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Sample records for macaws anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

  1. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves, and its significance for conservation plans

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    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and of the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus. A diploid number of 2n = 70 and a karyotype similar to the main pattern previously found for the genera Ara, Cyanopsitta, Aratinga, Propyrrhura, Pionites, Pionopsitta, Nandayus, and Guaruba were found for both species. These karyotype descriptions can be a starting point for the genetic monitoring of these two declining species.

  2. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

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    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM.

  3. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

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    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  4. Morfologia e biometria do timo em araras dos gêneros Ara e Anodorhynchus Morphology and biometry of the thymus gland in macaw of Ara and Anodorhynchus genera

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    R.Z. Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 exemplares de Ara ararauna - seis fêmeas e seis machos -, cinco exemplares de Ara chloropterus (uma fêmea e quatro machos e dois exemplares de Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - uma fêmea e um macho -, todos adultos, doados por criadouro particular, após óbito natural. Os lobos foram dissecados e medidos com paquímetro - comprimento x largura x espessura - e analisados quanto ao peso, à topografia e à morfologia individual. Independentemente do gênero, foram identificados, em 17 casos (89,5%, lobos tímicos nos antímeros cervicais esquerdo e direito, e em oito casos (42,1%, lobos na cavidade celomática. Os lobos apresentaram formatos alongados - 52,6% -, arredondados - 21,1% - ou ovalados - 15,8% -, posicionados preferencialmente ventromedialmente ao longo do plexo vasculoneural do pescoço, com número médio de cinco lobos por antímero, tamanho médio de 0,49cm de comprimento, 0,12cm de largura e 0,05cm de espessura e peso médio de 0,076g.Twelve samples of Ara ararauna - six females and six males -, five samples of Ara chloropterus (one female and four males and two samples of Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (one female and one male, all adults from a Breeding Park, were used after natural death. The lobes were dissected and measured with electronic calliper (length x width x thickness and analyzed taking their weight, topography and individual morphology into account. Regardless of gender, 89.5% of the cases presented timic lobes in the left and right cervical antimere, and 42.1% of the cases presented lobes in the celomatic cavity. The lobes were shown in shapes - long (52.6%, round (21.1% or oval (15.8%, positioned mostly ventromedially, along the neurovascular plexus of the neck, with an average of five lobes per antimere, and an average size of 0.49cm length, 0.12cm width, and 0.05cm thick and average weight of 0.076g.

  5. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

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    Flavia T. Presti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot, tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient.

  6. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

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    Presti, Flavia T.; Meyer, Janaína; Antas, Paulo T.Z.; Guedes, Neiva M.R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot), tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient. PMID:23569419

  7. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae: application for conservation

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    Flavia T. Presti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable], and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao. Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus to 0.85 (A. macao. As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

  8. Morfologia e biometria do timo em araras dos gêneros Ara e Anodorhynchus

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    R.Z. Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 exemplares de Ara ararauna - seis fêmeas e seis machos -, cinco exemplares de Ara chloropterus (uma fêmea e quatro machos e dois exemplares de Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - uma fêmea e um macho -, todos adultos, doados por criadouro particular, após óbito natural. Os lobos foram dissecados e medidos com paquímetro - comprimento x largura x espessura - e analisados quanto ao peso, à topografia e à morfologia individual. Independentemente do gênero, foram identificados, em 17 casos (89,5%, lobos tímicos nos antímeros cervicais esquerdo e direito, e em oito casos (42,1%, lobos na cavidade celomática. Os lobos apresentaram formatos alongados - 52,6% -, arredondados - 21,1% - ou ovalados - 15,8% -, posicionados preferencialmente ventromedialmente ao longo do plexo vasculoneural do pescoço, com número médio de cinco lobos por antímero, tamanho médio de 0,49cm de comprimento, 0,12cm de largura e 0,05cm de espessura e peso médio de 0,076g.

  9. Molecular markers for population genetic analyses in the family Psittacidae (Psittaciformes, Aves

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    Patrícia J. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of molecular markers for population studies is an important tool for biodiversity conservation. The family Psittacidae contains many endangered and vulnerable species and we tested three kinds of molecular markers for their potential use in population studies of five psitacid species: 43 hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, 42 blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, 23 red-and-green macaws (Ara chloroptera, 19 red-spectacled amazons (Amazona pretrei; and 18 red-tailed amazons (Amazona brasiliensis. We tested 21 clones from a genomic library of golden conure (Guarouba guarouba minisatellites and 12 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus and A. hyacinthinus. We also tested seven tetranucleotide repeat primers for their ability to amplify regions between microsatellite loci (inter simple sequence repeats, ISSRs. We were able to select seven markers that were variable in different degrees for three species (A. hyacinthinus, A. chloroptera and A. ararauna. The mini and microsatellites produced more polymorphic patterns than the ISSRs. The genetic variability of the species studied seems to be correlated with their endangered status.

  10. Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS)

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    Rhothermel, Jeffry; Jones, W. D.; Dunkin, J. A.; Mccaul, E. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This effort involves development of a calibrated, pulsed coherent CO2 Doppler lidar, followed by a carefully-planned and -executed program of multi-dimensional wind velocity and aerosol backscatter measurements from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The lidar, designated as the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), will be applicable to two research areas. First, MACAWS will enable specialized measurements of atmospheric dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere in geographic locations and over scales of motion not routinely or easily accessible to conventional sensors. The proposed observations will contribute fundamentally to a greater understanding of the role of the mesoscale, helping to improve predictive capabilities for mesoscale phenomena and to provide insights into improving model parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes within large-scale circulation models. As such, it has the potential to contribute uniquely to major, multi-institutional field programs planned for the mid 1990's. Second, MACAWS measurements can be used to reduce the degree of uncertainty in performance assessments and algorithm development for NASA's prospective Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), which has no space-based instrument heritage. Ground-based lidar measurements alone are insufficient to address all of the key issues. To minimize costs, MACAWS is being developed cooperatively by the lidar remote sensing groups of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and MSFC using existing lidar hardware and manpower resources. Several lidar components have already been exercised in previous airborne lidar programs (for example, MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) used in 1981,4 Severe Storms Wind Measurement Program; JPL Airborne Backscatter Lidar Experiment (ABLE) used in 1989,90 Global Backscatter Experiment Survey Missions). MSFC has been given responsibility for directing the overall

  11. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS

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    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Howell, James; Johnson, Steven C.; Tratt, David M.; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS, which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise which were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. The motivation for the MACAWS program Is three-fold: to obtain fundamental measurements of sub-synoptic scale processes and features which may be used as a basis to improve sub-grid scale parameterizations in large-scale models; to obtain similar datasets in order to improve the understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors. Examples of the latter include participation in the validation of the NASA Scatterometer and the assessment of prospective satellite Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurement. Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna): the species morphologically similar to Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis).

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    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Six genera of the Arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. The presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. Genera and species of Macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. The genus Ara contains eight extant species. Two of them are classified as medium-sized Macaws and other six species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, large Macaw species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. So far, representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for Ara glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration), Ara macao (predominantly red/scarlet) and Ara militaris (predominantly green) species. Ara ararauna is the second of two Ara species with predominant blue and yellow plumage. Hitherto, close phylogenetic relation of these two species was shown using only ND2 genes or incomplete combined COI/Cytb/ND2 sequences. Therefore, Ara ararauna mitogenome, which was sequenced in this study, will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaws group.

  13. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

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    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease.

  14. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

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    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  15. Forensic species identification of large macaws using DNA barcodes and microsatellite profiles.

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    Abe, Hideaki; Hayano, Azusa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2012-01-01

    Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers species identification was conducted in the case of seized feathers. Earlier, we had sequenced cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) both from 10 seized specimens and 43 validation specimens from captive macaws belonging to 4 Ara species (A. macao, A. chloropterus, A. ararauna, and A. ambiguus) and identified 19 haplotypes based on COI sequences. Species-level identification using Barcode of Life Data Systems showed that seized feathers shared the highest similarity with scarlet macaws (A. macao), and this result was supported by the tree-base identification with high bootstrap values. Moreover, microsatellite profiles in AgGT17 locus showed that patterns of allelic distribution in the seized feathers were apparently distinct from those of red-and-green macaw (A. chloropterus), but were overlapped with those of A. macao, suggesting that all of seized feathers were derived from several individuals of A. macao. We also determined the parentage of hybrid macaws by the combination of COI barcodes and microsatellite profiles. The technique presented here will contribute to forensic identification and future conservation of large macaws that have been lost due to deforestation.

  16. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM.

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    Watson, Adam S; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J; Gilman, Patricia A; LeBlanc, Steven A; Whiteley, Peter M; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J

    2015-07-07

    High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) (14)C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼ A.D. 900-975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS (14)C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040-1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco Canyon.

  17. Hematological parameters of blue-headed macaw Primolius couloni L. (Psittacidae) in captivity

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    Solari, Giovanna; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Tribeño, David; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Navarro, Zoila; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Alvis, Rafael; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Biología del Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Pino, José; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Biología del Desarrollo, Instituto de Investigación de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM). Lima – Perú

    2011-01-01

    The Blue-headed macaw (Primolius couloni) is considered a New World endangered parrot. Blood samples were collected from 13 captive blue-headed macaws (7 male, 6 female) housed in the Las Leyendas Zoological Park in Lima, Peru to establish hematologic reference values. Mean values for erythrocytes and leukocytes were 2608 x 103/ml and 10.11 x 103/ml respectively; hematocrit was 50.15% and mean corpuscular volume was 200 fl. The differential leukocyte count showed 64.7 and 25.3% of heterophils...

  18. 78 FR 2239 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-Throated Macaw

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    2013-01-10

    ... life history of blue-throated macaws; it also has local, commercial, and ecosystem importance (Kyle... introduced to Bolivia in the 1600s. After the Second World War, cattle ranching and the associated burning of... neglect), exposure to cold temperatures, or flooding (Kyle 2007a, pp. 1-10). If parents do not have access...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Military Macaw (Ara militaris): its comparison with mitogenomes of two other Ara species.

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    Dawid Urantowka, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The Military Macaw is one of the eight species of the genus Ara. The genus is one of six genera, which form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. Parrots of this group differ in body size on demand of the genus and species. Six of Ara species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, these species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. Representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for A. glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration) and A. macao (predominantly red/scarlet). Ara militaris is one of two predominantly green species and full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced in this study. It's comparison with A. glaucogularis and A. macao mitogenomes revealed higher degree of identity between militaris and macao sequences than between militaris and glaucogularis mtDNAs. Ara militaris mitogenome will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaw group.

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in dead captive psittacines in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    AM Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg infection of wild native Brazilian psittacines (Psittaciformes which died of any cause during sorting, rehabilitation, or conservation, was investigated by PCR. Two previously described PCR methodologies using Mg specific primers were employed for the analyses of 140 swab samples (cloaca, trachea, or palatine cleft. Average positive Mg detection in cloacal swabs was 51.9%, with 80.0% (n=5 of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, 60.0% (n=3 Dusky Parrots (Pionus fuscus, 52.5% (n=59 Amazon Parrots (Amazona aestiva, 50.0% (n=2 Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica, 50.0% (n=2 Jandaya Parakeetsor Jandaya Conures (Aratinga jandaya, 0% (n=2 Golden Conures or Golden Parakeets (Guarouba guarouba, and 0% (n=2 Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. Palatine cleft swab sampling was more sensitive to detect Mg, with 85.4% (n=17 detection rate, as compared to 67.4% (n=46 obtained with tracheal samples, and 53.5% (n=77 with cloacal swabs. The surprisingly high Mg incidence in psittacines kept in conservation or triage environments is possibly due to the proximity or cohabitation with several bird species during confinement and housing psittacines of different origins together. The implementation of biosecurity measures and species-specific facilities is recommended.

  1. Proventricular dilatation disease associated with Avian bornavirus in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao).

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    Keller, Dominique L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-11-01

    A case of proventricular dilatation disease is described in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao) from clinical presentation to diagnosis with molecular methods. The initial clinical signs were depression progressing to head pressing over several days. A leukocytosis with toxic heterophil changes, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were present. Lead and zinc assays were within reference ranges, and results from Chlamydophila and polyomavirus testing were negative. Contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy revealed normal gastrointestinal transit times and motility as well as the presence of 2 small metallic foreign bodies in the ventriculus. The macaw was treated with antimicrobials, analgesics, vitamins E and B complex, force-feeding, and fluid administration with little improvement. Euthanasia was elected, and histologic examination of brain tissue revealed a perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, while the lungs had evidence of a fungal pneumonia. Tissue samples from the brain and proventriculus tested positive for the presence of Avian bornavirus genotype 2, while serology confirmed Avian bornavirus infection.

  2. First record of Paratanaisia bragai (Digenea: Eucotylidae in blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna

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    Tarcísio Macedo Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to provide the first report on a new host for the digenean Paratanaisia bragai in the caninde macaw Ara ararauna along with the pathological aspects of the infection in the new host. The microscopic findings revealed the presence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism by P. bragai in A. ararauna, and emphasizes the need to use best practices in wildlife conservation parks.

  3. Dormancy breaking in macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Loddiges ex Mart.] seeds

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    Rubio Neto,Aurélio; Silva,Fabiano Guimarães; Sales,Juliana de Fátima; Reis,Edésio Fialho dos; Silva,Lailla Queiroz; Campos,Rafael Cândido

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to improve the speed of and standardize the process for the germination of macaw palm seeds. The effect of mechanical scarification (removal of the tegument in the hilum region), thermal scarification (imbibition of seeds in water at approximately 100ºC for two or four minutes) and chemical scarification (98% sulfuric acid treatment for two or four minutes) were compared to a control (no scarification) in both a germination chamber and a greenhouse, representing trial...

  4. Scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue in the scarlet macaw (Ara macao).

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    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the lingual apex of the scarlet macaw had a lip-like shape. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The surface of the lingual apex had many grooves toward lingual root. The surface of the lingual apex was relatively smooth. The central surface of the papillary layer in the lingual apex after removal of the epithelium consisted of numerous dermal papillae, but the papillae were not observed in the lateral region. A pair of openings of the lingual glands was observed in the posterolateral region of the lingual body. The opening of the lingual gland after removal of the epithelium showed more clear structure than before removal. Many conical papillae in the posterior region of the lingual body were observed. The structure of the tongue of the scarlet macaw was different from that of the rainbow lorikeet.

  5. Development of agroclimatic zoning model to delimit the potential growing areas for macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata)

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    Falasca, Silvia; Ulberich, Ana; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    The growing biodiesel production requires the use of new technologies and alternative feedstocks to maintain the growing demand of this biofuel. The macaw (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm native to Argentina whose fruits present high oil content. Due to its tolerance to prolonged drought, it is a promising crop for biodiesel and biokerosene production. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model to define the potential growing areas from macaw in Argentina. To define the agroclimatic suitability to produce oil, it was necessary to identify the requirements, limits, and biometeorological tolerance for this palm. In order to define the agroclimatic fitness of this crop in Argentina, the meteorological data corresponding to the period 1981-2010 were employed. The agroclimatic indices were integrated in a Geographic Information System. The maps were superimposed and the overlapping regions delineated the agroclimatic zoning. The agroclimatic zonation classified zones with homogeneous characteristics responding to bioclimatic requirements of this species, resulting in optimal, very suitable, suitable, and nonsuitable areas for macaw cultivation. The authors designed an agroclimatic zoning model based on bibliography. This model can be used in any part of the world, employing the same agroclimatic indices presented in this work.

  6. Development of agroclimatic zoning model to delimit the potential growing areas for macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Ulberich, Ana; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    The growing biodiesel production requires the use of new technologies and alternative feedstocks to maintain the growing demand of this biofuel. The macaw ( Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm native to Argentina whose fruits present high oil content. Due to its tolerance to prolonged drought, it is a promising crop for biodiesel and biokerosene production. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model to define the potential growing areas from macaw in Argentina. To define the agroclimatic suitability to produce oil, it was necessary to identify the requirements, limits, and biometeorological tolerance for this palm. In order to define the agroclimatic fitness of this crop in Argentina, the meteorological data corresponding to the period 1981-2010 were employed. The agroclimatic indices were integrated in a Geographic Information System. The maps were superimposed and the overlapping regions delineated the agroclimatic zoning. The agroclimatic zonation classified zones with homogeneous characteristics responding to bioclimatic requirements of this species, resulting in optimal, very suitable, suitable, and nonsuitable areas for macaw cultivation. The authors designed an agroclimatic zoning model based on bibliography. This model can be used in any part of the world, employing the same agroclimatic indices presented in this work.

  7. Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marta Brito; Torres, Luciana Neves; Mesquita, Ramon Gomes; Ampuero, Fernanda; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2014-12-01

    This study describes an outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in captive macaws (Ara ararauna). Two psittacine birds presented a history of prostration and died 18 hr after manifestation of clinical signs. The necropsy findings and histopathologic lesions were indicative of necrotic enteritis. Microbiologic assays resulted in the growth of large gram-positive bacilli that were identified as C. perfringens. PCR was used to identify clostridium toxinotypes and confirmed the identification of isolated strains as C pefringens type A, positive to gene codifying beta 2 toxin. The infection source and predisposing factors could not be ascertained.

  8. Reproductive Parameters in the Critically Endangered Blue-Throated Macaw: Limits to the Recovery of a Parrot under Intensive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P.; Díaz-Luque, José A.; Silva Frias, Carmen P.; Aramburu, Rosana M.; Gilardi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007–2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw. PMID:24941317

  9. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Berkunsky

    Full Text Available Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw.

  10. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P; Díaz-Luque, José A; Silva Frias, Carmen P; Aramburu, Rosana M; Gilardi, James D

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw.

  11. Bilateral Uveitis and Hyphema in a Catalina Macaw (Ara ararauna x Ara macao) Associated with Multicentric Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 20-year-old, female Catalina macaw (Ara ararauna x Ara macao) presented with bilateral uveitis and hyphema. No other initial clinical signs were present and the results of the complete blood count, biochemical profile, and serum protein electrophoresis were unremarkable. Improvement in the hyphema...

  12. Positive reinforcement training facilitates the voluntary participation of laboratory macaws with veterinary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugette, Kelsey F; Hoppes, Sharman; Tizard, Ian; Brightsmith, Donald

    2012-12-01

    Psittacine birds are challenging laboratory subjects, as they are typically long-lived, very social, highly intelligent, and easily stressed. The benefits of positive reinforcement techniques in animal management have been well documented for mammalian species; however, there are few publications on such programs for birds. To demonstrate the practicality of positive reinforcement training of laboratory birds to cooperate with research procedures involving direct manipulation of individuals, 9 adult macaws (Ara species; 5 individuals and 2 pairs) were trained in 10-minute sessions, twice a day for 8 weeks. The trained behaviors were: target, stay, accept liquids from a syringe, step onto a perch, step onto a scale, allow pressing a syringe to the pectoral area (surrogate for an intramuscular injection), and step onto a towel. All individually housed birds reliably targeted, stayed, and accepted a syringe, and 4 of the 5 stepped onto a perch. One bird performed all of the behaviors. Paired birds learned advanced techniques significantly faster when trained by 2 trainers versus 1 trainer. All behaviors that were mastered during the initial phase of training were successfully transferred so that the birds would reliably perform for the husbandry staff. We conclude that positive reinforcement techniques provide an effective, practical way to train laboratory macaws in behaviors useful for veterinary practice and research. Positive reinforcement used to evoke voluntary participation in procedures will help reduce stress associated with capture and restraint and improve welfare for laboratory parrots.

  13. SUBSTRATE, LIME, PHOSPHORUS AND TOPDRESS FERTILIZATION IN MACAW PALM SEEDLING PRODUCTION

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    Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lood. ex Mart] has been domesticated to subsidize biodiesel production programs in Brazil. However, little is known about the seedling production of this species. This study aimed to evaluate substrate mixtures, limestone and phosphorus rates for substrate amendment and topdressing frequency in macaw palm seedlings. Three trials were conducted in a greenhouse up to six months of nursery cultivation. Trial 1: determination of percent mineral and organic fractions of seven substrate mixtures. Trial 2: evaluation of four limerates for soil amendment versus four phosphorus rates. Trial 3: evaluation of N, K and Mg topdressing frequency. Significant differences were found in the three trials for most of the variables (plant height, leaf number, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, vigor and bulb diameter. The main results obtained were as follow: Trial1 - the best seedling growth was observed in substrates with at least 25% organic matter. Trial2 -lime rates ranging from 0.50 to 1.25 kg associated with 3 to 4 kg of single superphosphate per m3 of substrate provided the best seedling growth. Trial 3 - topdressing fertilization provided better development of seedlings regardless of frequency.

  14. Enzyme activity and reserve mobilization during Macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata seed germination

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    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Reserve mobilization in seeds occurs after visible germination, which is marked by the protrusion of the radicle or cotyledonary petiole, as in species of Arecaceae. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm, usually produces hard seeds whose endosperm has mannan-rich cell walls. We investigated the composition of storage compounds in macaw palm seed and the roles of two enzymes (endo-β-mannanase, α-galactosidase during and after germination. The seeds were firstly submitted to pre-established protocol to overcome dormancy and promote germination. Enzyme activity in both embryo and endosperm were assayed from the initiation of germinative activities until leaf sheath appearance, and the status of seed structures and reserve compounds were evaluated. Protein content of the embryo decreased with the initiation of imbibition while the lipid content began decreasing six days after removal of the operculum. Increases in enzyme activity and starch content were both observed after visible germination. We suggest that endo-β-mannanase and α-galactosidase become active immediately at germination, facilitating haustorium expansion and providing carbohydrates for initial seedling development. Protein is the first storage compound mobilized during early imbibition, and the observed increase in the starch content of the haustorium was related to lipid degradation in that organ and mannan degradation in the adjacent endosperm.

  15. Do the structures of macaw palm fruit protect seeds in a fire-prone environment?

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    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fire is an abiotic disturbance that regulates vegetation structure and biodiversity. Some plant species have adapted to fire prone environments by evolving protective structures. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm is widely distributed throughout tropical America, and is found in environments continuously influenced by anthropogenic fire. We aimed to determine whether the fruit characteristics of A. aculeata enable seeds to resist the effects of fire and also the consequent effects of fire on fruit biometric traits and embryo viability. After a fire event in a region of pasture-forest transition, we marked 30 individuals of A. aculeata. The trees were separated by UPGMA analysis into 5 groups according to fire exposure, ranging from trees with no exposure to trees with fruit completely exposed to fire. Fruit exposure to high temperatures led to lower values in fruit fresh weight, length, density, and processable mass.Fire had no significant effect on seed biometric variables, because of the structures of the fruit, including its lignified endocarp and its insulating and mucilaginous mesocarp. These structures helped to maintain the embryos viability by preventing oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit structure of the macaw palm may facilitate seed persistence, even when subject to increasingly frequent fire events.

  16. Control of macaw palm seed germination by the gibberellin/abscisic acid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, E M; Pintó-Marijuan, M; Morales, M; Müller, M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2015-09-01

    The hormonal mechanisms involved in palm seed germination are not fully understood. To better understand how germination is regulated in Arecaceae, we used macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart.) seed as a model. Endogenous hormone concentrations, tocopherol and tocotrienol and lipid peroxidation during germination were studied separately in the embryo and endosperm. Evaluations were performed in dry (D), imbibed (I), germinated (G) and non-germinated (NG) seeds treated (+GA3 ) or not treated (control) with gibberellins (GA). With GA3 treatment, seeds germinated faster and to a higher percentage than control seeds. The +GA3 treatment increased total bioactive GA in the embryo during germination relative to the control. Abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations decreased gradually from D to G in both tissues. Embryos of G seeds had a lower ABA content than NG seeds in both treatments. The GA/ABA ratio in the embryo was significantly higher in G than NG seeds. The +GA3 treatment did not significantly affect the GA/ABA ratio in either treatment. Cytokinin content increased from dry to germinated seeds. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboylic acid (ACC) decreased after imbibition. In addition, α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol decreased, while lipid peroxidation increased in the embryo during germination. We conclude that germination in macaw palm seed involves reductions in ABA content and, consequently, increased GA/ABA in the embryo. Furthermore, the imbibition process generates oxidative stress (as observed by changes in vitamin E and MDA).

  17. DNA sequence analysis to guide the release of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, Psittaciformes, Aves) from the illegal trade back into the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gislaine A; Caparroz, Renato

    2013-03-01

    The illegal wildlife trade is one of the major threats to Brazil's biodiversity. Approximately 80 % of illegally captured animals are birds, and 4 % of those are parrots. Although many seized birds do not survive, those that are recovered may be returned to the wild. The release of seized individuals into the wild should be conducted with caution, as local populations may suffer adverse effects if genetically different individuals are introduced. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relationships between 13 illegally captured blue-and-yellow macaws selected for release in northeastern Goiás, Brazil, and previously studied Brazilian macaw populations. We identified the seized macaws that were genetically similar to those from northwestern Goiás and that were therefore most suitable for release in that area. The genetic relationship was evaluated by sequence analysis of 403 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were computed via a median-joining network. Only six of the seized macaws were closely related to the macaws of northeastern Goiás, indicating that those macaws were potential candidates for release in that area. However, the release of these birds should follow all technical recommendations required by the Brazilian environmental authorities.

  18. Comparison between MACAW and T_Lohi protocols for underwater networks.

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    Erik Ortiz Guerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of underwater networks presents great challenges, most of which are related to the complexity of the communication channel. The main difficulties to face in the underwater channel are the restricted bandwidth and the low propagation speed. Due to these difficulties, it is necessary the development of new and more competent communication protocols in order to obtain higher performance and minimize the energy consumption. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative evaluation between two medium access controls (MAC: MACAW and T_Lohi. Both protocols are based on random access mechanism, the first uses request to send (RTS; clear to send (CTS and acknowledgement (ACK messages to regulate transmissions while the second uses short duration tones which can be detected instantaneously. Thus, this study focuses on the performance, collisions and efficiency of these protocols in order to reserve the communication channel, whereby it highlights the advantages and deficiencies of each protocol in the underwater communication networks.

  19. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable.

  20. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, Christopher M; Dowd, Scot E; Seabury, Paul M; Raudsepp, Terje; Brightsmith, Donald J; Liboriussen, Poul; Halley, Yvette; Fisher, Colleen A; Owens, Elaine; Viswanathan, Ganesh; Tizard, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly). The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000). The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1) has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000). Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw). Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb) includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's). Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7), which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity) which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS studies. We

  1. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  2. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Seabury

    Full Text Available Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly. The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000. The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000. Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw. Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's. Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7, which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS

  3. Effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of Blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna L. - Aves, Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, R R; Sakomura, N K; Kawauchi, I M; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2014-04-01

    Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. Subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months to evaluate energy intake and blood metabolites. A 2 × 2 × 2 (two fibre levels, two food processing methods and two genders) factorial arrangement with subplots (beginning and end) was used. When differences were detected in anova's F test, data were submitted to polynomial contrasts in the first experiment and to orthogonal contrasts in the second experiment (p food processing. Pelleted foods presented higher dry matter digestibility and food metabolisable energy (ME) than the extruded ones (p processing did not change ME ingestion (p > 0.05). The macaws gained body weight (p 0.05), but females fed with the high-fibre diets did not gain weight (p > 0.05), suggesting a low food ME (12.5 kJ/g).The substitution of the original diet (sunflower seeds, fruits and cooked maize) by the experimental foods decreased the basal (12-h fast) concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001). The consumption of pelleted diets reduced serum glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the pelleted diets were more beneficial and can be used to reduce blood metabolites related to metabolic disorders that are commonly observed in macaws.

  4. Identification and comparison of marbofloxacin metabolites from the plasma of ball pythons (Python regius) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R P; Koch, D E; Coke, R L; Carpenter, J W; Isaza, R

    2007-06-01

    Marbofloxacin is a veterinary only, synthetic, broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. In mammals, approximately 40% of the oral dose of marbofloxacin is excreted unchanged in the urine; the remaining is excreted via the bile as unchanged drug in the feces. The Vd ranges from 1.1 (cattle) to 1.3 (dog, goat, swine) L/kg. Because of extra-label use of marbofloxacin in birds and reptiles, this study was designed to determine the profile of metabolites in plasma and compare the circulating metabolite profile between a reptile and an avian species. Six adult ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) were used in this study. The macaws were dosed both i.v. and p.o. with a single 2.5 mg/kg administration where as the pythons received a single 10 mg/kg dose both i.v. and p.o. The metabolite profiles of marbofloxacin in the plasma of these species were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography system with a mass spectrometer for detection (LC/MS/MS). Mass spectra data generated from the snake and bird plasma samples were compared with previously reported LC/MS/MS mass spectral data. Evidence does not suggest differences due to route of administration (i.v. vs. p.o.) in either species. Four chromatographic peaks with resulting daughter spectrum were identified and represent 12 possible metabolite structures. All of the proposed metabolites, except for the N-oxide, appear to be unique to macaws. The potential metabolites identified in macaws appear to be very different than those reported for chickens.

  5. Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

    2007-11-01

    The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds.

  6. Computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veladiano, Irene A; Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Montani, Alessandro; Catania, Salvatore; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections. Frozen cross sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. Anatomic structures within each head were identified with the aid of the available literature, labeled first on anatomic photographs, and then matched to and labeled on corresponding CT images. The best CT reconstruction filter, window width, and window level for obtaining diagnostic images of each structure were also identified. RESULTS Most of the clinically relevant structures of the head were identified in both the cross-sectional photographs and corresponding CT images. Optimal visibility of the bony structures was achieved via CT with a standard soft tissue filter and pulmonary window. The use of contrast medium allowed a thorough evaluation of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled CT images and photographs of anatomic structures of the heads of common pet parrot species created in this study may be useful as an atlas to aid interpretation of images obtained with any imaging modality.

  7. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  8. Production of alkyl esters from macaw palm oil by a sequential hydrolysis/esterification process using heterogeneous biocatalysts: optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, Ana Paula P; Garcia, Karen C A; Hirata, Daniela B; Mendes, Adriano A

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with the enzymatic synthesis of alkyl esters with emollient properties by a sequential hydrolysis/esterification process (hydroesterification) using unrefined macaw palm oil from pulp seeds (MPPO) as feedstock. Crude enzymatic extract from dormant castor bean seeds was used as biocatalyst in the production of free fatty acids (FFA) by hydrolysis of MPPO. Esterification of purified FFA with several alcohols in heptane medium was catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) on poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles. Under optimal experimental conditions (mass ratio oil:buffer of 35% m/m, reaction temperature of 35 °C, biocatalyst concentration of 6% m/m, and stirring speed of 1,000 rpm), complete hydrolysis of MPPO was reached after 110 min of reaction. Maximum ester conversion percentage of 92.4 ± 0.4% was reached using hexanol as acyl acceptor at 750 mM of each reactant after 15 min of reaction. The biocatalyst retained full activity after eight successive cycles of esterification reaction. These results show that the proposed process is a promising strategy for the synthesis of alkyl esters of industrial interest from macaw palm oil, an attractive option for the Brazilian oleochemical industry.

  9. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 μm and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird.

  11. Caso clínico. Aspergiloma traqueal en guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna - Tracheal aspergilloma in a Blue and Gold Macaw (Ara ararauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Rossana Raineri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo expone el caso clínico de un Guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna atendido como emergencia por un cuadro de disnea intensa estableciéndose una metodología de atención por etapas, logrando la estabilización inicial de los signos vitales del ave en un primer tiempo para luego determinar la causa y extirpar por mínimo acceso, gracias a la endoscopía, un gran fragmento de aspergiloma que obstruía la traquea, lográndose la confirmación del diagnostico por métodos de laboratorio e indicándose un tratamiento especifico para este tipo de patologías.Summaryin this paper we present a clinical case of a Blue and Gold Macaw (Araararauna treated in emergency with symptoms of severe dyspnea. Weapproached the case achieving the stabilization of vital signs of the bird in a first time. Then we determined the cause of dyspnea by minimal access, by endo-tracheal endoscopic examination, and we removed a large aspergilloma that was obstructing the trachea. We obtained the confirmation of the diagnosis by laboratory methods and decided a specific treatment for the disease.

  12. Dormancy breaking in macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart.] seeds doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v36i1.13220

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    Aurélio Rúbio Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to improve the speed of and standardize the process for the germination of macaw palm seeds. The effect of mechanical scarification (removal of the tegument in the hilum region, thermal scarification (imbibition of seeds in water at approximately 100°C for two or four minutes and chemical scarification (98% sulfuric acid treatment for two or four minutes were compared to a control (no scarification in both a germination chamber and a greenhouse, representing trials one and two, respectively. The effect of imbibition speed (fast or slow and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (0, 100 or 200 mg L-1 on the germination percentage and index of germination velocity were evaluated during a third trial. Mechanical scarification to remove the seed tegument in the hilum region enhanced the germination of the seeds in the germination chamber and seedling emergence in the greenhouse, and this type of scarification should be recommended for breaking dormancy in this species. Not obtained increase in seed germination with gibberellic acid, regardless of the application form in the seeds.

  13. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

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    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irrefutable. Para este fin se trabaja con la pintura mural de dos sitios arqueológicos: el mural 1, Los pájaros, de la Estructura 86 en Xelhá, situado en la zona norte de Quintana Roo; y el mural oriente del Templo Rojo en Cacaxtla, Tlaxcala. De acuerdo con las modalidades de representación gráfica y bajo los criterios de integración temática se aborda la lectura de las escenas considerando a los otros elementos iconográficos que las integran. El resultado es una propuesta de participación simbólica de las guacamayas enfocada en la abstracción del tiempo a partir de la conducta diaria y estacional de esta especie de psitácido ruidosa (y de plumaje llamativo y sugerente; también se considera la asociación de estos animales con los conceptos de vida, movimiento y temporalidad, y con el Sol y el agua (este último como el elemento primordial vinculado con la fertilidad.In pre-Hispanic thought, Macaw (Ara macao and Ara militaris occupy a place of honour, as witness its image captured in the murals created by different peoples, such as the Maya, the Zapotec, the ancient inhabitants of Teotihuacan and Cacaxtla. This is not a coincidence, which is why this study aims to analyze and recognize the taxonomic identity of recreated individuals, as well as argue their presence in the pictorial language as a mean of irrefutable graphic expression. To this end works with mural paintings from two archaeological sites are analyzed: the mural 1 "The birds" of

  14. Distribución actual y potencial de la guacamaya verde en Michoacán, México Present and potential distribution of the military macaw in Michoacán, Mexico

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    Tiberio C. Monterrubio-Rico

    2011-12-01

    nicho para estimar la distribución real y potencial de la especie.The military macaw (Ara militaris is an endangered species in Mexico, it has disappeared from states on the south Pacific. However, actual studies providing distribution information on the different states are inexistent. The main objective of this study was to provide information concerning its actual distribution on Michoacán. We evaluated 215 localities from 3 physiographic regions that present suitable ecological conditions during the 2002-2008 period. Its actual distribution was analyzed using geographic information systems, and its potential distribution was obtained with the genetic algorithm for rule set prediction (GARP. We evaluated the coincidence between field records and the distribution of suitable ecological conditions (elevation, vegetation for the species, generated by ecological niche modeling. We confirmed its presence on the Municipalities of La Huacana, Churumuco, and Arteaga, confirming its distribution on 2 359 km² from the region known as the lower Balsas basin. In addition, we obtained records on the Sierra Madre del Sur, however there are large areas from this region that require field confirmation, and the distribution for this region can still be considered as potential. The military macaw inhabited the Michoacán coast in 1980, today the species its been extirpated from an estimated area of 1 303 km². Considering the extent of the confirmed distribution, and the extent of the area with suitable ecological conditions that require field confirmation, we assume that the species may have 8 285 km² of distribution on the state. Additionally we localized 7 roosting and nesting areas of the species. The area known as Chorros del Varal, in the municipality of Los Reyes is important because is on the border limits with Jalisco state and could be a contact area between macaw populations of the 2 states. This is the first state level study in the country that combines actual field

  15. Ampliación de la distribución y presencia de una colonia reproductiva de la guacamaya verde (Ara militaris en el alto Balsas de Guerrero, México Range expansion and reproductive colony of the Military Macaw (Ara militaris in the upper Balsas basin, Guerrero, México

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    Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registra una población y colonia reproductora de guacamaya verde (Ara militaris en el alto Balsas de Guerrero. La colonia se ubica en el bosque tropical seco de la localidad de Papalutla, al margen del río Atoyac, en el extremo noreste del estado. A lo largo de 4 años de conteos (n= 20, se registró una abundancia de 22.7 ± 2.8 individuos. Este registro confirma que la guacamaya verde aún se reproduce en Guerrero y amplía en aproximadamente 100 km hacia el extremo noreste del estado su distribución conocida.We report a new population of green macaw (Ara militaris to the Mexican state of Guerrero. The colony is located besides the Atoyac River, in the dry tropical forest of Papalutla, in the far northeast corner of the state. Along 4 years of counts (n= 20, an abundance of 22.7 ± 2.8 individuals has been registered. This report is relevant because it is the first record of a resident colony of green macaw in the upper Balsas basin, extending its known distribution range to the northwestern limit of Guerrero.

  16. Parâmetros de bioquímica sérica de machos, fêmeas e filhotes de Araras canindé (Ara ararauna saudáveis mantidas em cativeiro comercial Serum biochemical parameters of healthy male, female and young blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella de Faria Valle

    2008-06-01

    , totaling nearly 80 species. The blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, the most representative species of the Psittaciformes order, lives in the forest areas of different Brazilian regions. IBAMA, Brazilian environmental protection agency, has authorized the trade of wild animals raised in breeding facilities; consequently, their use as household pets has increased ever since. Currently, too little is known about clinical and laboratory parameters of wild species bred in captivity. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum biochemical parameters of healthy blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna of different sexes and ages reared in a commercial breeding facility under controlled and standardized feeding and management practices. Blood samples were collected from 35 blue-and-yellow macaws (11 fledglings and 24 adults and sent to the Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology of Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF for measurement of the following biochemical parameters: uric acid (UA, albumin (Alb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, calcium (Ca, cholesterol (Chol, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (AP, inorganic phosphorus (iP, fructosamine (Fru, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein (TP and urea nitrogen (Ur. There were significant differences among adult macaws with regard to CK levels (higher in males and to Ca and UA levels (higher in females. Differences were noted among adults and fledglings with respect to UA, Ca, Alb, Chol, AP, iP and Fru. Most of the findings can be ascribed to the different feeding regimens and ages of the birds analyzed. The data obtained herein can be used as reference parameters for Brazilian blue-and-yellow macaws.

  17. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

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    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  18. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  19. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

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    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  1. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  2. 78 FR 61208 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-throated Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... their ecological suitability to the microclimate. Motac is not only vital to the life history of blue... Bolivia in the 1600s. After the Second World War, cattle ranching and the associated burning of pastures... of food or parental neglect, exposure to cold temperatures, or flooding (Kyle 2007a, pp. 1-10). If...

  3. 77 FR 40221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Scarlet Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservacion 2012, unpaginated), and Panama (Fundaci n de Parques Nacionales... Special Concern in Honduras) (Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. 2008, p. 62), and Nicaragua's... (Nicaragua Ministerio del Ambiente y Los Recursos Naturales 2010, entire). In South America, the species...

  4. 77 FR 39965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Hyacinth Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... nongovernmental organizations, Rede Cerrado, has been established to promote local sustainable-use practices for natural resources (Klink and Machado 2005, p. 710). Rede Cerrado provided the Brazilian Ministry of the...

  5. 77 FR 40171 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Two Foreign Macaw Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... development (University of Texas, Brownsville, unpaginated). Activities conducted by the research station have... southward into Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and the southern tip of Argentina (see Figure 1... Colombia was estimated to be 156 individuals (Fl rez and Sierra 2004, p. 3). This species may have occurred...

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Beak and Feather Disease in Native Brazilian Psittacines

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    AV Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The incidence of the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV was investigated in Brazilian native parrots with normal feathering arriving at rescue and triage centers for wild animals (CETAS, IBAMA in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BFDV DNA was investigated by previously described PCR technique for the partial amplification of BFDV ORF-1 in DNA extracts from blood, cloacal swab or liver of psittacines. Some birds provided more than one sample. Nine species of psittacines were sampled between January 2009 and October 2010. Blood (n=46 or cloacal swab (n=128 samples were obtained from psittacines immediately upon arrival at the triage centers. Liver samples were collected from necropsied birds dead on arrival (n=167. All swab samples were negative, except for one Ara ararauna individual (n=3 which blood presented the BFDV DNA. On the other hand, 11 liver samples were positive for BFDV DNA, with a prevalence of 7.8% in Amazona aestiva (n=140. No BFDV DNA was detected in the liver of Amazona amazonica (n=11, A. vinacea (n=5, A. rhodochorytha (n=4, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (n=3, Ara ararauna, (n=3, Aratinga leucophtalma (n=2, Guarouba guarouba (n=1 and Pionus maximiliani (n=1. In most cases, alopecia was not associated with BFDV detection in liver, and liver histopathology was inconclusive. Although all cloacal swab samples were negative, a few psittacines (n=19 that died at CETAS-Belo Horizonte were retested, and 21% were detected as positive in liver. A group of psittacines (n=16 was clinically evaluated, and despite showing feather dystrophy, all birds were negative in the cloacal swabs, except for one, which blood sample was positive (A. ararauna. The obtained sequences of the BFDV strains BH 215 and BH 732 were deposited in the GenBank (JQ649409 and JQ649410. A 98% similarity with strain sequences described in Australia, Japan, and New Zealand was observed. It is possible that these strains arrived in Brazil through the

  7. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Bravo, Carolina; Pacifico, Erica C; Chamorro, Daniel; Speziale, Karina L; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Hiraldo, Fernando; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes) are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari). All seeds retrieved were small (seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  8. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear’s Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari. All seeds retrieved were small (<3 mm and corresponded to herbs and relatively large, multiple-seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  9. Molecular characterization and population structure of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), ex situ germplasm collection using microsatellites markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D

    2015-01-01

    The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil.

  10. Cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six Neotropical parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Kara J; Waits, Lisette P

    2008-07-01

    Short amplicon primers were redesigned for 17 microsatellite loci developed in St. Vincent's Amazon and six loci developed in blue-and-yellow macaw and tested using six species of Neotropical parrot. Polymorphism was observed at 12 loci in blue-and-yellow macaw, 10 in red-and-green macaw, 11 in scarlet macaw, 10 in chestnut-fronted macaw, 11 in red-bellied macaw and 16 in mealy parrot. Number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 23 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. The resulting multiplexed loci will be useful in evaluating genetic diversity, genetic structure and mating system in Neotropical parrots.

  11. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... (Prosopeia splendens), great green macaw (Ara ambiguus), grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera... haematuropygia), red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), scarlet macaw (Ara macao), white cockatoo (Cacatua... distinguished by bright yellow-green cheek areas, bright red on the crown (top of head) and lores (area...

  12. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

    OpenAIRE

    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris) ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irref...

  13. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds.

  14. Psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome in an umbrella cockatoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M E; Wilson, R B

    1991-06-01

    Psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome (macaw wasting disease) is a fatal disease of the gastrointestinal tract and, sometimes, the CNS. The disease most often affects macaws and is thought to be of viral origin. An Umbrella cockatoo was referred with signs of neurologic dysfunction. Other unusual findings included flaccid crop, distended duodenum, and acute weight loss. Because treatment has not been reported to be effective, the affected cockatoo was euthanatized to limit spread of the disease.

  15. Veterinární problematika v chovu Ara chloroptera a Ara macao. (rešeršní práce)

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Red and green Macaw (Ara chloroptera) and Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) belong to the most bred big parrots in our country. They are resistant species, however, in breeding they can suffer from different illnesses. The aim of this work was to deal with the existing knowledge of their veterinary problems. The work is divided into several main parts according to the qualities of illnesses. There are infectious and invasive diseases, genetic disorders, tumoral diseases or veterinary problems caused ...

  16. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  17. Testing for salmonella spp. In released parrots, wild parrots, and domestic fowl in lowland peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butron, Oscar; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2010-07-01

    Wild animal populations face threats from pathogens from both intentionally released captive animals and domestic animals that accompany human settlements. From December 2004 through August 2005, we studied free living macaws and parrots in the Tambopata National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon and semicaptive domestic fowl in human settlements adjacent to the reserve. In 1992-1993, large macaws (Aras spp.) that were serologically positive for Salmonella Pullorum were released into this reserve, which hosts dense populations of free-living parrots and macaws. We collected cloacal swabs from 64 birds and cultured for Salmonella spp. via standard laboratory methods. All 35 psittacines tested were culture negative for Salmonella spp., while 31% of 29 domestic fowl were culture positive. Our findings suggest that the domestic fowl that accompany human settlement in this region carry and shed Salmonella spp. that could threaten wild bird populations in and around the reserve.

  18. Notas acerca de las guacamayas (Psittacidae : Ara) introducidas en el municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara-Vásquez, C.E.; Castaño-Rivas, A.M.; Jonker, R.M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the 90s, organizations in charge of wildlife management in Medellín, released macaws (Psittacidae: Ara) in the city. We report Ara severa, A. chloroptera and A. macao in the city. A group of eight individuals, belonging to the latter two species was observed flocking together in the urban area of

  19. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  20. Analysis of different management systems for water and soil conservation in experimental plots of "macauba" (Acrocomia aculeata) in Araponga (MG, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Lúcio-Correa, João; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, the conservation of water resources and agricultural soil are key environmental and economic aspects to mantain land services and the quality of life people in rural and urban communities. The macaw - Acrocomia aculeata) (Jacq.) Lodd. (Ex Martius) - is a Brazilian native oleaginous palm, whose potential has been highlighted in the scientific community due to its high economic potential and its recent advances in crop farming. This study aims to quantify the runoff in macaw plantation, comparing different techniques of crop management for a period of one year (from September 2012 to August 2013). The data from this study were collected in the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) located in the municipality of Araponga, MG, Brazil. The seedlings took place in February 2009, in holes, spaced 5X5 in an area of 1.7 ha (680 plants) with a slope of 25%. Rainfall was monitored through three pluviometers with expose area of 162.86 cm² whereas the impact of different management systems on runoff was measured by using 10 plots of 63 m² each: 3 treatments with three repetitions plus the control plot. Each plot presented four macaw plants. The treatment one (T1), was formed by macaw plants without using any soil conservation technique; the treatment two (T2) consisted of macaws with a contour cord with 40 cm wide by 30 cm deep, located between the plantation lines; for the treatment three (T3) beans were planted forming vegetation strips; the control (T0) was represented by a portion without macaws plants, with spontaneous vegetation growing throughout the plot, which was not used any soil conservation technique. T2 presented the lowest values of runoff during the twelve months and at the same time, the greatest requirements of initial rainfall for runoff generation. In contrast, T3 showed the highest volumes of runoff for the study period, with a small reduction with the exception of January and February 2013, when the bean plants were well

  1. Coding-complete sequencing classifies parrot bornavirus 5 into a novel virus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Gál, János; Ihász, Katalin; Kugler, Renáta; Lengyel, György; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. The genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monophyletic group distinct from other mammalian and avian bornaviruses and in calculations performed with matrix protein coding sequences, the PaBV-5 and PaBV-6 genotypes formed a common cluster, suggesting that according to the recently accepted classification system for bornaviruses, these two genotypes may belong to a new species, provisionally named Psittaciform 2 bornavirus.

  2. Effect of the isolation of Sterculia apetala trees on the emergence of seedlings in Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marçal Henrique Amici Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sterculia apetala trees aren’t removed during the conversion of forests into pastures due to rural landowners’ awareness that these trees are home to 95% of the nests of Hyacinth Macaw in Pantanal. Our aim was to compare the greenhouse emergence rate of seedlings from seeds of trees at conserved forest and those left isolated in a cultivated pastures. The seeds were collected directly from the ground, under 10 S. apetala trees in each area, at the Pantanal Wetland, Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The emergence of seedlings from isolated trees was 14% lower than that obtained from trees located in the inner part of the forest. There’s a need for further studies on the ecology of this species in Pantanal focused on the mating system, the identification of the pollination agent and the evaluation of the effects of isolation on the viability of species population, which may impact the Hyacinth Macaw reproduction success.

  3. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Last; Herbert Weissenböck; Nora Nedorost; H.L. Shivaprasad

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna) resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyos...

  4. Parrots eat nutritious foods despite toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Gilardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992-1993 and one wet season (January-February1994. We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry

  5. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  6. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Yvette A; Dowd, Scot E; Decker, Jared E; Seabury, Paul M; Bhattarai, Eric; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Tizard, Ian R; Brightsmith, Donald J; Peterson, Markus J; Taylor, Jeremy F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao). More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum) would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  7. Assessing the use of forest islands by parrot species in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Berkunsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of habitat fragmentation is a fundamental yet complicated aim of many ecological studies. Beni savanna is a naturally fragmented forest habitat, where forest islands exhibit variation in resources and threats. To understand how the availability of resources and threats affect the use of forest islands by parrots, we applied occupancy modeling to quantify use and detection probabilities for 12 parrot species on 60 forest islands. The presence of urucuri (Attalea phalerata and macaw (Acrocomia aculeata palms, the number of tree cavities on the islands, and the presence of selective logging,and fire were included as covariates associated with availability of resources and threats. The model-selection analysis indicated that both resources and threats variables explained the use of forest islands by parrots. For most species, the best models confirmed predictions. The number of cavities was positively associated with use of forest islands by 11 species. The area of the island and the presence of macaw palm showed a positive association with the probability of use by seven and five species, respectively, while selective logging and fire showed a negative association with five and six species, respectively. The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis, the critically endangered parrot species endemic to our study area, was the only species that showed a negative association with both threats. Monitoring continues to be essential to evaluate conservation and management actions of parrot populations. Understanding of how species are using this natural fragmented habitat will help determine which fragments should be preserved and which conservation actions are needed.

  8. Proventricular dilatation disease: an emerging exotic disease of parrots in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, R J T; Miller, R I; Fanning, T E

    2007-03-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease is a viral disease seen as a segmental neuropathy in parrots. It has always been believed to be a disease exotic to Australia, with the only reported case being a legally imported Green Wing Macaw (Ara chloroptera) in 1993. This paper reports a cluster of cases seen in south-east Queensland in 2005 to 2006. Clinical signs, autopsy findings and histopathological findings are described. No pattern or common source for these cases could be identified. The implications for Australian aviculture and avifauna are discussed.

  9. HEMOGRAMA E BIOQUÍMICA CLÍNICA SANGUÍNEA DE ARARAS (Ara sp. MANTIDAS EM SÍTIOS ECOLÓGICOS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Malta Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish reference values for hemogram and clinical biochemistry, aiming at to evaluating the liver function of healthy macaws (Ara sp., with the influence of species on the blood constituents, in order to contribute to the health monitoring of this species kept in ecological farms in the state of Bahia (Brazil. We used forty-five blood samples from three distinct species: green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and scarlet macaws (Ara macao. A total of 3.5 mL of blood was collected from the ulnar vein of each bird: 1.5 mL was placed in tubes containing EDTA, to carry out the hemogram, and 2.0 mL of blood without anticoagulant was used to obtain serum, for the biochemical analysis. The averages obtained for the blood of the genus Ara were PCV: 2.74 ± 0.48 x106/μL; VG: 36.8 ± 5.56%; Hb: 15.4 ± 2.42 g/dL; thrombocytes:9,580 ± 2,850 x103/μL; leukocyte count: 5,340 ± 3,580/μL; lymphocytes: 1,408.8 ± 1,020.7/μL; heterophils: 3,252.0 ± 2,026.3/μL; monocytes: 169.1 ± 227.5/μL; basophils: 34.2 ± 72.3/μL; eosinophils: 186.9 ± 183.9/μL. The results of the serum biochemical parameters were activity of the enzymes AST 67.6 ± 12.8 IU/L; CK 77.9 ± 44.6 IU/L; LDH 240.1 ± 85.6 IU/L; cholesterol 160.3 ± 34.8 mg/dL; triglycerides 111.8 ± 58.6 mg/dL; glucose 228.5 ± 38.1 mg/dL and total proteins: 3.37 ± 0.8 g/dL. Significant differences (p <0.05 influenced by species were detected for the values of number of PCV, GV, number of leukocytes and the concentration of cholesterol and glucose.

  10. The Latin American Drug Trade: Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    August 2007), Carlos José Robayo Escobar (a.k.a. Macaw, caught in 2005), and Wilber Alirio Fajardo Varela (shot dead in Venezuela in 2008). 22 The...March 24, 2009c. 39 Richard Marosi and Ken Ellingwood, “Mexican Drug Lord Teodoro Garcia Simental, Known for His Savagery, Is Captured,” Los Angeles...Mexico Town’s Entire Police Force Quits in Fear of Assassination,” Associated Press, May 23, 2008. 13 See, for instance, Lacey, 2010a; Ken Ellingwood

  11. Excision arthroplasty for management of coxofemoral luxation in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, D M

    1989-01-01

    Coxofemoral luxation, although not a common injury, can cause considerable pelvic limb dysfunction in pet birds. Luxation usually is craniodorsal, as it is in dogs. Previously recommended treatments have not always been effective in managing the injury. Sequelae can include dorsolateral deviation of the pelvic limb, with loss of function and bumblefoot in the nonluxated limb, owing to abnormal weight-bearing. Excision arthroplasty combined with a muscular sling constructed from a segment of the iliofibularis muscle was used to treat coxofemoral luxation in a hyacinth macaw, a moluccan cockatoo, and an African gray parrot. The outcome was excellent in 2 of the 3 birds.

  12. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  13. Desarrollo y aplicación de un lenguaje basado en el minspeak = Development and application of a languaje on minspeak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Domínguez-Guillarte, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn este trabajo se presenta el proceso seguido para desarrollar un lenguaje basado en el Minspeak para un alumno que cuenta con un comunicador Macaw; veremos a continuación la didáctica y evaluación de la puesta en práctica con D.M., para quién se realizó dicho lenguaje. Se muestra cómo se han alcanzado unos mil cuatrocientos mensajes (palabras y frases, mediante la vinculación de pictogramas, con un solo tablero de treinta y dos casillas. Concluimos con la consideración de una posible utilización de dicho lenguaje para otros usuarios de comunicadores de características semejantes, mediante pequeñas adaptaciones personales. ABSTRACTThe aim of this work is showing the procedure followed to develop a language based on Minspeak for a pupil with a macaw communicator. Next we will see the didactics and evaluation of the putting into practice with D.M., for whom that language was designed. It is proved how about one thousand and four hundred messages (words and phrases have been made out, through the pictographs linking, with only one board with thirty two squares. We can end up by the consideration that the possible use of that language by other users of communication systems of similar characteristics by means of minimal personal adaptations.

  14. Analysis and simulation of energy efficiency of MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks *%水声传感器网络MAC协议的能效分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娜; 陈名松; 王方; 薛鑫

    2011-01-01

    To study the energy loss of the MAC protocol for underwater sensor networks, the energy efficiency of the ALOHA and MACAW are analyzed and simulated based on Matlab in centralized topology. The results show that the improved MACAW protocol has much higher energy efficiency than ALOHA protocol in network which has more nodes, data arrival rate and larger packet size.%为了研究水下传感器网络多址接入(MAC)协议的能量损耗,在集中式拓扑结构下,对ALOHA和MACAW两种协议的能量效率进行了理论分析,并通过Matlab进行了仿真.结果表明:通过改进的MA.CAW协议在网络节点数较多,数据到达率较高,数据包较大的网络中比ALOHA协议具有更高的能量效率.

  15. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA. We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100% and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1 than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  16. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae) in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, J; Sanchez, M; Abreu, M F; Pedroni, F

    2015-11-01

    The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens) participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100%) and speed index (4.2 seeds.d-1) than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs'feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  17. Polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers for forensic individual identification and parentage analyses of seven threatened species of parrots (family Psittacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism. In this study, we isolated DNA microsatellite markers in seven parrot species threatened with extinction (Amazona brasiliensis, A. oratrix, A. pretrei, A. rhodocorytha, Anodorhynchus leari, Ara rubrogenys and Primolius couloni). From an enriched genomic library followed by 454 pyrosequencing, we characterized a total of 106 polymorphic microsatellite markers (mostly tetranucleotides) in the seven species and tested them across an average number of 19 individuals per species. The mean number of alleles per species and across loci varied from 6.4 to 8.3, with the mean observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.65 to 0.84. Identity and parentage exclusion probabilities were highly discriminatory. The high variability displayed by these microsatellite loci demonstrates their potential utility to perform individual genotyping and parentage analyses, in order to develop a DNA testing framework to determine illegal traffic in these threatened species. PMID:27688959

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Erika Sendra; Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Miyaki, Cristina Yumi

    2006-06-01

    Previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical parrots were based on limited taxon sampling and lacked support for most internal nodes. In this study we increased the number of taxa (29 species belonging to 25 of the 30 genera) and gene sequences (6388 base pairs of RAG-1, cyt b, NADH2, ATPase 6, ATPase 8, COIII, 12S rDNA, and 16S rDNA) to obtain a stronger molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for this group of birds. Analyses of the combined gene sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a well-supported phylogeny and indicated that amazons and allies are a sister clade to macaws, conures, and relatives, and these two clades are in turn a sister group to parrotlets. Key morphological and behavioral characters used in previous classifications were mapped on the molecular tree and were phylogenetically uninformative. We estimated divergence times of taxa using the molecular tree and Bayesian and penalized likelihood methods that allow for rate variation in DNA substitutions among sites and taxa. Our estimates suggest that the Neotropical parrots shared a common ancestor with Australian parrots 59 Mya (million of years ago; 95% credibility interval (CrI) 66, 51 Mya), well before Australia separated from Antarctica and South America, implying that ancestral parrots were widespread in Gondwanaland. Thus, the divergence of Australian and Neotropical parrots could be attributed to vicariance. The three major clades of Neotropical parrots originated about 50 Mya (95% CrI 57, 41 Mya), coinciding with periods of higher sea level when both Antarctica and South America were fragmented with transcontinental seaways, and likely isolated the ancestors of modern Neotropical parrots in different regions in these continents. The correspondence between major paleoenvironmental changes in South America and the diversification of genera in the clade of amazons and allies between 46 and 16 Mya suggests they diversified exclusively in South

  19. The isolation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, transmission, and control of avian bornavirus and proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Sharman; Gray, Patricia L; Payne, Susan; Shivaprasad, H L; Tizard, Ian

    2010-09-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a common infectious neurologic disease of birds comprising a dilatation of the proventriculus by ingested food as a result of defects in intestinal motility, which affects more than 50 species of psittacines, and is also known as Macaw wasting disease, neuropathic ganglioneuritis, or lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis. Definitive diagnosis of PDD has been problematic due to the inconsistent distribution of lesions. Since its discovery, avian bornavirus (ABV) has been successfully cultured from the brains of psittacines diagnosed with PDD, providing a source of antigen for serologic assays and nucleic acid for molecular assays. This article provides evidence that ABV is the etiologic agent of PDD. Recent findings on the transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of ABV infection and PDD are also reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  1. Diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds: a review II. Indications of radiological examination and radiographs of pathological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, A; Molnár, V; Felkai, F; Bíró, F; Szentgáli, Z

    1999-01-01

    The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognized without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.

  2. Genomic DNA isolation of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) from leaf and stipe tissue samples for PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanes, E C M; Nick, C; Kuki, K N; Freitas, R D; Motoike, S Y

    2013-09-23

    Macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata is an oleaginous species of the Arecaceae family; it has been identified as one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy, especially biodiesel. We developed an efficient protocol of genomic DNA extraction for A. aculeata using leaf and stipe tissues, based on the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide method, and we evaluated the quantity, purity, and integrity of the resultant DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification using SSR molecular markers. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained from stipe tissues (135 ng/μL), while fresh leaf tissues provided the highest concentration of DNA (650 ng/μL). Good quality DNA was obtained from fresh leaf, lyophilized leaf, and stipe tissues (relative purity, 1.79-1.89 nm). Differences in quantity and quality of DNA extracted from different tissues did not interfere with general patterns of PCR amplification based on SSR markers.

  3. Nuevos registros de aves para el Estado de México New records of birds for the State of Mexico

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    Fernando Urbina-Torres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se informa por primera vez sobre la presencia en el Estado de México del halcón guaco (Herpetotheres cachinnans, el halcón enano (Falco rufigularis, la guacamaya verde (Ara militaris, el cuclillo manglero (Coccyzus minor, la titira enmascarada (Tityra semifasciata y la golondrina sinaloense (Progne sinaloae. Estos registros fueron realizados en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla. Ara militaris y P. sinaloae se encuentran clasificadas como especies en riesgo, de acuerdo con criterios nacionales e internacionales.We report for the first time the presence of Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans, Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis, Military Macaw (Ara militaris, Mangrove Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor, Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata, and Sinaloa Martin (Progne sinaloae in the State of México. These records were made in the Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla. A. militaris and P. sinaloae are considered at risk in accordance with national and international criteria.

  4. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.

  5. Nutritional and physical characteristics of commercial hand-feeding formulas for parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2013-01-01

    Hand-rearing is a common practice for the propagation of captive psittacines, however, research on their nutrition is limited and the requirements of growing chicks are not well understood. The nutrition of 15 commercially available parrot hand-feeding formulas was compared with the average content of the crops of free living Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) chicks, as well as with the requirements of 6- to 12-week-old leghorn chickens. When the formulas were prepared for a 1-week-old chick, all except three maintained >90% of solids in suspension after 15 min and >60 after 30 min. On average the formulas had a similar metabolizable energy density as wild macaw crop samples. The concentration of crude protein in the formulas was higher than that of the crop sample average, while the crude fat was lower than the average crop samples. More than 50% of the formulas had concentrations of K, Mg, and Mn less than the crop sample average, and Ca and Na concentrations below the requirements established for 6- to 12-week-old leghorn chickens. For >45% of the formulas the concentrations of arginine, leucine, and methionine + cystine were below the requirements of 6- to 12-week leghorns. When commercial formulas were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions, the different dilutions greatly magnified the nutritional differences among them. Overall, the inconsistency in the nutrient concentrations among the formulas suggests that there is no consensus among manufacturers of the correct nutrition for growing psittacines and the industry could benefit from continued research in this area.

  6. [Detection of psittacid herpesvirus 1 in Amazon parrots with cloacal papilloma (internal papillomatosis of parrots, IPP) in an aviary of different psittacine species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Rautenschlein, Silke; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva;Amazona ochrocephala, n=6) from an aviary with different psittacine species (n=100) were submitted to the Clinic for Pet Animals, Reptiles, Pet- and Wild birds with the clinical picture ofa cloacal prolaps. The cloacal mucosa showed papillomas, and internal papillomatosis of parrots (IPP) was suspected. Hepatomegaly was detected in the radiographs of the clinically diseased amazon parrots, indicating the involvement of the liver in the disease process. The cloacal area was enlarged and showed higher densities in the radiographic picture. One of the amazons had an increased level of bile acids in the plasma supporting the suspicion of the involvement of the liver. Macroscopical and histological investigation of amazons with cloacal prolaps revealed a papillomic adenoma of the cloacal mucosa accompanied by varying degrees of bile duct carcinomas in the liver and adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in cloacal swabs, liver, and cloacal tissue samples. Sequencing of part of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 95% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus (PsHV) 1. No cytopathic herpesvirus was recovered from cloacal swabs and liver samples after up to four passages in chicken embryofibroblast cultures. Cloacal and choanal swabs, which were taken from the remaining 47 healthy amazon parrots and 5 Green-winged Macaws (Ara chloroptera) of the aviary, were negative for herpesvirus in the nested PCR. Only birds with cloacal papillomas and the Green-winged Macaws were tested positive for herpesvirus DNA in the nested PCR. We may speculate that there is correlation between the infection with PsHV-1 and the development of cloacal adenomas, adenocarcinomas in the pancreas and carcinomas of the bile ducts. Our results indicate that there may be a higher susceptibility in certain amazon species, while other species may not get infected even if housed in close

  7. Germinação de embriões e crescimento inicial in vitro de macaúba Germination and early growth of embryos of macaúba seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A macaúba é uma palmeira oleaginosa altamente produtiva e seu óleo pode ser usado na produção de biocombustíveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência de concentrações dos sais do meio de cultura MS e de água de coco na germinação in vitro de embriões zigóticos de macaúba e no crescimento inicial de plântulas. Os embriões foram excisados e em seguida inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15mL de meio de cultura MS nas concentrações de 50 e 100% de sais minerais, acrescidos de água de coco (0, 50, 100 e 150mL L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 42W m-2, temperatura de 25±2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Maior porcentagem de germinação de embriões de macaúba foi obtida aos 60 dias, em meio MS, na concentração original dos sais. O crescimento e a conversão de plântulas viáveis ou normais, passíveis de serem aclimatizadas, requerem metade da concentração de sais do meio MS suplementado com 50mL L-1 de água de coco.The macaw is a palm oleaginous that it is highly productive and in which their oil can be used to produce biofuels.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of minerals of the culture medium MS and coconut water germination in vitro of zygotic embryos of macaw and initial growth of seedlings. The embryos were inoculated in test tubes containing 15mL of culture medium MS in concentrations of 50 and 100% of minerals, plus coconut water (0, 50, 100 and 150mL L-1. The cultures were kept in room for growth with irradiance around 42W m-2, at 25±2°C and photoperiod of 16 hours. Higher percentage of germination of embryos of 'macaúba' was obtained at 60 days in MS medium in the original concentration of salts. The growth and conversion to viable seedlings or normal, which can be acclimatized, require half the concentration of salts of MS medium supplemented with 50mL L-1 coconut water.

  8. The tourism potential for birdwatching in three green areas in the city of Campo Grande, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Alibio Oppliger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tourism potential of birds found in three public green areas (a park, a square and a pond, in the city of Campo Grande. The qualitative survey of avifauna totaled 55 observation hours, by the method of direct observation by points. The species were recorded and the frequency of occurrence (FO of each species by analyzed area was calculated. We recorded 107 species, totaling 12% of the Cerrado biome and blue-and-gold macaws were the species with absolute frequency of occurrence in the three areas. Each of the areas presented exclusive species and the park, the largest number of recorded species, standing out as an appropriate place to hold the birdwatch. However, the tourism potential for observing these birds should be strengthened by other actions such as check for complementarity between supply and demand, planning and building elements themselves to the observation activities, organize and present the practical arrangements for the birds observation in accordance with the supply constraints and the level of involvement and expertise of birdwatchers. Local people should be mobilized and motivated to know about the birds that are part of the landscape; the private sector can use a formatted tourism product and create new products or needs, such as crafts or printed guides; and the participation of the government is essential in promoting the 'birdwatching urban script ' product, as in the maintenance of urban nature reserves.

  9. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

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    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  10. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Last

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis were the most prominent histopathological changes and ABV genotype 4 was detected in tissues from all three birds. Immunohistochemical stains for ABV antigen revealed positive labelling of neurons and glial cells of the brain, myenteric ganglia and nerve fibres as well as smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of all three birds. In one bird, positive labelling of the peripheral nerves was observed. The identical sequence of the analaysed genome fragment of all three samples, history that all of these birds had originated from the same breeding facility, and young age at presentation raise the question of possible vertical transmission.

  11. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Robert D; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nedorost, Nora; Shivaprasad, H L

    2012-12-13

    The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna) resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis were the most prominent histopathological changes and ABV genotype 4 was detected in tissues from all three birds. Immunohistochemical stains for ABV antigen revealed positive labelling of neurons and glial cells of the brain, myenteric ganglia and nerve fibres as well as smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of all three birds. In one bird, positive labelling of the peripheral nerves was observed. The identical sequence of the analaysed genome fragment of all three samples, history that all of these birds had originated from the same breeding facility, and young age at presentation raise the question of possible vertical transmission.

  12. The diagnosis of proventricular dilatation disease: use of a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against avian Borna virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Itamar; Gray, Patricia; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Hoppes, Sharman; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Turner, Debra; Tizard, Ian

    2010-07-14

    Avian Borna virus (ABV) has recently been shown to be the causal agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) a lethal neurologic disease of captive psittacines and other birds. An immunoblot assay was used to detect the presence of antibodies against avian Borna virus in the serum of affected birds. A lysate from ABV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts served as a source of antigen. The assay was used to test for the presence of antibodies to ABV in 117 birds. Thirty of these birds had biopsy or necropsy-confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), while the remaining 87 birds were apparently healthy or were suffering from diseases other than PDD. Sera from 27 of the 30 PDD cases (90%) contained antibodies to ABV. Seventy-three (84%) of the apparently "healthy" birds were seronegative. Additionally, sera from seven macaws and one parrot trapped in the Peruvian Amazon were seronegative. Positive sera recognized the bornaviral nucleoprotein (N-protein). While the presence of antibodies to ABV largely corresponded with the development of clinical PDD, 14 apparently healthy normal birds possessed detectable antibodies to ABV. The existence of a carrier state was confirmed when 13 of 15 apparently healthy cockatiels were shown by PCR to have detectable ABV RNA in their feces. Western blot assays may be of significant assistance in diagnosing proventricular dilatation disease. Many apparently healthy birds may however be seronegative while, at the same time, shedding ABV in their feces. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Graham, D L

    1991-05-01

    A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV). The assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the BFDV VP1 gene. The observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from BFDV DNA by its restriction digestion pattern. This assay was specific for BFDV and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. By using the polymerase chain reaction, BFDV was detected in adult, nestling, and embryo budgerigar (Melopsitticus undulatus) tissue DNAs and in sera from adult and nestling budgerigars. These results suggest the possibility of persistent infections in adult birds and lend further support to previously described evidence of possible in ovo transmission. BFDV was also detected in chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and chicken eggs inoculated with the virus. A 550-bp product with identical restriction enzyme sites was amplified from a suspected polyomavirus isolated from a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis pesonata) and from tissue DNA from a Hahn's macaw (Ara nobilis) and a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) with histological lesions suggestive of polyomavirus infection. These fragments also hybridized with a BFDV-derived probe, proving that they were derived from a polyomavirus very similar, if not identical, to BFDV.

  14. Being attractive brings advantages: the case of parrot species in captivity.

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    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the perceived beauty of individual parrot species assessed by human observers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the purpose of data collection, we defined four sets of species (40 parrots, 367 parrots, 34 amazons, 17 macaws. Then, we asked 776 human respondents to evaluate parrot pictures of the selected species according to perceived beauty and we analyzed its association with color and morphological characters. Irrespective of the species set, we found a good agreement among the respondents. The preferred species tended to be large, colorful, and long-tailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We repeatedly confirmed significant, positive association between the perceived beauty and the size of worldwide zoo population. Moreover, the range size and body size appeared to be significant predictors of zoo population size. In contrast, the effects of other explanatory variables, including the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature listing, appeared insignificant. Our results may suggest that zoos preferentially keep beautiful parrots and pay less attention to conservation needs.

  15. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  16. Big brains are not enough: performance of three parrot species in the trap-tube paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Jannis; Werdenich, Dagmar; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig; Wanker, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The trap-tube task has become a benchmark test for investigating physical causality in vertebrates. In this task, subjects have to retrieve food out of a horizontal tube using a tool and avoiding a trap hole in the tube. Great apes and corvids succeeded in this task. Parrots with relative brain volumes comparable to those of corvids and primates also demonstrate high cognitive abilities. We therefore tested macaws, a cockatoo, and keas on the trap-tube paradigm. All nine parrots failed to solve the task. In a simplified task, trap tubes with a slot inserted along the top were offered. The slot allowed the birds to move the reward directly with their bills. All but one individual solved this task by lifting the food over the trap. However, the parrots failed again when they were prevented from lifting the reward, although they anticipated that food will be lost when moved into the trap. We do not think that the demanding use of an external object is the main reason for the parrots' failure. Moreover, we suppose these parrots fail to consider the trap's position in the beginning of a trial and were not able to stop their behaviour and move the reward in the trap's opposite direction.

  17. Osteossíntese de tibiotarso com miniplaca de titânio em Arara Canindé (Ara ararauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Dal-Bó

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the surgical problems of birds, fractures are the most prevalent, and the long bones of the wings and pelvic limbs are the most frequently affected. The success of orthopedic surgery in birds is directly related to the techniques used to undo the mechanical forces of a fracture. At the veterinary teaching hospital a psitacid from the Ara ararauna (blue-and-yellow-macaw species with a clinical history of trauma in the cage was treated. Craniocaudal and lateral radiographs of the left limb demonstrated a mid-diaphyseal fracture of the tibiotarsus. The bird was sent to surgery. The patient was anesthetized with isufluorane and for the pre-anesthesic medicacion methadone was administrated. A medial surgical approach to the tibiotarsus was made and fracture reduction was performed. The fracture was stabilized through a titanium miniplate (system 2mm fixed medially on the tibiotarsus with 6 cortical miniscrews, being 3 proximal and 3 distal to the fracture site. In this case, there was no complication in placing the miniplate and miniscrews, resulting in a satisfactory alignment of the fragments and causing an efficient reduction of the diaphyseal fracture of tibiotarsus with functional return of the limb and bone consolidation.

  18. 转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白适体的筛选与结构分析%Screening and Structure Analysis of the Aptamers against the EPSPS Protein from Genetically Modified Maize(Zea mays)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江树勋; 黄新; 邵碧英; 陈敏; 陈洪俊; Jun Sheng Lin; 陈文炳; 吴亚君; 潘大仁

    2010-01-01

    通过体外合成长度为70个碱基的随机ssDNA文库,采用指数富集配基的系统进化(SELEX)技术,以转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白为靶目标进行16轮筛选,将筛选到的适体群进行克隆、测序,初步获得与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白特异性结合的适体.并用Macaw 2.05和DNAMAN软件对每个适体的保守序列和二级结构进行分析.结果表明:一级结构分析序列同源性可分为四大群,其中A群有11条序列含有67个保守碱基;二级结构分析结果表明,茎环状和口袋状等结构可能是适体与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白结合的结构基础.利用SELEX技术获得与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白特异结合的适体群,其一级和二级结构与亲和力密切相关.

  19. Compatibilidad y estabilidad organoléptica de bases semisólidas que contienen quitina y extracto fluido de Guacamaya francesa para elaborar una crema con ambos principios activos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinet Barrese Pérez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de las posibles interacciones (compatibilidad que pudieran existir entre los principios activos quitina y Guacamaya francesa (extracto fluido, mediante pruebas de contacto con una serie de sustancias auxiliares que constituían candidatos potenciales a ser utilizados en la formulación semisólida. Una vez realizadas dichas pruebas se escogieron las materias primas para elaborar bases que fueron puestas en contacto con los principios activos, seleccionándose la base de laurilsulfato de sodio-alcohol estearílico-petrolato blanco como la idónea para desarrollar una crema.The study of the possible interactions (compatibility that may exist between the active principles quitine and French Macaw (fluid extract was conducted by contact tests with a series of auxiliary substances which are potential candidates to be used in the semisolid formulation. Once these tests were made, the raw materials were selected to prepare bases that would be in contact with the active principles. The basis of sodium-laurylsulfate-stearyl alochol-white petrolatum was selected as the idoneous to develop an ointment.

  20. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  1. Genetic diversity in twenty variants of the avian polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Gaskin, J M; Derr, J N; Graham, D L

    1999-01-01

    To determine if different pathotypes of the avian polyomavirus (APV) exist and to compare the genomes of APVs originating from different geographic areas, dates, and species of birds, the partial sequences of 18 APVs were determined. New viral sequences were compared with three published APV sequences. Two of the new viruses had identical sequences. Forty point mutations were found at 31 loci. A 27-bp deletion was found in the VP2 and VP3 open reading frames of one virus. A duplication of the putative origin of replication and adjacent enhancer region was previously reported in one APV. Smaller duplications involving the origin in one APV and a second enhancer region in another were discovered. All duplications were in tissue culture-adapted viruses, suggesting they occurred during the isolation process. Excluding duplications and the deletion, maximum variation between viruses was small (11 bp). A maximum parsimony tree was constructed that contained three major branches. The three earliest isolates were on separate branches. The European viruses were confined to branch I, but APVs from the United States were on all three branches. Lovebird, budgerigar, and macaw APVs were also on each of the three branches, suggesting that species-specific pathotypes have not developed. Most nonsynonymous mutations occurred in a small portion of the VP2 and VP3 open reading frames, demonstrating a selection for these mutations. That a glycine at VP2 221 will inhibit virus replication in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) has been previously reported. In contrast, six of seven of the new APVs isolated in CEFs had a glycine at VP2 221.

  2. Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Wigle, William; Phalen, David N

    2006-11-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus-1 (PsHV-1) is the cause of an acute fatal disease in parrots and is implicated as the cause of papillomatous lesions of the digestive tract. Not all infections cause disease and some parrots are infected asymptomatically. Latently infected parrots are potential sources for virus dissemination. Tissues from parrots that died spontaneously with a history of coming from flocks where a PsHV-1 outbreak had occurred were examined for PsHV-1 DNA. Fourteen of 16 parrots examined were infected with at least 1 variant of PsHV-1; of these 13 (93%) had viral DNA in either or both the oral and cloacal mucosa, suggesting that most latently infected parrots could be detected by sampling these sites. Nine of 9 parrots shown to be infected 5 years prior to this study were positive again on repeat sampling and were infected with the same virus genotype. Opportunistic sampling of parrots submitted for diagnostic necropsy indicated that the prevalence of PsHV-1 in parrots in the sampled population was approximately 9.3%. PsHV-1 genotypes 1, 2, and 3 were found in these birds, but genotype 4 was not. Six necropsy specimens were found to be infected with two PsHV-1 genotypes and it was concluded that infection with one serotype did not protect against infection with another. Psittacid herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2) was identified in 4 African grey parrots and a blue and gold macaw. Prior to this study PsHV-2 had only been found in African grey parrots.

  3. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.

  4. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

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    José L Tella

    Full Text Available Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005 on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals, using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech, and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  5. Major shifts in amazon wildlife populations from recent climatic intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Richard; Mayor, Pedro; Antunez, Miguel; Chota, Kimberlyn; Fang, Tula; Puertas, Pablo; Pittet, Marlini; Kirkland, Maire; Walkey, Mike; Rios, Claudia; Perez-Peña, Pedro; Henderson, Peter; Bodmer, William; Bicerra, Andy; Zegarra, Joseph; Docherty, Emma

    2017-08-02

    In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people. Intensive floods and droughts have recently resulted in shifts in fish and terrestrial mammal populations in flooded forests, a major landscape in western Amazonia that make up 99,780 km(2) of the Loreto region in Peru. The intensive floods caused terrestrial mammal populations to decrease by 95% with ungulates, terrestrial rodents and terrestrial edentates having increased mortality because they were forced onto small patches of land during peak flood pulses, and drowning during the historically high floods of 2012 and 2015. In contrast, fish increased and benefited from longer access to inundated forests, resulting in healthy populations of waterfowl, dolphins, otters and caimans. Arboreal species, including, macaws, game birds, primates, felids and other arboreal mammals had stable populations and were not affected directly by high floods. The drought of 2010 had the opposite consequences with decreases in fish, waterfowl and dolphin populations, and stable populations of terrestrial and arboreal species. Ungulates and large rodents are important wildmeat species for local people and their dramatic decline has shifted resource use of people living in the flooded forests with less reliance on hunting and greater use of fish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. [First detection of psittacid herpesvirus 2 in Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) associated with pharyngeal papillomas and cloacal inflammation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Wohlsein, Peter; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kummerfeld, Norbert; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Congo African Grey Parrots (GP; Psittacus erithacus erithacus) from four different avicultures, presented in the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles and Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, showed choanal papillomas or hyperemia of the cloacal mucosa. Histologically, the mucosal choanal proliferations were diagnosed as exophytic papillomas and a mild hyperplasia of the cloacal mucosa with lympho-histiocytic inflammation with no visible inclusion bodies was found. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in pooled choanal and cloacal swabs from clinically diseased parrots and healthy contact animals. Sequencing of parts of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 98-100% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2). In one aviculture with cloacal inflammation papillomavirus-DNA was concurrently found to a PsHV-2 infection. In addition to the four avicultures with clinical symptoms 25 more flocks of grey parrots, in total 57 Congo-GP and 13 Timneh-GP, were examined for a herpesvirus infection. A total of six out of 29 studied parrot avicultures were tested positive for PsHV-2. The detection of this virus also in flocks of GP, which were bred in Europe, shows the establishment of this infection in the GP population in captivity. As indicated in the literature as well as in our study PsHV-2 could be only detected in Congo-GP, independently if they were kept either alone or in mixed avicultures with amazon and macaw species. These findings suggest that PsHV-2 is adapted to this Psittacus species.

  7. Design of a molecular method for subspecies specific identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae by using the 16S ribosomal subunit gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Arenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoscleroma is caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis and the ozena infections caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, both infections affect the upper respiratory tract. In the first clinical phases the symptoms are unspecific, and the disease can be misdiagnosed as a common cold, therefore antimicrobial therapy cannot reach effective results and patients must be following up for several years since the infection became chronic. Objective: To identify Klebsiella subspecies using a specific assay based on amplicons restriction of a gene which encodes 16S subunit ribosomal (rDNA16S. Methodology: Specific restriction patterns were generated; using reported sequences from rDNA16S gene and bioinformatics programs MACAW, PFE, GENEDOC and GENE RUNNER. Amplification and restriction assays were standardized. Results: Predictions in silico allowed us to propose an algorithm for Klebsiella species and subspecies identification. Two reference strains were included and two clinical isolates which were biotyped and identified by the proposed method. rDNA16S gene restriction patterns showed differences regarding the initially identified species for conventional methods. Additionally two patterns of bands were observed for K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, indicating the polymorphisms presence in the rDNA16S gene. Conclusions: We confirmed the difficulty to identify K. pneumoniae subspecies by conventional methods. Implementation of this technique could allow accurate and rapid differentiation among K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis the aetiological agents of two frequently misdiagnosed infections. Antimicrobial therapy usually could be ineffective, especially in chronic patients. Finally we consider very important to enlarge the study by using more clinical and reference strains.

  8. Design of a molecular method for subspecies specific identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae by using the 16S ribosomal subunit gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Arenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoscleroma is caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae rhinoscleromatis and the ozena infections caused by K. pneumoniae ozaenae, both infections affect the upper respiratory tract. In the first clinical phases the symptoms are unspecific, and the disease can be misdiagnosed as a common cold, therefore antimicrobial therapy cannot reach effective results and patients must be following up for several years since the infection became chronic. Objective: To identify Klebsiella subspecies using a specific assay based on amplicons restriction of a gene which encodes 16S subunit ribosomal (rDNA16S.Methodology: Specific restriction patterns were generated; using reported sequences from rDNA16S gene and bioinformatics programs MACAW, PFE, GENEDOC and GENE RUNNER. Amplification and restriction assays were standardized. Results: Predictions in silico allowed to propose an algorithm for Klebsiella species and subspecies identification. Two reference strains were included and two clinical isolates which were biotyped and identified by the proposed method. rDNA16S gene restriction patterns showed differences regarding the initially identified species for conventional methods. Additionally two patterns of bands were observed for K. pneumoniae rhinoscleromatis, indicating the polymorphisms presence in the rDNA16S gene. Conclusions: It was confirmed the difficulty to identify K. pneumoniae subspecies by conventional methods. Implementation of this technique could allow an accurate and rapid differentiation among K. pneumoniae ozaenae and K. pneumoniae rhinoscleromatis aetiological agents of two frequently misdiagnosed infections. Antimicrobial therapy usually could be ineffective, especially in chronic patients. Finally it is considered very important to enlarge the study by using more clinical and reference strains.

  9. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  10. En companía de los muertos: Ofrendas de animales en los cementerios de La Isla (Tilcara, Jujuy In the company of the dead: Animal offerings at the cemeteries of La Isla, Tilcara, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Belotti López de Medina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí la identificación de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos recuperados por Debenedetti en tres entierros de la necrópolis El Morro, del sitio La Isla de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina. Hay un consenso notable en torno a la peculiaridad de este cementerio, caracterizado por inhumaciones simples o dobles acompanadas de numerosas ofrendas, algunas de ellas suntuarias. Nuestro trabajo se organizó en torno a dos objetivos. Primero, la identificación taxonómica y etaria de los hallazgos. Se caracterizaron: 1 un cráneo y mandíbula de perro hallados en la Tumba 6, con una edad estimada superior a los siete meses; 2 los restos faunísticos de la Tumba 11, entre ellos el esqueleto casi completo de un guacamayo adulto, en el rango de tamaño del Ara chloroptera. 3 una mandíbula de félido pequeno de la Tumba 10, con una edad estimada superior a los seis meses. En el informe de Debenedetti los dos primeros conjuntos se reportan como esqueletos completos, lo que permite identificarlos como sacrificios. Nuestro segundo objetivo fue formular algunas interpretaciones plausibles sobre el contenido de las tumbas y el lugar de los animales en los ritos mortuorios.This paper presents an exhaustive analysis of the faunal remains recovered by Debenedetti from burials 6, 10 and 11 from El Morro cemetery at La Isla de Tilcara site, Jujuy, Argentina. There is a notable consensus about the importance of El Morro, since its burials contain no more than one or two individuals along with numerous offerings, some of them clearly sumptuary. In some of these tombs, among the diverse items, archaeofaunal remains were found that can be safely identified as sacrificed animals. The zooarchaeological analysis presented here was carried out on two of those offerings: the cranium and mandibles of a small to medium sized dog, estimated to be seven months old, found in Burial 6, and a faunal assemblage from Burial 11, among which an almost complete macaw skeleton was

  11. Avifauna de la selva baja caducifolia en la cañada del río Sabino, Oaxaca, México Avifauna of the tropical dry forest in the Sabino Canyon, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Vázquez

    2009-08-01

    forest in Sabino Canyon is important for bird conservation due its richness in endemic birds and to the presence of an important reproductive colony of the Military Macaw, Ara militaris, a globally threatened bird species.

  12. Chalillo chill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loverock, K. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2002-03-31

    The proposed $44-million Chalillo dam project in the Macal River Valley of western Belize is being met with criticism from ecological scientists who claim the project is a threat to endangered wildlife in one of Central America's most ecologically sensitive areas. Despite the criticism, Fortis Inc., a Canadian power company based in St. John's Newfoundland along with the government of Belize, is pressing ahead with the proposal claiming that it will bring in foreign investment, help alleviate poverty and decrease dependence on power imports from Mexico. Belize currently gets its energy from the Mollejon dam, from diesel generators and from the Mexican power grid. The Chalillo dam will be 49.5 metres high and will flood about 20 kilometres up the Macal River valley, destroying about 800 hectares of prime valley habitat including parts of the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, Chiquibul Forest Reserve and Chiquibul National Park. Its generating capacity is expected to be only 8 megawatts and critics doubt that it will generate much power during the dry season. The Macal River Valley is habitat to a range of threatened species including the rare scarlet macaw, Central American river otters, Morelet's crocodiles, Central American spider monkeys, tapirs, ocelots and jaguars. In addition, the flooding would destroy 2 Mayan ruins. Eighteen leading scientists and naturalists from around the world have joined forces to protest the project. Former project partner Duke Energy of the United States decided to withdraw from the project, but Fortis, which owns 68 per cent of Belize's national electricity utility, Belize Electricity Limited, is still pressing ahead. The Prime Minister of Belize does not think it is fair for environmental groups to criticize the project when their own countries have so many dams. An independent economic analysis has shown that the dam may be profitable for Fortis but economically detrimental for Belizeans. Critics say the power

  13. Three Lines of Risk Control:Bank Industry of Guangzhou in the Time of Republic China%民国时期广州银行业风险控制的三道防线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙启宙

    2016-01-01

    Situated in the far south of China, Guangzhou is far away from the emperor’ s ruling and next to Hongkong, Macaw, connecting the South Seas area. Its finance is very unique for the whole time. At the end of Qing dynasty and the time of Republic China, lots of bank institutions gathered in Guangzhou and the first national central bank of China came into being then. In China’ s history, there were two rounds of banks shut down, of which the second one is symbolized by the closing of Guangdong Bank. Through plenty of first-hand material, this paper reproduces the history of new commercial bank in the Republic China Period. The hardship at the very beginning of founding, the flourishing when it was in business, and the sadness when it was closed are all included. Three control lines were formed in the Guangzhou bank industry, i.e., to exclude risk of morality, to limit operating risk, to eliminate credit risk, which is very good historical experience for the financial bureau and entrepreneurs who want to find a place in finance field.%地处中国南部边陲的广州远离皇权中心而毗邻港澳、连接南洋等地,其金融历来自成一派。清末民国时期,这里聚集了众多的银行机构,诞生了中国历史上第一家国家中央银行。而在中国历史上发生过的两次银行停业倒闭高潮中的第二次却是以广东银行的停业为标志的。目前,我国对民营银行的受理已全面开闸,民间资本进入银行业的渠道和机构类型已全部开放。开办银行或成为银行股东于国人而言已是美梦成真了。而处在国民经济核心地位的银行,其经营的成败将会对一国乃至一个地区的经济稳定产生重大影响,开办银行既需要资本更需要智慧。本文通过大量鲜活的一手史料,再现了清末民国时期新型商业银行在广州设立时的艰辛、开业时的盛况、倒闭时的悲哀,进一步理清了广州银行业在排除道德风险

  14. ARQUEOFAUNA DEL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO EL PIÑÓN, CULTURA BOLAÑOS, JALISCO, MÉXICO/Archaeofauna of the archaeological site “El Piñón”, Cultura Bolaños, Jalisco, México.

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    Bernardo Rodríguez Galicia

    2012-11-01

    presented. Corresponding interpretations allowed to reconstruct the natural and cultural environment. The identified fauna consisted, in a preliminary analysis, consists of 3333 specimens. More than 250 individuals were identified from cremated, burnt or worked bone and teeth, including: rabbit, hears, squirrel, mole, dog, mountain lion, lynx, peccary, deer, turkey, duck, quail, green macaw, among other vertebrates that are common in the semidry-mild weather that prevails in the Zacatecas-Jalisco region.

  15. El dicloruro de mercurio como desinfectante en la micropropagación del comino (Aniba perutilis Hemsley

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    Diana Marcela Beltrán Pedroza

    2014-06-01

    for its strength, durability and excellent quality of its wood; from an ecological point of view it is important for the survival of species and animals such as macaws and guacharo. It is reported by Von Humboldt Institute as Critically Endangered (CR, as an endangered species, mainly due to over-exploitation of forest redoubts where there are still some copies and limited knowledge of phenology and reproduction (Cardenas and Salinas, 2006. The use of micropropagation techniques is one of the methods of preservation, whereby it is necessary to overcome the induction phase where there is a possibility of contamination of the explants. We developed a disinfection protocol which was achieved in vitro establishment of Aniba perutilis Hemsley. Initial disinfection was determined from the time of collection of the explants, which were placed in plastic boxes, previously disinfected with 96% alcohol, a solution of iodine + antifungal (Benomyl, 3grs/500 ml called carrier solution. The best result in the contamination control was achieved using Tween 80 (1 drop / 100 ml for 10 minutes and 20 minutes immersion in mercury dichloride (HgCl2 0.2% with an 8% of contamination. Opposed to the treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, this one showed an 80% contamination, for which one can attest that the mercury dichloride is an effective disinfectant for the control of fungal and bacterial contamination of the explants endogenous buds, both apical and lateral A. perutilis Hemsley.Key words: disinfection; in vitro culture; carrier solution; buds; contamination.