. The presence of the cortical auditory evoked responses for rapid transition of synthesized speech stimuli suggests that the temporal code is preserved at the level of the auditory cortex. Further, the reduced amplitudes

  6. 30 CFR 75.351 - Atmospheric monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the center in the upper third of the entry, in a location that does not expose personnel working on.... (e) Location of sensors-belt air course. (1) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, any AMS used to monitor belt air courses under § 75.350(b) must have approved sensors to...

  7. Asbestos real-time monitor in an atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, N; Hashiguchi, K; Ito, S; Itabe, T

    1997-12-20

    The concentration of asbestos fiber aerosols can be monitored by measuring the polarization of laser light scattered by asbestos fibers. The principle of discriminating asbestos fibers is based on the theoretically expected difference in polarization at a scattering angle of 170 deg between cylindrical and spherical airborne particles; polarization at this scattering angle should be positive for cylindrical particles such as asbestos fibers but should be negative or close to zero for spherical mineral particles. We constructed an experimental asbestos real-time monitor that uses a strong electric field to align the airborne particles, that uses lasers having linear polarization with an equal amplitude in parallel and perpendicular components to the aligned long axis of particles, and that simultaneously detects the two components of the linear polarization of light scattered at 170 deg, i.e., close to the backscatter. Experiments that were performed to detect the light scattered from airborne standard asbestos fibers showed that the measured polarization fits theoretical prediction. The concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers obtained by the asbestos real-time monitor were consistent with those estimated by the standard phase contrast microscope method.

  8. AtmoHEAD 2013 workshop / Atmospheric Monitoring for High-Energy Astroparticle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernlöhr, K; Blanch, O; Bourgeat, M; Bruno, P; Buscemi, M; Cassardo, C; Chadwick, P M; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chouza, F; Cilmo, M; Coco, M; Colombi, J; Compin, M; Daniel, M K; Reyes, R De Los; Ebr, J; D'Elia, R; Deil, C; Etchegoyen, A; Doro, M; Ferrarese, S; Fiorini, M; Font, LL; Garrido, D; Gast, H; Gaug, M; Gonzales, F; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Hahn, J; Hrabovsky, M; Kosack, K; Krüger, P; La Rosa, G; Leto, G; Lo, Y T E; López-Oramas, A; Louedec, K; Maccarone, M C; Mandat, D; Marandon, V; Martinetti, E; Martinez, M; de Naurois, M; Neronov, A; Nolan, S J; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Pech, M; Puhlhofer, G; Prouza, M; Quel, E; Raul, D; Ristori, P; Frias, M D Rodriguez; Rivoire, S; Rulten, C B; Schovanek, P; Segreto, A; Sottile, G; Stringhetti, L; Tavernet, J -P; Tonachini, A S; Toscano, S; Travnicek, P; Valore, L; Vasileiadis, G; Vincent, S; Wada, S; Wiencke, L; Will, M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-day international workshop on atmospheric monitoring and calibration for high-energy astroparticle detectors, with a view towards next-generation facilities. The atmosphere is an integral component of many high-energy astroparticle detectors. Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes and cosmic-ray extensive air shower detectors are the two instruments driving the rapidly evolving fields of very-high- and ultra-high-energy astrophysics. In these instruments, the atmosphere is used as a giant calorimeter where cosmic rays and gamma rays deposit their energy and initiate EASs; it is also the medium through which the resulting Cherenkov light propagates. Uncertainties in real-time atmospheric conditions and in the fixed atmospheric models typically dominate all other systematic errors. With the improved sensitivity of upgraded IACTs such as H.E.S.S.-II and MAGIC-II and future facilities like the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and JEM-EUSO, statistical uncertainties are expected to be significantly reduced, l...

  9. Over-expression of Metastasis-associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1)Associates with Better Prognosis of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua Ge; Jia-fu Ji; Xiao-jiang Wu; Xiao-hong Wang; Xiao-fang Xing; Lian-hai Zhang; Yu-bing Zhu; Hong Du; Bin Dong; Ying Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in Chinese gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between MACC1 expression and postoperative survival. Methods: The expression of MACC1 and c-MET protein in a sample of 128 gastric cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and data were collected from medical records. Results: The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression in gastric cancer was 47.66%, higher than that in adjacent noncancerous mucosa (P<0.001). MACC1 protein expression was not related to the clinicopathological variables involved. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival of MACC1 positive group tended to be better than that of MACC1 negative group, particularly in patients with stage Ⅲ carcinoma (P=0.032). Cox regression analysis revealed that MACC1 protein over-expression in gastric cancer tended to be a protective factor with hazard ratio of 0.621 (P=0.057). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive rate of c-MET protein expression was much higher in cases with positive MACC1 expression in gastric cancer (P=0.002), but P53 expression was not associated with MACC1 expression. Conclusion: MACC1 over-expression implies better survival and may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in Chinese patients.

  10. Prognostic significance of metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 expression in patients with gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1, in human gallbladder cancer, is not yet established. This study was performed to assess the expression of MACC1 in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions, and to assess its clinicopathological significance. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from resected gallbladder cancer (n = 70 and cholelithiasis (n = 70 were evaluated for MACC1 expression by immunohistochemical staining. Their expression was correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. Results: Cytoplasmic MACC1 expression was significantly higher (58.6% in gallbladder cancer than in chronic cholecystitis (27.1%, P 0.05. The univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a positive MACC1 expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P < 0.001. The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that MACC1 expression and the histopathological subtypes were independent risk factors for disease-free survival. Conclusion: The expression of MACC1 might be closely related to carcinogenesis, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

  11. Does geographical variability influence five-year MACCE rates in the multicentre SYNTAX revascularisation trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; Chevalier, Bernard; Lefèvre, Thierry; Louvard, Yves; Segurado, Ricardo; Sawaya, Fadi; Spaziano, Marco; Neylon, Antoinette; Serruys, Patrick A; Dawkins, Keith D; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Colombo, Antonio; Feldman, Ted; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-20

    The use of multiple geographical sites for randomised cardiovascular trials may lead to important heterogeneity in treatment effects. This study aimed to determine whether treatment effects from different geographical recruitment regions impacted significantly on five-year MACCE rates in the SYNTAX trial. Five-year SYNTAX results (n=1,800) were analysed for geographical variability by site and country for the effect of treatment (CABG vs. PCI) on MACCE rates. Fixed, random, and linear mixed models were used to test clinical covariate effects, such as diabetes, lesion characteristics, and procedural factors. Comparing five-year MACCE rates, the pooled odds ratio (OR) between study sites was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), and countries 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45-0.73). By homogeneity testing, no individual site (X2=93.8, p=0.051) or country differences (X2=25.7, p=0.080) were observed. For random effects models, the intraclass correlation was minimal (ICC site=5.1%, ICC country=1.5%, pfive-year MACCE outcomes (ICC 1.3%-5.2%), nor did revascularisation of the left main vs. three-vessel disease (p=0.241), across site or country subgroups. For CABG patients, the number of arterial (p=0.49) or venous (p=0.38) conduits used also made no difference. Geographic variability has no significant treatment effect on MACCE rates at five years. These findings highlight the generalisability of the five-year outcomes of the SYNTAX study.

  12. Development of a space-borne spectrometer to monitor atmospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrolenskiy, Yury S; Ionov, Dmitry V; Korablev, Oleg I; Fedorova, Anna A; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Shatalov, Andrey E; Mantsevich, Sergey N; Belyaev, Denis A; Vyazovetskiy, Nikita A; Moiseev, Pavel P; Tchikov, Konstantin N; Krasavtsev, Valery M; Savushkin, Alexander V; Rumyantsev, Dmitry M; Kananykhin, Igor V; Viktorov, Alexey I; Kozyura, Alexey V; Moryakin, Sergey A; Poberovskii, Anatoly V

    2015-04-10

    A new compact satellite spectrometer dedicated to monitoring terrestrial atmospheric ozone (ozonometer) is in preparation for the Russian Geophysics Program. Four instruments at four satellites (Ionosphere) are intended to monitor the total ozone content by measuring spectra of scattered solar radiation in nadir. The spectrometer is based on the Rowland scheme with a concave holographic diffraction grating. It covers the near UV and visible range of the spectrum, 300-500 nm, with a spectral resolution of ∼0.3  nm. At present, a qualification model has been manufactured and tested. We introduce the description of the instrument and the results of laboratory and ground-based atmospheric calibrations. The ozone amount retrieved from atmospheric measurements using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is in good agreement with that measured by the collocated Brewer spectrophotometer and ozone monitoring instrument on board the Aura satellite.

  13. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtained from intensive monitoring programmes conducted at a number of sites in northwestern Europe and North-America. Specific hypotheses were tested in laboratory experiments.Atmospheric acid inputs do...

  14. Wmo's activities on background atmospheric pollution and integrated monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, A

    1988-01-01

    As early as 1968, WMO decided to start a programme on atmospheric pollution. Consequently, a Panel of Experts on Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution was established. It was also decided to operate a network of background air pollution monitoring stations. With increasing public concern on environmental pollution impacts, a growing number of WMO Members joined the programme. The Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Programme, as well as the World Climate Programme launched in the late seventies, will provide information on a possible influence of pollution on climate.When the network of background ait pollution monitoring started, some Members had already proposed to carry out multimedia monitoring at suitable stations. Later on, it became obvious that more information is required on levels and trends of pollutants in media interacting with the atmosphere and a project on integrated monitoring was established, the purpose of which is to define the objectives and uses of integrated monitoring and to establish procedures for routine standardized integrated monitoring of the of the environment.Pilot projects presently being carried out in a few Member countries are meant to provide most of the information required for the implementation of global background integrated environmental monitorting.

  15. The effects of springtime mid-latitude storms on trace gas composition determined from the MACC reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Knowland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between springtime air pollution transport of ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO and mid-latitude cyclones is explored for the first time using the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC reanalysis for the period 2003–2012. In this study, the most intense spring storms (95th percentile are selected for two regions, the North Pacific (NP and the North Atlantic (NA. These storms (~60 storms over each region often track over the major emission sources of East Asia and eastern North America. By compositing the storms, the distributions of O3 and CO within a "typical" intense storm are examined. We compare the storm-centered composite to background composites of "average conditions" created by sampling the reanalysis data of the previous year to the storm locations. Mid-latitude storms are found to redistribute concentrations of O3 and CO horizontally and vertically throughout the storm. This is clearly shown to occur through two main mechanisms: (1 vertical lifting of CO-rich and O3-poor air isentropically from near the surface to the mid- to upper-troposphere in the region of the warm conveyor belt; and (2 descent of O3-rich and CO-poor air isentropically in the vicinity of the dry intrusion, from the stratosphere toward the mid-troposphere. This can be seen in the composite storm's life cycle as the storm intensifies, with area-averaged O3 (CO increasing (decreasing between 200 and 500 hPa. At the time of maximum intensity, area-averaged O3 around the storm center at 300 hPa is enhanced by 50 and 36% for the NP and NA regions respectively, compared to the background, and by 11 and 7.6% at 500 hPa. In contrast, area-averaged CO at 300 hPa decreases by 12% for NP and 5.5% for NA, and at 500 hPa area-averaged CO decreases by 2.4% for NP while there is little change over the NA region at 500 hPa. From the mid-troposphere, O3-rich air is clearly seen to be transported toward the surface but the downward transport of CO

  16. Using Unmanned Air Systems to Monitor Methane in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Jacqueline; Smith, Jeremy Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Methane is likely to be an important contributor to global warming, and our current knowledge of its sources, distributions, and transport is insufficient. It is estimated that there could be from 7.5 to 400 billion tons carbon-equivalent of methane in the arctic region, a broad range that is indicative of the uncertainty within the Earth Science community. Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) are often used for combat or surveillance by the military, but they also have been used for Earth Science field missions. In this study, we will analyze the utility of the NASA Global Hawk and the Aurora Flight Sciences Orion UASs compared to the manned DC-8 aircraft for conducting a methane monitoring mission. The mission will focus on the measurement of methane along the boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. The use of Long Endurance UAS brings a new range of possibilities including the ability to obtain long- term and persistent observations and to significantly augment methane measurements/retrievals collected by satellite. Furthermore, we discuss the future of long endurance UAS and their potential for science applications in the next twenty to twenty-five years.

  17. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendby, T.M.; Myhre, C.L.; Stebel, K.; Edvardsen, K; Orsolini, Y.; Dahlback, A.

    2012-07-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme: Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation for 2011. 2011 was a year with generally low ozone values above Norway. A clear decrease in the ozone layer above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway seems now to have stabilized.(Author)

  18. SNPs in the coding region of the metastasis-inducing gene MACC1 and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Felicitas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the main cancers in the Western world. About 90% of the deaths arise from formation of distant metastasis. The expression of the newly identified gene metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a prognostic indicator for colon cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed for the first time the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of MACC1 for clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, we screened met proto-oncogene (Met, the transcriptional target gene of MACC1, for mutations. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of MACC1 in 154 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III and the crucial exons of Met in 60 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III. We analyzed the association of MACC1 polymorphisms with clinical data, including metachronous metastasis, UICC stages, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and patients’ survival (n = 154, stages I, II and III. Furthermore, we performed biological assays in order to evaluate the functional impact of MACC1 SNPs on the motility of colorectal cancer cells. Results We genotyped three MACC1 SNPs in the coding region. Thirteen % of the tumors had the genotype cg (rs4721888, L31V, 48% a ct genotype (rs975263, S515L and 84% a gc or cc genotype (rs3735615, R804T. We found no association of these SNPs with clinicopathological parameters or with patients’ survival, when analyzing the entire patients’ cohort. An increased risk for a shorter metastasis-free survival of patients with a ct genotype (rs975263 was observed in younger colon cancer patients with stage I or II (P = 0.041, n = 18. In cell culture, MACC1 SNPs did not affect MACC1-induced cell motility and proliferation. Conclusion In summary, the identification of coding MACC1 SNPs in primary colorectal tumors does not improve the prediction for metastasis formation or for patients’ survival compared to MACC1 expression analysis alone. The ct genotype (rs

  19. Interweaving monitoring activities and model development towards enhancing knowledge of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, N.; Angulo-Jaramillo, M.; Javaux, M.; Ploeg, van der M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The guest editors summarize the advances and challenges associated with monitoring and modeling of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. They introduce the contributions in the special section, with an emphasis on the scale addressed in each study. The study of water pathways from the soil to the

  20. Interweaving monitoring activities and model development towards enhancing knowledge of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, N.; Angulo-Jaramillo, M.; Javaux, M.; Ploeg, van der M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The guest editors summarize the advances and challenges associated with monitoring and modeling of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. They introduce the contributions in the special section, with an emphasis on the scale addressed in each study. The study of water pathways from the soil to the atm

  1. Strategies to monitor non-homogeneous atmospheres in sealed off panels in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hardman, DR

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available to thank SIMRAC for the opportunity to undertake this research, which could not have proceeded without their financial support of project COL 602. The section on current practice in Europe and North America was contributed by Dr D P Creedy. In doing... of international practice 7 2.1 Monitoring of atmospheres in inaccessible areas of 8 coal mines - practices in Europe and North America 2.1.1 Introduction 8 2.1.2 Monitoring techniques 9 2.1.3 Monitoring...

  2. Estimation of Intervention Distances for Urgent Protective Actions Using Comparative Approach of MACCS and InterRAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzammal Hussain; Salah Ud-Din Khan; Waqar A. Adil Syed; Shahab Ud-Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Distances for taking evacuation as a protective measure during early phase of a nuclear accident have been approximated using MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). As a reference data, the source term of Pakistan Research Reactor 1 (PARR-1) and meteorological data of Islamabad, Pakistan, have been considered. Based on comparison with published data and international radiological assessment (InterRAS) code results, it is concluded that MACCS is a rational tool for estimation of urge...

  3. Monitoring of the terrestrial atmospheric characteristics with using of stellar and solar photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseeva, G A; Leiterer, U; Naebert, T; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of experience acquired at creation of the Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog the method of investigation of a terrestrial atmospheric components (aerosols and water vapor) in night time are designed. For these purposes the small-sized photometers were created. Carried out in 1995-1999{\\Gamma}.{\\Gamma}. series of night and daily monitoring of the atmospheric condition in Pulkovo, in MGO by A.I.Voejkov., in Germany (complex experiments LITFASS 98 and LACE 98) confirmed suitability of devices, techniques of observations and their reduction designed in Pulkovo Observatory for the solution of geophysical and ecological problems. A final aim of this work - creation of small-sized automatic complexes (telescope + photometer), which would be rightful component of meteorological observatories. Such complexes will work without the help of the observer and would provide the daily monitoring of a terrestrial atmosphere.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing Atmospheric Compositions and their Application in Air Quality Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Bai, W. G.; Wang, W. H.; Huang, F. X.; Li, X. J.; Sun, L.; Wang, G.; Qi, J.; Qiu, H.; Zhang, Y.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements related to atmospheric compositions remote sensing from the bilateral cooperation under the framework of MOST-ESA Dragon Programme. The algorithms to retrieve Aerosol, ozone amount and profile, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO2, etc. have been developed since 2004. Such algorithms are used to process FY-3 series (Chinese second generation polar orbit satellites) observation and ground based FTIR observation. The results are validated with in-situ measurements. Aerosol, total ozone amount shows the very good consistent with the ground measurements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the important atmospheric compositions, such as aerosol, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO etc., have been analysed from satellite derived products. These works demonstrate the satellite’s capacity on atmospheric composition monitoring, as well as the possible application in the air quality monitoring and climate change research.

  5. ECMWF MACC-II evaluation of performances with MPLNET Lidar network at NASA Goddard Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Benedetti, Angela; Lewis, Jasper

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol vertical distribution is a critical parameter for most of the common aerosol forecast models. In this study are evaluated the performances of the MACC-II ECMWF aerosol model in forecasting aerosol extinction profiles and planetary boundary layer height versus the new V3 measured MPLNET Lidar extinction retrievals taken as reference at continuous operational site Goddard Space Flight Center, MD, USA. The model is evaluated at different assimilation stages: no assimilation, MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) assimilation and MODIS AOD plus lidar CALIPSO assimilation. The sensitivity study of the model is also investigated respect to the assimilation process..Assessing the model performances it is the first step for future near-real time lidar data assimilation into MACC-II aerosol model forecast.

  6. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  7. Evaluation of the ability of the MACC-II Reanalysis to reproduce the distribution of O3 and CO in the UTLS as measured by MOZAIC-IAGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, A.; Clark, H.; Thouret, V.; Eskes, H.; Huijnen, V.; Nedelec, P.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is probably one of the most important trace gases in the atmosphere. It plays a major role in the chemistry of the troposphere by exerting a strong influence on the concentrations of oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH) and is the third greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Its radiative impact is of particular importance in the Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS), the most critical region regarding the climate change. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is one of the major ozone precursors (originating from all types of combustion) in the troposphere. In the UTLS, it also has implications for stratospheric chemistry and indirect radiative forcing effects (as a chemical precursor of CO2 and O3). Assessing the global distribution (and possibly trends) of O3 and CO in this region of the atmosphere, combining high resolution in situ data and the most appropriate global 3D model to further quantify the different sources and their origins is then of particular interest. This is one of the objectives of the MOZAIC-IAGOS (http://www.iagos.fr) and MACC-II (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu) European programs. The aircraft of the MOZAIC program have collected simultaneously O3 and CO data regularly all over the world since the end of 2001. Most of the data are recorded in northern mid-latitudes, in the UTLS region (as commercial aircraft cruise altitude is between 9 and 12 km). MACC-II aims at providing information services covering air quality, climate forcing and stratospheric ozone, UV radiation and solar-energy resources, using near real time analysis and forecasting products, and reanalysis. The validation reports of the MACC models are regularly published (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/gac/nrt/ and http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/gac/reanalysis/). We will present and discuss the performance of the MACC-reanalysis, including the ECMWF-Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) coupled to the CTM MOZART with 4DVAR data assimilation, to

  8. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  9. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  10. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Svendby, Tove Marit; Edvardsen, Kåre; Hansen, Georg Heinrich; Stebel, Kerstin; Dahlback, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme “Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation” for 2014. The ozone layer was below the long-term mean in spring 2014, but increased in April/May and was close to normal rest of the year. A clear decrease in total ozone above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway now seems to have stabilized.

  11. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...... exhibit a ‘random walk’ process. The embedded parameters of the Kalman filter are determined through maximum-likelihood estimation making the filter essentially free of external parameters. The method is tested using both real and simulated radiation monitoring data. For simulated data, the method...

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    ER (Electrical Resistance) probes provide a measurement of metal loss, measured at any time when a metal is exposed to the real environment. The precise electrical resistance monitoring system can evaluate the corrosion to the level of nanometers, if the conductivity is compensated for temperature...... for the automotive industry, off-shore construction or component and devices used in harsh industrial environments. The ER monitoring makes it possible to study the corrosion rate on-line in remote locations as a function of temperature, relative humidity and changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Different...

  13. Atmospheric tracer monitoring and surface plume development at the ZERT pilot test in Bozeman, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Rodney Diehl, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A controlled release of CO2 was conducted at a field site in Bozeman, Montana, USA in July of 2008 in a multi-laboratory study of near surface transport and detection technologies. The development of a subsurface CO2 plume near the middle packer section of the horizontal release was studied using soil-gas and surface flux measurements of CO2. A perfluorocarbon tracer was added to the CO2 released from this section of the horizontal well, and the development of atmospheric plumes of the tracer was studied under various meteorological conditions using horizontal and vertical grids of monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using remote sensing for the ultra low level detection of atmospheric plumes of tracers as means to monitor the near surface leakage of sequestered CO2.

  14. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  15. A twin-type airflow pulse ionization chamber for continuous alpha-radioactivity monitoring in atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, Wataru, E-mail: kada@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dwaikat, Nidal; Datemichi, Jun; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A simple and inexpensive twin-type airflow pulse ionization chamber was developed for the continuous monitoring of alpha-radioactivity in atmosphere under high humidity condition. The symmetrical structure of the twin-type ionization chamber was effective in the improvement of the ratio of signal to noise in the measurement of pulses induced by alpha-rays. Outdoor alpha-ray measurement was well performed with this ionization chamber by applying sufficiently high bias voltage to the electrodes, except for at very high humidity conditions. It was confirmed that the declination of the counting efficiency due to wetting was easily recovered by the dry-up of the inside of the chamber. Alpha-radioactivity from radon and other alpha-emitting radionuclide in atmosphere was satisfactorily monitored by the detector.

  16. Modelling of anthropogenic pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere and applications to civil protection monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A basic feature of fluid mechanics concerns the frictionless phase-space dynamics of particles in an incompressible fluid. The issue, besides its theoretical interest in turbulence theory, is important in many applications, such as the pollutant dynamics in the atmosphere, a problem relevant for civil protection monitoring of air quality. Actually, both the numerical simulation of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) portion of the atmosphere and that of pollutant dynamics may generally require the correct definition of the Lagrangian dynamics which characterizes arbitrary fluid elements of incompressible thermofluids. We claim that particularly important for applications would be to consider these trajectories as phase-space trajectories. This involves, however, the unfolding of a fundamental theoretical problem up to now substantially unsolved: {\\it namely the determination of the exact frictionless dynamics of tracer particles in an incompressible fluid, treated either as a deterministic or a turbulent (i....

  17. The Atmospheric Monitoring System of the JEM-EUSO Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Frias, M D Rodriguez; Bozzo, E; del Peral, L; Neronov, A; Wada, S

    2015-01-01

    An Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) is a mandatory and key device of a space-based mission which aims to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and Extremely-High Energy Cosmic Rays (EHECR) from Space. JEM-EUSO has a dedicated atmospheric monitoring system that plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. Our AMS consists of a very challenging space infrared camera and a LIDAR device, that are being fully designed with space qualification to fulfil the scientific requirements of this space mission. The AMS will provide information of the cloud cover in the FoV of JEM-EUSO, as well as measurements of the cloud top altitudes with an accuracy of 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere transmittance in the direction of each air shower with an accuracy of 0.15 degree and a resolution of 500 m. This will ensure that the energy of the primary UHECR and the depth of maximum development of the EAS ( Extensive Air Shower)...

  18. The Atmospheric Monitoring System of the JEM-EUSO space mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremonini R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS is mandatory and a key element of a space-based mission which aims to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR. JEM-EUSO has a dedicated atmospheric monitoring system that plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV of the telescope. Our AMS consists of an infrared camera and a LIDAR device that are being fully designed with space qualification to fulfil the scientific requirements of this space mission. This AMS will provide information of the cloud cover in the FoV of JEM-EUSO, as well as measurements of the cloud top altitudes with an accuracy of 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere transmittance in the direction of each air shower with an accuracy of 0.15 degree and a resolution of 500 m. This will ensure that the energy of the primary UHECR and the depth of maximum development of the EAS (Extensive Air Shower are measured with an accuracy better than 30% and 120 g/cm2, for EAS occurring either in the clear sky or with the EAS depth of maximum development above optically thick cloud layers. Moreover novel stereoscopic and radiometric retrieval techniques are under development to infer the Cloud Top Height (CTH from the brightness temperature patterns obtained from the infrared camera.

  19. Atmospheric Ammonia and Particulate Inorganic Nitrogen Monitoring in the United States - A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to emission by disproportionately high livestock numbers and increased nitrogen fertilization, Ammonia (NH3) has come to play an increasingly important role in the global biogeochemical cycle of reactive nitrogen as well as in secondary aerosol formation and climate. Because of the public health problems it causes and the effects on the atmosphere, monitoring the global distribution of NH3 sources becomes crucial. Accurate measurements of atmospheric NH3 via ground level sensors and satellites are fundamentally essential for meteorological forecasting, hazard warning and various other applications. Since the NH3 retrieval quality is affected by meteorological properties, such as the vertical temperature, water vapor profiles, surface temperatures, and emissivity, which are used to model the atmosphere, even though satellite systems has the capability of monitoring environmental variables with high temporal and spatial coverages, they lack precision at or near ground level. Due to cost of implementation and technical maintenance constraints, daily global coverage of accurate NH3 in situ measurements from ground based sensors is also often limited in spatial representation. In research related to climate and atmospheric physics, the advances in sensor technology have led to the use of automated sensors in a variety of climate and atmospheric data analysis applications. The extant research is expanding further but lacks a framework to consider the current and future trends, gaps, challenges and opportunities. This research will attempt to provide insight into key capabilities of the current and potential future approaches and will present a framework to better understand NH3 research with the use of in - situ as well as remote sensors in detecting NH3 in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  1. GLANCE - calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Leif; Faria, Sérgio; Markandya, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Current annual global estimates of premature deaths from poor air quality are estimated in the range of 2.6-4.4 million, and 2050 projections are expected to double against 2010 levels. In Europe, annual economic burdens are estimated at around 750 bn €. Climate change will further exacerbate air pollution burdens; therefore, a better understanding of the economic impacts on human societies has become an area of intense investigation. European research efforts are being carried out within the MACC project series, which started in 2005. The outcome of this work has been integrated into a European capacity for Earth Observation, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In MACC/CAMS, key pollutant concentrations are computed at the European scale and globally by employing chemically-driven advanced transport models. The project GLANCE (calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE) aims at developing an integrated assessment model for calculating the health impacts and damage costs of air pollution at different physical scales. It combines MACC/CAMS (assimilated Earth Observations, an ensemble of chemical transport models and state of the art ECWMF weather forecasting) with downscaling based on in-situ network measurements. The strengthening of modelled projections through integration with empirical evidence reduces errors and uncertainties in the health impact projections and subsequent economic cost assessment. In addition, GLANCE will yield improved data accuracy at different time resolutions. This project is a multidisciplinary approach which brings together expertise from natural sciences and socio economic fields. Here, its general approach will be presented together with first results for the years 2007 - 2012 on the European scale. The results on health impacts and economic burdens are compared to existing assessments.

  2. Contribution of the infrasound technology to characterize large scale atmospheric disturbances and impact on infrasound monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Charlton Perez, Andrew; Smets, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides a unique global description of atmospheric disturbances generating infrasound such as extreme events (e.g. meteors, volcanoes, earthquakes, and severe weather) or human activity (e.g. explosions and supersonic airplanes). The analysis of the detected signals, recorded at global scales and over near 15 years at some stations, demonstrates that large-scale atmospheric disturbances strongly affect infrasound propagation. Their time scales vary from several tens of minutes to hours and days. Their effects are in average well resolved by the current model predictions; however, accurate spatial and temporal description is lacking in both weather and climate models. This study reviews recent results using the infrasound technology to characterize these large scale disturbances, including (i) wind fluctuations induced by gravity waves generating infrasound partial reflections and modifications of the infrasound waveguide, (ii) convection from thunderstorms and mountain waves generating gravity waves, (iii) stratospheric warming events which yield wind inversions in the stratosphere, (iv)planetary waves which control the global atmospheric circulation. Improved knowledge of these disturbances and assimilation in future models is an important objective of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project. This is essential in the context of the future verification of the CTBT as enhanced atmospheric models are necessary to assess the IMS network performance in higher resolution, reduce source location errors, and improve characterization methods.

  3. Chemistry and aerosol model development for the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service at ECWMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Johannes; Huijnen, Vincent; Remy, Samuel; Kipling, Zak

    2017-04-01

    The global forecast and data assimilation system for atmospheric composition of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) is part of ECMWF's integrated forecasting system (IFS). The CAMS system is run on a lower resolution (40 km) than the operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) suite (9km), but it uses the same meteorological model for both configurations in order to maintain a seamless approach to earth-system forecasting. The IFS with the modules for atmospheric composition is referred to as C-IFS. Although developments of the chemistry and aerosol modules are by far the most important reasons for changes in the simulation of atmospheric composition with C-IFS, the impact of continuous developments of the meteorological part of C-IFS also introduces changes to the operational composition forecast. The development of the IFS is predominantly driven by the improvements in weather predication scores at high resolution. IFS model upgrades occur several times a year. In the presentation we will address the opportunities and challenges to improve the quality of the CAMS operational composition forecasts as part of a steadily changing operational NWP system. We will discuss examples on how changes in the IFS model impact the composition simulation such as changes to the convection scheme, lightning activity and surface processes. We will also provide a detailed break down of the additional computational cost of the atmospheric composition simulation.

  4. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  5. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  6. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  7. Monitoring and modelling of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of gases and aerosols in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, Jan Willem [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erisman@ecn.nl; Vermeulen, Alex [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hensen, Arjan [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Flechard, Chris [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Daemmgen, Ulrich [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, D-38116 Braunschweig, (Germany); Fowler, David [CEH, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Sutton, Mark [CEH, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, Ludger [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka [Finnish Meteorological Institute, FIN-00810 Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-02-01

    Monitoring and modelling of deposition of air pollutants is essential to develop and evaluate policies to abate the effects related to air pollution and to determine the losses of pollutants from the atmosphere. Techniques for monitoring wet deposition fluxes are widely applied. A recent intercomparison experiment, however, showed that the uncertainty in wet deposition is relatively high, up to 40%, apart from the fact that most samplers are biased because of a dry deposition contribution. Wet deposition amounts to about 80% of the total deposition in Europe with a range of 10-90% and uncertainty should therefore be decreased. During recent years the monitoring of dry deposition has become possible. Three sites have been operational for 5 years. The data are useful for model development, but also for model evaluation and monitoring of progress in policy. Data show a decline in SO{sub 2} dry deposition, whereas nitrogen deposition remained constant. Furthermore, surface affinities for pollutants changed leading to changes in deposition. Deposition models have been further developed and tested with dry deposition measurements and total deposition measurements on forests as derived from throughfall data. The comparison is reasonable given the measurement uncertainties. Progress in ozone surface exchange modelling and monitoring shows that stomatal uptake can be quantified with reasonable accuracy, but external surface uptake yields highest uncertainty. - Monitoring and modelling of the deposition of sulphur and nitrogen components and the exposure of ozone has gained much progress through the research within BIATEX.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF/NMM and WRF/ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations for PM2.5 and its related precursors during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, S.; R. Mathur; J. Pleim; G. Pouliot; Wong, D; Eder, B.; Schere, K.; R. Gilliam; S. T. Rao

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations of PM2.5, its composition and related precursors over the eastern United States with the intensive observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA WP-3), ship and surface monitoring networks (AIRNow, IMPROVE, CASTNet and STN) during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study. The results at the AIRNow surface sites show that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ reproduced day-to-day variations...

  9. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  10. Current status of the ability of the GEMS/MACC models to reproduce the tropospheric CO vertical distribution as measured by MOZAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Elguindi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of CO taken from the MOZAIC aircraft database are used to globally evaluate the performance of the GEMS/MACC models, including the ECMWF-Integrated Forecasting System (IFS model coupled to the CTM MOZART-3 with 4DVAR data assimilation for the year 2004. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare the performance of three offline CTMs (MOZART-3, MOCAGE and TM5 driven by the same meteorology as well as one coupled atmosphere/CTM model run with data assimilation, enabling us to assess the potential gain brought by the combination of online transport and the 4DVAR chemical satellite data assimilation.

    First we present a global analysis of observed CO seasonal averages and interannual variability for the years 2002–2007. Results show that despite the intense boreal forest fires that occurred during the summer in Alaska and Canada, the year 2004 had comparably lower tropospheric CO concentrations. Next we present a validation of CO estimates produced by the MACC models for 2004, including an assessment of their ability to transport pollutants originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires. In general, all the models tend to underestimate CO. The coupled model and the CTMs perform best in Europe and the US where biases range from 0 to -25% in the free troposphere and from 0 to -50% in the surface and boundary layers (BL. Using the 4DVAR technique to assimilate MOPITT V4 CO significantly reduces biases by up to 50% in most regions. However none of the models, even the IFS-MOZART-3 coupled model with assimilation, are able to reproduce well the CO plumes originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires at downwind locations in the eastern US and Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that deficiencies in the fire emissions inventory and injection height play a role.

  11. Bidimensional and Multidimensional Principal Component Analysis in Long Term Atmospheric Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Giussani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric monitoring produces huge amounts of data. Univariate and bivariate statistics are widely used to investigate variations in the parameters. To summarize information graphs are usually used in the form of histograms or tendency profiles (e.g., variable concentration vs. time, as well as bidimensional plots where two-variable correlations are considered. However, when dealing with big data sets at least two problems arise: a great quantity of numbers (statistics and graphs are produced, and only two-variable interactions are often considered. The aim of this article is to show how the use of multivariate statistics helps in handling atmospheric data sets. Multivariate modeling considers all the variables simultaneously and returns the main results as bidimensional graphs that are easy-to-read. Principal Component Analysis (PCA; the most known multivariate method and multiway-PCA (Tucker3 are compared from methodological and interpretative points of view. The article demonstrates the ability to emphasize different information depending on the data handling performed. The results and benefits achieved using a more complex model that allows for the simultaneous consideration of the entire variability of the system are compared with the results provided by the simpler but better-known model. Atmospheric monitoring (SO2, NOx, NO2, NO, and O3 data from the Lake Como Area (Italy since 1992 to 2007 were chosen for consideration for the case study.

  12. Performance of sulfation and nitration plates used to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in a real environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, D.; Hechler, J.; Roberge, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfation and nitration plates were exposed outdoors for various periods of time to evaluate their performance in a real environment. These passive monitors are used to estimate the deposition of pollutants on metallic surfaces, and thus to evaluate the influence of the atmosphere on the corrosion. Single-column ion chromatography was used to determine the quantity of anions absorbed on the plates. This technique is better than other analytical procedures such as turbidimetry or colorimetry because passive monitors exposed in an atmosphere with a low degree of pollution can be analyzed without preconcentration. However, the pH of the sample to be injected on the chromatographic column must be adjusted to between 6.0 and 12.0 in order to obtain reproducible sulfate values. For sulfation plates, the additivity of the deposition process is excellent for a period of exposure up to 3 months, with a reproducibility of about 2%. For nitration plates, the deposition process is not cumulative due to a physical change of the monitor during exposure. The correlation between the amounts of sulfate found on sulfation snd nitration plates was also examined. 16 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Monitoring and modelling of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of gases and aerosols in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Alex; Hensen, Arjan; Flechard, Chris; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Fowler, David; Sutton, Mark; Grünhage, Ludger; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka

    2005-02-01

    Monitoring and modelling of deposition of air pollutants is essential to develop and evaluate policies to abate the effects related to air pollution and to determine the losses of pollutants from the atmosphere. Techniques for monitoring wet deposition fluxes are widely applied. A recent intercomparison experiment, however, showed that the uncertainty in wet deposition is relatively high, up to 40%, apart from the fact that most samplers are biased because of a dry deposition contribution. Wet deposition amounts to about 80% of the total deposition in Europe with a range of 10-90% and uncertainty should therefore be decreased. During recent years the monitoring of dry deposition has become possible. Three sites have been operational for 5 years. The data are useful for model development, but also for model evaluation and monitoring of progress in policy. Data show a decline in SO(2) dry deposition, whereas nitrogen deposition remained constant. Furthermore, surface affinities for pollutants changed leading to changes in deposition. Deposition models have been further developed and tested with dry deposition measurements and total deposition measurements on forests as derived from throughfall data. The comparison is reasonable given the measurement uncertainties. Progress in ozone surface exchange modelling and monitoring shows that stomatal uptake can be quantified with reasonable accuracy, but external surface uptake yields highest uncertainty.

  14. Analysis of influence of atmosphere extinction to Raman lidar monitoring CO2 concentration profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pei-Tao; Zhang Yin-Chao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yue-Feng; Su Jia; Fang Xin; Cao Kai-Fa; Xie Jun; Du Xiao-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) system monitoring of the atmosphere is a novel and powerful technique tool. The Raman lidar is well established today as a leading research tool in the study of numerous important areas in the atmospheric sciences. In this paper, the principle of Raman lidar technique measurement CO2 concentration profile is presented and the errors caused by molecular and aerosol extinction for CO2 concentration profile measurement with Raman lidar are also presented. The standard atmosphere extinction profile and 'real-time' Hefei area extinction profile are used to conduct correction and the corresponding results are yielded. Simulation results with standard atmosphere mode correction indicate that the errors caused by molecule and aerosol extinction should be counted for the reason that they could reach about 8 ppm and 5 ppm respectively. The relative error caused by Hefei area extinction correction could reach about 6%. The errors caused by the two components extinction influence could produce significant changes for CO2 concentration profile and need to be counted in data processing which could improve the measurement accuracies.

  15. Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric remote sounding from satellites is an essential component of the observational strategy deployed to monitor atmospheric pollution and changing composition. The IASI nadir looking thermal infrared sounder onboard MetOp will provide 15 years of global scale observations for a series of key atmospheric species, with unprecedented spatial sampling and coverage. This paper gives an overview of the instrument's capability for measuring atmospheric composition in the perspective of chemistry and air quality. The assessment is made in terms of species, accuracy and vertical information. Global distributions are presented for CO, CH4, O3 (total and tropospheric, HNO3, NH3, and volcanic SO2. Local distributions of organic species measured during fire events, such as C2H4, CH3OH, HCOOH, and PAN are also shown. For each species or process, the link is made to specialized papers in this issue.

  16. Estimation of Intervention Distances for Urgent Protective Actions Using Comparative Approach of MACCS and InterRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzammal Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distances for taking evacuation as a protective measure during early phase of a nuclear accident have been approximated using MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS. As a reference data, the source term of Pakistan Research Reactor 1 (PARR-1 and meteorological data of Islamabad, Pakistan, have been considered. Based on comparison with published data and international radiological assessment (InterRAS code results, it is concluded that MACCS is a rational tool for estimation of urgent protective actions during early phase of nuclear accident by taking into account the variations in meteorological and release concentrations parameters.

  17. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  18. Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1. At this level, crown condition is assessed annually, and soil condition and the nutritional status of forests surveyed. Some of the permanent plots were selected for intensive monitoring (Level 2, focussing mainly on the impact of atmospheric pollution on forest ecosystems. Level 2 monitoring also includes increment analyses, ground vegetation assessment, atmospheric deposition, soil solution analyses and climatic observations. This paper summarises the main results of a pluriannual research, which provides a general picture of the state of forest health in the region and focuses on more detailed investigations, described as case studies. Modified wet and dry samplers which use a water surface to collect dry deposition were used in a pluriannual field campaign at five sites in alpine and prealpine areas, to measure the total atmospheric depositions and to evaluate the nitrogen and sulphate exceedances of critical loads. Throughfall and bulk precipitation chemistry were studied for five years (June 1994-May 1999 at two high elevation forest sites (Val Gerola and Val Masino which were known to differ in terms of tree health, as assessed by live crown condition. Results indicated a higher contribution from the dry deposition of N-NO3 -, N-NH4 + and H+ and considerable canopy leaching of Ca2+, K+ and weak organic acids at Val Gerola, where the symptoms of damage were more evident. In the area of Val Masino (SO, included since 1997 in the national CONECOFOR network, investigations focused on the effectiveness of the biological compartment in modifying fluxes of atmospheric elements, and on the role of nitrogen both as an

  19. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    ER (Electrical Resistance) probes provide a measurement of metal loss, measured at any time when a metal is exposed to the real environment. The precise electrical resistance monitoring system can evaluate the corrosion to the level of nanometers, if the conductivity is compensated for temperature...... and magnetic fields. With this technique very important information about the durability of a new conversion coatings for aluminum, zinc and zinc alloys exposed to unknown atmospheric conditions can be gathered. This is expected to have a major impact on a number of industrial segments, such as test cars...

  20. Atmospheric radioxenon isotope monitoring in Beijing after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chongyang; Zhou, Guoqing; Feng, Shujuan; Jin, Yuren; Zhao, Xinhua; Cheng, Ziwei; Huang, Xiongliang; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Xu

    2013-02-01

    A custom-made, on-site radioxenon sampling, separation and monitoring system was used to monitor atmospheric radioxenon concentrations in Beijing, released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake of 11 March 2011. The results show that (133)Xe concentrations ranged from 393 to 26 mBq/m(3) from 12 to 27 April 2011, and those of (131 m)Xe were 84 and 40 mBq/m(3) on 13 and 15 April 2011, respectively. The highest dose rate caused by (133)Xe was 2 × 10(-5)mSv/yr, and the average (133)Xe/(131 m)Xe ratio was 3.8 ± 0.4.

  1. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  2. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  3. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%.

  4. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  5. Monitoring Atmospheric Dust Spring Activity at High Southern Latitudes on Mars using OMEGA

    CERN Document Server

    Douté, S

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a monitoring of the atmospheric dust in the south polar region during spring of martian year 27. Our goal is to contribute to identifying the source regions and to understanding lifting as well as transport mechanisms in relation with the seasonal ice regression and the dynamics of the atmosphere. This is of paramount importance since local dust storms generated in this region sometimes grow to global proportions. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) of the southern high latitudes of Mars from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110, December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320 (November 2005) . We use an original method presented in the companion paper in order to retrieve the optical depth of the atmospheric dust above mineral surfaces at a reference wavelength of one micron. The method is applied on a time series of OMEGA images acquired between Ls=220 and Ls=280 in conj...

  6. Quantifying atmospheric nitrogen deposition through a nationwide monitoring network across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition to terrestrial ecosystems has increased dramatically since the industrial revolution. This is especially true in recent decades in China due to continuous economic growth. However, there are no comprehensive reports of both measured dry and wet Nr deposition across China. We therefore conducted a multiple-year study during the period mainly from 2010 to 2014 to monitor atmospheric concentrations of five major Nr species of gaseous NH3, NO2 and HNO3, and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3− in both particles and precipitation, based on a Nationwide Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring Network (NNDMN, covering 43 sites in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Nr species were measured directly; dry deposition fluxes were estimated using airborne concentration measurements and inferential models. Our observations reveal large spatial variations of atmospheric Nr concentrations and dry and wet Nr deposition. The annual average concentrations (1.3–47.0 μg N m−3 and dry plus wet deposition fluxes (2.9–75.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1 of inorganic Nr species ranked by region as North China > Southeast China > Southwest China > Northeast China > Northwest China > the Tibetan Plateau or by land use as urban > rural > background sites, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet N deposition fluxes were 18.5 and 19.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, across China, with reduced N deposition dominating both dry and wet deposition. Our results suggest atmospheric dry N deposition is equally important to wet N deposition at the national scale and both deposition forms should be included when considering the impacts of N deposition on environment and ecosystem health.

  7. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  8. Mg/O2 Battery Based on the Magnesium-Aluminum Chloride Complex (MACC) Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardar, Galin; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Thomson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    rechargeability in these systems is severely limited. The Mg/O2-MACC/DME discharge product comprises a mixture of Mg(ClO4)2 and MgCl2, with the latter likely formed from slow decomposition of the former. The presence of Cl in these compounds suggests that the electrolyte participates in the cell reaction...... or reacts readily with the initial electrochemical products. A rate study suggests that O2 diffusion in the electrolyte limits discharge capacities at higher currents. Formation of an insulating product film on the positive electrodes of Mg/O2-MACC/DME cells following deep discharge increases cell impedance......Mg/O2 cells employing a MgCl2/AlCl3/DME (MACC/DME) electrolyte are cycled and compared to cells with modified Grignard electrolytes, showing that performance of magnesium/oxygen batteries depends strongly on electrolyte composition. Discharge capacity is far greater for MACC/DME-based cells, while...

  9. Monitoring PM2.5 in the Atmosphere by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Bao, Rima; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-09-01

    The real-time monitoring of the air pollution with multiple sources is of great significance for pollution control and environmental protection. In this paper, we presented a study of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a direct tool for monitoring the component and content of PM2.5 in atmosphere. Due to the THz absorption, the intensities of the peaks in THz-TDS decreased with the augment of PM2.5 and were proportional to the PM2.5 content. The ratio of absorbance A to PM2.5 reflected a basically unchanged tendency, indicating the little change of principal elements under the pollution degree. In the high-pollution condition, a lot of SO2 from vehicle and factory was emitted into air. The elements, such as S and O from anions, had a stronger absorption effect in THz range. Based on the absorbance spectra, the absorption tendencies with PM2.5 over the whole range were validated by principal component analysis and the quantitative model with a high correlation was built by using back propagation artificial neural network. BPANN model improved the precision of linear fitting between peak intensities and PM2.5. The research demonstrates that THz-TDS is a promising tool for fast, direct, and reliable monitoring in environmental applications.

  10. Data quality monitoring in the presence of aerosols and other adverse atmospheric conditions with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, J; Bernlöhr, K; Krüger, P; Lo, Y T E; Chadwick, P M; Daniel, M K; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2015-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope experiments, such as H.E.S.S., have been very successful in astronomical observations in the very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV) regime. As an integral part of the detector, such experiments use Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. For the calibration and energy determination, a standard model atmosphere is assumed. Deviations of the real atmosphere from the model may therefore lead to an energy misreconstruction of primary gamma rays. To guarantee satisfactory data quality with respect to difficult atmospheric conditions, several atmospheric data quality criteria are implemented in the H.E.S.S. software. These quantities are sensitive to clouds and aerosols. Here, the Cherenkov transparency coefficient will be presented. It is a new monitoring quantity that is able to measure long-term changes in the atmospheric transparency. The Cherenkov transparency coefficient derives exclusively from Cherenkov data and is quite hardware-independent. Furthermore, its positive correlation with indepe...

  11. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  12. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Monitoring of earth's atmosphere was conducted for several years utilizing the ITOS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting weather satellites. A space environment monitoring package was included in these satellites to perform measurements of a portion of earth's charged particle environment. The charged particle observations proposed for the low-altitude weather satellite TIROS N, are described which will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Such observations may be of use in future studies of the relationships between geomagnetic activity and atmospheric weather pattern developments. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance of distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources. Such differentiation is necessary because of the widely different spatial and time scales involved in the atmospheric energy input resulting from these various sources of activity.

  13. SPON2, a newly identified target gene of MACC1, drives colorectal cancer metastasis in mice and is prognostic for colorectal cancer patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F; Wang, Q; Huska, M R; Andrade-Navarro, M A; Lemm, M; Fichtner, I; Dahlmann, M; Kobelt, D; Walther, W; Smith, J; Schlag, P M; Stein, U

    2016-11-17

    MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer 1) is a prognostic biomarker for tumor progression, metastasis and survival of a variety of solid cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we aimed to identify the MACC1-induced transcriptome and key players mediating the MACC1-induced effects in CRC. We performed microarray analyses using CRC cells ectopically overexpressing MACC1. We identified more than 1300 genes at least twofold differentially expressed, including the gene SPON2 (Spondin 2) as 90-fold upregulated transcriptional target of MACC1. MACC1-dependent SPON2 expression regulation was validated on mRNA and protein levels in MACC1 high (endogenously or ectopically) and low (endogenously or by knockdown) expressing cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the binding of MACC1 to the gene promoter of SPON2. In cell culture, ectopic SPON2 overexpression induced cell viability, migration, invasion and colony formation in endogenously MACC1 and SPON2 low expressing cells, whereas SPON2 knockdown reduced proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities in CRC cells with high endogenous MACC1 and SPON2 expression. In intrasplenically transplanted NOD/SCID mice, metastasis induction was analyzed with control or SPON2-overexpressing CRC cells. Tumors with SPON2 overexpression induced liver metastasis (vs control animals without any metastases, P=0.0036). In CRC patients, SPON2 expression was determined in primary tumors (stages I-III), and survival time was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. CRC patients with high SPON2 expressing primary tumors demonstrated 8 months shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS) compared with patients with low SPON2 levels (P=0.053). Combining high levels of SPON2 and MACC1 improved the identification of high-risk patients with a 20-month shorter MFS vs patients with low biomarker expression. In summary, SPON2 is a transcriptional target of the metastasis gene MACC1. SPON2 induces cell motility in vitro and CRC

  14. A virtual remote sensing observation network for continuous, near-real-time monitoring of atmospheric instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporov, Maria; Löhnert, Ulrich; Potthast, Roland; Cimini, Domenico; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Short-term forecasts of current high-resolution numerical weather prediction models still have large deficits in forecasting the exact temporal and spatial location of severe, locally influenced weather such as summer-time convective storms or cool season lifted stratus or ground fog. Often, the thermodynamic instability - especially in the boundary layer - plays an essential role in the evolution of weather events. While the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere is well measured close to the surface (i.e. 2 m) by in-situ sensors and in the upper troposphere by satellite sounders, the planetary boundary layer remains a largely under-sampled region of the atmosphere where only sporadic information from radiosondes or aircraft observations is available. The major objective of the presented DWD-funded project ARON (Extramural Research Programme) is to overcome this observational gap and to design an optimized network of ground based microwave radiometers (MWR) and compact Differential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) for a continuous, near-real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer in order to monitor thermodynamic (in)stability. Previous studies showed, that microwave profilers are well suited for continuously monitoring the temporal development of atmospheric stability (i.e. Cimini et al., 2015) before the initiation of deep convection, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the vertical resolution of microwave temperature profiles is best in the lowest kilometer above the surface, decreasing rapidly with increasing height. In addition, humidity profile retrievals typically cannot be resolved with more than two degrees of freedom for signal, resulting in a rather poor vertical resolution throughout the troposphere. Typical stability indices used to assess the potential of convection rely on temperature and humidity values not only in the region of the boundary layer but also in the layers above. Therefore, satellite

  15. Radio-controlled xenon flashers for atmospheric monitoring at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Wiencke, L R; Al-Seady, M; Belov, K; Bird, D J; Boyer, J; Chen, G F; Clay, R W; Dai, H Y; Dawson, B R; Denholm, P; Gloyn, J; He, D; Ho, Y; Huang, M A; Jui, C C H; Kidd, M J; Kieda, D B; Knapp, B; Ko, S; Larson, K; Loh, E C; Mannel, E J; Matthews, J N; Meyer, J R; Salman, A; Simpson, K M; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Steenblik, D; Tang, J K K; Taylor, S; Thomas, S B; Wilkinson, C R

    1999-01-01

    Stable, robust ultraviolet light sources for atmospheric monitoring and calibration pose a challenge for experiments that measure air fluorescence from cosmic ray air showers. One type of light source in use at the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) cosmic ray observatory features a xenon flashbulb at the focal point of a spherical mirror to produce a 1 mu s pulse of collimated light that includes a strong UV component. A computer-controlled touch tone radio system provides remote operation of bulb triggering and window heating. These devices, dubbed 'flashers', feature stand-alone operation, +-5% shot-to-shot stability, weather proof construction and are well suited for long-term field use. This paper describes the flashers, the radio control system, and a 12-unit array in operation at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

  16. Radio-controlled xenon flashers for atmospheric monitoring at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, L. R.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Al-Seady, M.; Belov, K.; Bird, D. J.; Boyer, J.; Chen, G. F.; Clay, R. W.; Dai, H. Y.; Dawson, B. R.; Denholm, P.; Gloyn, J.; He, D.; Ho, Y.; Huang, M. A.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kidd, M. J.; Kieda, D. B.; Knapp, B.; Ko, S.; Larson, K.; Loh, E. C.; Mannel, E. J.; Matthews, J. N.; Meyer, J. R.; Salman, A.; Simpson, K. M.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Steenblik, D.; Tang, J. K. K.; Taylor, S.; Thomas, S. B.; Wilkinson, C. R.

    1999-06-01

    Stable, robust ultraviolet light sources for atmospheric monitoring and calibration pose a challenge for experiments that measure air fluorescence from cosmic ray air showers. One type of light source in use at the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) cosmic ray observatory features a xenon flashbulb at the focal point of a spherical mirror to produce a 1 μs pulse of collimated light that includes a strong UV component. A computer-controlled touch tone radio system provides remote operation of bulb triggering and window heating. These devices, dubbed "flashers", feature stand-alone operation, ±5% shot-to-shot stability, weather proof construction and are well suited for long-term field use. This paper describes the flashers, the radio control system, and a 12-unit array in operation at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

  17. Development of a 22 GHz ground-based spectrometer for middle atmospheric water vapour monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Paolo Bertagnolio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The water Vapour Emission SPectrometer for Antarctica at 22 GHz (VESPA-22 has been designed for long-term middle atmospheric climate change monitoring and satellite data validation. It observes the water vapour spectral line at 22.235 GHz using the balanced beam-switching technique. The receiver antenna has been characterized, showing an HPBW of 3.5° and a sidelobe level 40 dB below the main lobe. The receiver front-end has a total gain of 105 dB and a LNA noise temperature of 125 K. A FFT spectrometer (bandwidth 1 GHz, resolution 63 kHz will be used as back-end, allowing the retrieval of H2O concentration profiles in the 20 to 80 km altitude range. The control I/O interface is based on reconfigurable hardware (USB-CPLD.

  18. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3].

  19. Monitoring atmospheric turbulence profiles with high vertical resolution using PML/PBL instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blary, F.; Ziad, A.; Borgnino, J.; Fantéï-Caujolle, Y.; Aristidi, Eric; Lantéri, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) have been proposed for the next generation of telescopes. In order to be efficient, correction using WFAO require knowledge of atmospheric turbulence parameters. The structure constant of index-of-refraction fluctuations (C2 N ) being one of them. Indirect methods implemented in instruments as SCIDAR, MASS, SLODAR, CO-SLIDAR and MOSP have been proposed to measure C2 N (h) pro le through different layers of the atmosphere. A new monitor called the Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) is presented. In this instrument, C2 N (h) pro les are retrieved from the transverse covariance via minimization of a maximum likelihood criterion under positivity constraint using an iterative gradient method. An other approach using a regularization method (RM) is also studied. Instrument errors are mainly related to the detection of the Moon limb position and are mostly due to photon noise. Numerical simulations have been used to evaluate the error on the extracted pro le and its propagation from the detection to the inverse technique.

  20. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  1. Capability of Raman lidar for monitoring the variation of atmospheric CO2 profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pei-Tao; Zhang Yin-Chao; Wang Lian; Hu Shun-Xing; Su Jia; Cao Kai-Fa; Zhao Yue-Feng; Hu Huan-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) has special capabilities for remote sensing of many different behaviours of the atmosphere.One of the techniques which show a great deal of promise for several applications is Raman scattering.The detecting capability,including maximum operation range and minimum detectable gas concentration is one of the most significant parameters for lidar remote sensing of pollutants.In this paper,based on the new method for evaluating the capabilities of a Raman lidar system,we present an evaluation of detecting capability of Raman lidar for monitoring atmospheric CO2 in Hefei.Numerical simulations about the influence of atmospheric conditions on lidar detecting capability were carried out,and a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum difference of the operation ranges caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 0.4 to 0.5kin with a measuring precision within 30ppmv.The range of minimum detectable concentration caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 20 to 35 ppmv in vertical direction for 20000 shots at a distance of 1 km on the assumption that other parameters are kept constant.The other corresponding parameters under different conditions are also given.The capability of Raman lidar operated in vertical direction was found to be superior to that operated in horizontal direction.During practical measurement with the Raman lidar whose hardware components were fixed,aerosol scattering extinction effect would be a significant factor that influenced the capability of Raman lidar.This work may be a valuable reference for lidar system designing,measurement accuracy improving and data processing.

  2. Environmental networks for large-scale monitoring of Earth and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurodimou, Olga; Kolios, Stavros; Konstantaras, Antonios; Georgoulas, George; Stylios, Chrysostomos

    2013-04-01

    Installation and operation of instrument/sensor networks are proven fundamental in the monitoring of the physical environment from local to global scale. The advances in electronics, wireless communications and informatics has led to the development of a huge number of networks at different spatial scales that measure, collect and store a wide range of environmental parameters. These networks have been gradually evolved into integrated information systems that provide real time monitoring, forecasts and different products from the initial collected datasets. Instrument/sensor networks have nowadays become important solutions for environmental monitoring, comprising a basic component of fully automated systems developing worldwide that contribute in the efforts for a sustainable Earth's environment (e.g. Hart et al., 2006, Othman et al., 2012). They are also used as a source of data for models parameterization and as verification tools for accuracy assessment techniques of the satellite imagery. Environmental networks can be incorporated into decision support systems (e.g Rizzi et al., 2012) providing informational background along with data from satellites for decision making, manage problems, suggest solutions and best practices for a sustainable management of the environment. This is a comparative study aiming to examine and highlight the significant role of existing instrument/sensor networks for large-scale monitoring of environmental issues, especially atmospheric and marine environment as well as weather and climate. We provide characteristic examples of integrated systems based on large scale instrument/sensor networks along with other sources of data (like satellite datasets) as informational background to measure, identify, monitor, analyze and forecast a vast series of atmospheric parameters (like CO2, O3, particle matter and solar irradiance), weather, climate and their impacts (e.g., cloud systems, lightnings, rainfall, air and surface temperature

  3. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agustí-Panareda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate – Interim Implementation (MACC-II service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS. One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 satellite retrievals, as they

  4. Laser-induced incandescence diagnostic for in situ monitoring of nanoparticle synthesis in an atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, James; Patel, Shane; Shneider, Mikhail; Stratton, Brent; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2014-10-01

    A DC arc discharge with a consumed graphite electrode is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoaparticles in a low temperature (0.1-1 eV), atmospheric pressure plasma. The formation of nanoparticles in this plasma is poorly understood; it is not clear where nanoparticles nucleate and grow in the arc discharge. Therefore, a laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic for in situ monitoring of the nanoparticles' spatial distribution in the plasma is currently being constructed. The LII diagnostic involves heating the particles with a short-pulsed laser, and measuring the induced spatiotemporal incandescence profiles on longer timescales. By appropriately modeling the induced spatiotemporal incandescence profiles, one can measure particle diameters and volume fraction. LII diagnostics have been extensively used to study soot particles in flames. However, they have never been applied in a strongly coupled plasma background. Even though the spatial dimensions for soot and nanoparticles are similar, great care is needed in developing an LII diagnostic for monitoring nanoparticles in a plasma background. Therefore, we will calibrate our LII diagnostic by measuring spatiotemporal incandescence profiles of known, research grade soot and nanoparticles. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. However, sites in Utah (UT96, UT97 and New York (NY95 showed a distinctly different pattern, with the lowest mixing ratios appearing in the afternoon and the highest mixing ratios at night. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon, and the variation in magnitude for all seasons at most monitoring sites fell in the range of 0 to 2 ppqv, except the Utah sites (up to 5 ppqv. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited

  6. Atmospheric monitoring of a perfluorocarbon tracer at the 2009 ZERT Center experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie; Wells, Arthur; Rodney Diehl, J.; McNeil, Matthew; Lesko, Natalie; Armstrong, James; Ference, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Field experiments at Montana State University are conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Zero Emissions Research and Technology Center (ZERT) to test and verify monitoring techniques for carbon capture and storage (CCS). A controlled release of CO 2 with an added perfluorocarbon tracer was conducted in July 2009 in a multi-laboratory study of atmospheric transport and detection technologies. Tracer plume dispersion was measured with various meteorological conditions using a tethered balloon system with Multi-Tube Remote Samplers (MTRS) at elevations of 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m above ground level (AGL), as well as a ground-based portable tower with monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m AGL. Researchers designed a horizontal grid of sampling locations centered at the tracer plume source, with the tower positioned at 10 m and 30 m in both upwind and downwind directions, and the MTRS spaced at 50 m and 90 m downwind and 90 m upwind. Tracer was consistently detected at elevated concentrations at downwind sampling locations. With very few exceptions, higher tracer concentrations correlated with lower elevations. Researchers observed no statistical difference between sampling at 50 m and 90 m downwind at the same elevation. The US EPA AERMOD model applied using site-specific information predicted transport and dispersion of the tracer. Model results are compared to experimental data from the 2009 ZERT experiment. Successful characterization of the tracer plume simulated by the ZERT experiment is considered a step toward demonstrating the feasibility of remote sampling with unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) at future sequestration sites.

  7. Terrestrial Monitoring from Aquifers into the Atmosphere: Merging Integrated Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollet, S. J.; Goergen, K.; Vereecken, H.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Keune, J.; Kulkarni, K.; Kurtz, W.; Sharples, W.; Shrestha, P.; Simmer, C.; Sulis, M.; Vanderborght, J.

    2016-12-01

    Human impacts on the terrestrial water, energy and nutrient cycles, such as water use, land management and climate change, put increasing pressure on natural resources. Thus, there is a strong need for estimates of current and future natural resource availability. While observations of the terrestrial system from remote sensing and in-situ networks have been increasing in recent years, we still know very little about the current states and fluxes (CSFs) and interactions of the aforementioned terrestrial cycles at socioeconomic relevant spatial and temporal resolutions on the order of 102m and 100h, respectively. The reason for this is that available observations are rarely continuous in space and time, especially with regard to the soil and groundwater compartments of the terrestrial system. This also means that initial and boundary conditions are missing that are needed for predictions using models of the terrestrial system. Therefore, the objective must be to obtain best estimates and uncertainties of CSFs from aquifers into the atmosphere honoring non-linear feedbacks between the different compartments.Here, scientific and technical approaches, and results of a terrestrial monitoring system are discussed merging observations with models using TerrSysMP-PDAF, the fully coupled Terrestrial Systems Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP) combined with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF). The system is used to invert unknown model parameters, and correct and interpolate simultaneously sparse CSFs using commensurate observations to provide best estimates including uncertainties. These are then used to generate ensemble predictions. Because TerrSysMP-PDAF is based on massively parallel HPC technologies, the system is applicable over large model domains at high spatial resolution for large sets of parameters and states. Examples are provided at the catchment to the regional scale including an experimental near-real time monitoring system.

  8. Design of atmospheric composition monitor based on ultraviolet optical absorption technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-jun

    2011-01-01

    An open path atmospheric composition monitor is designed based on ultraviolet differential absorption technology.Dark current correction and diode response correction are used to improve the detection limit and Savitzky-Golay filter is used to improve the measurement accuracy.The experimental results show that the designed system has the ability to measure NO and NO2 in real time with reasonable accuracy.The detection limit of the system is about 0.25 ppm for NO and 0.28 ppm for NOr When the concentration level of the target gases is below 100 ppm,the system has good linearity and high measurement accuracy,i.e.,the measurement accuracy is about 2% for NO and about 4% for NO2.The detection limit of dark current can be improved by about 5 to 10 ppb,and the correction of diode response can improve the detection limit by around 30 ppb.Moving window average can improve the detection limit at low concentration levels but will generate more errors at higher concentration leveis.Generally,the designed system meets the requirement of measuring multi-species air pollutants in real time and accurately.

  9. The Site of the ASTRI SST-2M Telescope Prototype: Atmospheric Monitoring and Auxiliary Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Leto, G; Bellassai, G; Bruno, P; Fiorini, M; Grillo, A; Martinetti, E; La Rosa, G; Segreto, A; Sottile, G; Stringhetti, L

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. The main objective of the ASTRI project is to develop a prototype of the Small Size class Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M). The ASTRI SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype that will be fully developed by the ASTRI Collaboration from the optics design and manufacturing to the focal plane camera, from the structure of the mount to all the needed software. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be placed at the INAF "M.G. Fracastoro" observing station in Serra La Nave on the Etna Mountain near Catania, Italy. The technological solutions adopted will be tested on field: observations of the Crab Nebula and of other sources will be essential part of the science verification phase, with the aim to assess the achievement of the scientific requirements. In the following we present the Serra La Nave site together with all the auxiliary instruments needed for atmospheric monitoring and c...

  10. Atmospheric water vapor monitoring from local GNSS networks: comparisons of GNSS data adjustment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Martina; Fermi, Alessandro; Monti Guarnieri, Andrea; Realini, Eugenio; Venuti, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Since many years GNSS has been regarded by the meteorological community as one of the systems for atmospheric water vapor remote sensing. Time series of GNSS wet delays are estimated as by-products of accurate positioning. Their assimilation into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being investigated at both research and operational levels, although typically at coarse space resolutions (e.g. few tens of km). A dedicated use of this system for water vapor monitoring at higher resolutions is still under investigation. Ad hoc networks have been designed and implemented to collect data at a high spatial resolution (station inter-distances of 1-10 km), to have an insight into the spatial distribution of GNSS derived wet delays and/or into the impact of such information on high resolution NWP models. Within this research framework the paper reports the comparisons carried out between ZWD time series obtained from the data collected by an Italian and a Japanese dense networks of permanent geodetic GNSS receivers. Tropospheric delays have been estimated by applying different data adjustment strategies: relative positioning and PPP (precise point positioning). For this last strategy two different solutions have been analyzed and compared: the Bernese software batch solution, and the RTNet software Kalman filter solution. Assessment of the results were performed against IGS GNSS delays as well as by comparison with radiosonde-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV).

  11. Real-time atmospheric monitoring for the Cherenkov Telescope Array using a wide-field optical telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ebr, Jan; Prouza, Michael; Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation of ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instruments and is planned to be built on two sites (one in each hemisphere) in the coming years, with full array operation foreseen to begin 2020. The goal of performing high precision gamma-ray energy measurements while maximizing the use of observation time demands detailed and fast information about atmospheric conditions. Besides LIDARs designed to monitor clouds and aerosol content of the atmosphere in the pointing direction of the CTA telescopes, we propose to use the "FRAM" (F(/Ph)otometric Robotic Atmospheric Monitor) device, which is a small robotic astronomical telescope with a large field of view and a sensitive CCD camera that together ensure precise atmospheric characterization over the complete field-of-view of the CTA. FRAM will use stellar photometry to measure atmospheric extinction across the field of view of the CTA without interfering with the observation (unlike laser-based methods). Thi...

  12. Reevaluation of the emergency planning zone for nuclear power plants in Taiwan using MACCS2 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chen, Ing-Jane; Chen, Huan-Tong; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2006-04-01

    According to government regulations, the emergency planning zone (EPZ) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) must be designated before operation and reevaluated every 5 years. Corresponding emergency response planning (ERP) has to be made in advance to guarantee that all necessary resources are available under accidental releases of radioisotope. In this study, the EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs, Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan, in Taiwan was reevaluated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) developed by Sandia National Laboratory. Meteorological data around the nuclear power plant were collected during 2003. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, and timing duration, were based on previous PRA information of each plant. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk and societal risk were calculated. By comparing the results to the protective action guide and related safety criteria, 1.5, 1.5, and 4.5km were estimated for Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan NPPs, respectively. We suggest that a radius of 5.0km is a reasonably conservative value of EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs in Taiwan.

  13. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative on global observations of atmospheric CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Amediek, Axel; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Fix, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We report on a new French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative targeting on global measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4). Among the greenhouse gases banned by the Kyoto protocol, CH4 contributes most to global warming after CO2. Questions arise whether global warming in Arctic regions might foster the melting of permafrost soils which contain significant amounts of carbon in organic form which under anaerobic conditions might be converted to CH4 and partially released to the atmosphere. Also the development of natural wetlands which are the biggest methane source, play an important role in climate prediction. Up to now, there is very little knowledge about CH4 sources and sinks in connection with changes in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The objective of this initiative is to improve our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale methane sources, globally. This will be obtained by the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4, commonly referred to XCH4 which can be used as input for flux inversion models. As a novel feature, the observational instrument will have its own light source emitting pulsed narrow-line laser radiation, not relying on sunlight. The XCH4 values will be provided by a lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path, which can have strong regional variability. Using a range-gated receiver for detection of the signals scattered from the Earth surface, the lidar can distinguish surface from cloud or aerosol backscatter, permitting high-precision retrievals of XCH4 in the presence of thin cirrus or aerosol layers. The proposed measurement approach is also capable of providing measurements in partially cloudy conditions. The emitted laser pulses can reach the surface when gaps between clouds occur due to the near-nadir view and the small lidar footprint. The instrument will

  14. Relationship between pathological characteristics of prostate cancer and MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 as well as Caspase-9 expression in tumor tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang-Yu Ai; Xue-De Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression in prostate cancer tissue and their relationship with the pathological characteristics of tumor.Methods:Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients who received surgical treatment in our hospital from May 2015 to March 2016 were selected as the research subjects, prostate cancer tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue were collected during surgery to determine MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression, and serum specimens were collected to determine miR-let7i, -32, -128, -196a and -218 expression levels.Results: mRNA content of MACC1 and c-Met in prostate cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue while mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 were significantly lower than those in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue, and the higher the Gleason grading and the higher the Whitmore-Prout staging, the higher the mRNA content of MACC1 and c-Met in prostate cancer tissue and the lower the mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9; serum miR-32, miR-128 and miR-196a expression levels in prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and negatively correlated with the mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9, and the expression levels of miR-let7i and miR-218 were significantly lower than those in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and negatively correlated with MACC1 and c-Met.Conclusion: High MACC1 and c-Met expression and low Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 expression are related to the occurrence and progression of prostate cancer, and the MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression in prostate cancer tissue are regulated by miRNAs.

  15. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project focuses on key physico-chemical process technologies for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS) that increase reliability, capability, and consumable...

  16. The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: monitoring water vapour isotopic composition along an atmospheric river event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Sodemann, Harald; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Risi, Camille; Werner, Martin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Fettweis, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In July 2012, an extreme warm event occurred in Greenland, leading to surface melt over almost all the ice sheet. This event was recorded in the isotopic composition of water vapour measured by the IASI satellite along the transport pathway and at two sites where continuous in situ surface vapour isotopic measurements were conducted, situated at a coastal station of South Greenland (Ivittuut) and further North on top of the ice sheet (NEEM, NW Greenland). These observations allowed us to monitor the isotopic composition of the air mass at different stages of its advection towards Greenland, which can inform on processes along this trajectory, such as cloud properties and moisture sources. In addition, two simulations of this event, using the atmospheric general circulation models LMDZiso and ECHAM5wiso equipped with water stable isotopes and nudged towards large scale wind fields, are investigated. Furthermore, a regional high-resolution model was used to study the moisture transport to Greenland during this event using tagged water tracers of the North Atlantic ocean and coastal land evaporation. Using moisture source diagnostic based on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Flexpart, we show that this 2012 heat wave event corresponds to moisture sources located over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where intense evaporation was caused by dry air masses associated with the US intense summer drought. This moisture was then advected northward along a narrow band, due to a very stationary surface cyclone southwest of Greenland, reached southern Greenland and Ivittuut coastal station on July 9th, travelled along the west coast of Greenland, continued eastwards above the ice sheet and arrived above the NEEM deep drilling camp on July 11th. Surface isotopic observations during the event show larger variations at NEEM than in Ivittuut, strongly reducing the isotopic and deuterium excess latitudinal gradient usually observed between South and North Greenland. This

  17. Top of Atmosphere Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Tornow, Florian; Hollmann, Rainer; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan; Trentmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The CM SAF Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record provides a homogeneous satellite-based climatology of the TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in all-sky conditions. The continuous monitoring of these two components of the Earth Radiation Budget is of prime importance to study climate variability and change. The Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1983 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) on board the Meteosat First and Second Generation satellites are combined to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR). Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record covers a 32 years time period from 1 February 1983 to 30 April 2015. The TOA radiation products are provided as daily mean, monthly mean and monthly averages of the hourly integrated values (diurnal cycle). To ensure consistency with other CM SAF products, the data is provided on a regular grid at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees (i.e. about 5.5 km) and covers the region between +/- 70° longitude and +/- 70° latitude. Validation of the MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record has been performed by intercomparison with several references such as the CERES products (EBAF, SYN1deg-Day and SYN1deg-M3Hour), the HIRS OLR Climate Data Record (Daily and Monthly), the reconstructed ERBS WFOV-CERES (or DEEP-C) dataset and the ISCCP FD products. CERES is considered as the best reference from March 2000 onward. The quality of the early part of the Data Record is verified against the other references. In general, the stability of all the TOA radiation products is estimated to be better than 4 W.m-2

  18. [Comparison of Monitoring Methods of Organic Carbon and Element Carbon in Atmospheric Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Ji, Dong-sheng; Liu, Zi-rui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yue-si

    2016-04-15

    Accurate measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric fine particulate is an important scientific basis for studying the formation and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol. The selection of different analysis programs will lead to difference in the OC and EC concentrations, and further result in the misjudgment of the results. The OC and EC concentrations observed using three temperature protocols including RT-Quartz ( R) , NIOSH 5040 (N) and Fast-TC (F) were compared and analyzed in combination with the degree of air pollution in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TC (TC = OC + EC), OC and EC concentrations observed using R, N and F protocols and certain deviation was found among the TC (TC = OC + EC) , OC and EC concentrations. For TC, the results observed using R protocol were 5% lower than those using N protocol; hut 1% higher than those using F protocol. For OC, the results obtained using R were 9% lower than those using N protocol and 1% higher than those using F protocol. For EC, the results obtained using R were 20% higher than those using N protocol and 11% lower than those using F protocol. The variation coefficients for TC, OC and EC obtained based on R protocol were less than the other two temperature protocols under different air quality degrees. The slopes of regression curves of TC, OC and EC between on-line analysis using R protocol and off-line analysis were 1.21,1. 14 and 1.35, respectively. The correlation coefficients of TC, OC and EC were 0.99, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. In contrast with the Black carbon ( BC) concentrations monitored by multi-angle absorption spectrophotometer (MAAP), the EC concentrations measured by on-line OC/EC analyzer using R protocol were obviously lower. When the BC concentrations were less than or equal to 8 gg*m3, the EC/BC ratio was 0.39. While the EC/BC ratio was 0.88, when the BC concentrations were greater than 8 ggm3. The variation

  19. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  20. How to improve the atmospheric environmental monitoring quality assurance%如何做好大气环境监测的质量保证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦胜华

    2011-01-01

    通过了解大气环境监测质量保证的意义,就目前大气环境监测质量保证工作的现状,结合实际,如何把握大气环境监测的质量保证和质量控制。%Learn about significance of atmospheric environmental monitoring quality assurance, on the current status quo of atmospheric environmental monitoring quality assurance, in connection with reality, how to grasp the atmospheric environmental monitoring quality assurance and quality control.

  1. Solving the Global Climate Monitoring Problem in the Atmosphere: Towards SI-tied Climate Records with Integrated Uncertainty Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schwaerz, M.; Fritzer, J.; Schwarz, J.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Steiner, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature and greenhouse gases is the backbone of contemporary atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally in the atmosphere. Currently, however, not any existing satellite-based atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative benchmark over months to decades so that climate variability and change in the atmosphere are not yet reliably monitored. Radio occultation (RO) using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals provides a unique opportunity to solve this problem in the free atmosphere (from ~1-2 km altitude upwards) for core ECVs: the thermodynamic variables temperature and pressure, and to some degree water vapor, which are key parameters for tracking climate change. On top of RO we have recently conceived next-generation methods, microwave and infrared-laser occultation and nadir-looking infrared-laser reflectometry. These can monitor a full set of thermo-dynamic ECVs (incl. wind) as well as the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as main drivers of climate change; for the latter we also target the boundary layer for tracking carbon sources and sinks. We briefly introduce to why the atmospheric climate monitoring challenge is unsolved so far and why just the above methods have the capabilities to break through. We then focus on RO, which already provided more than a decade of observations. RO accurately measures time delays from refraction of GNSS signals during atmospheric occultation events. This enables to tie RO-derived ECVs and their uncertainty to fundamental time standards, effectively the SI second, and to their unique long-term stability and narrow uncertainty. However, despite impressive advances since the pioneering RO mission GPS/Met in the mid-1990ties no rigorous trace from fundamental time to the ECVs (duly accounting also for relevant side

  2. Atmospheric Chemistry Research in New EU Countries. A survey on atmospheric chemistry research and monitoring of air pollution in some new EU Member States and Candidate Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchvarova, E.; Spassova, T.; Valkov, N.; Iordanova, L. [Department of Composition of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere, National IInstitute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Hjorth, J. (ed.) [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Historically some of the new EU Member States and the Candidate countries experienced high levels of pollution in the past. Enhanced management measures were and are needed to improve the air quality. The present survey on the ongoing air chemistry research is in support to such measures and the incorporation of the EU environmental legislation in the air quality management of these countries. The aim of the survey is to list the current research activities on atmospheric chemistry in these countries, as well as groups and institutions involved in it. The air chemistry plays essential part of air quality and climate change modelling, energy industry planning and health risk assessments. In addition, the air quality monitoring networks and management are briefly discussed, as well as some information on the air pollution modelling research. The ongoing research (field, laboratory and modelling) in the field of chemical transformation of trace compounds in the atmosphere is discussed here and parallels are drown among 10 of the new EU Member States and Candidate Countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia. Laboratory studies traditionally emphasize on rate and equilibrium processes. Field studies are based on aircraft and surface measurements of reaction chemistry, advective influences on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and air-surface exchange processes. Both types experimental studies on atmospheric chemistry are demanding concerning equipment and resources. Therefore, most of the studies in the field are coming from international projects, EU, ESF or NATO funded. Modelling efforts address both chemistry and dynamics on regional and global scales. The analysis of research activities in those fields is made with regards of the current EU practice in the field and the historical frames in the ten countries of interest. The unique traditions and achievements in

  3. Investigation of inhomogeneity and anisotropy in near ground layers of atmospheric air turbulence using image motion monitoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Razi, Ebrahim; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2017-01-01

    In this work the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of real atmospheric turbulence have been investigated using image motion monitoring and differential image motion monitoring methods. For this purpose the light beam of a point source is propagated through the atmospheric turbulence layers in horizontal path and then impinged to a telescope aperture. The telescope and point source were 350 m apart. In front of the telescope's aperture a mask consisting of four subapertures was installed. Image of the point source was formed on a sensitive CCD camera located at the focal plane of the telescope. By displacing CCD camera along the axis of telescope, four distinct images were recorded. Angle of arrival (AA) of each spot was calculated by image processing. Air turbulence causes AA to fluctuate. By comparing AA fluctuation variances of different spots in two directions isotropy and homogeneity of turbulence were studied. Results have shown that atmospheric turbulence in near ground layers is treated as an anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium. In addition, the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of turbulence decreases with the distance from earth surface.

  4. Monitoring Saturn's Upper Atmosphere Density Variations Using Helium 584 Å Airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The study of He 584 Å brightness of Saturn is interesting as the EUV planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in its thermosphere. Resonance scattering of sunlight by He atoms is the principal source of the planetary emission of He 585 Å. The helium is embedded in an absorbing atmosphere of H2 and since it is heavier than the background atmosphere, it's concentration falls off rapidly above the homopause. The scattering region (i.e. where the absorption optical depth in H2 is greatly improved estimate of the mixing ratio of He in the upper atmosphere and below. The second topic addressed is regarding constraining the dynamics in the atmosphere by using the estimate of the He mixing ratio from the main objective. Once we have an estimate of the He mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere that agrees with both occultations and airglow, helium becomes an effective tracer species as any variations in the Cassini UVIS helium data are direct indicator of changes in Kzz i.e., dynamics.

  5. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  6. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter method is discussed for on-line estimation of radioactive release and atmospheric dispersion from a time series of off-site radiation monitoring data. The method is based on a state space approach, where a stochastic system equation describes the dynamics of the plume model...... parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...

  7. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of southern Luxembourg using XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers (PAS) with dimensions adapted to 100 mL accelerated solvent extraction cells were used to study the temporal and spatial variations of 17 PAHs on five sites in the atmosphere of southern Luxembourg. This new design allowed extracting the PAS without emptying the resin from the shelter. PAH analyses were done with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PAS were deployed for 1 year with varying sampling periodicities, and 16 PAHs were detected with concentrations ranging from 1 ng/PAS for chrysene to 9,727 ng/PAS for naphthalene. The PAS were found adapted to the monitoring of temporal and spatial variations for lightweight PAHs (up to four aromatic rings) though not for heavy PAHs with five aromatic rings or more, as these compounds are preferably in the particle phase of the atmosphere and the amount of these PAHs trapped on the PAS will be too low.

  8. Atmospheric monitoring in the mm and sub-mm bands for cosmological observations: CASPER2

    CERN Document Server

    De Petris, Marco; Decina, Barbara; Lamagna, Luca; Pardo, Juan R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological observations from ground at millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelengths are affected by atmospheric absorption and consequent emission. The low and high frequency (sky noise) fluctuations of atmospheric performance imply careful observational strategies and/or instrument technical solutions. Measurements of atmospheric emission spectra are necessary for accurate calibration procedures as well as for site testing statistics. CASPER2, an instrument to explore the 90-450 GHz (3-15 1/cm) spectral region, was developed and verified its operation in the Alps. A Martin-Puplett Interferometer (MPI) operates comparing sky radiation, coming from a field of view (fov) of 28 arcminutes (FWHM) collected by a 62-cm in diameter Pressman-Camichel telescope, with a reference source. The two output ports of the interferometer are detected by two bolometers cooled down to 300 mK inside a wet cryostat. Three different and complementary interferometric techniques can be performed with CASPER2: Amplitude Modulation (AM)...

  9. Scanning Lidar Based Atmospheric Monitoring for Fluorescent Detectors of Cosmic Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Veberic, D; Horváth, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic-ray air-shower fluorescence at extreme energies require precise knowledge of atmospheric conditions. The absolute calibration of the cosmic-ray energy depends on the absorption of fluorescence light between its origin and point of its detection. We review a novel analysis method to reconstruct basic atmospheric parameters from measurements performed by the scanning backscatter lidar system. Applied inversion methods, optical depth, absorption and backscatter coefficient, as well as other parameters that enter the lidar equation are discussed in connection to the attenuation of the light traveling from the shower to fluorescence detector.

  10. Employing GNSS radio occultation for solving the global climate monitoring problem for the fundamental state of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schwaerz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Pock, Christian; Innerkofler, Josef; Proschek, Veronika; Steiner, Andrea; Danzer, Julia; Ladstaedter, Florian; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature is the backbone of atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally. Currently, however, not any atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative reference from weekly to decadal scales so that climate variability and change is not yet reliably monitored, despite of satellite data since the 1970s. We aim to solve this decades-long problem for the fundamental state of the atmosphere, the thermodynamic state of the gas as expressed by air density, pressure, temperature, and tropospheric water vapor, which are the fundamental ECVs for tracking climate change and in fact fundamental to all weather and climate processes. We base the solution on the unique SI-traceable data of the GNSS radio occultation (RO) space geodetic observing system, available since 2001 and scheduled long-term into the future. We introduce a new system modeling and data analysis approach which, in contrast to current RO retrieval chains using classical data inversion, enables us to exploit the traceability to universal time (SI second) and to realize SI-traced profiles of atmospheric ECVs, accounting also for relevant side influences such as from the ionosphere, with unprecedented utility for climate monitoring and science. We work to establish such a trace first-time in form of the Reference Occultation Processing System rOPS, providing reference RO data for calibration/validation and climate applications. This rOPS development is a current cornerstone endeavor at the WEGC Graz over 2013 to 2016, supported also by colleagues from EUMETSAT Darmstadt, ECMWF Reading, DMI Copenhagen, AIUB Berne, UCAR Boulder, JPL Pasadena, and others. The rOPS approach demands to process the full chain from the SI-tied raw data to the ECVs with integrated uncertainty propagation, both of estimated systematic and estimated random

  11. Using a diagnostic soil-plant-atmosphere model for monitoring drought at field to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought assessment is a complex undertaking, requiring monitoring of deficiencies in multiple components of the hydrologic budget. Precipitation anomalies reflect variability in water supply to the land surface, while soil moisture, groundwater and surface water anomalies reflect deficiencies in mo...

  12. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  13. Impact of acid atmosphere deposition on soils : field monitoring and aluminum chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions

  14. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtain

  15. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

  16. Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Lowe, J.C.; McKeegan, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals w

  17. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  18. Passive monitoring of Mt. Etna and Mt. Yasur to probe the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present two case studies in which the influence of atmospheric dynamics on infrasound propagation is studied. We make use of a volcanic infrasound data set that has been recorded at infrasound arrays in the vicinity of Mount Etna, Italy (37 N). In addition, we revisit the Mt. Yasur (22 S) dataset. Respectively, over 6 and 10 years of infrasound observables are compared to theoretical estimates obtained from propagation modeling using existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric databases. Long-term detail comparisons such as presented in this study have been unprecedented and are useful for atmospheric modeling and infrasound propagation studies. While a first-order agreement is found, we report on significant discrepancies around the equinox period and during intervals during which anomalous detections occur during the winter, such as during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs). We present an inversion study in which we make use of measured trace velocity estimates to predict effective sound speed model updates in a Bayesian framework. Such estimates will be compared to independent wind and temperature measurements that are available through the Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) network.

  19. Monitoring atmospheric nitrous oxide background concentrations at Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenjuan; Bian, Lingen; Wang, Can; Zhu, Renbin; Zheng, Xiangdong; Ding, Minghu

    2016-09-01

    At present, continuous observation data for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are still lacking, especially in east Antarctica. In this paper, nitrous oxide background concentrations were measured at Zhongshan Station (69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E), east Antarctica during the period of 2008-2012, and their interannual and seasonal characteristics were analyzed and discussed. The mean N2O concentration was 321.9nL/L with the range of 320.5-324.8nL/L during the five years, and it has been increasing at a rate of 0.29% year(-1). Atmospheric N2O concentrations showed a strong seasonal fluctuation during these five years. The concentrations appeared to follow a downtrend from spring to autumn, and then increased in winter. Generally the highest concentrations occurred in spring. This trend was very similar to that observed at other global observation sites. The overall N2O concentration at the selected global sites showed an increasing annual trend, and the mean N2O concentration in the Northern Hemisphere was slightly higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result could be representative of atmospheric N2O background levels at the global scale. This study provided valuable data for atmospheric N2O concentrations in east Antarctica, which is important to study on the relationships between N2O emissions and climate change.

  20. Real time corrosion monitoring in atmosphere using automated battery driven corrosion loggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosek, T.; Kouril, M.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2008-01-01

    A logger enabling continuous measurement of corrosion rate of selected metals in indoor and outdoor atmospheres has been developed. Principle of the measurement method is based on the increasing electrical resistance of a measuring element made of the material concerned as its cross-sectional are...

  1. Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Kulawik, Susan S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Daube, Bruce; Kort, Eric A.; O'Dell, Christopher; Olsen, Edward T.; Osterman, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder - TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of -0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS

  2. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A

    2016-05-15

    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  3. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Towards Solving the Global Climate Monitoring Problem for the Fundamental State of the Atmosphere with GNSS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schwaerz, M.; Schwarz, J.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Pock, C.; Innerkofler, J.; Proschek, V.; Steiner, A. K.; Danzer, J.; Ladstaedter, F.; Foelsche, U.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature is the backbone of atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally. Currently, however, not any atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative reference from weekly to decadal scales so that climate variability and change is not yet reliably monitored, despite of satellite data since the 1970s. We aim to solve this decades-long problem for the fundamental state of the atmosphere, the thermodynamic state of the gas as expressed by air density, pressure, temperature, and tropospheric water vapor, which are the fundamental ECVs for tracking climate change and in fact fundamental to all weather and climate processes. We base the solution on the unique SI-traceable data of the GNSS radio occultation (RO) observing system, available since 2001 and scheduled long-term into the future. We introduce a new system modeling and data analysis approach which, in contrast to current RO retrieval chains using classical data inversion, enables us to exploit the traceability to universal time (SI second) and to realize SI-traced ECV profiles, accounting also for relevant side influences, with unprecedented utility for climate monitoring and science. We work to establish such a trace first-time in form of the Reference Occultation Processing System rOPS, providing reference RO data for cal/val and climate applications. This rOPS development is a current cornerstone endeavor at the WEGC Graz over 2013 to 2016, supported also by colleagues from EUMETSAT, ECMWF, DMI Copenhagen, UCAR Boulder, JPL Pasadena, and others. The rOPS approach demands to process the full chain from the SI-tied raw data to the ECVs with integrated uncertainty propagation. We first briefly summarize the RO promise along the above lines and where we currently stand in quantifying RO accuracy and long-term stability. We then

  5. Modeling atmospheric transport of CO2 at High Resolution to estimate the potentialities of spaceborne observation to monitor anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Chimot, J.; Klonecki, A.; Prunet, P.; Vinuessa, J.; Nussli, C.; Breon, F.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crucial and urgent need to quantify and monitor anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of CO2. Spaceborne measurements, such as those from GOSAT or the forthcoming OCO-2, or other space missions in preparation, could provide the necessary information, in particular over regions with few in-situ measurements of atmospheric concentration are too scarce. Contrarily to biogenic flux, anthropogenic emissions are highly heterogeneous in space with typical values that vary by several orders of magnitudes. A proper analysis of the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmospheric concentration of CO2 therefore requires a high spatial resolution, typically of a few km. Simulations of the transport of fossil CO2 plumes were performed with a resolution of 1 km over the main industrialized regions of France, and using other models of lower resolution to account for the influence of distant sources advected into the area of interest. The results clearly show the plumes from intense yet localized sources, such as urban areas or power plants, and how their structures vary with the meteorology (wind speed and direction). They also show that the plume from distant sources, such as the large emission from Northern Europe, may sometime mask the local plume, even from large cities like Paris or Lyon. These atmospheric transport simulations are then sampled according to cloud cover, spaceborne instrument sampling and typical errors, to analyze the information content of the remote sensing data and how they can improve the current knowledge on anthropogenic emissions.

  6. Atmospheric ammonia monitoring near Beijing National Stadium from July to October in 2008 by open-path TDLAS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kan, Ruifeng; Xia, Hui

    2009-07-01

    Gaseous ammonia is the most abundant alkaline trace gas in the atmosphere. As ammonia plays an important role in acid deposition and aerosol formation, it influences the regional air quality and atmospheric visibility. TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy)is a method to obtain the spectroscopy of single molecule absorption line in the characteristic absorption spectrum region as the characteristic of the distributed feed back (DFB) diode laser with narrow linewidth and tunability, which makes it possible to detect trace-gas qualitatively or quantificationally. The NH3 in-situ monitoring instrument based on TDLAS and long open path technology have been developed combining with wavelength modulation and harmonic detection techniques to obtain the necessary detection sensitivity. This instrument has been used to measure atmospheric NH3 concentration at an urban site near Beijing National Stadium from July to October in 2008, especially in the period of Beijing Olympics and Paralympics. The continuously monitoring results show that the atmospheric NH3 concentration variation has an obvious diurnal periodicity in the urban of Beijing. First of all, the general diurnal variation rule is the concentration decreased to the minimum in the daytime, and then increased to the maximum at night. Moreover, the NH3 peak concentration decreased obviously at the beginning of the Beijing Olympics then it kept descending during the Paralympics. The obtained maximum of NH3 is between 20.31μg/m3~ 48.54μg/m3 with the daily average concentration between 12.6μg/m3~27.5μg/m3. During these three months, Air Quality Assurance Scheme for the Olympics (AQASO) was implemented through the joint actions of Beijing Municipal Government and the five neighboring provinces/municipalities in north China. The measures such as auto restriction and plant ejection-decreasing are carried out in Beijing. In conclusion, the open-path TDLAS instrument is suitable for atmospheric trace

  7. Development of an Implementation Plan for Atmospheric Carbon Monitoring in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Riley, William J.; Tonse, Shaheen

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the design of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration measurements that, in combination with other measurements and models, would be used to quantify regionally distributed CO{sub 2} exchanges from California's terrestrial ecosystems and CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Using models of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (NEE), fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions, and regional meteorology, we predict CO{sub 2} concentration ''signals'' in the atmosphere. The predictions of NEE exhibit spatial and temporal variations that are controlled by land cover and climate. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions from metropolitan areas are the strongest localized sources of CO{sub 2} while weaker but spatially extensive fossil emissions are present throughout the Central Valley. We subdivide the CO{sub 2} sources into four components: NEE inside and outside CA, and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inside and outside CA. Maps of predicted atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration signals from these four sources largely mirror the instantaneous emissions near strong sources but plumes of CO{sub 2} enriched or depleted air are predicted to advect far from their sources. We then identify a baseline set of observing stations from existing and possible future sites that could be used to characterize in-state and out-of-state ecosystem and fossil fuel contributions to atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. For each of the stations we calculate mean midday concentration signals with standard deviation for each month and source. We also calculate the covariance of the signal due to NEE inside CA with each of the other signals to quantify how much of the signal from NEE inside CA might be readily separable from the other signals. On the basis of these predictions, we identify new observing stations and a measurement protocol that, in combination with existing stations, would provide data to estimate NEE within CA. Although beyond the scope of this project

  8. Monitoring of radiation in atmosphere, water and a food chain. Results in the Netherlands in 1991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman PJM; Aldenkamp FJ; de Vries LJ; Drost RMS; Tijsmans MH; Koolwijk AC; Ockhuizen A

    1993-01-01

    This 1991 annual report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in biosphere samples taken in the Netherlands. The National Measurement Programme (NMP), considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biospere, includes the monitoring of air, deposition and surfac

  9. Laser technology to monitor atmospheric pollution. Tecnologia laser para medicion de la contaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerao, A.; Caceci, M.

    1993-01-01

    Air quality and pollution can be monitored in a reliable way using LIDAR. Light detection and measurement by using a Laser beam can identify gases, particles, smoke, water vapor and other contaminants. Radiance and directionality of the laser beam are useful for this application. Activities of CISE in this field are presented.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  11. Comparison of in situ and columnar aerosol spectral measurements during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006: testing parameterizations for estimating aerosol fine mode properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Atkinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006, the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD instruments, one located on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown (RHB and the other located at the University of Houston, Moody Tower (UHMT. An AERONET sunphotometer was also located at the UHMT to measure the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD. The σep data were used to extract the extinction Ångström exponent (åep, a measure of the wavelength dependence of σep. There was general agreement between the åep (and to a lesser degree σep measurements by the two spatially separated CRD instruments during multi-day periods, suggesting a regional scale consistency of the sampled aerosols. Two spectral models are applied to the σep and AOD data to extract the fine mode fraction of extinction (η and the fine mode effective radius (Reff,f. These two parameters are robust measures of the fine mode contribution to total extinction and the fine mode size distribution, respectively. The results of the analysis are compared to Reff,f values extracted using AERONET V2 retrievals and calculated from in situ particle size measurements on the RHB and at UHMT. During a time period when fine mode aerosols dominated the extinction over a large area extending from Houston/Galveston Bay and out into the Gulf of Mexico, the various methods for obtaining Reff,f agree qualitatively (showing the same temporal trend and quantitatively (pooled standard deviation = 28 nm.

  12. Comparison of in situ and columnar aerosol spectral measurements during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006: testing parameterizations for estimating aerosol fine mode properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Atkinson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006, the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD instruments, one located on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown (RHB and the other located at the University of Houston, Moody Tower (UHMT. An AERONET sunphotometer was also located at the UHMT to measure the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD. The σep data were used to extract the extinction Ångström exponent (åep, a measure of the wavelength dependence of σep. There was general agreement between the åep (and to a lesser degree σep measurements by the two spatially separated CRD instruments during multi-day periods, suggesting a regional scale consistency of the sampled aerosols. Two spectral models are applied to the σep and AOD data to extract the fine mode fraction of extinction (η and the fine mode effective radius (Reff f. These two parameters are robust measures of the fine mode contribution to total extinction and the fine mode size distribution respectively. The results of the analysis are compared to Reff f values extracted using AERONET V2 retrievals and calculated from in situ particle size measurements on the RHB and at UHMT. During a time period when fine mode aerosols dominated the extinction over a large area extending from Houston/Galveston Bay and out into the Gulf of Mexico, the various methods for obtaining Reff f agree qualitatively (showing the same temporal trend and quantitatively (pooled standard deviation

  13. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations the CSIRO (Australia) monitoring program from aircraft 1972 - 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsmore, D.J.; Pearman, G.I. [Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Victoria (Australia). Division of Atmospheric Research

    1984-09-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Australia-New Zealand region and as far south as Antarctica for the period 1972-1981. The samples were collected from aircraft over a large range of latitudes and altitudes. The sampling program has been based on the cooperation of the Australia Department of Transport, Quantas Airways, Trans Australia Airlines, the United States, New Zealand and Australian Air Forces and occasional chartering of light aircraft for special purposes.

  14. Monitoring of leaked CO2 through sediment, water column and atmosphere in sub-seabed CCS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitashima, K.; Sakamoto, A.; Maea, Y.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 capture and storage in sub-seabed geological formations (sub-seabed CCS) is currently being studied as a feasible option to mitigate the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In implementing sub-seabed CCS, detecting and monitoring the impact of the sequestered CO2 on the ocean environment is highly important. The first controlled CO2 release experiment, entitled 'Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage (QICS)', took place in Ardmucknish Bay, Oban, in May-July 2012. We applied the in-situ pH/pCO2/ORP sensor to the QICS experiment for detection and monitoring of leaked CO2, and carried out several observations. The on-line sensor that was connected by 400m of RS422 cable was deployed close to the CO2 leakage (bubbling) point, and the fluctuations of pH, pCO2 and ORP were monitored in real-time in a observation van on land. Three sets of off-line sensors were also placed on seafloor in respective points (release point, and two low impacted regions at 25m and 75m distant) for three months. The long-term monitoring of pH in sediment at 50cm depth under the seafloor was conducted. The spear type electrode was stabbed into sediment by diver near the CO2 leakage point. Wide-area mapping surveys of pH, pCO2 and ORP in seawater around the leakage point were carried out by AUV (REMUS-100) that some chemical sensors were installed in. The AUV cruised along the grid line in two layers of 4m and 2m above the seafloor during both of periods of low tide and high tide. Atmospheric CO2 in sea surface above the leakage point was observed by the LI-COR CO2 Analyzer. The analyzer was attached to the bow of ship, and the ship navigated a wide-area along a grid observation line during both of periods of low tide and high tide.

  15. How Enhancing Atmospheric Monitoring and Modelling can be Effective for the Stockholm Convention on POPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guardans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the environment, and in organisms including humans, is a serious public health and environmental problem, even at low levels and poses a challenging scientific problem. The Stockholm Convention on POPs (SC entered into force in 2004 and is a large international effort under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP to facilitate cooperation in monitoring, modeling and the design of effective and fair ways to deal with POPs globally. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing effectiveness evaluation (EE work aimed at the assessment and enhancement of the effectiveness of the actions undertaken under the SC. First we consider some aspects related to the monitoring of POPs in the environment and then briefly review modeling frameworks that have been used to simulate long range transport (LRT of POPs. In the final sections we describe the institutional arrangements providing the conditions for this work to unfold now and some suggestions for it in the future. A more effective use of existing monitoring data could be made if scientists who deposited them in publicly available and supervised sites were rewarded in academic and professional terms. We also suggest the development of multi-media, nested, Lagrangian models to improve the understanding of changes over time in the environment and individual organisms.

  16. Atmospheric metal pollution monitored by spherical moss bags: a case study of Armadale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, F A; Lloyd, O L

    1986-01-01

    To supplement epidemiological investigations into the mortality from respiratory cancer in the small industrial town of Armadale, central Scotland, spherical moss bags were used to study the deposition of atmospheric metal pollution there during a period of 17 months. High concentrations of most metals were found in areas close to the local steel foundry. High concentrations of some metals were also found in the north/northeast of the town. Temporal variations in the metal deposition patterns during the survey-period were observed. By means of statistical analyses, those metals were indicated which were probably emitted from the steel foundry. The scientific and financial advantages of using this method of low technology sampling in epidemiological studies are discussed. PMID:3780627

  17. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  18. Monitoring the effects of atmospheric ethylene near polyethylene manufacturing plants with two sensitive plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Berge, W.F. ten; Jansen, B.P

    2003-05-01

    Atmospheric ethylene from polyethylene manufacturing plants adversely affected the number of flowers and growth of field-grown marigold and petunia. - Data of a multi-year (1977-1983) biomonitoring programme with marigold and petunia around polyethylene manufacturing plants was analysed to assess plant responses to atmospheric ethylene and to determine the area at risk for the phytotoxic effects of this pollutant. In both species, flower formation and growth were severely reduced close to the emission sources and plant performance improved with increasing distance. Plants exposed near the border of the research area had more flowers than the unexposed control while their growth was normal. Measurements of ethylene concentrations at a border site revealed that the growing season mean was 61.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 1982 and 15.6 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 1983. In terms of number of flowers, petunia was more sensitive than marigold and adverse effects were observed within ca. 400 m distance from the sources for marigold and within ca. 460 m for petunia. The area at risk (ca. 870 m) for ethylene-induced growth reduction was also limited to the industrial zone. Plants were more sensitive to ethylene in terms of growth reduction than in terms of inhibition of flowering. In the Netherlands, maximum permissible levels of ethylene are currently based on information from laboratory and greenhouse studies. Our results indicate that these levels are rather conservative in protecting field-grown plants against ethylene-induced injury near polyethylene manufacturing plants.

  19. An online monitoring system for atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) based on stripping coil and ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Cheng; Yafang Cheng; Keding Lu; Hang Su; Qiang Yang; Yikan Zou; Yanran Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A new instrument for measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) was developed,consisting of a double-wail glass stripping coil sampler coupled with ion chromatography (SC-IC).SC-IC is featured by small size (50 × 35 × 25 cm) and modular construction,including three independent parts:the sampling unit,the transfer and supporting unit,and the detection unit.High collection efficiency (> 99%) was achieved with 25 μmol/L Na2CO3 as absorption solution even in the presence of highly acidic compounds.This instrument has a detection limit of 8 pptv at 15 min time resolution,with a measurement uncertainty of 7%.Potentiai interferences from NOx,NO2+SO2,NO2+VOCs,HONO+O3,HNO3,peroxyacetyl nitrite (PAN) and particle nitrite were quantified in laboratory studies and were found to be insignificant under typical atmospheric conditions.Within the framework of the 3C-STAR project,inter-comparison between the SC-IC and LOPAP (long path liquid absorption photometer) was conducted at a rurai site in the Pearl River Delta.Good agreement was achieved between the two instruments over three weeks.Both instruments determined a clear diurnai profile of ambient HONO concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5 ppbv.However,deviations were found for low ambient HONO concentrations (i.e.<0.3 ppbv),which cannot be explained by previous investigated interference species.To accurately determine the HONO budget under illuminated conditions,more intercomparison of HONO measurement techniques is still needed in future studies,especiaily at low HONO concentrations.

  20. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma. Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  1. The monitoring of atmospheric mercury species in the Southern Indian Ocean at Amsterdam Island (38°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barret M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of oceans in the global cycle of mercury is still poorly characterized, mainly because of a lack a long-term data on atmospheric mercury concentrations in the remote Southern Ocean. In the frame of GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System, we present here the first results from a new monitoring station at Amsterdam Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. For the period January to April 2012, we recorded mean concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate-bounded mercury (PHg of 1.03 ng m−3, 0.37 and 0.34 pg m−3 respectively. While GEM concentrations showed little variations, RGM and PHg exhibited fast variations with alternation of value below the instrumental detection limit and maximum values up to 4 pg m−3.

  2. Comparative study of the suitability of two lichen species for trace element atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Lichens have been widely used in monitoring studies. Consequently, it is very useful to study the suitability of lichen species to monitor pollutants allowing in this way the best choice. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of trace elements by two epiphytic lichen species Canoparmelia texana (Tuck) Elix and Hale and Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Five samples of each species were collected during the period from November 2010 in a same site far from downtown Sao Paulo city. Lichens collected from tree barks were cleaned, freeze-dried, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Aliquots of lichen samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a digital spectrum analyzer. Concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined in both lichen species. The results demonstrated that both species can be used for evaluating air quality. The element concentrations showed difference between lichen species and also among their sampling periods. These differences may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms of element absorption by lichens as well as various other factors that affect their element accumulation. The comparative evaluation made calculating the ratios between C. texana species sample and that in Usnea amblyoclada for elemental concentrations indicated that, in general, foliose C. texana present similar or higher concentrations than those presented by fruticose Usnea. (author)

  3. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  4. ANITA: The European Technology Demonstrator for Trace Gas Monitoring in the International Space Station Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gijsbert; Mosebach, Herbert; Honne, Atle

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of toxic or otherwise harmful trace gases in a spacecraft cabin is a very serious concern in terms of health and safety of the crew. Much progress has been made in developing techniques for monitoring the air quality on board and in near-real-time. The technique developed in Europe has reached the state of an in-flight technology demonstrator. ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) Spectrometry. ANITA is calibrated to identify and quantify quasi online more than 30 contaminants at low ppm (part per million) or sub-ppm detection limits.ANITA is a European Space Agency (ESA) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cooperative programme.ANITA will be launched with Jules Verne, the maiden flight of the Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) currently scheduled for June 2007.

  5. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  6. Atmospheric air density analysis with Meteo-40S wind monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariea Dănuţ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the wind potential of wind turbine sites, the wind resource maps can be used for mean annual wind speed, wind speed frequency distribution and mean annual wind power density determination. The general evaluation of the wind resource and the wind turbine ratings are based on the standard air density measured at sea level and at 15°C, ρs=1.225 kg/m3. Based on the experimental data obtained for a continental climate specific location, this study will present the relative error between the standard air density and the density of the dry and the moist air. Considering a cold day, for example on Friday 10th February 2017, on 1-second measurement rate and 10-minute measuring interval starting at 16:20, the mean relative errors obtained are 10.4145% for dry air, and 10.3634% for moist air. Based on these results, a correction for temperature, atmospheric air pressure and relative humidity should be always considered for wind resource assessment, as well as for the predicting the wind turbines performance.

  7. Optical monitoring of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films upon atmospheric exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Kiran; Zhao, Dewei; Cimaroli, Alex; Ke, Weijun; Yan, Yanfa; Podraza, Nikolas J.

    2016-10-01

    CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films of interest for photovoltaic (PV) devices have been prepared by (i) vapor deposition and (ii) solution processing. Complex dielectric function (ε  =  ε 1  +  iε 2) spectra and structural parameters of the films have been extracted using near infrared to ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry. In situ real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) over a 48 h period has been performed on vapor deposited CH3NH3PbI3 after the deposition in normal atmospheric laboratory ambient conditions. Analysis of RTSE data for vapor deposited CH3NH3PbI3 film prepared under un-optimized conditions identifies phase segregated PbI2 and CH3NH3I at the substrate/film interface and unreacted PbI2 and CH3NH3I on the film surface. This analysis also provides the time dependence of the effective thicknesses of perovskite film, unreacted components, and phase segregated layers to track CH3NH3PbI3 decomposition.

  8. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  10. Characterizing dust aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts in Northwest China: monitoring network and field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Matimin, A.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    TheTaklimakan, Gurbantunggut and BadainJaran Deserts with the total area of 43.8×104 km2 in Northwest China are the major dust emission sources in Central Asia. Understanding Central Asian dust emissions and the interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer has an important implication for regional and global climate and environment changes. In order to explore these scientific issues, a monitoring network of 63 sites was established over the vast deserts (Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert) in Northwest China for the comprehensive measurements of dust aerosol emission, transport and deposition as well as the atmospheric boundary layer including the meteorological parameters of boundary layer, surface radiation, surface heat fluxes, soil parameters, dust aerosol properties, water vapor profiles, and dust emission. Based on the monitoring network, the field experiments have been conducted to characterize dust aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts. The experiment observation indicated that depth of the convective boundary layer can reach 5000m on summer afternoons. In desert regions, the diurnal mean net radiation was effected significantly by dust weather, and sensible heat was much greater than latent heat accounting about 40-50% in the heat balance of desert. The surface soil and dust size distributions of Northwest China Deserts were obtained through widely collecting samples, results showed that the dominant dust particle size was PM100within 80m height, on average accounting for 60-80% of the samples, with 0.9-2.5% for PM0-2.5, 3.5-7.0% for PM0-10 and 5.0-14.0% for PM0-20. The time dust emission of Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert accounted for 0.48%, 7.3%×10-5and 1.9% of the total time within a year, and the threshold friction velocity for dust emission were 0.22-1.06m/s, 0.29-1.5m/s and 0.21-0.59m/s, respectively.

  11. Retrieval of temperature profiles from CHAMP for climate monitoring: intercomparison with Envisat MIPAS and GOMOS and different atmospheric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gobiet

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and evaluates a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS radio occultation (RO retrieval scheme particularly aimed at delivering bias-free atmospheric parameters for climate monitoring and research. The focus of the retrieval is on the sensible use of a priori information for careful high-altitude initialisation in order to maximise the usable altitude range. The RO retrieval scheme has been meanwhile applied to more than five years of data (September 2001 to November 2006 from the German CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload for geoscientific research (CHAMP satellite. In this study it was validated against various correlative datasets including the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS and the Global Ozone Monitoring for Occultation of Stars (GOMOS sensors on Envisat, five different atmospheric analyses, and the operational CHAMP retrieval product from GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ Potsdam. In the global mean within 10 to 30 km altitude we find that the present validation observationally constrains the potential RO temperature bias to be <0.2 K. Latitudinally resolved analyses show biases to be observationally constrained to <0.2–0.5 K up to 35 km in most cases, and up to 30 km in any case, even if severely biased (about 10 K or more a priori information is used in the high altitude initialisation of the retrieval. No evidence is found for the 10–35 km altitude range of RO bias sources other than those potentially propagated downward from initialisation, indicating that the widely quoted RO promise of "unbiasedness and long-term stability due to intrinsic self-calibration" can indeed be realized given care in the data processing to strictly limit structural uncertainty. The results demonstrate that an adequate high-altitude initialisation technique is crucial for accurate stratospheric RO retrievals and that still common methods of initialising the involved hydrostatic integral with an upper boundary

  12. SWING-UAV: Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG from an UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, A.; Constantin, D.; Van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Maes, J.; Mingireanu, F.; Voiculescu, M.; Murariu, G.; Georgescu, L. P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new instrument, the Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING), dedicated to trace gases mapping at high spatial resolution from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The system maps trace gases fields based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. The payload's weight, size and power consumption are respectively 920g, 27*12*12 cm3, and 6W. The custom-built UAV wingspan is 2.5m and can reach an altitude of 3km during 2 hours, flying at 60 km/h in preprogrammed tracks. Considering the 120° swath of the instrument, it is able to cover an area of 20*20 km2 in less than one hour. The spectra are analyzed using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and several species are detectable. Our primary objective is NO2, a major pollutant and a key species in tropospheric chemistry for which simulations show that a 200*200m ground resolution is possible in polluted zones. We show first measurements of NO2 in Belgium and Romania. Such measurements are complementary to ground-based instruments and, besides studying air quality and NOx sources, are valuable for satellite validation. Another promising application is monitoring of SO2 emissions from volcanoes.

  13. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  14. BOU: Development of a low-cost tethered balloon sensing system for monitoring the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Rodrigo; Lopez-Grifol, Alvaro; Martinez-Villagrassa, Daniel; Simó, Gemma; Wenger, Burkhard; Dünnermann, Jens; Jiménez, Maria Antonia; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-04-01

    The study of the atmospheric boundary layer, the lowest part of the atmosphere, and the processes that occur therein often requires the observation of vertical profiles of the main meteorological variables, i.e. air temperature and humidity, wind vector and barometric pressure. In particular, when the interest is focused on the air-surface interactions, a high vertical resolution over the first 500 m is required for the observations to describe the physical processes that occur immediately above the surface. Typically, these needs are covered with the use of captive balloons, which are helium-filled balloons tethered to a winch on the ground and a sensor package suspended a short distance below the balloon. Since the commercial version of such instrumental platforms are scarce and expensive, a new low-cost device has been developed in the last years: BOU (tethered Balloon sonde OWL-UIB). In this paper, we focus on the sensor package and data acquisition system part, that is able to fulfill the low-cost requirements. The system uses a low-cost Arduino Mega board as the processor, and stores all the data in a SD card, though an RF connection is also possible but more unreliable. The system has been configured to sample temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind speed, having also a magnetometer and an accelerometer. Sampling time was 1 second, though it was possible to set it faster. It is worth mentioning that the system is easily reconfigurable, and more sensors can be added. The system is powered by a Polymer battery of 1800mA , allowing the system to run continously for more than 6 hours. The temperature is acquired using three different sensors (a HYT 271 calibrated sensor with an accuracy of ±0.2 °C, plus the internal temperature sensors of the wind and pressure sensors, with accuracies around ±0.5 °C). The humidity is also sensed using the calibrated HYT 271 sensor, which features an accuracy of ±1.8%. Air pressure is sensed using a BMP080 sensor, which

  15. Ionic liquids as passive monitors of an atmosphere rich in mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mondragon, M.A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [ESIME Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    An ionic liquid (IL) is a compound at dynamical equilibrium in which at any time more than 99.99% of it is shifted toward the ionic rather than the molecular species. ILs have raised considerable attention during the past few years due to their extremely low vapor pressure, good electrolytic properties and wide electrochemical window. Also, they remain liquid at a wide range of temperature. ILs are able to dissolve some non polar chemical species as well as some very polar ones. Their main applications have been so far in environmental chemistry and can be considered as environmental friendly solvents. Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in the atmosphere, generally present in three forms: elemental (Hg{sup 0}), oxidized, and particulate-bounded. It is a very toxic element and its assessment in the environment is highly desired, however due to its volatility is an element difficult to detect by conventional sampling methods. This paper presents the results of a research on mercury binding using ILs. The following ILs were tested: 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM] [SCN]. Known amounts of ILs were introduced, in the form of bulk or thin coating layer, to a 70 mL glass tube with a known amount of metallic Hg and sealed with a PTFE Registered-Sign cap. The concentration of Hg in the IL was measured after 12 weeks of exposure. Total Hg determination was performed by particle X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the spectroscopic properties due to the Hg binding were followed by Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The sorption efficiency for the ILs under different experimental conditions is discussed.

  16. Analysis of passive-sampler monitored atmospheric ammonia at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Yao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weekly/biweekly concentrations of atmospheric NH3 were collected using passive samplers at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada during the period from June 2006 to March 2007 with tens of sites running as early as March 2006. The annual average of NH3 (AAN at all the sites across southwestern Ontario was over 1 µg m–3, a value that was recently proposed as the new critical level for protecting vegetation. High ANN values (3.6–6.1 µg m–3 were observed at eight sites located inside the intensive livestock production zones. The AAN values at the sites across southeastern Ontario were generally less than 1 µg m–3 and the values were less than 0.4 µg m–3 at non-agricultural sites. Regional transport from the southwest region to the southeast region was identified to be the main contributor to the observed NH3 at the southeastern non-agricultural sites. However, different transport mechanisms were proposed in different seasons. The transport of NH3 produced through bi-directional air-surface exchange along air mass trajectories was believed to be the main mechanism in the hot seasons while the transport of NH4NO3 produced at source locations followed by its evaporation at receptor sites was thought to be dominant in the cold seasons. A sharp increase in NH3 concentration was surprisingly observed at 20 out of the 74 sites during the coldest two weeks when ambient temperature was lower than −7 °C, and cannot be explained by known sources or with existing knowledge. Recently developed NH3 emission inventory for southern Ontario was also evaluated with the measurement data and emissions within two small zones were identified to be potentially underestimated.

  17. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Costa, Maria João; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2009-07-20

    The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)). NO(2) confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 +/- 0.07) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O(3) presents the maximum total column of (433 +/- 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 +/- 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O(3) total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO(2) and O(3) column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data

  18. Concept of a space optoelectronic system for environmental monitoring of the near-earth space, atmosphere, and earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltsov, Anatoli V.; Karasev, Vladimir I.; Kolotkov, Vjacheslav V.; Kondranin, Timothy V.

    1997-06-01

    The sharp increase of the man-induced pressure on the environment and hence the need to predict and monitor natural anomalies makes global monitoring of the ecosphere of planet Earth an issue of vital importance. The notion of the ecosphere covers three basic shells closely interacting with each other: the near-Earth space, the atmosphere and the Earth surface. In the near-Earth space (covering 100 to 2000 km altitudes) the primary objects of monitoring are: functioning artificial space objects, the fragments of their constructions or space rubbish (which by estimation amounts to 3.5 million pieces including 30,000 to 70,000 objects having dimensions sufficient for heavy damaging or even destroying functioning space objects) and objects of space origin (asteroids, meteorites and comets) whose trajectories come closely enough to the Earth. Maximum concentrations of space rubbish observed on orbits with altitudes of 800, 1000 and 1500 km and inclinations of 60 to 100 deg. are related in the first place to spacecraft launch requirements. Taking into account the number of launches implemented by different countries in the framework of their own space programs the probability of collision of functioning spacecraft with space rubbish may be estimation increase from (1.5 - 3.5)% at present to (15 - 40)% by 2020. Besides, registration of space radiation flow intensity and the solar activity is no less important in this space area. Subject to control in the atmosphere are time and space variations in temperature fields, humidity, tracing gas concentrations, first of all ozone and greenhouse gases, the state of the cloud cover, wind velocity, etc. The range of objects to be under environmental management of Earth surface is just as diverse and essentially should include the state of the surface and the near-surface layer of seas and oceans, internal reservoirs, the cryosphere and the land surface along with vegetation cover, natural resources and human activities. No matter

  19. Design of the National Trends Network for monitoring the chemistry of atmospheric precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.K.; Wilson, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (10 years minimum) of the chemistry of wet deposition will be conducted at National Trends Network (NTN) sites across the United States. Precipitation samples will be collected at sites that represent broad regional characteristics. Design of the NTN considered four basic elements during construction of a model to distribute 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 sites. The modeling oriented design was supplemented with guidance developed during the course of the site selection process. Ultimately, a network of 151 sites was proposed. The basic elements of the design are: (1) Assurance that all areas of the country are represented in the network on the basis of regional ecological properties (96 sites); (2) Placement of additional sites east of the Rocky Mountains to better define high deposition gradients (27 sites); (3) Placement of sites to assure that potentially sensitive regions are represented (15 sites); (4) Placement of sites to allow for other considerations, such as urban area effects (5 sites), intercomparison with Canada (3 sites), and apparent disparities in regional coverage (5 sites). Site selection stressed areas away from urban centers, large point sources, or ocean influences. Local factors, such as stable land ownership, nearby small emission sources (about 10 km), and close-by roads and fireplaces (about 0.5 km) were also considered. All proposed sites will be visited as part of the second phase of the study.

  20. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  1. 下调肝星状细胞 MACC1对胃癌细胞迁移侵袭能力的影响%Effect of down -regulating MACC1 by shRNA on invasion and migration of gastric carci-noma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁园; 朱正秋

    2017-01-01

    Objective:By in vitro experiment to explore the regulatory effect of MACC1 gene silencing in HSC expressα-SMA,MMP -2,MMP -9 and HGF,and its effects on ability of migration and invasion of co -cultured gastric carcinoma cells.Methods:To construct targeting MACC1 gene eukaryotic expression interference plasmid (MACC1 -shRNA)and non -specific irrelevant interference plasmid (shNC),transient transfect them into HSC with lipofectamine -2000,named low -expression group(shRNA)and negative control group (NC)accordingly,non-transfected HSC treated as a blank control group(Blank -Ctrl).The above three groups of cells were cultured in accordance with routinel,the expression levels of MACC1,α-SMA,HGF,MMP -2 and MMP -9 in human hepatic stellate cells were detected by Western blot and RT -PCR.Three groups of cells were co -cultured with MGC803 gastric carcinoma cells in vitro,the capabilities of migration and invasion were measured by transwell assay.Results:Western -Blot results showed that the expression of MACC1,α-SMA,HGF,MMP -2 and MMP -9 protein in HSC was significantly lower than that in the negative group and blank control group after transfection of MACC1 -shRNA (P 0.05).Conclusion:Silencing MACC1 in hepatic stellate cells, can inhibit the expression of MMP -2,MMP -9 and HGF,and decrease the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells in co -culture.%目的:通过体外实验探讨肝星状细胞(hepatic stellate cell,HSC)MACC1基因沉默后调节肝星状细胞激活标志物α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-smooth muscle actin,α-SMA)、肝细胞生长因子(hepatocyte growth fac-tor,HGF)、基质金属蛋白酶2(matrix metalloproteinase -2,MMP -2)、基质金属蛋白酶9(matrix metalloprotein-ase -9,MMP -9)的表达,以及对共培养胃癌细胞迁移侵袭能力的影响。方法:利用 RNA 干扰技术,构建针对MACC1基因的真核表达干涉质粒(MACC1-shRNA)、非特异性无关

  2. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.

  3. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  4. IR heterodyne spectrometer MILAHI for continuous monitoring observatory of Martian and Venusian atmospheres at Mt. Haleakalā, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiromu; Aoki, Shohei; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Murata, Isao; Sonnabend, Guido; Sornig, Manuela; Okano, Shoichi; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Ritter, Joseph M.; Kagitani, Masato; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Makoto; Takami, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    A new Mid-Infrared Laser Heterodyne Instrument (MILAHI) with >106 resolving power at 7-12 μm was developed for continuous monitoring of planetary atmospheres by using dedicated ground-based telescopes for planetary science at Mt. Haleakalā, Hawaii. Room-temperature-type quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that cover wavelength ranges of 7.69-7.73, 9.54-9.59, and 10.28-10.33 μm have been newly installed as local oscillators to allow observation of CO2, CH4, H2O2, H2O, and HDO. Modeling and predictions by radiative transfer code gave the following scientific capabilities and measurement sensitivities of the MILAHI. (1) Temperature profiles are achieved at altitudes of 65-90 km on Venus, and the ground surface to 30 km on Mars. (2) New wind profiles are provided at altitudes of 75-90 km on Venus, and 5-25 km on Mars. (3) Direct measurements of the mesospheric wind and temperature are obtained from the Doppler-shifted emission line at altitudes of 110 km on Venus and 75 km on Mars. (4) Detections of trace gases and isotopic ratios are performed without any ambiguity of the reproducing the terrestrial atmospheric absorptions in the observed wavelength range. A HDO measurement of twice the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) can be obtained by 15-min integration, while H2O of 75 ppm is provided by 3.62-h integration. The detectability of the 100 ppb-CH4 on Mars corresponds to an integration time of 32 h.

  5. Digital Measurement Analysis of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring%大气环境监测的数字化测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂晓晖

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy ,the frequent occurrence of haze makes air quality getting worse .At-mospheric pollution has become an important issue of universal concern .Real-time monitoring of the atmospheric environment and strict measurements of atmospheric environmental changes is a necessary prerequisite for law enforcement and governance . In this paper ,the necessities of digital measurement of atmospheric environmental monitoring are analyzed and discussed ,giv-ing more effective way to control the quality of the environmental monitoring work and ensure the accuracy and reliability of monitoring data .%随着社会经济的快速发展,雾霾频繁发生,空气质量超标。大气环境污染已成为全民关注的重要问题。对大气环境进行实时监测,严格测量大气环境变化和质量,是大气环境执法和治理的必要前提。本文对大气环境监测的数字化测量的必要性进行分析讨论,更有效的对环境监测工作进行质量控制,保证监测数据的准确性和可靠性。

  6. Atmospheric Correction and Vicarious Calibration of Oceansat-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM Data in Coastal Case 2 Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin Ladner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocean Color Monitor (OCM provides radiance measurements in eight visible and near-infrared bands, similar to the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS but with higher spatial resolution. For small- to moderate-sized coastal lakes and estuaries, where the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution of SeaWiFS is inadequate, the OCM provides a good alternative because of its higher spatial resolution (240 × 360 m and an exact repeat coverage of every two days. This paper describes a detailed step-by-step atmospheric correction procedure for OCM data applicable to coastal Case 2 waters. This development was necessary as accurate results could not be obtained for our Case 2 water study area in coastal Louisiana with OCM data by using existing atmospheric correction software packages. In addition, since OCM-retrieved radiances were abnormally low in the blue wavelength region, a vicarious calibration procedure was developed. The results of our combined vicarious calibration and atmospheric correction procedure for OCM data were compared with the results from the SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS software package outputs for SeaWiFS and OCM data. For Case 1 waters, our results matched closely with SeaDAS results. For Case 2 waters, our results demonstrated closure with in situ radiometric measurements, while SeaDAS produced negative normalized water leaving radiance (nLw and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs. In summary, our procedure resulted in valid nLw and Rrs values for Case 2 waters using OCM data, providing a reliable method for retrieving useful nLw and Rrs values which can be used to develop ocean color algorithms for in-water substances (e.g., pigments, suspended sediments, chromophoric dissolved organic matter, etc. at relatively high spatial resolution in regions where

  7. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  8. Pore pressure regime leading to shallow failures in a mountain slope: monitoring and interpretation by soil-atmosphere coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaunat, Jean; Hürlimann, Marcel; Luna, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The study deals with the onset of debris flows in the "El Rebaixader" basin, located in South Central Pyrenees. The initiation area of debris flows is located on a lateral moraine with a thickness of tens of meters, in which torrential processes and other shallow mass movements have generated a large scarp with steep slopes. To follow slope evolution towards shallow failure, different sensors have been installed to monitor meteorological data and hydraulic variables at shallow depths (positive and negative pore pressure, water content). Measurements are interpreted by means of a thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled Finite Element code provided with a specific boundary condition to model water mass and heat flux exchanged between the ground and the atmosphere, including infiltration, evaporation, sensible heat and solar radiation. Results evidence the different modes of pore regime variation imposed, on the one hand, by surface infiltration and evaporation and, on the other hand, by the settlement of a slope parallel flow in a loose layer at some decimetres depth. As a conclusion, the analysis highlights the strong dependency of slope stability to the water regime taking place in slightly more permeable horizons connected to the top of the catchment area rather than to surficial climatic input. On this basis, some keys about debris flow mitigation are finally put forward.

  9. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-06-23

    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy.

  10. Applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2009-08-15

    The applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) prototype, based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain developed in a previous study, in monitoring quality of modified atmosphere packed (MAP) minced beef was evaluated at conditions simulating the chill chain. At all storage temperatures examined (0, 5, 10, 15 degrees C), the results showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominant bacteria and can be used as a good spoilage index of MAP minced beef. The end of product's shelf life as revealed by the sensory evaluation coincided with a LAB population level of 7 log(10) CFU/g. For all temperatures tested, the growth of L. sakei in the TTI resembled closely the growth of LAB in the meat product, with similar temperature dependence of the micro(max) and thus similar activation energy values calculated as 111.90 and 106.90 kJ/mol, for the two systems, respectively. In addition, the end point of TTI colour change coincided with the time of sensory rejection point of the beef product during its storage under isothermal chilled temperature conditions. The estimated activation energy, E(alpha), values obtained for parameters related to the response of DeltaE (total colour change of the TTI) describing the kinetics of colour change of the TTI during isothermal storage (i.e. the maximum specific rate of DeltaEpsilon evolution curve, micro(DeltaEpsilon), and also the reciprocal of t(i), time at which half of the maximum DeltaEpsilon is reached), were 112.77 and 127.28 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, the application of the microbial TTI in monitoring the quality deterioration of MAP minced beef due to spoilage was further evaluated under dynamic conditions of storage, using two separate low temperature periodic changing scenarios, resembling the actual conditions occurring in the distribution chill chain. The results showed that the end point of TTI, after storage at those fluctuating temperature conditions, was noted very

  11. Impact of atmospheric pollution inputs and climate change on dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in karst aquifers: evidences from a 36 years past monitoring of karstic watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Stephane; Probst, Jean-Luc; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Emblanch, Christophe; Peyraube, Nicolas; Mangin, Alain; Bakalowicz, Michel; Probst, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is known to modify the soil CO2 consumption associated with carbonate bedrock weathering. To evidence the long term feedbacks of atmospheric pollution and climate change on this chemical reaction, we investigated the inorganic carbon fluxes monitored weekly from 1979 to 2006 in a small forested karstic watershed in the Pyrénées Mountains, characterized by a large precipitation variability, a 0.025 °C air temperature increase per year and a low agricultural pressure. The yearly average concentrations of [Ca + Mg] and dissolved inorganic carbon increases of about 0.057 meq.L-1.yr-1 and the 0.1 meq.L-1.yr-1, respectively. The gap relative to the 1:2 relationship between [Ca + Mg] and HCO3 (in mmole. L-1), noted Delta-HCO3, was founded to be driven by the atmospheric pollution inputs, producing strong acids that inhibit the consumption of carbon from soil during the carbonate dissolution processes. In addition, atmospheric temperature increase is correlated with the [Ca +Mg] change, whereas the decrease of the atmospheric acid inputs observed since the seventies, is linked with a + 0.0022 meq.L-1.yr-1 increase in Delta-HCO3. Similar trends in Delta-HCO3 change were found over other karstic watersheds monitored more recently in the framework of the SNO KARST, one the observatory networks from the OZCAR Research Infrastructure, highlighting that Delta-HCO3 changes over time were partially controlled by atmospheric pollution inputs. The re-interpretation of hydrochemical databases using this Delta-HCO3 indicator enables to evaluate better the impact of atmospheric pollution load and climate change on surface waters. In an indirect way, the dephasing between atmospheric loads recorded in precipitation and Delta-HCO3 observed in groundwater could be a new tracer method to estimate groundwater residence times.

  12. Characterization of Xe-133 global atmospheric background: Implications for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Generoso, Sylvia; Morin, Mireille; Gross, Philippe; Le Petit, Gilbert; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring atmospheric concentrations of radioxenons is relevant to provide evidence of atmospheric or underground nuclear weapon tests. However, when the design of the International Monitoring Network (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was set up, the impact of industrial releases was not perceived. It is now well known that industrial radioxenon signature can interfere with that of nuclear tests. Therefore, there is a crucial need to characterize atmospheric distributions of radioxenons from industrial sources—the so-called atmospheric background—in the frame of the CTBT. Two years of Xe-133 atmospheric background have been simulated using 2013 and 2014 meteorological data together with the most comprehensive emission inventory of radiopharmaceutical facilities and nuclear power plants to date. Annual average simulated activity concentrations vary from 0.01 mBq/m3 up to above 5 mBq/m3 nearby major sources. Average measured and simulated concentrations agree on most of the IMS stations, which indicates that the main sources during the time frame are properly captured. Xe-133 atmospheric background simulated at IMS stations turn out to be a complex combination of sources. Stations most impacted are in Europe and North America and can potentially detect Xe-133 every day. Predicted occurrences of detections of atmospheric Xe-133 show seasonal variations, more accentuated in the Northern Hemisphere, where the maximum occurs in winter. To our knowledge, this study presents the first global maps of Xe-133 atmospheric background from industrial sources based on two years of simulation and is a first attempt to analyze its composition in terms of origin at IMS stations.

  13. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.

  14. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon basin have global implications for the current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC service is used to study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia during the period 2002–2010. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made at more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. The present study adds measurements from four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion are compared to an independent estimate of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia. They are also qualitatively evaluated against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We attempt at assessing the impact on NEE of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons and the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE are also investigated. While the inversion supports the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results reveal critical limitations of the coarse-resolution transport model, the surface observation network in South America during the recent years and the present knowledge of modelling uncertainties in South America that prevent our inversion from capturing the seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. However, some patterns from the inversion seem consistent with the anomaly of moisture conditions in 2009.

  15. Supporting smarter, healthier and greener societies: the dawn of operational environmental information services Some examples from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) programme in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuch, V. H.

    2016-12-01

    Operational environmental services are a reality today, as exemplified by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service in Europe. Air quality forecasts, information on the long-range transport of dust or of fire plumes or on greenhouse gas fluxes have become reliable enough to be considered by decision makers and to be communicated broadly -making our societies more informed about the changing environment and about the direct link between human activities, atmospheric composition, weather and climate. Many aspects of the value-adding information chains that have been built over the years share commonalities with Numerical Weather Prediction: global and regional numerical models, reflecting both the level of understanding of physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere and the contemporary computing capabilities, are used to blend observations from different in situ and, increasingly, Earth Observation sources. Significantly, the World Meteorological Organisation has recently added a new component to the Global Atmospheric Watch programme in the form of a Science Advisory Group on "Applications". The main objectives of this group are to develop a portfolio of products and services related to atmospheric composition and to demonstrate particularly the usefulness of exchanging chemical observational data in Near-Real-Time. Exchanging best practices worldwide and facilitating the set-up of new applications are also among the activities. Having operational applications does not imply that research efforts to improve environmental monitoring and forecasting services have become obsolete. Quite the contrary: feedbacks and increasingly demanding requirements from users are stimulating steady progress. The last part of the talk will support the idea that atmospheric compositions services are not only an application or an extension of weather services but contribute now also to the core of them. Atmospheric composition information has become indeed of high interest for

  16. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building; Moyens mobiles de surveillance de la contamination atmospherique en BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M. [EDF/DPN/GPRE/IRP, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    2009-07-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  17. Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP and observed atmospheric composition change during 1972–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European scale harmonized monitoring of atmospheric composition was initiated in the early 1970s, and the activity has generated a comprehensive dataset (available at http://www.emep.int which allows the evaluation of regional and spatial trends of air pollution during a period of nearly 40 yr. Results from the monitoring made within EMEP, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, show large reductions in ambient concentrations and deposition of sulphur species during the last decades. Reductions are in the order of 70–90% since the year 1980, and correspond well with reported emission changes. Also reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx are reflected in the measurements, with an average decrease of nitrogen dioxide and nitrate in precipitation by about 23% and 25% respectively since 1990. Only minor reductions are however seen since the late 1990s. The concentrations of total nitrate in air have decreased on average only by 8% since 1990, and fewer sites show a significant trend. A majority of the EMEP sites show a decreasing trend in reduced nitrogen both in air and precipitation on the order of 25% since 1990. Deposition of base cations has decreased during the past 30 yr, and the pH in precipitation has increased across Europe. Large inter annual variations in the particulate matter mass concentrations reflect meteorological variability, but still there is a relatively clear overall decrease at several sites during the last decade. With few observations going back to the 1990s, the observed chemical composition is applied to document a change in particulate matter (PM mass even since 1980. These data indicate an overall reduction of about 5 μg m−3 from sulphate alone. Despite the significant reductions in sulphur emissions, sulphate still remains one of the single most important compounds contributing to regional scale aerosol mass concentration. Long-term ozone trends at EMEP sites show a mixed pattern. The year

  18. Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP and observed atmospheric composition change during 1972–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European scale harmonized monitoring of atmospheric composition was initiated in the early 1970ies, and the activity has generated a comprehensive dataset which allows to evaluate regional and spatial trends of air pollution during a period of nearly 40 yr. Results from the monitoring made within EMEP, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, show large reductions in ambient concentrations and deposition of sulphur species during the last decades. Reductions are in the order of 70–90% since the year 1980, and correspond well with reported emission changes. Also reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx are reflected in the measurements, with an average decrease of nitrogen dioxide and nitrate in precipitation by about 23% and 25% respectively since 1990. Only minor reductions are however seen since the late 1990ies. The concentrations of total nitrate in air have decreased on average only by 8% since 1990, and fewer sites show a significant trend. A majority of the EMEP sites show a decreasing trend in reduced nitrogen both in air and precipitation on the order of 25%. Deposition of base cations has decreased during the past 30 yr, and the pH in precipitation has increased across Europe. Large interannual variations in the particulate matter mass concentrations reflect meteorological variability, but still there is a relatively clear overall decrease at several sites during the last decade. With few observations going back to the 1990ies, the observed chemical composition is applied to document a change in particulate matter (PM mass even since 1980. These data indicate an overall reduction of about 5 μg m−3 from sulphate alone. Long-term ozone trends at EMEP sites show a mixed pattern. The year-to-year variability in ozone due to varying meteorology is substantial, making it hard to separate the trends caused by reduced emissions from other effects. For the Nordic countries the data indicate a slight reduction in the number

  19. Inter-comparison between HERMESv2.0 and TNO-MACC-II emission data using the CALIOPE air quality system (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Marc; Pay, María Teresa; Martínez, Francesc; Soret, Albert; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Baldasano, José M.

    2014-12-01

    This work examines and compares the performance of two emission datasets on modelling air quality concentrations for Spain: (i) the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMESv2.0) and (ii) the TNO-MACC-II emission inventory. For this purpose, the air quality system CALIOPE-AQFS (WRF-ARW/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) was run over Spain for February and June 2009 using the two emission datasets (4 km × 4 km and 1 h). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and particular matter (PM10) modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at different type of air quality stations (i.e. rural background, urban, suburban industrial). A preliminary emission comparison showed significant discrepancies between the two datasets, highlighting an overestimation of industrial emissions in urban areas when using TNO-MACC-II. However, simulations showed similar performances of both emission datasets in terms of air quality. Modelled NO2 concentrations were similar between both datasets at the background stations, although TNO-MACC-II presented lower underestimations due to differences in industrial, other mobile sources and residential emissions. At Madrid urban stations NO2 was significantly underestimated in both cases despite the fact that HERMESv2.0 estimates traffic emissions using a more local information and detailed methodology. This NO2 underestimation problem was not found in Barcelona due to the influence of international shipping emissions located in the coastline. An inadequate characterization of some TNO-MACC-II's point sources led to high SO2 biases at industrial stations, especially in northwest Spain where large facilities are grouped. In general, surface O3 was overestimated regardless of the emission dataset used, depicting the problematic of CMAQ on overestimating low ozone at night. On the other hand, modelled PM10 concentrations were less underestimated in urban areas when applying HERMESv2.0 due to the inclusion of road dust

  20. Conversion of an Alpha CAM Monitor of Victoreen calibrated of factory for plutonium in a measurement monitor of radon in the atmosphere; Conversion de un monitor Alpha CAM de la Victoreen calibrado de fabrica para plutonio en un monitor para medicion de radon en la atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is presented in this work the conversion of a monitor ALPHA CAM of the monitor Victoreen gauged of it manufactures for plutonium in a monitor for radon mensuration in the atmosphere. Those units in that the radon measures are expressed are: peak curies/unit of volume of air to sampling. This way one has to gauge and to supplement the software and the parts that the old one monitor for plutonium. It requires. This task implies: a) To calibrate and to determine the efficiency of the detector of accustomed to state of 1700 mm{sup 2} for alpha particles coming from the radioactive series of the radon. b) to connect in series and to calibrate a flow measurer of air in it lines with the detector. Measures are presented of the ambient air and other places of the the historical area of the city of Puebla obtained with the team Converted ALPHA-CAM. (Author)

  1. Environmental monitoring to the sources of atmospheric emission by the Trad-MCN bioassay and analysis of the accumulative potential for uranium and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.F.E., E-mail: alessandra@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Monitoracao Ambiental; Ramos, Monique M.B., E-mail: monique@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Analise de Seguranca; Alves, Edenise S., E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.b [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Anatomia

    2009-07-01

    The biomonitoring of the atmospheric contamination constitutes important procedure for adoption of environmental control measures. Biological assays have been employed to evaluate genotoxic agents in the atmosphere. The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay has been extensively used in environmental monitoring owing to its efficiency in the detection of chromosomic damages in cytological preparations of easy execution. In this study we tested the viability of use of Trad-MCN with Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea for environmental monitoring in the Experimental Center Aramar (CEA), in Ipero - SP and its leaf accumulation capacity. The plants were exposed in situ, in flower-beds or flowerpots, established close to the sources of atmospheric emission. The bioassay was accomplished according to the usual protocol. The micronucleus frequencies were compared using the variance Kruskal-Wallis test. The obtained results indicated that the biomonitoring model adopted was not the ideal for the CEA, considering that the plant suffered the influence of climatic condition. However the plant showed to have accumulative potential for uranium. (author)

  2. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 2: atmospheric deposition and its impacts on soil solution chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Vel, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of air pollution and other stress factors on forests, a Pan-European programme for intensive and continuous monitoring of forest ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of this intensive monitoring programme presented in this paper are

  3. Monitoring middle-atmospheric dynamics using independent ground-based wind and temperature measurements at Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Khaykin, Sergey; Camas, Jean Pierre; Payen, Guillaume; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Rüfenacht, Rolf; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    There are very few multi-instrumented sites in the tropics and particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, developing atmospheric sounding methods in the middle and high-atmosphere provides valuable means to improve the physical representation of deep convection in atmospheric models (breaking of gravity waves, coupling between layers) and to better characterize large-scale atmospheric perturbations (cyclones, storms, tropical convection). The Maïdo observatory at Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) offers trans-national access to host experiments or measurement campaigns for high resolution measurements of dynamic atmospheric processes in a wide range of altitude such as Rayleigh lidar, Doppler lidar, Modem radiosonde, or microwave Doppler spectro-radiometer (WIRA, operated by Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). Collocated to the existing instruments, a small aperture infrasound array (CEA) has been operating continuously since 2014. In the 0.1-1 Hz band, the coherent energy is dominated by microbarom signals resulting from the non-linear interaction of large swells systems which circulate along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The seasonal transition in the bearings along with the stratospheric general circulation between summer and winter is clearly noted. Interestingly, the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal stratospheric wind is well captured by infrasound measurements. It manifests by opposite ducts between 30 and 60 km that persist for several weeks during the equinox period. For the ARISE project (http://arise-project.eu/), this multi-technology site opens new perspectives to study the climatology of SAO as well as poorly resolved atmospheric disturbances of the tropical middle atmosphere where data coverage is sparse.

  4. A spatial framework for assessing current conditions and monitoring future change in the chemistry of the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Dixon

    2011-03-01

    , Pb, Bi, As, and Li are enriched across Antarctica relative to both ocean and upper crust elemental ratios. Global volcanic outgassing accounts for the majority of the Bi measured in East and West Antarctica and for a significant fraction of the Cd in East Antarctica. Nonetheless, global volcanic outgassing cannot account for the enriched values of Pb or As. Local volcanic outgassing from Mount Erebus may account for a significant fraction of the As and Cd in West Antarctica and for a significant fraction in East Antarctic glaze/dune areas. However, despite potential contributions from local and global volcanic sources, significant concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As remain across much of Antarctica.

    Most importantly, this study provides a baseline from which changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere over Antarctica can be monitored under expected warming scenarios and continued intensification of industrial activities in the Southern Hemisphere.

  5. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  7. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  8. Remote monitoring of 129I and 127I isotopes in the atmosphere using the laser-induced fluorescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Suganeev, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the experimental and calculation research of the development of the remote laser-induced fluorescence method for the detection of 129I and 127I molecular iodine isotopologues in atmospheric air in real time. As an excitation source we used a frequency-doubled neodymium laser (~532 nm). We estimated the sensitivity of 127I129I and 129I2 detection in the atmosphere. Detection sensitivity of molecular iodine is 4 · 1013 cm-3 for a sensing distance of 6 km.

  9. Miniaturized, Multi-Analyte Sensor Array for the Automated Monitoring of Major Atmospheric Constituents in Spacecraft Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a miniaturized, multi-analyte sensor for near real-time monitoring of analytes in the spacecraft environment. The proposed...

  10. Miniaturized, Multi-Analyte Sensor Array for the Automated Monitoring of Major Atmospheric Constituents in Spacecraft Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II SBIR project is to develop a prototype sensor system to detect gaseous analytes in support of the spacecraft environmental monitoring...

  11. Monitoring air quality in Southeast Alaska’s National Parks and Forests: Linking atmospheric pollutants with ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Schirokauer; L. Geiser; A. Bytnerowicz; M. Fenn; K. Dillman

    2014-01-01

    Air quality and air quality related values are important resources to the National Park Service (NPS) units and Wilderness areas in northern Southeast Alaska. Air quality monitoring was prioritized as a high-priority Vital Sign at the Southeast Alaska Network’s (SEAN) Inventory and Monitoring Program’s terrestrial scoping workshop (Derr and Fastie 2006). Air quality...

  12. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  13. Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); BBoden, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

  14. Determination of the Characteristics of Ground-Based IR Spectral Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M. V.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Hase, F.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Imhasin, Kh. Kh.

    2016-07-01

    This is a study of the spectral characteristics of a ground-based spectral system consisting of an original system for tracking the sun developed at St. Petersburg State University and a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier spectrometer. The importance of accounting for the actual instrument function of the spectral system during processing of ground-based IR spectra of direct solar radiation is illustrated by the example of determining the overall abundance of methane in the atmosphere. Spectral intervals are proposed for taking spectra of direct solar radiation with an HBr cell, which yield information on the parameters of the ground-based system, while simultaneously checking the alignment of the system for each spectrum of the atmosphere.

  15. [Research on On-Line Calibration Based Photoacoustic Spectrometry System for Monitoring the Concentration of CO2 in Atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-feng; Pan, Sun-qiang; Lin, Xiao-lu; Hu, Peng-bing; Chen, Zhe-min

    2016-01-01

    Resonate frequency and cell constant of photoacoustic spectrum system are usually calibrated by using standard gas in laboratory, whereas the resonate frequency and cell constant will be changed in-situ, leading to measurement accuracy errors, caused by uncertainties of standard gas, differences between standard and measured gas components and changes in environmental condition, such as temperature and humidity. As to overcome the above problems, we have proposed an on-line atmospheric oxygen-based calibration technology for photoacoustic spectrum system and used in measurement of concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. As the concentration of atmospheric oxygen is kept as constant as 20.96%, the on-line calibration for the photoacoustic spectrum system can be realized by detecting the swept-frequency and peak signal at 763.73 nm. The cell of the PAS has a cavity with length of 100 mm and an inner diameter of 6 mm, and worked in a first longitudinal resonant mode. The influence of environmental temperature and humidity, gas components on the photoacoustic cell's performance has been theoretically analyzed, and meanwhile the resonant frequencies and cell constants were calibrated and acquired respectively using standard gas, indoor air and outdoor air. Compared with calibrated gas analyzer, concentration of carbon dioxide is more accurate by using the resonant frequency and cell constant calculated by oxygen in tested air, of which the relative error is less than 1%, much smaller than that calculated by the standard gas in laboratory. The innovation of this paper is that using atmospheric oxygen as photoacoustic spectrum system's calibration gas effectively reduces the error caused by using standard gas and environmental condition changes, and thus improves the on-line measuring accuracy and reliability of the photoacoustic spectrum system.

  16. In-situ monitoring of etching of bovine serum albumin using low-temperature atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, J.; Shelemin, A.; Kylián, O.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2017-01-01

    Bio-decontamination of surfaces by means of atmospheric pressure plasma is nowadays extensively studied as it represents promising alternative to commonly used sterilization/decontamination techniques. The non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas were already reported to be highly effective in removal of a wide range of biological residual from surfaces. Nevertheless the kinetics of removal of biological contamination from surfaces is still not well understood as the majority of performed studies were based on ex-situ evaluation of etching rates, which did not allow investigating details of plasma action on biomolecules. This study therefore presents a real-time, in-situ ellipsometric characterization of removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from surfaces by low-temperature atmospheric plasma jet operated in argon. Non-linear and at shorter distances between treated samples and nozzle of the plasma jet also non-monotonic dependence of the removal rate on the treatment duration was observed. According to additional measurements focused on the determination of chemical changes of treated BSA as well as temperature measurements, the observed behavior is most likely connected with two opposing effects: the formation of a thin layer on the top of BSA deposit enriched in inorganic compounds, whose presence causes a gradual decrease of removal efficiency, and slight heating of BSA that facilitates its degradation and volatilization induced by chemically active radicals produced by the plasma.

  17. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  18. Modelling the long-term soil response to atmospheric deposition at intensively monitored forest plots in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Posch, M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic soil chemistry model SMART was applied to 121 intensive forest monitoring plots (mainly located in western and northern Europe) for which both element input (deposition) and element concentrations in the soil solution were available. After calibration of poorly known parameters, the mode

  19. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  20. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  1. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  2. Current status of the ability of the GEMS/MACC models to reproduce the tropospheric CO vertical distribution as measured by MOZAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Elguindi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of CO taken from the MOZAIC aircraft database are used to present (1 a global analysis of CO seasonal averages and interannual variability for the years 2002–2007 and (2 a global validation of CO estimates produced by the MACC models for 2004, including an assessment of their ability to transport pollutants originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires. Seasonal averages and interannual variability from several MOZAIC sites representing different regions of the world show that CO concentrations are highest and most variable during the winter season. The inter-regional variability is significant with concentrations increasing eastward from Europe to Japan. The impact of the intense boreal fires, particularly in Russia, during the fall of 2002 on the Northern Hemisphere CO concentrations throughout the troposphere is well represented by the MOZAIC data.

    A global validation of the GEMS/MACC GRG models which include three stand-alone CTMs (MOZART, MOCAGE and TM5 and the coupled ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS/MOZART model with and without MOPITT CO data assimilation show that the models have a tendency to underestimate CO. The models perform best in Europe and the US where biases range from 0 to –25% in the free troposphere and from 0 to –50% in the surface and boundary layers (BL. The biases are largest in the winter and during the daytime when emissions are highest, indicating that current inventories are too low. Data assimilation is shown to reduce biases by up to 25% in some regions. The models are not able to reproduce well the CO plumes originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires at downwind locations in the eastern US and Europe, not even with assimilation. Sensitivity tests reveal that this is mainly due to deficiencies in the fire emissions inventory and injection height.

  3. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...... scheme are outlined, to account for realistic accident scenarios....

  4. Quantitative real-time monitoring of chemical reactions by autosampling flow injection analysis coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenqian; Bartmess, John E; McNally, Mary Ellen; Hoffman, Ron M; Cook, Kelsey D; Song, Liguo

    2012-09-04

    Although qualitative and/or semiquantitative real-time monitoring of chemical reactions have been reported with a few mass spectrometric approaches, to our knowledge, no quantitative mass spectrometric approach has been reported so far to have a calibration valid up to molar concentrations as required by process control. This is mostly due to the absence of a practical solution that could well address the sample overloading issue. In this study, a novel autosampling flow injection analysis coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (FIA/APCI-MS) system, consisting of a 1 μL automatic internal sample injector, a postinjection splitter with 1:10 splitting ratio, and a detached APCI source connected to the mass spectrometer using a 4.5 in. long, 0.042 in. inner diameter (ID) stainless-steel capillary, was thus introduced. Using this system together with an optional FIA solvent modifier, e.g., 0.05% (v/v) isopropylamine, a linear quantitative calibration up to molar concentration has been achieved with 3.4-7.2% relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 4 replicates. As a result, quantitative real-time monitoring of a model reaction was successfully performed at the 1.63 M level. It is expected that this novel autosampling FIA/APCI-MS system can be used in quantitative real-time monitoring of a wide range of reactions under diverse reaction conditions.

  5. Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: a comparison with soil, air and pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Matos, João; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate lichens as biomonitors of PAH atmospheric deposition; for that, an inter-comparison between the PAH profile and concentrations intercepted in lichens with those of air, soil and pine needles was performed. The study was conducted in a petro-industrial area and the results showed that PAH profiles in lichens were similar to those of the air and pine needles, but completely different from those of soils. Lichens accumulated higher PAH concentrations when compared to the other environmental compartments and its concentrations were significantly and linearly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in soil; we showed that a translation of the lichen PAHs concentrations into regulatory standards is possible, fulfilling one of the most important requirements of using lichens as biomonitors. With lichens we were then able to characterize the air PAHs profile of urban, petro-industrial and background areas.

  6. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in north-eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal changes and trends in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land-use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Lead isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  7. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas; Carignan, Jean

    2015-09-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal change and trend in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Pb isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  8. [Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) Background Levels at Shangdianzi Station in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-ju; Zhou, Ling-xi; Liu, Li-xin; Zhang, Gen

    2016-04-15

    The study presented time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from flask sampling at SDZ regional station in Beijing during 2007 and 2013, together with delta(13)CO2) values during 2009 and 2013. The "representative data" of CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) were selected from the complete data for further analysis. Annual CO2 concentrations increased from 385.6 x 10(-6) in 2007 to 398.1 x 10(-6) in 2013, with an average growth rate of 2.0 x 10(-6) a(-1), while the delta(13)C values decreased from -8.38% per hundred in 2009 to -8.52% per hundred in 2013, with a mean growth rate of -0.03% per hundred x a(-1). The absolute increase of CO2 from 2007 to 2008 reached the lowest level during 2007 and 2013, possibly due to relatively less carbon emissions during the 2008 Olympic Games period. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C seasonal variations were 23. 9 x 10 -6 and 1. 03%o, respectively. The isotopic signatures of CO2 sources/sinks were also discussed in this study. The delta8 value for heating season I (Jan. 01-Mar. 14) was -21.30% per hundred, while -25.39% per hundred for heating season 11 (Nov. 15-Dec.31) , and for vegetative season (Mar. 15-Nov. 14) the delta(bio) value was estimated to be -21.28% per hundred, likely suggesting the significant impact of fossil fuel and corn straw combustions during winter heating season and biological activities during vegetative season.

  9. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  10. Quantifying the Observability of CO2 Flux Uncertainty in Atmospheric CO2 Records Using Products from Nasa's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Collatz, Jim; Watson, Gregg; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Brix, Holger; Rousseaux, Cecile; Bowman, Kevin; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael; Kawa, Stephan R.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Pilot Project (FPP) was designed to better understand contemporary carbon fluxes by bringing together state-of-the art models with remote sensing datasets. Here we report on simulations using NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) which was used to evaluate the consistency of two different sets of observationally constrained land and ocean fluxes with atmospheric CO2 records. Despite the strong data constraint, the average difference in annual terrestrial biosphere flux between the two land (NASA Ames CASA and CASA-GFED) models is 1.7 Pg C for 2009-2010. Ocean models (NOBM and ECCO2-Darwin) differ by 35 in their global estimates of carbon flux with particularly strong disagreement in high latitudes. Based upon combinations of terrestrial and ocean fluxes, GEOS-5 reasonably simulated the seasonal cycle observed at northern hemisphere surface sites and by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) while the model struggled to simulate the seasonal cycle at southern hemisphere surface locations. Though GEOS-5 was able to reasonably reproduce the patterns of XCO2 observed by GOSAT, it struggled to reproduce these aspects of AIRS observations. Despite large differences between land and ocean flux estimates, resulting differences in atmospheric mixing ratio were small, typically less than 5 ppmv at the surface and 3 ppmv in the XCO2 column. A statistical analysis based on the variability of observations shows that flux differences of these magnitudes are difficult to distinguish from natural variability, regardless of measurement platform.

  11. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  12. Impact of drought on the CO2 atmospheric growth rate 2010-2012 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Jiang, Z.; Bloom, A. A.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M.; Collatz, G. J.; Gurney, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The La Nina between 2011-2012 led to significant droughts in the US and Northeastern Brazil while the historic drought in Amazon in 2010 was caused in part by the historic central Pacific El Nino. In order to investigate the role of drought on the atmospheric CO2 growth rate, we use satellite observations of CO2 and CO to infer spatially resolved carbon fluxes and attribute those fluxes to combustion sources correlated with drought conditions. Solar induced fluorescence in turn is used to estimate the impact of drought on productivity and its relationship to total flux. Preliminary results indicate that carbon losses in Mexico are comparable to the total fossil fuel production for that region. These in turn played an important role in the acceleration of the atmospheric growth rate from 2011-2012. These results were enabled using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux), which is based upon a 4D-variational assimilation system that incorporates observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2-­Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model.

  13. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  14. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy using two different light paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Yasuaki; Yoshii, Yotsumi; Takahashi, Kenshi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of the local distribution of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-PDOAS) in Tokyo during August 2008 are presented. Two LP-PDOAS systems simultaneously measured average NO(2) temporal mixing ratios along two different paths from a single observation point. Two flashing aviation obstruction lights, located 7.0 km north and 6.3 km east from the observation point, were used as light sources, allowing spatiotemporal variations of NO(2) in Tokyo to be inferred. The LP-PDOAS data were compared with ground-based data measured using chemiluminescence. Surface wind data indicated that large inhomogeneities were present in the spatial NO(2) distributions under southerly wind conditions, while northerly wind conditions displayed greater homogeneity between the two systems. The higher correlation in the NO(2) mixing ratio between the two LP-PDOAS systems was observed under northerly wind conditions with a correlation factor R(2) = 0.88. We demonstrated that the combined deployment of two LP-PDOAS systems oriented in different directions provides detailed information on the spatial distribution of NO(2).

  15. Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Sardans, Jordi; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The biomonitors Hypnum cupressiforme and Xanthoria parietina were used to assess the deposition of trace elements and their possible origin in the Prades Mountains, a protected Mediterranean forest area of NE Spain with several pollution sources nearby. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 16 locations within this protected area. Soil trace element concentrations were also ascertained to calculate enrichment factors (EF) and use them to distinguish airborne from soilborne trace element inputs. In addition, lichen richness was measured to further assess atmospheric pollution. EF demonstrated to be useful not only for the moss but also for the lichen. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn presented values higher than three in both biomonitors. These trace elements were also the main ones emitted by the potential sources of pollutants. The distance between sampling locations and potential pollution sources was correlated with the concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Zn in the moss and with Cr, Ni, and Sb in the lichen. Lichen richness was negatively correlated with lichen Cu, Pb, and V concentrations on dry weight basis. The study reflected the remarkable influence that the pollution sources have on the presence of trace elements and on lichen species community composition in this natural area. The study highlights the value of combining the use of biomonitors, enrichment factors, and lichen diversity for pollution assessment to reach a better overview of both trace elements' impact and the localization of their sources.

  16. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Matsumi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the region of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  17. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  18. Monitoring and modeling of water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system of poplar trees to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Speranza, Giuseppe; Sica, Benedetto; Romano, Nunzio

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a series of studies being carried out within the EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS). The project refers to Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano that has been identified as National Interest Priority Site (NIPS) and includes some polluted agricultural land belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces of the Campania Region. The major aim of the project is to define an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of plant extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. This contribution specifically address the question of evaluating the effectiveness of phytoremediation actions selected by the project in the pilot area of Trentola-Ducenta and will provide some preliminary results of monitoring and modeling activities. A physical and hydraulic characterization has been carried out in this area where poplar trees were planted. Monitoring of water flow, root water uptake and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere is under way with reference to two trees using capacitance soil moisture and matric potential sensors located at three different soil depths, whereas plant water status and evapotranspiration fluxes are indirectly estimated using fast-responding stem dendrometers.

  19. Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-fang; Yang, Guo-tao; Wang, Ji-hong; Yue, Chuan; Chen, Lin-xiang

    2017-02-01

    A wind measurement Doppler Lidar system was developed, in which injection seeded laser was used to generate narrow linewidth laser pulse. Frequency stabilization was achieved through absorption of iodine molecules. Commands that control the instrumental system were based on the PID algorithm and coded using VB language. The frequency of the seed laser was locked to iodine molecular absorption line 1109 which is close to the upper edge of the absorption range,with long-time (>4 h) frequency-locking accuracy being ≤0.5 MHz and long-time frequency stability being 3.55×10-9. Design the continuous light velocity measuring system, which concluded the cure about doppler frequency shift and actual speed of chopped wave plate, the velocity error is less than 0.4 m/s. The experiment showed that the stabilized frequency of the seed laser was different from the transmission frequency of the Lidar. And such frequency deviation is known as Chirp of the laser pulse. The real-time measured frequency difference of the continuous and pulsed lights was about 10 MHz, long-time stability deviation was around 5 MHz. When the temporal and spatial resolutions were respectively set to 100 s and 96 m, the wind velocity measurement error of the horizontal wind field at the attitude of 15-35 km was within ±5 m/s, the results showed that the wind measurement Doppler Lidar implemented in Yanqing, Beijing was capable of continuously detecting in the middle and low atmospheric wind field at nighttime. With further development of this technique, system measurement error could be lowered, and long-run routine observations are promising.

  20. Atmospheric Water Monitoring by Using Ground-Based GPS during Heavy Rains Produced by TPV and SWV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The time series of precipitable water (PW in 30 min intervals has been determined through experimentation and operational application of a ground-based global positioning system (GPS network in Chengdu Plain, which is used for precise and reliable meteorological research. This study is the first to apply PW to the southwest vortex (SWV and heavy rain events by using the data from an intensive SWV experiment conducted in summer 2010. The PW derived from the local ground-based GPS network was used in the monitoring and analysis of heavy rain caused by the SWV and the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV. Results indicate that an increase in GPS precipitable water (GPS-PW occurs prior to the development of the TPV and SWV; rainfall occurs mainly during high levels of GPS-PW. The evolution features of GPS-PW in rainfall process caused by different weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP also differ. These results indicate the reference values for operational applications of GPS-PW data in short-term forecasting and nowcasting of high-impact weather in addition to further investigation of heavy rain caused by the TPV, SWV, and other severe weather systems over the TP.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF/NMM and WRF/ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations for PM2.5 and its related precursors during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations of PM2.5, its composition and related precursors over the eastern United States with the intensive observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA WP-3, ship and surface monitoring networks (AIRNow, IMPROVE, CASTNet and STN during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study. The results at the AIRNow surface sites show that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ reproduced day-to-day variations of observed PM2.5 and captured the majority of observed PM2.5 within a factor of 2 with a NMB value of −0.4% for ARW-CMAQ and −18% for NMM-CMAQ. Both models performed much better at the urban sites than at the rural sites, with greater underpredictions at the rural sites. Both models consistently underestimated the observed PM2.5 at the rural IMPROVE sites by −1% for the ARW-CMAQ and −19% for the NMM-CMAQ. The greater underestimations of SO42−, OC and EC by the NMM-CMAQ contributed to increased underestimation of PM2.5 at the IMPROVE sites. The NMB values for PM2.5 at the STN urban sites are 15% and −16% for the ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ, respectively. The underestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the NMM-CMAQ mainly results from the underestimations of the SO42−, NH4+ and TCM components, whereas the overestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the ARW-CMAQ results from the overestimations of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+. The Comparison with WP-3 aircraft measurements reveals that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ have very similar model performance for vertical profiles for PM2.5 chemical components (SO42−, NH4+ and related gaseous species (HNO3, SO2, NH3, isoprene, toluene, terpenes as both models used the same chemical mechanisms and emissions. The results of ship along the coast of southeastern Texas over the Gulf of Mexico show that both models captured the temporal variations and broad synoptic change seen in the observed HCHO and acetaldehyde with the means NMB 2.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF/NMM and WRF/ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations for PM2.5 and its related precursors during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Rao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations of PM2.5, its composition and related precursors over the eastern United States with the intensive observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA P-3, ship and surface monitoring networks (AIRNow, IMPROVE, CASTNet and STN during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study. The results at the AIRNow surface sites show that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ reproduced day-to-day variations of observed PM2.5 and captured the majority of observed PM2.5 within a factor of 2 with a NMB value of −0.4% for ARW-CMAQ and −18% for NMM-CMAQ. Both models performed much better at the urban sites than at the rural sites, with greater underpredictions at the rural sites. Both models consistently underestimated the observed PM2.5 at the rural IMPROVE sites by −1% for the ARW-CMAQ and −19% for the NMM-CMAQ. The greater underestimations of SO42−, OC and EC by the NMM-CMAQ contributed to increased underestimation of PM2.5 at the IMPROVE sites. The NMB values for PM2.5 at the STN urban sites are 15% and −16% for the ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ, respectively. The underestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the NMM-CMAQ mainly results from the underestimations of the SO42−, NH4+ and TCM components, whereas the overestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the ARW-CMAQ results from the overestimations of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+. The comparison with P-3 aircraft measurements reveals that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ have very similar model performance for vertical profiles for PM2.5 chemical components (SO42−, NH4+ and related gaseous species (HNO3, SO2, NH3, isoprene, toluene, terpenes as both models used the same chemical mechanisms and emissions. The results of ship along the coast of southeastern Texas over the Gulf of Mexico show that both models captured the temporal variations and broad synoptic change seen in the observed HCHO and acetaldehyde with the means NMB 2.

  3. Monitoring Depth of Shallow Atmospheric Boundary Layer to Complement LiDAR Measurements Affected by Partial Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Pal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that the incomplete laser beam receiver field-of-view overlap (i.e., partial overlap of ground-based vertically-pointing aerosol LiDAR restricts the observational range for detecting aerosol layer boundaries to a certain height above the LiDAR. This height varies from one to few hundreds of meters, depending on the transceiver geometry. The range, or height of full overlap, is defined as the minimum distance at which the laser beam is completely imaged onto the detector through the field stop in the receiver optics. Thus, the LiDAR signal below the height of full overlap remains erroneous. In effect, it is not possible to derive the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL top (zi below the height of full overlap using lidar measurements alone. This problem makes determination of the nocturnal zi almost impossible, as the nocturnal zi is often lower than the minimum possible retrieved height due to incomplete overlap of lidar. Detailed studies of the nocturnal boundary layer or of variability of low zi would require changes in the LiDAR configuration such that a complete transceiver overlap could be achieved at a much lower height. Otherwise, improvements in the system configuration or deployment (e.g., scanning LiDAR are needed. However, these improvements are challenging due to the instrument configuration and the need for Raman channel signal, eye-safe laser transmitter for scanning deployment, etc. This paper presents a brief review of some of the challenges and opportunities in overcoming the partial overlap of the LiDAR transceiver to determine zi below the height of full-overlap using complementary approaches to derive low zi. A comprehensive discussion focusing on four different techniques is presented. These are based on the combined (1 ceilometer and LiDAR; (2 tower-based trace gas (e.g., CO2 concentration profiles and LiDAR measurements; (3 222Rn budget approach and LiDAR-derived results; and (4 encroachment model

  4. Monitoring dioxins and furans in the vicinity of an old municipal waste incinerator after pronounced reductions of the atmospheric emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Nadal, Marti; Schuhmacher, Marta; Llobet, Juan M

    2002-06-01

    In order to get an overall picture of the environmental impact of an old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) from S. Adrià del Besòs (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), a monitoring program addressed at determining the levels of a number of pollutants in the vicinity of the facility was initiated in 1998. In March 1999, an adaptation was carried out due to EU legislation on pollutant emissions from the stack. As a result, emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were notably reduced, and a significant (30%) decrease was found in the levels of PCDD/F in herbage samples collected in the vicinity of the MSWI. In March 2001, herbage samples were collected at the same sampling points and the PCDD/F levels measured again. The current PCDD/F concentrations range from 0.23 to 1.43 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (dry matter), with median and mean values of 0.58 and 0.66 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (dry matter), respectively, while in the 2000 survey the PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 1.20 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (dry matter), with median and mean values of 0.57 and 0.61 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (dry matter), respectively. Although the current PCDD/F concentrations in herbage samples are comparable to those found in recent surveys carried out in various places of Catalonia, an exhaustive evaluation of the data, including principal component analysis, indicates that other emission sources of PCDD/Fs also have a notable environmental impact on the area under direct influence of the MSWI.

  5. Two year-long continuous monitoring of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory. Source apportionment of the Organic content and geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulas, Iasonas; Pikridas, Michael; Oikonomou, Kostantina; Vasiliadou, Emily; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gros, Valerie; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1{μ}m (PM1) induces direct and indirect effects on local and regional pollution, global climate and health. As of the beginning of 2015, the chemical composition of submicron aerosols, is continuously being monitored at the newly established Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, http://www.cyi.ac.cy/index.php/cao.html), a national facility of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure operated by The Cyprus Institute. Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean Middle East region and influenced by diverse air masses throughout the year, is ideal for monitoring photochemically aged aerosols and gaseous pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore this is a unique dataset for this area in such proximity to the Middle East, a poorly documented area in terms of atmospheric aerosol observations. An Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) is currently deployed at the CAO premises (35.04N - 33.06E) situated at the rural area of Agia Marina Xyliatou on the foothill of mount Troodos at an elevation of 532m above sea level (asl). The ACSM delivers chemical composition of the major non-refractory aerosol (PM1) chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride) with an effective (close to 100{%}) collection efficiency for particles in the diameter range of 65-700 nm at a 30 minute temporal resolution. Black Carbon (BC) was also monitored using both Magee Scientific AE-31 and AE-33 aethalometers. Quality control of the PM chemical dataset was conducted by comparison with chemical analysis performed on collocated 24-h filter samples (PM1) and comparison with 1-h PM2.5 derived from a Thermo Scientific TEOM (1400a) Monitor. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was conducted and different organic aerosol factors were distinguished using the Igor based SoFi toolkit utilizing the ME-2 multilinear engine. Air mass origin was investigated for each measurement day using the

  6. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain and environmental ones (PM10, indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost, biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to surviveSe presentan los resultados de un experimento con dos especies de angiospermas epífitas (Tillandsia caput-medusae y T. bulbosa para monitorear hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs en el aire de Florencia, Italia. Los PAHs son compuestos que se sabe son peligrosos por su potencial carcinogénico, y, entre las cormófitas, las tilandsias (monocotiledóneas equipadas con tricomas epidérmicos, especializados y peculiares son consideradas promisorias para el biomonitoreo de la contaminación del aire. Se obtuvieron datos de PAHs usando el análisis de GC/MS de extractos de plantas. Los datos analíticos indicaron una tendencia creciente de la bioacumulación de PAH’s en el tiempo. Este resultado se comparó con los parámetros registrados instrumentalmente como

  7. Monitoring and characterization of organic reactive species in the atmosphere: a tool for management of air quality; Monitoramento e caracterizacao de especies organicas reativas na atmosfera: uma ferramenta para gestao da qualidade do ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Andrea; Almeida, Jose Claudino; Loureiro, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Monitoramento Atmosferico; Moreira, Lino [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grosjean, Daniel; Grosjean, Eric [DGA Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The present paper briefly reports some monitoring campaigns carried out in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area through 1999 a 2001, and presents some benchmarking with the study that took place in Porto Alegre from 1996 a 1999. These studies were developed through CENPES research projects, with partnership with local academy, international consultants, local environmental agencies and the environmental secretaries from the two cities. The main goal of both studies was to speciate and characterize the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) present in the urban environments of both locations in order to assess the overall atmospheric reactivity and the ozone production potentials. Highest priority was given to the locations in which vehicular emissions played important role, once the core objective of both projects was to supply technical information on the atmospheric impact of motor fuels, with special emphasis on gasoline. With the continuation of Rio de Janeiro monitoring campaigns and the inclusion of Sao Paulo in the project as an additional monitoring area, the intention is to grant enough technical input and information to establish a data bank of ambient air concentrations of speciated reactive VOC's, fully customized to the Brazilian urban scenario, aiming to go farther in the realm of atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric reactivity. In essence, the effort devoted to raise local and experimental information on air quality and vehicle emissions aims to build sound scientific basis to technically support environmental management policies of best cost-effectiveness targeting secondary pollutants control in the urban atmospheres (author)

  8. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Results from the 2014 AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is an instrument dedicated to atmospheric trace gas retrieval from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The payload is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built 2.5 m flying wing UAV is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km/h, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. Both the payload and the UAV were developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) and the Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. We present here SWING-UAV test flights dedicated to NO2 measurements and performed in Romania on 10 and 11 September 2014, during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign. The UAV performed 5 flights in the vicinity of the large thermal power station of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.4° E). The UAV was operated in visual range during the campaign, up to 900 m AGL , downwind of the plant and crossing its exhaust plume. The spectra recorded on flight are analyzed with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The retrieved NO2 Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) are up to 1.5e17 molec/cm2 and reveal the horizontal gradients around the plant. The DSCDs are converted to vertical columns and compared with coincident car-based DOAS measurements. We also present the near-future perspective of the SWING-UAV observation system, which includes flights in 2015 above the Black Sea to quantify ship emissions, the addition of SO2 as a target species, and autopilot flights at higher altitudes to cover a typical satellite pixel extent (10x10 km2).

  9. 大气中NH3的光学监测技术研究进展%Advances in Optical Monitoring Techniques on Atmospheric Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王界; 谢品华; 司福祺; 李昂; 窦科; 徐晋; 秦敏; 吴丰成

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia, the third most important abundant nitrogen compound, is a primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere. As a neutralizer of acid pollutants, ammonia has been attracted research interest. The principle sources of NH, emission have been listed. Five Optical techniques of monitoring atmospheric NH3 currently were introduced in detail, including Photo-acoustic Spectroscopy ( PAS) , Quantum Cascade Stimulated Absorption Spectra ( QCLAS ) , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Tunable Semiconductor Laser Absorption Spectrum (TDLAS) and UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy ( UV-DOAS) and at last, it revealed the advantages and disadvantages among the above 5 techniques, especially to their measurement difficulties for ammonia and application areas. The recent progresses, achievements and key results on the 5 field techniques in the past decade are also put forward.%NH3是大气中含量仅次于NO和N2的含氮化合物,也是大气中重要的碱性气体,作为酸性污染物的中和剂,NH3越来越受到人们的重视.文章介绍了大气NH3的主要农业和非农业排放来源,并详细介绍了近年来大气NH3的光谱测量技术(光声光谱技术,量子级联激光吸收光谱技术,傅里叶红外分析技术,可调谐半导体激光器吸收光谱技术以及紫外差分吸收光谱技术)及其进展,总结并分析了这些技术的技术要点、应用领域以及在最近10年对大气NH3的测量结果和研究热点.

  10. Improved instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based, high-resolution FTIR spectrometers of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hase

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved monitoring scheme for the instrumental line shape (ILS of high-resolution, ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers used for chemical monitoring of the atmosphere by the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Good ILS knowledge is required for the analysis of the recorded mid-infrared spectra. The new method applies a sequence of measurements using different gas cells instead of a single calibration cell. Three cells are used: cell C1 is a refillable cell offering 200 mm path length and equipped with a pressure gauge (filled with 100 Pa N2O, cells C2 and C3 are sealed cells offering 75 mm path length. C2 is filled with 5 Pa of pure N2O. Cell C3 is filled with 16 Pa N2O in 200 hPa technical air, so provides pressure-broadened N2O lines. We demonstrate that an ILS retrieval using C1 improves significantly the sensitivity of the ILS retrieval over the current calibration cells used in the network, because this cell provides narrow fully saturated N2O lines. The N2O columns derived from C2 and C3 allow the performance of a highly valuable closure experiment: adopting the ILS retrieved from C1, the N2O columns of C2 and C3 are derived. Because N2O is an inert gas, both columns should be constant on long timescales. Apparent changes in the columns would immediately attract attention and indicate either inconsistent ILS results or instrumental problems of other origin. Two different cells are applied for the closure experiment, because the NDACC spectrometers observe both stratospheric and tropospheric gases: C2 mimics signatures of stratospheric gases, whereas C3 mimics signatures of tropospheric gases.

  11. Sensitive monitoring of volatile chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counter-flow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Koichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Iura, Kazumitsu; Itoi, Teruo; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Koji; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Waki, Izumi; Ezawa, Naoya; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Shigeru; Fukano, Masumi; Okada, Hidehiro

    2013-03-05

    A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 μg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 μg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring.

  12. A Preliminary Comparison Between SuperDARN Flow Vectors and Equivalent Ionospheric Currents From the GIMA, Greenland, MACCS, THEMIS, CARISMA, and CANMOS Ground Magnetometer Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Amm, O.; Weygand, J. M.; Bristow, W. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Beheshti, B.; Steinmetz, E. S.; Engebretson, M. J.; Murr, D.; Viljanen, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Gleisner, H.; Mann, I.; Russell, C.

    2009-12-01

    With data from the GIMA, Greenland, MACCs, CARISMA, and CANMOS, and THEMIS ground magnetometer arrays, we obtain maps of equivalent ionospheric currents (EIC) over North America using the state-of-art technique based on SECS (spherical elementary currents systems) developed by Amm and Viljanen [1999] . The EIC maps can be calculated with the same time resolution as the magnetometer data, which is 10 sec. The results thus show in detail the dynamic evolution of the currents over the whole THEMIS ground network. The EIC maps can further be compared and quantitatively combined with near simultaneous images of the THEMIS all sky imager mosaics, SuperDARN RADAR data, and THEMIS spacecraft data. We find using 5 full days of SuperDARN flow vector data obtained during the northern hemisphere winter that the flows, in general, are antiparallel to the EICs. The largest differences from the antiparallel direction appear to occur during moderate to quiet geomagnetic conditions in the midnight sector. These differences are most likely the result of non-uniform conductivity in the ionosphere that influences the EIC direction.

  13. Small marine craft emission factors observed from the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B. M.; Lack, D.; Murphy, P. C.; Williams, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    During the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 field campaign, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown often encountered small marine recreational craft and small fishing vessels while sailing close to the Texas coast, especially in Galveston Bay. Measurement of a suite of trace gases at high time resolution (1 Hz) allowed us to calculate emission factors (EFs), relative to carbon dioxide, for nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) for distinct exhaust plumes from these sources. Photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectroscopy (PAS) measurements made concurrently allowed for the first quantification of mass EFs for light-absorbing particles from fishing craft. As previously observed along the New England coast, gasoline-powered recreational vessels showed significantly higher NOx/CO2 and lower CO/CO2 EFs than current emissions inventories predict, although in agreement with the most recent published literature of laboratory studies. These findings imply lower volatile organic compound emissions from these vessels, although this was not directly measured.

  14. Observation of 2.45 MeV neutrons correlated with natural atmospheric lightning discharges by Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, P. M.; Mufti, S.; Darzi, M. A.; Mir, T. A.; Shah, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    The first experimental evidence of detecting the neutrons correlated with the natural atmospheric lightning discharges (NALD) was obtained with Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) operating at High Altitude Research Laboratory, Gulmarg, Kashmir, India, and was reported in the year 1985. The neutron observations still continue with LFGNM. However, the current configuration of LFGNM is the upgraded version of the system used earlier to record neutron bursts (in the recording period of 320 μs in four successive electronic gates of 80 μs each) supposedly originating from an NALD. In the current system the neutron recording time period/interval has been extended to 1260 μs with 63 successive gates of 20 μs each. The system also simultaneously records the differential times—maximum up to 14—between the consecutive strokes of a multistroke lightning flash. The distance between an NALD channel and LFGNM setup is determined empirically by making use of the time delay (td)/time of flight (TOF) measurement of the first detected neutron subsequent to the sensing of the electrostatic field variation caused by the initiation of an NALD in the ambient atmosphere of the LFGNM setup. Assuming a priori incident energy as 2.45 MeV of the detected neutrons supposedly generated due to the fusion of deuterium ions in the lightning discharge channel leads to quantifying the neutron emission flux if the NALD channel distance with respect to the LFGNM setup is established. In this paper we discuss the experiment and the time profiles of several of a large number of the major neutron burst events recorded with LFGNM in association with NALDs. Moreover, a rare and an extraordinary neutron burst event, in terms of its associated "td/TOF" of first detected neutron after triggering, recorded by this system is specifically discussed. In this event, the recorded TOF of 14 μs of the escaping neutron detected by the system immediately after getting triggered by the NALD that struck a

  15. Instrumentation on commercial aircraft for monitoring the atmospheric composition on a global scale: the IAGOS system, technical overview of ozone and carbon monoxide measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipe Nédélec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the In-service Aircraft of a Global Observing System (IAGOS developed for operations on commercial long-range Airbus aircraft (A330/A340 for monitoring the atmospheric composition. IAGOS is the continuation of the former Measurement of OZone and water vapour on Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC programme (1994–2014 with five aircraft operated by European airlines over 20 yr. MOZAIC has provided unique scientific database used worldwide by the scientific community. In continuation of MOZAIC, IAGOS aims to equip a fleet up to 20 aircraft around the world and for operations over decades. IAGOS started in July 2011 with the first instruments installed aboard a Lufthansa A340-300, and a total of six aircraft are already in operation. We present the technical aircraft system concept, with basic instruments for O3, CO, water vapour and clouds; and optional instruments for measuring either NOy, NOx, aerosols or CO2/CH4. In this article, we focus on the O3 and CO instrumentation while other measurements are or will be described in specific papers. O3 and CO are measured by optimised but well-known methods such as UV absorption and IR correlation, respectively. We describe the data processing/validation and the data quality control for O3 and CO. Using the first two overlapping years of MOZAIC/IAGOS, we conclude that IAGOS can be considered as the continuation of MOZAIC with the same data quality of O3 and CO measurements.

  16. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  17. Three-year monitoring of atmospheric PCBs and PBDEs at the Chinese Great Wall Station, West Antarctica: Levels, chiral signature, environmental behaviors and source implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fubin; Fu, Jianjie; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Dou; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Hao, Yanfen; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-01

    A three-year monitoring campaign (Jan 2011-2014) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted using a high-volume air sampler at the Chinese Great Wall Station in King George Island, West Antarctica. The results showed that the Σ20PCB and Σ27PBDE concentrations (gas + particle) were 5.87-72.7 pg m-3 and 0.60-16.1 pg m-3, respectively. The lighter congeners especially PCB-11 (a non-Aroclor congener) dominated Σ20PCBs, while BDE-209 made a significant contribution to Σ27PBDEs apart from the lighter congeners (e.g., BDE-28 and -17). The chiral signature indicated nonracemic residues of chiral PCBs in the samples, suggesting potential influence of the secondary source, i.e. air-seawater exchange, on the atropisomer composition of chiral PCBs in air. Lighter PCBs (excluding PCB-11) showed significant temperature dependence in 2011 and 2012, reflecting the influence of revolatilization emission from the local surface. However, the shallow slopes of the regression lines for gaseous concentrations of POPs against reciprocal temperature (1/T) suggested long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) as an important pathway for both PCBs and PBDEs into the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, correlations and ratios between different signature congeners deriving from the technical formulations indicated a local source of Deca-BDE and photodegradation of higher brominated BDEs. The gas/particle partitioning of POPs was also evaluated and the newly developed steady-state-based model generally showed a better performance than the equilibrium-state-based model. However, the former still underestimated the partitioning of most PCBs (log KOA <11) in particle phase, implying that further optimization is necessary when using it for those compounds with lower log KOA.

  18. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  19. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-04-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. The SPM monitoring stations are mostly located in the urban and/or industrial area to measure the hourly mass concentration of SPM less than 10 μm in diameter for health effect due to atmospheric aerosols. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, about 10 plumes/polluted air masses with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly detected in this study. And the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric Cs-137 were clearly shown for all the plumes. The east coast area of the FP where the FD1NPS was located in the centre was attacked several times by the plumes, and suffered the highest time-integrated Cs-137 concentration during the period among the ST and TMA

  20. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rainforest at the eastern Andean slopes of south Ecuador - Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski Giannoni, Sandro; Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Lehnert, Lukas; Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Joerg

    2016-08-01

    Sea salt (NaCl) has recently been proven to be of the utmost importance for ecosystem functioning in Amazon lowland forests because of its impact on herbivory, litter decomposition and, thus, carbon cycling. Sea salt deposition should generally decline as distance from its marine source increases. For the Amazon, a negative east-west gradient of sea salt availability is assumed as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes Mountains for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rainforest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyse sea salt availability, we investigated the deposition of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-), which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, sea salt deposition was analysed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP) along an altitudinal gradient over a period between 2004 and 2009. To assess the influence of easterly and westerly air masses on the deposition of sodium and chloride over southern Ecuador, sea salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis data set and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results, based on deposition time series, show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration and Na+ / Cl- ratio in relation to height and exposure to winds. At higher elevations, sodium and chloride present a higher seasonality and the Na+ / Cl- ratio is closer to that of sea salt. Medium- to long-range sea salt transport exhibited a similar seasonality, which shows the link between our measurements at high elevations and the sea salt synoptic transport. Although the influence of the easterlies was predominant regarding the atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the north equatorial Atlantic, Caribbean

  1. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  2. CE-318太阳光度计在大气环境监测中的应用%Application of CE-318 Sun Photometer in Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李礼; 余家燕; 杨灿; 唐晓

    2012-01-01

    CE-318 sun photometer plays an important role in atmospheric environmental monitoring and research by scanning the direct solar radiation and sky light automatically and the optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol can be obtained through specific inversion calculation.The instrument structure,measuring work procedure and inversion algorithm of CE-318 sun photometer were introduced in this paper.The monitoring result of atmospheric angstrom wavelength index in 2010 Chongqing was briefly analyzed.%CE-318太阳光度计自动进行太阳直接辐射和天空光扫描探测,通过反演计算可获取大气气溶胶各种光学特性,在大气环境监测与研究领域发挥着重要作用。介绍了CE-318太阳光度计的仪器结构、测量工作程序和反演算法,并对2010年重庆城区大气Angstrom波长指数测量结果进行了简要分析。

  3. 苔藓监测空气重金属污染技术的研究进展%Research Advances in Bryophyte Monitoring Technology to Heavy Metal Pollution in the Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱霞; 方炎明

    2011-01-01

    苔藓是最敏感的大气污染指示植物之一,利用其可识别污染源,揭示大气重金属沉降随时间的变化规律及污染的时空变化格局,进而评价某地区的环境状况.从国内外发展概况入手,综述苔藓植物对大气重金属污染指示作用的研究进展.%Bryophyte is a group of the most sensitive indicator plants for air pollution monitoring. The application of bryophyte could help identify the pollution sources, indicate the deposition role of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere and reflect the temporal and spatial change of the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere. Based on the generalization of relevant researches both at home and in the world, this article summarized the studies on the indicating function of bryophyte to monitor heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere.

  4. Atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs in rural and remote locations of the United States in the year 2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverly, D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Winters, D. [Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Ferrario, J.; Dupuy, A.; Byrne, C. [Environmental Chemistry Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); Riggs, K.; Hartford, P.; Joseph, D.; Wisbith, T. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to address three primary objectives: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in remote areas of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range and transboundary transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of NDAMN sites. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through December 19991, and calendar year 2000. The year 1999 measurement at the 9 rural stations indicated an annual mean TEQ{sub DF}-WHO{sub 98} air concentration of about 11.3 fg m{sup -3}. In the year 2000, the mean of 18 rural stations and 8 remote areas were 14.6 fg m{sup -3} and 2.0 fg m{sup -3}, respectively. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. We are reporting the air monitoring results of NDAMN for calendar year 2001 at both rural and remote sites in the U.S. The rural sites are indicated as circles and remote sites are indicted as squares on Figure 1.

  5. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known.

  6. Simulation modeling of the spread of harmful emissions into the atmosphere on the basis of geographic information system (GIS) of monitoring environmental condition of a megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissarinova, Aigul; Mamyrova, Aisha; Tussupova, Bella; Balgabayeva, Lyazzat; Mamyrbayev, Orken

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a methodology of geoinformation approach to mapping of atmospheric pollution of the air basin of Almaty city is developed. The proposed method of presenting data on pollution in form of an algorithm allows building a map of contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere closest to the actually observed one. Designed object-oriented method of presentation of environmental pollution in the form of dynamic GIS models can be used when modeling the ecological status of any area, megalopolis, i.e. where spatial data, distributed in time, is used.

  7. Description of algorithms for co-locating and comparing gridded model data with remote-sensing observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langerock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MACC-II,III, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, is the current pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS. It provides data records on atmospheric composition for recent years, present conditions and forecasts for a few days ahead. To support the quality assessment of the CAMS products, the EU FP7 project NORS created a server to validate the gridded MACC-II,III/CAMS model data against remote-sensing observations from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, for a selected set of target species and pilot stations. This paper describes in detail the algorithms used in this validation server.

  8. Infrared tunable diode laser applications: (i) atmospheric pollutants monitoring (ii) gas phase kinetics of elementary reactions; Application des diodes laser infrarouge accordables a deux problematiques: (i) la metrologie de polluants (ii) la cinetique des reactions elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusanter, S.

    2002-12-15

    Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy provides sensibility, selectivity and high temporal resolution. We have applied this technique to atmospheric trace pollutants monitoring and to gas phase kinetics of elementary reactions. For metrology, we have developed a novel and effective protocol: pressure increase measurements. It has been applied to monitoring nitrous oxide, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene, in air or car exhausts. This work represents a first step toward the elaboration of a compact and portable instrument. The kinetic setup, where reactions are initiated by laser photolysis, has been validated with the well-known reactions of formyl and hydroxymethyl radicals with oxygen. A preliminary study of the rate constant for the unimolecular decomposition of pivaloyl radical has been performed. (author)

  9. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP...

  10. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP...

  11. Ground-Based Microwave Monitoring of Middle-Atmosphere Ozone Above Peterhof and Tomsk During Stratospheric Warming in the Winter of 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkovsky, D. A.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Kulikov, Yu. Yu.; Marichev, V. N.; Poberovsky, A. V.; Ryskin, V. G.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of studying the dynamics of middle-atmosphere ozone above Peterhof (60°N, 30°E) and Tomsk (56°N, 85°E) during stratospheric warming in the winter of 2013-2014 by the radiophysical method. In the ground-based observations we used the same microwave ozone meters (operated at 110.8 GHz) and the same techniques both for measuring the radiation spectra of ozone molecules and estimation of the vertical distribution of ozone in the middle atmosphere. These results were compared with satellite data on the total ozone content TOC (OMI/Aura), altitude profiles of ozone and temperature in the layer 20-60 km (MLS/Aura), and also with the data on ozone content in the layer 25-60 km, which were obtained using a Bruker IFS-125HR infrared Fourier spectrometer in Peterhof. Significant variations in ozone, which were caused by a stratospheric warming of the minor type, were observed in the atmosphere above Peterhof at altitudes of 40 to 60 km. The duration of dynamic perturbations above Peterhof was 2.5 months. Dynamic processes associated with the horizontal transport of air masses, which had an impact on the vertical structure of ozone in the middle atmosphere, were also detected above Tomsk, but this effect was less dependent on the background temperature variations.

  12. 学术期刊在学风建设中的把关作用探析%On the Monitoring Function of Academic Periodicals in the Construction of Study Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禤展图

    2015-01-01

    本文所论及的学风主要是指学术界的学术研究风气。目前,学术道德失范,价值观念趋向功利化,学风浮躁,低水平重复现象严重。可从以下途径来发挥学术期刊在学风建设中的把关作用:切实发挥学术期刊的学术评价功能;引导学风健康发展;规范稿件处理程序,杜绝学术不端行为;提高编辑、审稿人的学术评判能力,识破变相抄袭;学术期刊编辑部定期或不定期举办学风建设培训班;编辑要以良好的学术道德规范和学术规范影响作者。%The study atmosphere in this paper means the academic research atmosphere. At present, the aca-demic moral is in a state of anomie;values tend to utilitarianism;study atmosphere is of impetuous passion;and low-level publications are redundant. Academic periodicals should give full play to the academic monitoring function with such measures as playing the assessment function, guiding the healthy development of study atmo-sphere, formalizing editorial process of contributed papers, eliminating academic misconduct, improving editor and reviewer's ability of academic judgment and plagiarism detection, holding related training classes of study at-mosphere construction, and emphasizing the model function of editor’s good academic morality and academic norm.

  13. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  14. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  15. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  16. Simultaneous monitoring of atmospheric methane and speciated non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations using Peltier effect sub-ambient pre-concentration and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Seakins, P W; Lewis, A C

    2000-02-01

    Sub-ambient trapping, used to pre-concentrate atmospheric samples for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis by gas chromatography, can also be used to measure ambient methane concentrations. Above a sample volume of 40 ml, a dynamic equilibrium is established between ambient and trapped methane allowing for simultaneous quantitative determinations of methane and NMHC. The temperature stability of the trap is critical for quantitative methane analysis and this can be achieved by Peltier effect cooling. Simultaneous measurements of methane and NMHC reduce the equipment required for field trips and can ease the interpretation and modelling of atmospheric data. The feasibility for deployment of the system in remote locations was demonstrated by running the apparatus virtually unattended for a 5-day period. The correlations between the concentrations of methane, ethane and ethene measured during this period are discussed.

  17. A chemometrics approach applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for monitoring the spoilage of fresh salmon (Salmo salar) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C; Vasconcelos, H; de Almeida, José M M M

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and predict the bacterial load of salmon fillets (Salmo salar) stored at 3, 8 and 30°C under three packaging conditions: air packaging (AP) and two modified atmospheres constituted by a mixture of 50%N2/40%CO2/10%O2 with lemon juice (MAPL) and without lemon juice (MAP). Fresh salmon samples were periodically examined for total viable counts (TVC), specific spoilage organisms (SSO) counts, pH, FTIR and sensory assessment of freshness. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed identification of the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of infrared spectral data was performed to support sensory data and to accurately identify samples freshness. The effect of the packaging atmospheres was assessed by microbial enumeration and LDA was used to determine sample packaging from the measured infrared spectra. It was verified that modified atmospheres can decrease significantly the bacterial load of fresh salmon. Lemon juice combined with MAP showed a more pronounced delay in the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum, psychrotrophs and H2S producers. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) allowed estimates of TVC and psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and H2S producer counts from the infrared spectral data. For TVC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value was 0.78logcfug(-1) for an external set of samples. According to the results, FTIR can be used as a reliable, accurate and fast method for real time freshness evaluation of salmon fillets stored under different temperatures and packaging atmospheres.

  18. Monitoring System for Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Ground-Based Multi-Band Radiometer: Meteorological Application of Radio Astronomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, T.; Araki, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Kominami, K.; Tajima, O.

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution estimation of thermodynamic properties in the atmosphere can help to predict and mitigate meteorological disasters, such as local heavy rainfall and tornadic storms. For the purposes of short-term forecasting and nowcasting of severe storms, we propose a novel ground-based measurement system, which observes the intensity of atmospheric radiation in the microwave range. Our multi-band receiver system is designed to identify a rapid increase in water vapor before clouds are generated. At frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz, our system simultaneously measures water vapor as a broad absorption peak at 22 GHz as well as cloud liquid water. Another band at 50-60 GHz provides supplementary information from oxygen radiation to give vertical profiles of physical temperature. For the construction of this cold receiver system, novel technologies originally developed for observations of cosmic microwave background radiation were applied. The input atmospheric signal is amplified by a cold low-noise amplifier maintained below 10 K, while the spectrum of this amplified signal is measured using a signal analyzer under ambient conditions. The cryostat also contains a cold black body at 40 K to act as a calibration signal. This calibration signal is transported to each of the receivers via a wire grid. We can select either the atmospheric signal or the calibration signal by changing the orientation of this wire. Each receiver can be calibrated using this setup. Our system is designed to be compact (<1 m3), with low power consumption (˜ 1.5 kW). Therefore, it is easy to deploy on top of high buildings, mountains, and ship decks.

  19. Hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at monitoring stations for suspended particulate matter in and south of Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    No data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in Fukushima area after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident on March 11, 2011, although it greatly contributes to accurate evaluation of the internal exposure dose, to reconstruction of emission time series of released radionuclides, and to validation of numerical simulations by atmospheric transport models. Then, we have challenged to retrieve the radioactivity in atmospheric aerosols collected every hour on a filter tape of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitoring system with beta ray attenuation method used at air pollution monitoring stations in east Japan. A test measurement for hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was successfully performed with a Ge detector for the used filter tapes during March 15-23, 2011, at three stations in Fukushima City 60 km northwest of the FD1NPP and four stations in southwest Ibaraki prefecture more than 150 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The data in Fukushima City revealed high Cs-137 concentrations of 10-30 Bq m-3 from the evening of March 15 to the early morning of March 16, when a large amount of radioactive materials was simultaneously deposited on the land surface by precipitation according to the measurement of radiation dose rate. Higher Cs-137 concentrations of 10-50 Bq m-3 were also found from the afternoon of March 20 to the morning of March 21, and which could not be detected by the radiation dose rate due to no precipitation. In contrast, much higher concentrations with the maximum of 320 Bq m-3 in southwest Ibaraki than in Fukushima City were found on the morning of March 15 and 21 under strong temperature inversion near the surface. The polluted air masses with high radioactive materials were passed away within a few hours as a plume in southwest Ibaraki, while the high Cs-137 concentrations lasted for 10-16 hours in Fukushima City where the polluted air masses after their transport

  20. In-situ monitoring by Raman spectroscopy of the thermal doping of graphene and MoS2 in O2-controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Piazza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature and atmosphere (air and O2 on the doping of monolayers of graphene (Gr on SiO2 and Si substrates, and on the doping of MoS2 multilayer flakes transferred on the same substrates have been investigated. The investigations were carried out by in situ micro-Raman spectroscopy during thermal treatments up to 430 °C, and by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The spectral positions of the G and 2D Raman bands of Gr undergo only minor changes during treatment, while their amplitude and full width at half maximum (FWHM vary as a function of the temperature and the used atmosphere. The thermal treatments in oxygen atmosphere show, in addition to a thermal effect, an effect attributable to a p-type doping through oxygen. The thermal broadening of the line shape, found during thermal treatments by in situ Raman measurements, can be related to thermal phonon effects. The absence of a band shift results from the balance between a red shift due to thermal effects and a blue shift induced by doping. This shows the potential of in situ measurements to follow the doping kinetics. The treatment of MoS2 in O2 has evidenced a progressive erosion of the flakes without relevant spectral changes in their central zone during in situ measurements. The formation of MoO3 on the edges of the flakes is observed indicative of the oxygen-activated transformation.

  1. In-situ monitoring by Raman spectroscopy of the thermal doping of graphene and MoS2 in O2-controlled atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Aurora; Giannazzo, Filippo; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Fisichella, Gabriele; Magna, Antonino La; Roccaforte, Fabrizio; Cannas, Marco; Gelardi, Franco Mario

    2017-01-01

    The effects of temperature and atmosphere (air and O2) on the doping of monolayers of graphene (Gr) on SiO2 and Si substrates, and on the doping of MoS2 multilayer flakes transferred on the same substrates have been investigated. The investigations were carried out by in situ micro-Raman spectroscopy during thermal treatments up to 430 °C, and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The spectral positions of the G and 2D Raman bands of Gr undergo only minor changes during treatment, while their amplitude and full width at half maximum (FWHM) vary as a function of the temperature and the used atmosphere. The thermal treatments in oxygen atmosphere show, in addition to a thermal effect, an effect attributable to a p-type doping through oxygen. The thermal broadening of the line shape, found during thermal treatments by in situ Raman measurements, can be related to thermal phonon effects. The absence of a band shift results from the balance between a red shift due to thermal effects and a blue shift induced by doping. This shows the potential of in situ measurements to follow the doping kinetics. The treatment of MoS2 in O2 has evidenced a progressive erosion of the flakes without relevant spectral changes in their central zone during in situ measurements. The formation of MoO3 on the edges of the flakes is observed indicative of the oxygen-activated transformation. PMID:28326231

  2. On the use of MOZAIC-IAGOS data to assess the ability of the MACC reanalysis to reproduce the distribution of ozone and CO in the UTLS over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Gaudel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MOZAIC-IAGOS data are used to assess the ability of the MACC reanalysis (REAN to reproduce distributions of ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, along with vertical and inter-annual variability in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS over Europe for the period 2003–2010. A control run (CNTRL, without assimilation is compared with the MACC reanalysis (REAN, with assimilation to assess the impact of assimilation. On average over the period, REAN underestimates ozone by 60 ppbv in the lower stratosphere (LS, whilst CO is overestimated by 20 ppbv. In the upper troposphere (UT, ozone is overestimated by 50 ppbv, while CO is partly over or underestimated by up to 20 ppbv. As expected, assimilation generally improves model results but there are some exceptions. Assimilation leads to increased CO mixing ratios in the UT which reduce the biases of the model in this region but the difference in CO mixing ratios between LS and UT has not changed and remains underestimated after assimilation. Therefore, this leads to a significant positive bias of CO in the LS after assimilation. Assimilation improves estimates of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle for both species. Additionally, the observations clearly show a general negative trend of CO in the UT which is rather well reproduced by REAN. However, REAN misses the observed inter-annual variability in summer. The O3–CO correlation in the Ex-UTLS is rather well reproduced by the CNTRL and REAN, although REAN tends to miss the lowest CO mixing ratios for the four seasons and tends to oversample the extra-tropical transition layer (ExTL region in spring. This evaluation stresses the importance of the model gradients for a good description of the mixing in the Ex-UTLS region, which is inherently difficult to observe from satellite instruments.

  3. Analyses of the impact of changes in atmospheric deposition and climate on forest growth in European monitoring plots: A stand growth approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solberg, S.; Dobbertin, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Andreassen, K.; Lange, H.; Garcia Fernandez, P.; Hildingsson, A.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    During the last 15 years a number of studies have shown increasing forest growth in central Europe, rather than a decline as was expected due to negative effects of air pollution. We have here used data from intensive monitoring plots spread over Europe for a five year period in order to examine the

  4. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  5. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  6. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  7. Quality Control Method of Precipitation Monitoring in Atmospheric Environment%大气环境降水监测的质量控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟; 喻义勇; 柏松; 朱志锋

    2016-01-01

    根据《环境监测质量管理规定》、《江苏省环境监测质量管理实施细则》及环境监测技术规范的要求,探讨了降水监测采样、样品保存技术、实验室分析的质量控制方法。采用不同采样方法、不同采样器同时采集15场降水,其降雨量、电导率、pH值的比对监测结果合格率均大于90%。经试验,降水各组分有效保存时间不同,其中NO3–, NH4+为3 d;F–,Cl–,SO42–为14 d;K+,Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+为30 d。选择2家实验室对降水样品、空白样品、标准样品同时测试,结果显示,空白测定结果均低于方法检出限,标准曲线相关性系数r≥0.9990,测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.4%~5.9%(n=6),加标回收率为89.8%~106%,标准样品的分析结果均合格。该方法能保证降水监测结果准确、可靠,满足HJ/T 165–2004《酸沉降监测技术规范》的要求。%The quality control methods of precipitation monitoring sampling,sample preservationand laboratory analysis were discussed according to the environment monitoring technical specification and standard methods such as Environmental Monitoring Quality Management Regulations and Jiangsu Province Environmental Monitoring Quality Management Implementation Details. The qualified rate of detection of rainfall,conductivity and pH monitoring was higher than 90% in 15 precipitation samples by different sampling methods and equipments. The experimental results showed that the retention time were 3 d for nitrate and ammonium,14 d forfluoride,chloride and sulfate ions,30 d for the potassium, sodium,calcium and magnesium in precipitation sample. The comparison experiment was carried out in two laboratories. The blanks were below the method detection limits,standard curve correlation coefficients were not less than 0.999 0. The relative standard deviations of detection results were 1.4%–5.9% (n=6), the recoveries of the target were 89.8%–106%. The

  8. SkyProbe: Real-Time Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the Absolute Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.

    2016-05-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The absolute measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope time. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure time in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).

  9. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  10. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  11. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Kajita

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses...

  12. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  13. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  14. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  15. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  16. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rain forest at the eastern Andean slopes of South Ecuador – Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makowski Giannoni

    2015-10-01

    its importance for herbivory, litter decomposition and thus, carbon cycling. Salt deposition should generally decline with distance from its marine sources. For tropical South America, a negative east-west salt availability gradient is assumed in the Amazon as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rain forest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyze salt availability, we investigate the deposition of Na+ and Cl- which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, salt deposition was analyzed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP water along an altitudinal gradient over a period from 2004 to 2009. To assess the influence of Atlantic and Pacific air masses on the locally observed deposition of sodium and chloride, sea-salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC reanalysis dataset and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results based on deposition time series and 2192 generated trajectories show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration due to height and exposure to winds. The sea-salt transport was highly seasonal where higher locations revealed a stronger seasonality. Although the influence of the easterlies were predominant regarding atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the Pacific sea-salt sources on the deposition at the study area. The highest concentration in rain and cloud water was found between September and February originating from both, the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic. However, the Pacific sources contributed with up to 25 % to the observed total concentration of Na+ and Cl- at the receptor site although the frequency of occurrence of the respective trajectories

  17. Automatic on-line monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection as complementary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon

    2011-11-15

    Traditionally air quality networks have been carrying out the continuous, on-line measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in ambient air with GC-FID. In this paper some identification and coelution problems observed while using this technique in long-term measurement campaigns are described. In order to solve these problems a GC-MS was set up and operated simultaneously with a GC-FID for C2-C11 VOCs measurement. There are few on-line, unattended, long term measurements of atmospheric VOCs performed with GC-MS. In this work such a system has been optimized for that purpose, achieving good repeatability, linearity, and detection limits of the order of the GC-FID ones, even smaller in some cases. VOC quantification has been made by using response factors, which is not frequent in on-line GC-MS. That way, the identification and coelution problems detected in the GC-FID, which may led to reporting erroneous data, could be corrected. The combination of GC-FID and GC-MS as complementary techniques for the measurement of speciated VOCs in ambient air at sub-ppbv levels is proposed. Some results of the measurements are presented, including concentration values for some compounds not found until now on public ambient air VOC databases, which were identified and quantified combining both techniques. Results may also help to correct previously published VOC data with wrongly identified compounds by reprocessing raw chromatographic data.

  18. Automatic on-line monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection as complementary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University College of Technical Mining and Civil Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Colina de Beurco s/n, 48902 Barakaldo (Spain); Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; Durana, Nieves [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Iza, Jon [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, Paseo de la Universidad, 7, 01006, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Traditionally air quality networks have been carrying out the continuous, on-line measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in ambient air with GC-FID. In this paper some identification and coelution problems observed while using this technique in long-term measurement campaigns are described. In order to solve these problems a GC-MS was set up and operated simultaneously with a GC-FID for C{sub 2}-C{sub 11} VOCs measurement. There are few on-line, unattended, long term measurements of atmospheric VOCs performed with GC-MS. In this work such a system has been optimized for that purpose, achieving good repeatability, linearity, and detection limits of the order of the GC-FID ones, even smaller in some cases. VOC quantification has been made by using response factors, which is not frequent in on-line GC-MS. That way, the identification and coelution problems detected in the GC-FID, which may led to reporting erroneous data, could be corrected. The combination of GC-FID and GC-MS as complementary techniques for the measurement of speciated VOCs in ambient air at sub-ppbv levels is proposed. Some results of the measurements are presented, including concentration values for some compounds not found until now on public ambient air VOC databases, which were identified and quantified combining both techniques. Results may also help to correct previously published VOC data with wrongly identified compounds by reprocessing raw chromatographic data.

  19. Application of XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers and SPME-GC-MS/MS analysis for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticides in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Tuduri, Ludovic; Briand, Olivier; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2012-11-01

    Passive air sampling has been shown to be a very interesting alternative to high-volume sampling by overcoming its disadvantages (size, weight, expensiveness). However, to date, only limited data is available about passive air sampling of current-use pesticides. In order to test if passive samplers allow monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticide concentrations, five XAD-2-resin based passive air samplers were deployed at five locations in Luxembourg. Samplers were analyzed using accelerated solvent extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Collected data was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds. Twenty two pesticides were detected between March and October, while no pesticides were detected from November to February. Highest concentrations were measured on the rural sites, suggesting that the used XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers allow the simultaneous monitoring of multiple current-use pesticides and identifying spatial and temporal variations.

  20. Comparative Study on Atmospheric Dispersion Module of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dahye; Jang, Misuk; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some regulation documents such as Regulatory Guides and NUREG publications from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have influences on domestic radiation environmental analyses. As renewal versions of NUREG-0800 and NUREG-1555 have issued lately, the assessment for Severe Accident (SA) with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be added to Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Radiation Environmental Report (RER). Because these reports are the required documents for obtaining the construction permit and operating license, it is important to understand the PSA methodology and it needs to improve the site-specific input data of L3PSA codes for SA. First, our review focuses on the atmospheric dispersion and deposition related input data of L3PSA code in this paper. Then we will continue to review the improvements of other input data. Two atmospheric dispersion models, which are PAVAN developed for design basis accident and ATMOS of MACCS2 code developed for SA, were reviewed in this paper. L3PSA deals with the effects of severe accidents and basically includes the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Therefore, both the deposition effects and nuclide information(type, amount, and chemical characteristics of released radionuclide) would be considered as the input parameters of atmospheric dispersion model for L3PSA. Additionally, the meteorological data would be sampled randomly to meet the purpose of probabilistic method. However, the sampling method would be selected according to analysis purpose. After review, ATMOS module and its input data are suitably developed for the atmospheric dispersion analysis of L3PSA. However, ATMOS module was developed using the site-specific terrain and environment characteristics. For the domestic application, it needs to study the input data reflecting the Korean terrain and environment characteristics. It would be also continuously improved in response to the time- and site-specific changes of weather

  1. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor on-line hourly monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds in an urban building. The role of inside and outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; Durana, Nieves; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Iza, Jon

    2012-06-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has become a very important issue in recent years. As in developed countries people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, besides outdoor pollution assessment, the indoor one is also required. IAQ is not only affected by indoor sources linked to indoor activities, outdoor sources such as road or street traffic and industrial and commercial activities have their role too. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) frequently show higher indoor mixing ratios with respect to the outdoor ones, and monitoring is required to report their indoor mixing ratios. Many studies have reported average indoor VOCs' mixing ratios in different environments, but their temporal variability has not been well documented. The main objective of this work was to simultaneously measure VOCs' indoor and outdoor mixing ratios with high time-resolution in order to assess the effect of sources inside and outside the building upon indoor mixing ratios of individual VOCs. Simultaneous hourly, continuous, and on-line measurements of C(2)-C(11) VOCs were performed inside and outside the School of Engineering of Bilbao (ETSI) building, located in the city center of Bilbao, an urban area in Northern Spain. The analysis of simultaneous data allowed the classification of VOCs based on their main sources. Some VOCs were mainly emitted by indoor sources (1-pentene, 2-methylpentane, n-hexane, methylcyclopentane, benzene, 1-heptene+2,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and tetrachloroethylene) or by outdoor sources (n-heptane, C(8) alkanes except trimethylpentanes and C(9) aromatics). Other VOCs, such as toluene, were emitted by both indoor and outdoor sources. The isoprene indoor pattern indicated that its main indoor source could be the air exhaled by people occupying the building. Some halocarbons, such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride may be generated from the use inside the building of chlorine bleach containing products.

  2. On the vertical distribution of smoke in the Amazonian atmosphere during the dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Franco; Johnson, Ben; Langridge, Justin M.; Mulcahy, Jane; Benedetti, Angela; Remy, Samuel; Jones, Luke; Szpek, Kate; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Lidar observations of smoke aerosols have been analysed from six flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the biomass burning season (September 2012). A large aerosol optical depth (AOD) was observed, typically ranging 0.4-0.9, along with a typical aerosol extinction coefficient of 100-400 Mm-1. The data highlight the persistent and widespread nature of the Amazonian haze, which had a consistent vertical structure, observed over a large distance ( ˜ 2200 km) during a period of 14 days. Aerosols were found near the surface; but the larger aerosol load was typically found in elevated layers that extended from 1-1.5 to 4-6 km. The measurements have been compared to model predictions with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and the ECMWF-MACC model. The MetUM generally reproduced the vertical structure of the Amazonian haze observed with the lidar. The ECMWF-MACC model was also able to reproduce the general features of smoke plumes albeit with a small overestimation of the AOD. The models did not always capture localised features such as (i) smoke plumes originating from individual fires, and (ii) aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. In both these circumstances, peak extinction coefficients of the order of 1000-1500 Mm-1 and AODs as large as 1-1.8 were encountered, but these features were either underestimated or not captured in the model predictions. Smoke injection heights derived from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) for the region are compatible with the general height of the aerosol layers.

  3. Atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  4. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    , the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...... as a spatial phenomenon, exploring a multiplicity of conditions that constitute their resonant origins – i.e. the production sites from and within they have emerged. The intention is also to argue that despite the fact that atmosphere as an aesthetic category has crystallised over the last few decades...... contextualisation – provides a platform for revealing productive entanglements between heterogeneous elements, disciplines and processes. It also allows rendering atmosphere as a site of co-production open to contingencies and affective interplay on multiples levels: at the moment of its conceptualisation...

  5. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    ENVISAT (MIPAS instrument), Aura (MLS), and TIMED (SABER), and modelled data from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS), and the ERA/MACC reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In this presentation we give an overview on our methods to link these various data, the impact/application of these data on atmospheric sciences and observations with classical and future astro-particle Cherenkov telescopes, and present recent results.

  6. Combination of Endothelial-Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II with Temozolomide Suppress Malignant Biological Behaviors of Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells via miR-590-3p/MACC1 Inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Liu, Libo; Xue, Yixue; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yunhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of Endothelial-Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) combined with temozolomide (TMZ) upon glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and its possible molecular mechanisms. In this study, combination of EMAP-II with TMZ inhibited cell viability, migration and invasion in GSCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) partly reverse the anti-proliferative effect of the combination treatment. Autophagic vacuoles were formed in GSCs after the combination therapy, accompanied with the up-regulation of LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as the down-regulation of p62/SQSTM1. Further, miR-590-3p was up-regulated and Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was down-regulated by the combination treatment in GSCs; MiR-590-3p overexpression and MACC1 knockdown up-regulated LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as down-regulated p62/SQSTM1 in GSCs; MACC1 was identified as a direct target of miR-590-3p, mediating the effects of miR-590-3p in the combination treatment. Furthermore, the combination treatment and MACC1 knockdown decreased p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-S6 and p-4EBP in GSCs; PI3K/Akt agonist insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) partly blocked the effect of the combination treatment. Moreover, in vivo xenograft models, the mice given stable overexpressed miR-590-3p cells and treated with EMAP-II and TMZ had the smallest tumor sizes, besides, miR-590-3p + EMAP-II + TMZ up-regulated the expression level of miR-590-3p, LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as down-regulated p62/SQSTM1. In conclusion, these results elucidated anovel molecular mechanism of EMAP-II in combination with TMZ suppressed malignant biological behaviors of GSCs via miR-590-3p/MACC1 inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and might provide potential therapeutic approaches for human GSCs.

  7. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment.

  8. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  9. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  10. Krypton-85 in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Korsakov, A T

    2013-01-01

    Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

  11. Atmospheric Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of atmospheric refraction are generally based on a simplified model of atmospheric density in the troposphere which assumes that the temperature decreases at a constant lapse rate from sea level up to a height equal to eleven km, and that afterwards it remains constant. In this model, the temperature divided by the lapse rate determines the length scale in the calculations for altitudes less than this height. But daily balloon measurements across the U.S.A. reveal that in some cases the air temperature actually increases from sea level up to a height of about one km, and only after reaching a plateau, it decreases at an approximately constant lapse rate. Moreover, in three examples considered here, the temperature does not remain constant at eleven km , but continues to decreases to a minimum at about sixteen kilometers , and then increases at higher altitudes at a lower rate. Calculations of atmospheric refraction based on this atmospheric data is compared with the results of simplified models.

  12. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  13. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  14. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  15. Ecosystem Monitoring (AL0105, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecosystem Monitoring (aka Ecomon) survery uses bongo and CTD sampling to monitor and map the distribution of zooplankton, krill and smaller organisms) and the...

  16. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  17. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    their attention away from smell – as skilled inattentive noses – in order to focus on their more important work. Intruding body odours breaching the uniform ‘scentless silence’ of the environment, however, provoked explicit handlings to avoid discomfort observed in the interaction between nurses and patients...... revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell...

  18. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the rhythms......, a familiar relationship with the alarming sounds in the ward, enabling her to focus later more on the visit with the relative. The article discusses the proposed design strategy behind this solution and the potentiality for its use in hospital environments in general....

  19. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...... of the body and the environment in conjunction with our internalised perception of the habituated background. By actively controlling the sounds built into Kidkit, the child can habituate them through a process of synchronising them with her own bodily rhythms. Hereby the child can establish, in advance...

  20. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  1. Structure function monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  2. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  3. Accurate mobile remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 latitudinal transects from aboard a research vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Klappenbach

    2015-07-01

    observations of the GOSAT satellite and concentration fields modeled by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF within the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate – Interim Implementation (MACC-II demonstrate that the observational setup is well suited to provide validation opportunities above the ocean and along interhemispheric transects.

  4. Distribution of N2O in the atmosphere under global warming - a simulation study with the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Daniela; Manzini, Elisa; Reick, Christian H.; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by an increasing release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (N2O). Besides fossil fuel burning, also land use change and land management are anthropogenic sources of GHGs. Especially inputs of reactive nitrogen via fertilizer and deposition lead to enhanced emissions of N2O. One effect of a drastic future increase in surface temperature is a modification of atmospheric circulation, e.g. an accelerated Brewer Dobson circulation affecting the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decayed only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in atmospheric circulation, especially changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere, will affect the atmospheric transport, decay, and distribution of N2O. In our study we assess the impact of global warming on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O. As terrestrial N2O emissions are highly determined by inputs of reactive nitrogen - the location of which being determined by human choice - we examine in particular the importance of latitudinal source regions of N2O for its global distribution. For this purpose we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation.

  5. Monitoring subsurface CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.; Arts, R.; Schroot, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of various currently applied monitoring techniques for CO2 storage. Techniques are subdivided in correspondence to their applicability for monitoring three distinct realms. These are: - the atmosphere and the near-surface; - the overburden (including faults and wells); - the

  6. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µm

  7. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  8. Carbon Monitoring Satellite (CarbonSat: assessment of scattering related atmospheric CO2 and CH4 retrieval errors and first results on implications for inferring city CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buchwitz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Monitoring Satellite (CarbonSat is one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 (EE8 satellite – the selected one to be launched around the end of this decade. The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our understanding of natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4. The unique feature of CarbonSat is its "GHG imaging capability", which is achieved via a combination of high spatial resolution (2 km × 2 km and good spatial coverage (wide swath and gap-free across- and along-track ground sampling. This capability enables global imaging of localized strong emission source such as cities, power plants, methane seeps, landfills and volcanos and better disentangling of natural and anthropogenic GHG sources and sinks. Source/sink information can be derived from the retrieved atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, i.e. XCO2 and XCH4, via inverse modeling. Using the most recent instrument and mission specification, an error analysis has been performed using the BESD/C retrieval algorithm. We focus on systematic errors due to aerosols and thin cirrus clouds, as this is the dominating error source especially with respect to XCO2 systematic errors. To compute the errors for each single CarbonSat observation in a one year time period, we have developed an error parameterization scheme based on six relevant input parameters: we consider solar zenith angle, surface albedo in two bands, aerosol and cirrus optical depth, and cirrus altitude variations but neglect, for example, aerosol type variations. Using this method we have generated and analyzed one year of simulated CarbonSat observations. Using this data set we estimate that scattering related systematic errors are mostly (approx. 85% below 0.3 ppm for XCO2 (XCH4 (XCO2 and 7 ppb for XCH4 (1-sigma. The number of quality filtered observations over cloud and

  9. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers m...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...

  10. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  11. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  12. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Earth Sciences Division in atmospheric science research. Figure 1.1 shows the 20-year record of peer-reviewed publications and proposals among the various Laboratories. This data shows that the scientific work being conducted in the Laboratories is competitive with the work being done elsewhere in universities and other government agencies. The office of Deputy Director for Atmospheric Research will strive to maintain this record by rigorously monitoring and promoting quality while emphasizing coordination and integration among atmospheric disciplines. Also, an appropriate balance will be maintained between the scientists' responsibility for large collaborative projects and missions and their need to carry out active science research as a principal investigator. This balance allows members of the Laboratories to improve their scientific credentials, and develop leadership potentials. Interdisciplinary research is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other government agencies. Members of the Laboratories interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratories raise the public's awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Atmosphere Laboratories make substantial efforts to attract and recruit new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA's mission, provides highlights of our research scope and activities, and summarizes our scientists' major

  13. 大气细颗粒物中有机碳和元素碳监测方法对比%Comparison of Monitoring Methods of Organic Carbon and Element Carbon in Atmospheric Fine Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞博; 吉东生; 刘子锐; 朱彬; 王跃思

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of organic carbon ( OC) and elemental carbon ( EC) in atmospheric fine particulate is an important scientific basis for studying the formation and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol. The selection of different analysis programs will lead to difference in the OC and EC concentrations, and further result in the misjudgment of the results. The OC and EC concentrations observed using three temperature protocols including RT-Quartz ( R ) , NIOSH 5040 ( N ) and Fast-TC ( F ) were compared and analyzed in combination with the degree of air pollution in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TC (TC=OC 0 EC), OC and EC concentrations observed using R, N and F protocols and certain deviation was found among the TC ( TC=OC 0 EC) , OC and EC concentrations. For TC, the results observed using R protocol were 5% lower than those using N protocol;but 1% higher than those using F protocol. For OC, the results obtained using R were 9% lower than those using N protocol and 1% higher than those using F protocol. For EC, the results obtained using R were 20% higher than those using N protocol and 11% lower than those using F protocol. The variation coefficients for TC, OC and EC obtained based on R protocol were less than the other two temperature protocols under different air quality degrees. The slopes of regression curves of TC, OC and EC between on-line analysis using R protocol and off-line analysis were 1. 21, 1. 14 and 1. 35, respectively. The correlation coefficients of TC, OC and EC were 0. 99, 0. 99 and 0. 98, respectively. In contrast with the Black carbon ( BC ) concentrations monitored by multi-angle absorption spectrophotometer ( MAAP) , the EC concentrations measured by on-line OC/EC analyzer using R protocol were obviously lower. When the BC concentrations were less than or equal to 8 μg•m -3 , the EC/BC ratio was 0. 39. While the EC/BC ratio was 0. 88, when the BC concentrations were greater than 8

  14. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  16. Calibration and Monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the atmospheric monitoring, calibration, and other operating systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  17. Calibration and Monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; DiGiulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; GarcíaGámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; LaRosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcuau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; vandenBerg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the atmospheric monitoring, calibration, and other operating systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  18. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  19. Environmental monitoring using optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2003-11-01

    An overview of optical techniques for environmental monitoring is presented. Range-resolved measurements of atmospheric pollutants can be performed using the differential absorption lidar technique. Fluorescence lidar allows assessment of vegetation status and also the conditions of the facades of historical buildings. Diode lasers provide particularly realistic schemes for atmospheric gas analysis, where certain wavelength ranges, which are not easily directly assessed, can be reached by sum- and difference frequency generation. Finally, the gas correlation principle can be used for real-time imaging of hydrocarbons. Several types of such optical environmental monitoring are illustrated with examples from research at the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  20. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, K.; Sutton, M.A.; Ambus, P.; Raivonen, M.; Duyzer, J.; Simpson, D.; Fagerli, H.; Fuzzi, S.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Granier, C.; Neftel, A.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Laj, P.; Maione, M.; Monks, P.S.; Burkhardt, J.; Daemmgen, U.; Neirynck, J.; Personne, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Flechard, C.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Coyle, M.; Gerosa, G.; Loubet, B.; Altimir, N.; Gruenhage, L.; Ammann, C.; Cieslik, S.; Paoletti, E.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Cellier, P.; Cape, J.N.; Horvath, L.; Loreto, F.; Niinemets, U.; Palmer, P.I.; Rinne, J.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Nilsson, D.; Pryor, S.; Gallagher, M.W.; Vesala, T.; Skiba, U.; Brueggemann, N.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Williams, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Facchini, M.C.; Leeuw, de G.; Flossman, A.; Chaumerliac, N.; Erisman, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O-3, CH4, N2O and particles i

  1. Wet deposition and atmospheric mercury monitoring in Celestún, Yucatán, México, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System - Mercury concentration in ambient air - Results 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sena, Fabrizio; UMLAUF Gunther; RAMÍREZ ISLAS Martha; VELASCO Juan Antonio; ARCEGA CABRERA Flor; OCEGUERA VARGAS Ismael

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work conducted by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in the contest of GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System). GMOS is an FP VII funded large-scale collaborative project aiming at the establishment of a Global Mercury Observation System including ocean-based, ground-based and atmospheric measurement activities under the umbrella of the GEO/GEOSS and the UNEP’s Mercury program. Within this 5 year project that started in 19 Nov 2010, JRC got the task to ...

  2. The VLA Atmospheric Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Atmospheric Phase Interferometer (API) is a two-element atmospheric seeing monitor located at the Very Large Array (VLA) site. The instrument measures turbulent refractive index variation through the atmosphere by examining phase differences in a satellite beacon signal detected at two (or more) antennas. With this measurement, the VLA scheduling software is able to consider atmospheric stability when determining which frequency observation to schedule next. We are in the process of extending this two-element interferometer to four elements, which will allow us to measure the turbulence in two dimensions and at multiple length scales. This thesis will look at some statistical properties of turbulence, the effects of atmospheric stability on radio interferometric observations, and discuss details of the instrument and the data that it collects. The thesis will also cover some techniques and principles of signal processing, and an analysis of some data from the instrument. The results demonstrate that other surface atmospheric variables (e.g. windspeed, water vapor pressure) show the same structure function exponent as the atmospheric phase fluctuations. In particular, the structure functions of water vapor partial pressure and wind speed show the same exponent as the phase. Though the agreement between meteorological variables and atmospheric phase is scientifically satisfying, these surface measurements are not nearly as sensitive as the API saturation phase measurement, and therefore cannot be used to schedule telescope time in its stead. What is informative about these results is that the similar structure functions for API and meteorological data are detecting reinforce the claim that both measurements represent turbulent transport, and not instrumental noise. Data from the instrument reveals that measurements are consistent with both Kolmogorov turbulence theory, and with prior observations. The API predominately measures three-dimensional isotropic

  3. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  4. Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The eMOLT project is a non-profit collaboration of industry, science, and academics devoted to monitoring of the physical environment of the Gulf of Maine and the...

  5. Coral Reef Ecosystems Monitoring Feature Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring feature service hosted on ArcGIS Online provides access to data collected in the Mariana Archipelago by the Coral Reef Ecosystem...

  6. Observer and At Sea Monitor Database (OBDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Observer Database System (OBDBS) contains data collected on commercial fishing vessels by observers from 1989 - present and at-sea monitors...

  7. High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science...

  8. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  9. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  10. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Antolini, R; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkauoi, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Esposito, L; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Mengucci, A; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2005-01-01

    The latest results from the Soudan 2, MACRO and SuperKamiokande experiments on atmospheric neutrino oscillations are summarised and discussed. In particular a discussion is made on the Monte Carlo simulations used for the atmospheric neutrino flux.

  11. HJ-1A/B的 FLAASH大气校正及对东湖蓝藻监测效果分析%The Atmospheric Correction of HJ1-A/B Images and the Effects in Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Cyanobacteria Bloom in East Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸿旭; 郭生练; 洪兴骏; 周研来

    2015-01-01

    HJ-1A/B satellite offers free images with high spatial and temporal resolution ,which is effective to dynamically monitor cyanobacteria bloom .However ,HJ-1A/B satellite also receives distorted signals due to the influence of atmosphere .To acquire ac‐curate information of cyanobacteria bloom ,atmospheric correction is needed .In this paper ,HJ-1A/B images are corrected atmos‐pherically by using FLAASH atmosphere correction model .Considering quantum effect within a certain wavelength range ,spectral response function is introduced into the process .Then the model is used to process HJ-1A/B images ,and the NDVI after atmospher‐ic correction is compared with that before correction .Standard deviation improves from 0 .13 to 0 .158 with 21 .5% .Results indicate that atmospheric correction has reduced the distorted signals effectively .In the end ,NDVI is used to monitor cyanobacteria bloom in Donghu Lake .The accuracy has been enhanced compared with that before correction .%环境一号卫星(HJ1-1A/B)提供免费的高空间、高时间分辨率的遥感图像,是用于蓝藻监测的重要数据。然而,HJ-1A/B卫星由于地球大气及太阳辐射的影响会导致信号失真。为了提高绿藻监测的精度,大气纠正就变得极其重要。使用FLAASH大气校正模型对 HJ-1A/B数据进行大气纠正,考虑了一定波长范围内量子效应的影像,引入了波谱响应函数进行校正。然后对纠正前后的NDVI指数进行对比,标准差由校正前的0.13提升到校正后的0.158,提升了21.5%。结果表明,FLAASH大气校正模型对HJ-1A/B数据有极好的校正效果。最后,利用NDVI数据对东湖蓝藻进行监测,进一步证明,使用FLAASH大气校正模型纠正后的数据可以更加精确地识别蓝藻信息。

  12. Planetary atmosphere processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, N.S.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on various atmospheric processes, including zonal circulation of the atmosphere, the quasi-biennial cycle, blocking processes, monsoon circulation, and the response of the atmosphere to solar corpuscular fluxes. Other topics discussed include climatic characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, seasonal changes of the geopotential in the tropical stratosphere, and characteristics of the Southern Oscillation-El Nino phenomenon.

  13. Atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images with MODIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Junsheng; ZHANG; Bing; CHEN; Zhengchao; SHEN; Qian

    2006-01-01

    China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS) CCD images have much potential for inland water environmental monitoring. However, their atmospheric accuracy correction can affect their quantitative applications. This paper contains an atmospheric correction algorithm for CBERS CCD images with MODIS data from the same day, the use of which improves the atmospheric correction algorithm of ocean color remote sensing developed by Gordon (1993, 1994) and makes it applicable to inland waters. The improved algorithm retrieves atmospheric parameters from MODIS data and uses them to perform the atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images. Experimental results show that the atmospheric correction algorithm of CBERS CCD images assisted by MODIS data is reliable. Furthermore, MODIS data can be freely obtained on a daily basis, making the algorithm developed in this paper useful for environmental monitoring of inland waters.

  14. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of un

  15. Atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida-City, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    Results from the atmospheric neutrino measurements are presented. Evidence for the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in the atmospheric neutrino events was shown by statistical methods. The long baseline oscillation experiment using man-made neutrinos has confirmed the atmospheric neutrino oscillation. The future accelerator experiments are briefly discussed.

  16. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  17. Atmospheric anthropic impacts tracked by the French atmospheric mobile observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, J.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    A new ATmospheric Mobile ObServatory, so called "ATMOS", has been developed by the LiMAG "Lidar, Meteorology and Geophysics" team of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) in France, in order to contribute to international field campaigns for studying atmospheric physico-chemistry, air quality and climate (i.e. aerosols, clouds, trace gazes, atmospheric dynamics and energy budget) and the ground-based validation of satellite observations. ATMOS has been deployed in the framework of i) LISAIR, for monitoring air quality in Paris in 2005, ii) AMMA "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis", in Tamanrasset and in Niamey for observing the aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer in the Sahara and in the Sahel in 2006, iii) COPS "Convectively and Orographycally driven Precipitation Study" in the Rhin Valley in 2007 and iv) the validation of the spatial mission CALIPSO, launched in April 2006. In the coming years, ATMOS will be deployed i) in the Paris Megacity, in the framework of MEGAPOLI (2009-2010), ii) in southern France (near Marseille) for the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment CHARMEX (2011-2012) and iii) the validation of ADM-Aeolus in 2010-2011 and Earth-Care in 2012. ATMOS payload is modular, accounting for the different platforms, instruments and measuring techniques. The deployment of ATMOS is an essential contribution to field campaigns, complementing the fixed sites, and a potential alternative of airborne platforms, heavier and more expensive. ATMOS mobile payload comprises both the remote sensing platform MOBILIS ("Moyens mOBIles de téLédetection de l'IPSL") and the in-situ physico-chemical station SAMMO ("Station Aérosols et chiMie MObile"). MOBILIS is an autonomous and high-performance system constituted by a full set of active and passive remote sensing instrumentation (i.e. Lidars and radiometers), whose payload may be adapted for either i) long term fixed monitoring in a maritime container or a shelter, ii) ground-based transect

  18. Ninth Workshop 'Solar Influences on the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Atmosphere'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Kayta; Kirov, Boian; Danov, Dimitar

    2017-08-01

    The 9th Workshop "Solar Influences on the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Atmosphere" is an international forum for scientists working in the fields of: Sun and solar activity, Solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions, Solar influences on the lower atmosphere and climate, Solar effects in the biosphere, Instrumentation for space weather monitoring and Data processing and modelling.

  19. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere: Validation Experiments (MOHAVE I and MOHAVE II). Results Overview and Implication for the Long-Term Lidar Monitoring of Water Vapor in the UT/LS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. S.; Vomel, H.; Whiteman, D.; Twigg, Larry; McGee, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    1. MOHAVE+MOHAVE II = very successful. 2. MOHAVE -> Fluorescence was found to be inherent to all three participating lidars. 3. MOHAVE II -> Fluorescence was removed and agreement with CFH was extremely good up to 16-18 km altitude. 4. MOHAVE II -> Calibration tests revealed unsuspected shortfalls of widely used techniques, with important implications for their applicability to longterm measurements. 5. A factor of 5 in future lidar signal-to-noise ratio is reasonably achievable. When this level is achieved water vapor Raman lidar will become a key instrument for the long-term monitoring of water vapor in the UT/LS

  20. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs.

  1. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-02-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, whose 4.5-5.2 μm spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 109 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  2. The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    of motion of the atmosphere— "second order closure"—to such applications as the SCIPUFF -PC code for tracer dispersion (see Sykes, 1994). Now, for...Turbulence, Methuen, London, 2nd Ed., 1955. Sykes, R.I., "The SCIPUFF -PC Code," ARAP Draft Report, 1994. Tennekes, H., "The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

  3. Simulation of the atmospheric transport and deposition on a local/meso-and regional scale after hypothetical accidents at the Kola nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaning, Lennart; Baklanov, Alexander [Defence Research Establishment, FOA, Division of NBC Defence, Umea (Sweden)

    1997-08-25

    An accident at the Kola nuclear power plant could cause a large release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. To illustrate possible effects on the environment, potential atmospheric transport and deposition are calculated for two different scales - the local/meso- and the regional, using two different models. A 3-dimensional meso-scale model, developed at the Kola Science Centre, and suitable for distances out to a few hundred kilometres, has been used for the local/meso-scale, and a model system based on the MATHEW/ADPIC code, for the regional scale. Some consequences for the population have been estimated by using the MACCS model. Calculated aerial radionuclide activity concentrations, ground contamination and consequences for the population of the Euro-Arctic Barents region are discussed for two scenarios. The results for the local scale show a considerable influence on the radionuclide ground contamination pattern from the presence of precipitation. The significance of wet deposition is confirmed by the results for the regional scale which also emphasise the importance of having access to high quality weather predictions in emergency response organisations. The importance of the specific Arctic nutrition pathways, not included in this study, is discussed. It is important to make further studies in order to investigate the significance of these pathways.

  4. Operations and Maintenance Manual, Atmospheric Contaminant Sensor, Revision B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The sensor is a mass spectrometer system which continuously monitors the atmospheric constituents of hydrogen, water vapor, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, and monitors the Freons on a demand sampling basis. The manual provides a system description, operational procedures, and maintenance and troubleshooting instructions. Circuit diagrams…

  5. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  6. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric d...

  7. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  8. A comparative of long-path and traditional point atmospheric pollutants monitoring techniques%长光程与传统点式污染气体监测技术对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月清; 朱彬; 安俊琳

    2011-01-01

    结合2类大气成分观测仪器的技术特点,对OPSIS AB DOAS系统和Thermo SCIENTIFIC EMS系统分别监测的南京郊区2009年冬季和2010年春季O3、NO2、SO2质量浓度数据进行了质量控制和分析对比,简要分析了这3种气体浓度的季节变化特征.对2009年秋季分别采用2种仪器观测的南京城区和郊区的污染情况进行了对比,分析了城郊差异.结果表明:2套系统对相同气体的测量结果相关性较好,DOAS系统的测量值受大气中水汽和气溶胶影响较大,普遍高于EMS系统,绝对值相差范围在14%~25%之间;南京郊区冬季大气中SO2和NO2质量浓度较高,O3质量浓度较低,春季反之;NO2质量浓度曲线与O3呈负相关;秋季城区NO2质量浓度较高,日变化呈双峰型,郊区呈单峰型;城郊O3日变化均呈单峰型,城区日变化幅度较大;SO2日变化在城区呈单峰型,在郊区呈双峰型.%Observation of concentration of pollutants in atmosphere by OPSIS AB DOAS system and Thermo SCIENTIFIC EMS system was performed in rural areas of Nanjing during the winter of 2009 and the spring of 2010.Based on technical characteristics of the two systems,quality control of the observation data and comparison of the two systems were carried. The characteristics of seasonal variations of mass concentration of N02 ,O3 and SO2 were analyzed. The comparison of pollution characteristics between urban and rural areas measured by the two different systems during the autumn of 2009 was also carried. Quite good correlation can be established between the observation data of the two systems. The observation data of DOAS system are influenced by water vapor and aerosols in atmosphere , so they are generally higher than that of EMS system , with a rate from 14% to 25% . The concentration of SO2 and NO2 are higher in winter, while that of O3 is lower,however, quite the reverse is true in spring. There is negative correlation between the curve of NO2 and O3. The

  9. Detection of tracer materials in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.; Lovelock, J.E.

    1981-12-08

    As oxygen is an electron absorber it is desirable, when monitoring an atmospheric flow for the presence of tracer materials capable of detection in an electron capture detector, to remove the oxygen from the flow to the detector. The invention introduces a hydrogen supply directly into the atmospheric flow to allow the hydrogen to combine catalytically with the oxygen content of the flow to form water or water vapor. The thus formed water or water vapor is extracted from the flow proceeding to the detector. The reaction can occur within a palladium or palladium alloy conduit forming a part of the flow path to the detector.

  10. Mapping background values of atmospheric nitrogen total depositions in Germany based on EMEP deposition modelling and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung der Hintergrundwerte atmosphaerischer Stickstoff-Gesamtdepositionen in Deutschland anhand von Daten des EMEP-Messnetzes und des ICP Vegetation Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Fagerli, Hilde [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of EMEP, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    In order to map exceedances of critical atmospheric deposition loads for nitrogen (N) surface data on the atmospheric deposition of N compounds to terrestrial ecosystems are needed. Across Europe such information is provided by the international European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) in a resolution of 50 km by 50 km, relying on both emission data and measurement data on atmospheric depositions. The objective of the article at hand is on the improvement of the spatial resolution of the EMEP maps by combining them with data on the N concentration in mosses provided by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP). Methods The map on atmospheric depositions of total N as modelled by EMEP was intersected with geostatistical surface estimations on the N concentration in mosses at a resolution of 5 km by 5 km. The medians of the N estimations in mosses were then calculated for each 50 km by 50 km grid cell. Both medians of moss estimations and corresponding modelled deposition values were ln-transformed and their relationship investigated and modelled by linear regression analysis. The regression equations were applied on the moss kriging estimates of the N concentration in mosses. The respective residuals were projected onto the centres of the EMEP grid cells and were mapped using variogram analysis and kriging procedures. Finally, the residual and the regression map were summed up to the map of total N deposition in terrestrial ecosystems throughout Europe. The regression analysis of the estimated N concentrations in mosses and the modelled EMEP depositions resulted in clear linear regression patterns with coefficients of determination of r{sup 2}=0.62 and Pearson correlations of r{sub p}=0.79 and Spearman correlations of r{sub s}=0.70, respectively. Regarding the German

  11. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  12. Monitoring madness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-01-15

    High quality continuous emission monitoring capability can be as essential as high quality emission control equipment. Future mercury monitoring and control requirements add to the justification for better CEMS. The article discusses two prominent mercury measurement methods - the cold vapour atomic absorptive spectrometer (CVAAs) and the atomic absorptive spectrometer (AFS). It stresses the importance of maintaining a CEMS. 1 photo.

  13. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring;

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  14. Hows and whys of weather monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, D.E.; Knuth, W.R. [Technical and Business Systems, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Billions of bits of meteorological data are collected for the purpose of measuring real life atmospheric dispersion conditions at specific locations where air quality is in question. These measurements are often required as part of the permitting process prior to the construction of pollution sources, or in conjunction with air quality monitoring where pollution levels are already high. Considerable cost and effort are expended on monitoring, often with less than adequate results. This article discusses meteorological monitoring.

  15. 纺织印染工业大气污染物的检测和监控现状%Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollutants in Textile Dyeing and Printing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚; 敖建芳; 赵大琛

    2013-01-01

    随着人们对“雾霾”天气的关注度越来越高,工业大气污染控制被提升到空前未有的高度.中国作为世界纺织大国之一,在应对纺织印染工业对大气带来污染的问题上,展现十分积极的态度.在纺织印染工业大气污染物,特别是针对挥发性有机物(VOCs),我国在其检测和监控方面都先于美国、欧盟等国家开展了相关标准的制定,以标准的法制作用来严格控制大气污染,提升我国大气环境整体质量.%Industrial air pollution control has been promoted to an unprecedented height along with people paying more attention on the "haze" weather.As the biggest textile country,China shows a very positive attitude in response to the air pollution problems which were bought by textile industry.China will carry out the relevant standards in the detection and monitoring of air pollutants especially VOCs in textile industry before other countries such as America,Europe countries,applying the legal effect of the standards to strictly controlling air pollution,improving the overall quality of the air

  16. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  17. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    What are clouds? The answer to that question is both obvious and subtle. In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice crystals suspended in the air. In the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn's moon Titan, Uranus, Neptune, and possibly Pluto, they are composed of several other substances including sulfuric acid, ammonia, hydroge...

  18. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its...... are ‘compressed’ by the spatial morphologies of urban space. In this perspective atmospheres are to be understood as an emergent property that develops when the spatial morphological compression of urban life passes a certain threshold, that is, when the affective rhythm of the urban assemblages becomes...... understanding of atmospheres as aesthetically ‘radiating’ from the surfaces of space, thinks physiognomically, the article argues for a spatial morphological perspective on atmospheres. Thus, post-phenomeno¬logically, it is argued that the atmospheric given is given by the density of pedestrians, which...

  19. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  20. Monarch Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service has engaged in a multi-partnered, integrated strategy for monitoring conservation of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus...

  1. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  2. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  3. Bayesian Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the inspection game: The ?Bayesian Monitoring? model rests on the assumption that judges are interested in enforcing compliant behavior and making correct decisions. They may base their judgements on an informative but imperfect signal which can be generated costlessly. In the original inspection game, monitoring is costly and generates a perfectly informative signal. While the inspection game has only one mixed strategy equilibrium, three Perfect Bayesia...

  4. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using...... in the size range 1 nm–10 μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean–atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased...... towards the last decade, but includes earlier work, where more recent developments are limited or absent. New methodologies and instrumentation have enabled, if not driven technical advances in measurement. These developments have advanced the process understanding and upscaling of fluxes, especially...

  5. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-08-01

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  6. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  7. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    . In doing so, analysing the Crystal Palace – recognised as the epitome of controlled immersive experience as well as of atmospheric engineering (Sloterdijk 2008 (2005) – in parallel with other examples and theoretical explorations, will provide a canvas for discerning the means of creation of atmosphere...... Physical Presence in Space.” Oase #91, Building Atmosphere, 21-33 Sloterdijk, Peter. (2005) 2008. “The Crystal Palace.” Translated by Michael Darroch. Public 37: Public?, 12-15. Originally published in Peter Sloterdijk. Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals: Für eine philoso-phische Theorie der Globalisierung, 265...

  8. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  9. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  10. The Mars atmosphere as seen from Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischna, Michael

    Study of the Mars atmosphere by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been ongoing since immediately after landing on August 6, 2012 (UTC) at the bottom of Gale Crater. The MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) has been the primary payload for atmospheric monitoring, while additional observations from the ChemCam, Mastcam, Navcam and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments have augmented our understanding of the local martian environment at Gale. The REMS instrument consists of six separate sensor types, observing air and ground temperature, near-surface winds, relative humidity, surface pressure and UV radiation. The standard cadence of REMS observations consists of five-minute observations of 1 Hz frequency at the top of each hour, augmented by several one-hour “extended blocks” each sol, also at 1 Hz frequency, together yielding one of the most richly diverse and detailed samplings of the martian atmosphere. Among the intriguing atmospheric phenomena observed during the first 359 sols of the mission is a substantially greater (˜12% of the diurnal mean) diurnal pressure cycle than found in previous surface measurements by Viking at a similar season (˜3-4%), likely due to the topography of the crater environment. Measurements of air and ground temperature by REMS are seen to reflect both changes in atmospheric opacity as well as transitions in the surface geology (and surface thermal properties) along the rover’s traverse. The REMS UV sensor has provided the first measurements of ultraviolet flux at the martian surface, and identified dust events that reduce solar insolation at the surface. The REMS RH sensor has observed a seasonal change in humidity in addition to the expected diurnal variations in relative humidity; however, no surface frost has been detected through the first 360 sols of the mission. With a weekly cadence, Navcam images the local zenith for purposes of tracking cloud motion and wind direction, and likewise observes the

  11. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  12. The invention of atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved.

  13. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, S.; Spurio, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea-level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examinated. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum) are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  14. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cecchini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examined. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  15. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  16. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  17. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  18. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  19. Atmospheric Laser Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer(, Kenneth W.; Witiw, Michael R.; Baars+, Jeffrey A.; Oke, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly through the atmosphere via laser beams over paths from a few meters to 4 km or longer. FSL uses lasers in the near-infrared spectrum, typically at wavelengths of 850 or 1550 nm. Given these wavelengths, atmospheric attenuation must be considered, and an adequate margin of optical power (dB) must exist to support high system availability (the percentage of time that an FSL link is in operation, typically 99.9%). A visual range of 100 m can attenuate a laser beam at a rate of nearly 130 dB km-1. For short links (rain, and snow frequently become issues. To address these issues, long-term climate data are analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of low visibilities and low-cloud ceilings. To estimate availability at a site of interest, adjustments to airport climate data are made to accommodate differences in altitude, geography, and the effects of the urban heat island. In sum, communication via FSL is a feasible alternative to fiber optic cable when atmospheric conditions are considered and properly analyzed.(Current affiliation: The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington+Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

  20. ULTIMA: Array of ground-based magnetometer arrays for monitoring magnetospheric and ionospheric perturbations on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, K.; Chi, P. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Connors, M. G.; Engebretson, M. J.; Fraser, B. J.; Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Moldwin, M. B.; Russell, C. T.; Stolle, C.; Tanskanen, E.; Vallante, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.

    2012-12-01

    ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array) is an international consortium that aims at promoting collaborative research on the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere through the use of ground-based magnetic field observatories. ULTIMA is joined by individual magnetometer arrays in different countries/regions, and the current regular-member arrays are Australian, AUTUMN, CARISMA, DTU Space, Falcon, IGPP-LANL, IMAGE, MACCS, MAGDAS, McMAC, MEASURE, THEMIS, and SAMBA. The Chair of ULTIMA has been K. Yumoto (MAGDAS), and its Secretary has been P. Chi (McMAC, Falcon). In this paper we perform case studies in which we estimate the global patterns of (1) near-Earth currents and (2) magnetic pulsations; these phenomena are observed over wide areas on the ground, thus suitable for the aims of ULTIMA. We analyze these two phenomena during (a) quiet period and (b) magnetic storm period. We compare the differences between these two periods by drawing the global maps of the ionospheric equivalent currents (which include the effects of all the near-Earth currents) and pulsation amplitudes. For ionospheric Sq currents at low latitudes during quiet periods, MAGDAS data covering an entire solar cycle has yielded a detailed statistical model, and we can use it as a reference for the aforementioned comparison. We also estimate the azimuthal wave numbers of pulsations and compare the amplitude distribution of pulsations with the distribution of highly energetic (in MeV range) particles simultaneously observed at geosynchronous satellites.

  1. AFSC/FMA/NPRB Alternative Catch Monitoring Table and ccolumn Definitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data arise from a field study of groundfish catch monitoring in Kodiak, AK trawl fisheries. Two monitoring components were included in the study: 1) at-sea...

  2. TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1986-06-09

    A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

  3. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  4. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  5. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  6. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  8. Sensors and Apps for Community-Based Atmospheric Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in both sensors and wireless communication provide opportunities for improved exposure assessment and increasing community involvement in reducing levels of human exposure to airborne contaminants. These new technologies can enhance data collection to answer scien...

  9. THE HAZARDS OF DUSTING AND MONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Malec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zanieczyszczenia powietrza mogą być gazowe lub pyłowe. Jako główne źródło zanieczyszczeń powietrza wskazywana jest emisja antropogeniczna, na która składa się emisja wynikająca z działalności przemysłowej oraz emisja komunikacyjna. Jedną z cech zanieczyszczeń powietrza jest możliwość ich przemieszczania się. Zanieczyszczenia tego typu nie znajdują pojęcia granic, dlatego tak ważna jest współpraca wszystkich państw nad ograniczeniem ich ilości ich emisji. W ostatnich dziesięcioleciach w Europie znacznie spadły wskaźniki emisji zanieczyszczeń, co zaskutkowało poprawą jakości powietrza. Jednak stężenia substancji szkodliwych są wciąż za wysokie co wpływa negatywnie na zdrowie, a nawet życie ludzkie.

  10. The rapid atmospheric monitoring system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A