WorldWideScience

Sample records for macas gala atacadas

  1. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60; Desinfestacao de macas atacadas por Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) atraves das radiacoes gama do cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Hancock County Awards Gala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  3. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  4. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  5. Bandwidth Utilization and Efficiency in MACA and MACA-BI: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaraj Sen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. We start with the Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA protocol first which uses an RTS-CTS-DATA packet exchange and invokes binary exponential backoff procedure upon hearing a collision or whenever the channel is not idle. Based on the packet-level simulations and various performances and design issues in MACA protocols, a new protocol Multiple Access Collision Avoidance By Invitation (MACA-BI was designed. Many medium-access control (MAC protocols for wireless networks proposed or implemented to date are based on collision avoidance handshakes between sender and receiver. In this paper a study on the bandwidth utilization and efficiency between MACA and MACA-BI medium access protocol has been studied in order to determine their performance and behavior. MACA is a sender-initiated protocol while MACA-BI is the receiver initiated protocol. MACA-BI is more robust than MACA to problems such as protocol failures (control packet collision and corruption and finite turn-around time.

  6. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  7. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl

  8. Puccini galaõhtu Eesti Televisioonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia helilooja Giacomo Puccini 150. sünniaastapäeva puhul näeb 21. detsembril ETVs saadet Pärnu Endla teatris 15. mail toimunud galaõhtust, kus XXI Sajandi Orkestri saatel esinesid rahvusvahelise Klaudia Taevi konkursi laureaadid

  9. A CHARITY GALA @ PARK HYATT TOKYO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    As a mark of the end of the 10th anniversary year, Park Hyatt Tokyo held a charity gala on December 4th. All restaurants, the swimming pool and banquet rooms were transformed into 7 different theater featuring by world-class entertainers including the Three Tenors, Jose Carreras, and the award-winning Broadway show, etc.

  10. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Amanda Cordova; Carla Gonzales; Arturo Chung; Karla Vega; Arturo Villena

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to determine the effect of a 4-month oral treatment with tablets of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on seminal analysis in nine adult normal men aged 24 - 44 years old. Methods: Nine men received tablets of Maca (1500 or 3000 mg/day) for 4 months. Seminal analysis was performed according to guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment with Maca resulted in increased seminal volume, sperm count per ejaculum, motile sperm count, and sperm motility. Serum hormone levels were not modified with Maca treatment. Increase of sperm count was not related to dose of Maca.Conclusion: Maca improved sperm production and sperm motility by mechanisms not related to LH, FSH, PRL, T and E2 .

  11. Maca (L. meyenii for improving sexual function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Byung-Cheul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  12. Maca (Lepidium meyenii WALP), a review of its biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina y doctor en Ciencias.; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión. Cerro de Pasco, Perú. doctor en Economía.; Gasco, Manuel; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. magíster en Ciencias.; Rubio, Julio; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciado en Biología.; Gonzales, Carla; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. doctora en Ciencias.

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in...

  13. Histología del órgano reservante de la maca silvestre, Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) y comparación con la maca cultivada

    OpenAIRE

    Chain, Fernando Ezequiel; Mercado, Maria Ines; Coll Araoz, Maria Victoria; Catalan, Cesar Atilio Nazareno; Grau, A.; Ponessa, Graciela I.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of the underground reserve organ of wild maca (Lepidium meyenii) from Cumbres Calchaquíes (Tucumán), were fixed in FAA and embedded in paraffin in order to study their anatomy. The underground structure was compared with the storage organ of cultivated maca observed in a previous study. The storage organ of wild maca is a contractile root with normal secondary growth. Peridermis arises from outer cortical parenchymatic cells. Cortex and star shaped pith constituted by amiliferous pare...

  14. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also,

  15. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also, addi

  16. Märt Avandi valiti EFA gala õhtujuhiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas toimuvat 23. Euroopa Filmiauhindade gala juhivad eesti näitleja Märt Avandi ja saksa koomik Anke Engelke. Lühidalt galast. Märt Avandi vastab küsimustele õhtu juhtimise ja selleks ettevalmistamise kohta

  17. The Hypoglycemic Properties of BAE Maca Max Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim K. Choong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering an urgency of a question of diabetes treatment and decrease the side effects of hypoglycemic therapies, there is a necessity to elaborate a new approaches to this problem. This study was directed on estimation of possibilities of a preparation of naturally modified BAE maca max product for improvement of semeiology of diabetes and reduce the glucose level in the blood. Approach: Experiment was carried out on not purebred rats, received from Rappolovo (Russia nursery, with use of alloksan preparation for creation of models of type 1 and type 2 forms of diabetes. During the basic experiment animals have been divided into three groups: First group was made with control animals; second group, represented type 2 form of diabetes and third group represented animals with type 1 form of diabetes. Animals received BAE Maca Max preparation, which consists of two major active ingredients which are Maca and Tribulus Terresteris plants, in the form of drink, dissolved in 200 mL potable water from standard drinking bowls (after development of hyperglycemia. Glucose level defined before consumption of preparation, for 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day of consumption. Results: Result of experiences established that: Glucose level in blood of healthy animals for 10 day of experiment was in 1,26 times below than initial level (remaining in the range of norm; in group of animals with type 2 form of diabetes glucose level has reduced in 1,2 times; in the second group of animals with type 1 form of diabetes glucose level reduced in a range from 9,8±0,8-8,3±0,8 mmol L?1. Conclusion: Results of experiments showed that BAE maca max preparation possesses ability to statistical significant reduce the level of glucose in both type 1 and 2 forms of diabetes.

  18. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

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    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  19. 78 FR 34577 - Safety Zone; Ad Club's 100th Anniversary Gala Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Anniversary Gala celebration being held at The Institute Of Contemporary Art in conjunction with the fireworks... 100th Anniversary Gala celebration at The Institute of Contemporary Art. The COTP Boston has...

  20. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P.; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair. P4HB belongs to a naturally occurring class of biopolymers and fibers made from it are uniquely strong, flexible, and biocompatible. GalaFLEX Scaffold is comprised of high-strength, resorbable P4HB monofilament fibers. It is a knitted macroporous scaffold intended to elevate, reinforce, and repair soft tissue. The scaffold acts as a lattice for new tissue growth, which is rapidly vascularized and becomes fully integrated with adjacent tissue as the fibers resorb. In this review, we describe the development of P4HB, its production, properties, safety, and biocompatibility of devices made from P4HB. Early clinical results and current clinical applications of products made from P4HB are also discussed. The results of post-market clinical studies evaluating the GalaFLEX Scaffold in rhytidectomy and cosmetic breast surgery demonstrate that the scaffold can reinforce lifted soft tissue, resulting in persistent surgical results in the face and neck at one year, and provide lower pole stability after breast lift at one year. PMID:27697885

  1. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon F; Martin, David P; Moses, Arikha C

    2016-11-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair. P4HB belongs to a naturally occurring class of biopolymers and fibers made from it are uniquely strong, flexible, and biocompatible. GalaFLEX Scaffold is comprised of high-strength, resorbable P4HB monofilament fibers. It is a knitted macroporous scaffold intended to elevate, reinforce, and repair soft tissue. The scaffold acts as a lattice for new tissue growth, which is rapidly vascularized and becomes fully integrated with adjacent tissue as the fibers resorb. In this review, we describe the development of P4HB, its production, properties, safety, and biocompatibility of devices made from P4HB. Early clinical results and current clinical applications of products made from P4HB are also discussed. The results of post-market clinical studies evaluating the GalaFLEX Scaffold in rhytidectomy and cosmetic breast surgery demonstrate that the scaffold can reinforce lifted soft tissue, resulting in persistent surgical results in the face and neck at one year, and provide lower pole stability after breast lift at one year. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  2. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these ful...

  3. Property of Dual-purposed Maca Powder as Medicine and Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research property of maca and three plants' powders and process parameters of compound maca direct compression. [Method] Based on analysis data from SAS, bulk density, tap density, angle of repose and swelling of powders were studied as per single factor method and orthogonal exper- imental design. [Result] The test indicated that fillibilities of plant A and B, and maca powders are better and flowability plays an important role in fractional close of compound maca powder; plant A and B powders have a significant effect on bulk density of maca (P=0.0125), an extremely significant effect on swelling volume ratio (P=0.008 9) and little effect on tap density (g/ml); the optimal process condition of compound maca powder is as follows: A at 0.15 share; B at 0.10 share; C at 0.05 share; the optimal swelling volume ratio is at 2.459. [Conclusion] The technology is reasonable in formulation and satisfactory in fillibility, swelling ability, flowability, and it could serve as theoretical basis for the industrial production of maca tablets.

  4. Atratividade de Atta sexdens rubropilosa por plantas de eucalipto atacadas previamente ou não por Thyrinteina arnobia Atta sexdens rubropilosa attractiveness to eucalyptus plants previously attacked or not by Thyrinteina arnobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Gomes de Oliveira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de defesa induzido das plantas é ativado após a ocorrência do dano provocado por um herbívoro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis atacadas previamente por lagartas de Thyrinteina arnobia tornam-se resistentes ao corte de operárias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo gasto por operárias dessa formiga em iniciar o corte em plantas atacadas ou não. Porém, houve diferença significativa no tamanho de fragmentos cortados. Concluiu-se que plantas previamente atacadas tornam-se menos atrativas para A. sexdens rubropilosa devido à ativação do seu sistema de defesa induzido.The induced defense system of plants is activated after the occurrence of damage by a herbivore. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether plants of Eucalyptus grandis previously attacked by larvae of Thyrinteina arnobia become resistant to cutting by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa. There was no significant difference in the lapse of time spent by the workers of this ant before they started cutting plants previously attacked or not. There was significant reduction in the size of leaf fragments cut by the ants. It was concluded that plants previously attacked were less attractive to the leaf cutter due to the activation of their induced defense system.

  5. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (Pcontrol rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Bustos-Obregón; Sandra Yucra; Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To observe the effect of the aqueous extract of hypocotyls of the plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenic damage induced by the organophosphate insecticide malathion in mice. Methods: Mice were treated with 80or 21 days after injection of the malathion. Stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Results: The administration of Maca increased significantly the length of stage Ⅷ on days7, 14 and 21 of treatment compared with the controls. An increase in the length of stage Ⅸ occurred on day 14 of treatment. Malathion affected spermatogenesis by reducing the lengths of stage Ⅸ on day 7, stages Ⅶ and Ⅸ-Ⅺ on day 14 and a recovery of stages Ⅸ-Ⅻ on day 21. The magnitude of alteration in the length of stage Ⅸ produced by malathion was significantly reduced by Maca on days 7 and 14. The length of stage Ⅷ was increased when Maca was administered to mice treated with malathion. Assessment of the relative length of stages of the seminiferous epithelium showed that Maca treatment resulted in rapid recovery of the effect of malathion. Conclusion: Maca enhances spermatogenesis following spermatogenic damage caused by the organophosphorous pesticide.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  8. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, una revisión sobre sus propiedades biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F Gonzales

    Full Text Available La maca (Lepidium meyenii es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados

  9. The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Cultivated in Different Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. was introduced to China in the recent two decades. Proximate compositions and secondary metabolites in dried maca tuber powders of different cultivation areas and colour types were analyzed and compared in order to provide the scientific guideline for its application. Cultivation region significantly affects the compositions of maca. The protein content of maca ranged from 9.31% to 21.02% by dry basis of maca powders and Xiaopingba-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y have the higher protein contents. The essential amino acids (EAA contents ranged from 189.19 to 312.90 mg/g protein. The crude lipid content of different maca ranged from 0.59% to 1.00% and has no significant difference (P>0.05. The total dietary fiber (TDF contents ranged from 17.82% to 26.00% and soluble dietary fiber (SDF ranged from 2.46% to 7.88%, respectively. Maca samples were rich in Na, Mg, Ca, and K elements which ranged 138.3–187.8, 625.2–837.2, 3838.9–4502.7, and 5394.8–8063.3 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Xiaopingba-Y has the highest benzyl glucosinolate content which was 2.31 mg/g DM. Peru-Y and Xiaopingba have the higher contents of total alkaloids contents which was 2.61 and 2.56 mg/kg DM. Yongsheng-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y were rich in N-benzyl hexadecanamide contents, which were 0.164, 0.174, and 0.173 mg/g DM, respectively. Significant higher protein, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, total alkaloids, and benzyl glucosinolate contents were found in purple and black maca compared to yellow maca in Pamirs, while there was no significant difference in N-benzyl hexadecanamide content.

  10. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using res

  11. Gala Concert for the 50th Anniversary of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The CERN 50th Anniversary celebrations will wrap up with music on 18 December with a Gala Concert by the Philharmonic Orchestra of London in Victoria Hall, Geneva. The orchestra will be directed by Tommaso Placidi, a young talented conductor, and will also enjoy the presence of Maxim Vengerov as first violin. This evening is organised by Mrs Suzanne Hurter, with the support of private companies as well as of the city and the canton of Geneva. The concert will begin with the Overture of Wagner's Flying Dutchman. Maxim Vengerov will then interpret Beethoven's Concert for violin and orchestra. The second part of the concert will be devoted to Tschaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. Tickets cost between 35CHF and 140 CHF according to the seat. People working at CERN will have a 10% discount. You may buy your tickets at the Kiosque FK inside the building Pfister Meubles in Meyrin (ch de Rianbosson 5-9) and get your discount by showing your CERN card. Find out more about the seats available, go to the Resaplus Ticket Book...

  12. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants.

  13. Archaeological test excavations at the mesolithic and iron age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV / Aivar Kriiska, Kaarel Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriiska, Aivar, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    gala jõe alamjooksul on mitmeid eriaegseid muinasjäänuseid. Vanim neist on Jägala-Joa IV asulakoht. Mesoliitiline asustuskoht annab tuge hüpoteesile, et Eesti rannikuala asustamise esimesel etapil ei asunud elupaigad vahetult mererannal, vaid veidi kaugemal jõgede kallastel ja tööriistu valmistati sellel ajal üldiselt tulekivist

  14. Archaeological test excavations at the mesolithic and iron age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV / Aivar Kriiska, Kaarel Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriiska, Aivar, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    gala jõe alamjooksul on mitmeid eriaegseid muinasjäänuseid. Vanim neist on Jägala-Joa IV asulakoht. Mesoliitiline asustuskoht annab tuge hüpoteesile, et Eesti rannikuala asustamise esimesel etapil ei asunud elupaigad vahetult mererannal, vaid veidi kaugemal jõgede kallastel ja tööriistu valmistati sellel ajal üldiselt tulekivist

  15. Research advances on Maca%玛咖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏; 徐丽; 宋晖; 马清; 张译; 杨崇仁

    2015-01-01

    玛咖(Lepidium meyeniiWalp)(Maca)为十字花科独行菜属一年生或两年生草本植物,原产海拔3500~4500 m的南美安第斯山区,为当地常用蔬菜。我国本世纪初引种以来种植面积不断扩大,云南为主要种植地区。玛咖含有丰富的蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪酸、纤维、维生素和矿物质含量,具有较高的营养价值,有“南美人参”之誉。此外,玛咖含有玛咖酰胺、玛咖烯、生物碱、芥子油苷、甾醇和类固醇等主要次生代谢物。药理活性研究表明,玛咖具有抗疲劳、增强免疫力、提高生育力、抗炎症、抗癌、抗氧化、抗病毒、降血压、缓解抑郁和治疗女性更年期综合征等多种作用。前期大量文章已对玛咖的化学成分和生理活性研究进展进行综述。本文对玛咖的安全性评价、玛咖成分的检测方法以及以不同色型玛咖的成分比较分析研究概况进行综述。%Maca (Lepidium meyeniiWalp), an annual or biennial herb of Brassicaceae family, is native in the South American Andean mountain, especially above sea level to the altitude 3500~4500 m. Maca has been used as vegetable by the local people. Since the beginning of this century, Maca was introduced into China at the beginning of this century. Up to now, Maca has been planting widely in Yunnan province of China. Maca riches in proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, fibers, vitamins and mineralizes. It has high nutritional value as well as some secondary metabolites, such as macamides, macaenes, alkaloids, glucosinolates and steroids. It is reported that Maca has many biological activates, such as anti-fatigue, immune enhancing, fertility improving, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-virus, blood pressure lowering and treatment of female climacteric syndrome. Research advances in chemical constituents and biological activity of Maca has already been reviewed in previous articles. The current article

  16. Potenciometria e Fluxo Subterrâneo no Aqüífero Aluvionar do Baixo Curso do Rio Macaé, Município de Macaé-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Ramalho Barbosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Macaé city is inserted in the coastal portion of the Northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The study accomplished in the alluvial aquifer of the Macaé river lower course, whose waters fulfill the domestic needs of a significant part of the rural and peripheral population of the city, comprised the neighborhoods of Córrego do Ouro, Fazenda Severina, Virgem Santa and Aterrado do Imburo. Results comprise the hydrodynamic studies that lead to the elaboration of a potentiometric map in that alluvial aquifer. The potentiometry shows the relationship between the surface and subsurface water. The Macaé River has an effluent character in the studied area. Aquifer recharge is associated to the topographical adjacent higher grounds and discharge is towards the Macaé river channel and river mouth. The hydrographs of water level temporal variation suggest a possible hydraulic connection among the monitored water points, evidencing a lateral continuity in the area.

  17. Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earp, Jeffrey; Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Earp, J., & Klemke, R. (2011, 21 September). Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues. Presented at TEL-Think-Tank Workshop at the 6th European conference on Technology enhanced learning: towards ubiquitous learning (EC-TEL 2011), Palermo, Italy.

  18. EL HIBRIDISMO NARRATIVO EN LA PASION TURCA DE ANTONIO GALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Aal‎ Saleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resulta indiscutible que la consistencia estructural  de una obra narrativa es sumamente trascendental e influye en su valor esencial. Andrés Amorós señala que “la novela puede incluir dentro de sí toda clase de elementos ajenos siempre que no parezcan postizamente añadidos, sino que se integran en una unidad de ambiente y estructura que apasione al lector”. Y agrega subrayando que “Lo único que nos parece claro es que hoy admitimos cualquier detalle o cualquier recurso técnico siempre que poseen un sentido o una coherencia estructural”. Además advierte que “Lo que nos molesta son los fragmentos que aparecen como fácilmente separables, sin que sufra por ello la unidad del cosmos narrativo”.  Considerando lo anteriormente señalado, creímos que  las críticas dirigidas a la estructura de una novela es una cuestión de gran trascendencia que debe ser estudiada seria y atentamente. Esto es el caso de La pasión turca, segunda novela del escritor español Antonio Gala, que  según Carmen Rigalt es“un símbolo del éxito que le ha acompañado durante casi dos décadas” (P.2. Esta obra ha sido criticada por parte de investigadores como Emilia Cortes Ibáñez  y Manuel Asensio Moreno por tener algunas partes novelísticas innecesarias como especie de “relleno” y  tienden  a engordarla desde el punto de vista narrativo. La existencia de este tipo de elementos es habitual. Oscar Barrero Pérez nos presenta el ejemplo de la estancia de Pascual en Madrid ocurrida en La familia de Pascual Duarte de Cela como un  relleno sobrante. Tal estancia - según él-  constituye “una digresión espacial no precisamente obligada”.   Nuestro objetivo en este trabajo es examinar hasta qué punto son justos y objetivos estos juicios. Para tal efecto, proponemos la hipótesis de que las partes señaladas por los críticos y otras más, fruto  de nuestro trabajo,  podrían constituir una especie de hibridismo narrativo y parten

  19. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.

  20. Efecto del extracto acuoso de maca sobre la función cognitiva en ratas recién destetadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca, Lepidium meyenii walp, es una planta que crece en las alturas de los andes peruanos; es usada como alimento, por su valor nutricional y sus propiedades etnomedicinales, unidos a la fertilidad y vitalidad. En la actualidad, se ha incrementado el interés público en los polifenoles, que tendrían efecto inhibitorio sobre la actividad acetilcolinesterasa y butirilcolinesterasas, y de esta manera se mejoraría las funciones cognitivas, aunque los mecanismos aún no han sido dilucidados. Por esta razón, se ha propuesto que la maca es un adaptógeno, que aumenta la energía, resistencia y reduce el estrés. Objetivos: Demostrar y evaluar el efecto energizante de la maca amarilla sobre la memoria y el aprendizaje por medio de pruebas bioquímicas, en un modelo animal de ratas destetadas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas recién destetadas y extracto acuoso de maca amarillo. Intervenciones: A ratas recién destetadas se les administró extracto acuoso de maca amarillo (0,4 mg, 0,8 mg y 1,2 mg/g de peso, durante 15 días, y luego se les sometió a la prueba de aprendizaje espacial acuática de Morris. También, se tomó muestras de cerebro para determinaciones bioquímicas. Principales medidas de resultados: Mejoría del aprendizaje y la memoria. Resultados: Se encontró inhibición de la butirilcolinesterasa, cuando se administró dosis crecientes de maca, excepto el grupo que recibió 0,8 mg/g. Los niveles de lipoperoxidación en el cerebro (daño oxidativo disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca; así mismo, los tiempos (s en hallar la plataforma en la prueba de Morris disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca amarilla. La concentración de glutatión en el cerebro se incrementó con la administración de maca, pero sin ser significativo. Conclusiones

  1. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio Investment return for Gala apple cultivar using two planting densities

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês), independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se man...

  2. Application of decision support systems in county urban planning: a proposal for Macaé county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALANTE, A. C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Macaé County is one of the greatest economy of the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the use of the information technology is possible to create a powerful tool for supporting the decision making processing for this County, aiding the process of improvement of life quality. For that one, intends to use a Decision Support System able to give different kind of information of County areas, like health and education. For the union of all information the datawarehouse technology will be used. For query implementation the technologies of OLAP and GIS are used together. Therefore, those technologies together make a powerful tool for aiding the decision making process of the Macaé County.

  3. Origin and evolution of GALA-LRR, a new member of the CC-LRR subfamily: from plants to bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V Kajava

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum.

  4. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio Investment return for Gala apple cultivar using two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leomar Kreuz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês, independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se mantém praticamente o mesmo ao se variar a densidade de plantio.The present study was carried out to analyse economic performances of Gala apple orchards at different planting densities. Two orchard densities (1,000 and 3,378 plants/ha were evaluated in an orchard near Fraiburgo, SC, Brazil. The use of both planting densities resulted in the same internal rate of return (approximately 1.6% a month. It is suggested to use a lower planting system, once it requires less capital. Unit cost also remained the same for both planting densities used in this study.

  5. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E230 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (Padaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  6. Thidiazuron affects the quality of 'Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere Thidiazuron afeta a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas sob atmosfera controlada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer Giehl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ on the quality of 'Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere (CA conditions. Plants were sprayed at full bloom with TDZ at 0, 10, 20, or 40g ha-1 (a.i.. Harvested fruits were then stored in CA with 1.0+2.5, 1.5+2.5 and 1.5+5.0 (kPa O2+kPa CO2, both at 0.5°C. In addition, the partial pressure of 1.5kPa of O2+2.5kPa of CO2 was also evaluated at -0.5°C. Higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity was obtained by applying 20 or 40g ha-1 TDZ. Furthermore, these TDZ doses decreased the respiration rate as well as the occurrence of flesh breakdown, mealiness and decay. The application of TDZ at doses ranging from 20 to 40g ha-1 maintains higher fruit quality for up to 8 months under CA. In addition, the storage of 'Gala' apples under CA with 1.0kPa O2+2.5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C results in higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity. Moreover, this CA condition reduces the incidence of flesh breakdown, mealiness and postharvest decay in 'Gala' apple fruits.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de thidiazuron (TDZ na qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas em condições de atmosfera controlada (AC. Avaliou-se o efeito do TDZ nas doses de 0, 10, 20 e 40g ha-1 (i.a., aplicadas no pleno florescimento. Após a colheita, os frutos foram armazenados em condições de AC com 1,0+2,5; 1,5+2,5 ou 1,5+5,0 (kPa de O2+kPa de CO2, ambas a 0,5°C. Além disso, a pressão parcial de 1,5kPa de O2+2,5kPa de CO2 também foi avaliada a -0,5°C. Doses de TDZ entre 20 e 40g ha-1 mantiveram maior firmeza da polpa e acidez titulável. Além disso, essas mesmas doses reduziram a atividade respiratória e a incidência de degenerescência da polpa, de polpa farinhenta e de podridões. A aplicação pré-colheita de TDZ, especialmente em doses entre 20 e 40g ha-1, melhora a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas em AC por até oito meses. Em relação às condições de AC

  7. Efecto de la maca roja (Lepidium meyenii sobre los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX. Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO; Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivamente. Resultados. Las ratas OVX mostraron niveles bajos de IFN-γ en comparación con las ratas PO. El estradiol y la maca roja revirtieron el efecto de la ovariectomía sobre los niveles de IFN-γ. La maca roja presenta un incremento dosis-respuesta de los niveles de IFN-γ (r=0,57, p<0,05. Conclusiones. La administración de la maca roja incrementa los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas.

  8. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Saldaña C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determinó que el medio que contenía maca enriquecida con sangre entre los componentes sólidos y la infusión de maca en la fase líquida, presentó un mayor crecimiento (3,41 x 105 parásitos/mL con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo al quinto día (p<0,05.

  9. Status of the Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Hauke; Luedicke, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) is one of the instruments selected for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). A fundamental goal of any exploratory space mission is to characterize and measure the shape, topography, and rotation of the target bodies. A state of the art tool for this task is laser altimetry because it can provide absolute topographic height and position with respect to a body centered reference system. With respect to Ganymede, the GALA instrument aims at mapping of global, regional and local topography; confirming the global subsurface ocean and further characterization of the water-ice/liquid shell by monitoring the dynamic response of the ice shell to tidal forces; providing constraints on the forced physical librations and spin-axis obliquity; determining Ganymede's shape; obtaining detailed topographic profiles across the linear features of grooved terrain, impact structures, possible cryo-volcanic features and other different surface units; providing information about slope, roughness and albedo (at 1064nm) of Ganymede's surface. After several flyby's (Ganymede, Europa, Callisto) it is scheduled that the JUICE orbiter will enter first into an elliptical orbit (200 km x 10.000 km) for around 150 days and then into a circular orbit (500 km) around Ganymede for 130 days. Accordingly to the different orbits and trajectories, distances to the moons respectively, the spot size of the GALA laser varies between 21 m and 140 m. GALA uses the direct-detection (classical) approach of laser altimetry. Laser pulses are emitted at a wavelength of 1064 nm by using an actively Q-switched Nd:Yag laser. The pulse energy and pulse repetition frequency are 17 mJ at 30 Hz (nominal), respectively. For targeted observations and flybys the frequency can be switched to 50 Hz. The emission time of each pulse is measured by the detector. The beam is reflected from the surface and received at a 25 cm diameter telescope. The returning laser pulse is refocused onto

  10. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  11. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E.; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  12. Atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento da maçã 'Maxi Gala' Controlled atmosphere to the storage of 'Maxi Gala' apples

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Weber; Auri Brackmann; Rogério de Oliveira Anese; Vanderlei Both; Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade da maçã 'Maxi Gala' submetida a diferentes combinações de níveis de O2 e CO2, temperaturas e perda de massa durante o armazenamento. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualisado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições de 25 frutos. Os tratamentos originaram-se da combinação de diferentes condições de atmosfera controlada (AC) em duas temperaturas (0,5 ºC e 1 ºC), que foram: (1) 1,2 kPa O2 + 2,5 kP...

  13. Una aproximación coral a la Andrómaca de Eurípides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Navvaro Noguera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En Andrómaca el coro se encuentra entre dos mujeres víctimas, aunque de diferente modo, de la guerra: Andrómaca y Hermíone. La relación que establece el grupo de mujeres de Ftía con las dos heroínas contribuye a su caracterización y posibilita una plena comprensión de la obra. La centralidad del coro es muy relevante y refuerza la consideración de esta obra como una tragedia coral.

  14. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov.) y su Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA), las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la...

  15. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov.) y su Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA), las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la...

  16. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês), independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se man...

  17. Relationship Between Stimulated Ethylene Production and Alternative Respiration Pathway in "Royal Gala" Apple Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiaoyong(雷晓勇); TIAN M.S.; HU Xiaosong(胡小松); DAI Yaoren(戴尧仁)

    2003-01-01

    Endogenous ethylene production and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein expression in "Royal Gala" apple fruits were investigated after treatments with cold (0℃ for 1 week) and heat (38℃ for 1 h).A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway from Sauromatum guttatum was used to identify the AOX protein in apple fruits.The molecular mass of AOX in "Royal Gala" apple fruits is approximately 38 kDa, similar to those reported in tobacco and tomato.The cold treatment depressed the release of endogenous ethylene production before the climacteric ethylene production and obviously induced the expression of AOX protein expression.The heat treatment had the opposite effects on the ethylene production and AOX protein expression.In addition, the climax of endogenous ethylene production preceded the maximum AOX expression after the cold temperature treatment.It is therefore proposed that in climacteric fruits the production of induced ethylene is not coordinated with the level of AOX protein.

  18. Clinical Use of GalaFLEX in Facial and Breast Cosmetic Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William P; Toriumi, Dean M; Van Natta, Bruce W

    2016-11-01

    Resolution of ptosis is a key step to the success of many plastic surgery procedures. Ptosis is a manifestation of tissue stretch. Tissue stretch can occur as a result of the natural aging process or health of the patient, or tissue may stretch under added weight or volume, such as when implants are placed. Surgical rejuvenation of ptotic tissues is very effective and results in marked changes in the patient profile yet the tissue that resulted in the need for the procedure first place has not improved and ptosis can recur. Recent developments in long-term resorbable porous materials have provided surgeons with the opportunity to experiment with tissue reinforcement in plastic surgery procedures. These new materials have a low profile, rapid tissue integration, and a long-term strength retention profile. Long-term resorbable scaffolds such as poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) natural scaffold (GalaFLEX scaffold, Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) have shown promise for a host of plastic surgery indications. This article presents clinical experience with GalaFLEX for soft tissue reinforcement in three different clinical applications; including the reinforcement of the superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) in minimally invasive facelift, reinforcement of the skin envelope in mastopexy, and reinforcement of the breast capsule (pocket) in revisional breast surgery. Soft tissue reinforcement has been shown to provide increased mechanical strength as well as improved maintenance of postoperative results. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mathematical modeling of dehydration of 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples slices using infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio de Souza Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine and model the infrared dehydration curves of apple slices - Fuji and Gala varieties. The slices were dehydrated until constant mass, in a prototype dryer with infrared heating source. The applied temperatures ranged from 50 to 100 °C. Due to the physical characteristics of the product, the dehydration curve was divided in two periods, constant and falling, separated by the critical moisture content. A linear model was used to describe the constant dehydration period. Empirical models traditionally used to model the drying behavior of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data of the falling dehydration period. Critical moisture contents of 2.811 and 3.103 kgw kgs-1 were observed for the Fuji and Gala varieties, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that the constant dehydration rates presented a direct relationship with the temperature; thus, it was possible to fit a model that describes the moisture content variation in function of time and temperature. Among the tested models, which describe the falling dehydration period, the model proposed by Midilli presented the best fit for all studied conditions.

  20. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  1. Estudio de la Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., cultivo andino con propiedades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La maca es un producto originario de los Andes Centrales del Perú, resistente a granizadas, heladas y sequías prolongadas. Se cultiva desde la época incaica en altitudes comprendidas entre los 3800 a 4500 m.s.n.m. Esta planta herbácea, presenta no sólo un alto valor nutricional sino también es valorada por su papel medicinal. Entre los componentes químicos de este cultivo andino que se han relacionado con sus acciones terapéuticas como el aumento de la fertilidad, niveles de energía, acción antioxidante, mejora del deseo sexual y la tasa de crecimiento, destacan: los glucosinolatos, esteroles, ácidos grasos (macaeno y sus respectivas amidas (macamidas, alcaloides (lepidilinas A y B, macaridina y polifenoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, recopilar las diferentes investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de la maca y los compuestos responsables de las mismas.

  2. Fifa 2006 World Cup Final Match Football up for Auction at Redch out to Asia Charity Gala Dinner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Doha, QATAR - High-flying Qatar Airways entered a piece of history today by flying the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final match football which is set to raise a significant amount of money at this week's Reach Out To Asia (ROTA) charity Gala Dinner in Doha.

  3. Fifa 2006 World Cup Final Match Football up for Auction at Redch out to Asia Charity Gala Dinner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Doha, QATAR - High-flying Qatar Airways entered a piece of history today by flying the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final match football which is set to raise a significant amount of money at this week's Reach Out To Asia (ROTA) charity Gala Dinner in Doha.……

  4. Sports Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year’s 11th National Games saw 21 new world and Asian records set Fans were treated to all the highs and lows of sport during China’s 11th National Games, billed as the country’s mini-Olympics, which witnessed both record-breaking feats and doping

  5. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  6. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. The results suggested that Maca from Yunnan province was the potential substitute for the one from Peru. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of Maca were investigated. Three fractions and two pure compounds showed strong activities in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced zebrafish model. Among them, 80% methanol elution fraction (Fr5) showed significant neuroprotective activity, followed by 100% part (Fr6). The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective effect.

  7. Paleomorphology of the upper part of the Macae formation, Namorado field, Campos basin; Paleomorfologia do intervalo superior da formacao Macae, Campo de Namorado, Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Eduardo Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Tomazelli, Luiz Jose; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo Norberto [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Viana, Adriano Roessler [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Edificio Sede

    2004-07-01

    The Macae Formation (Late Albian-Turonian of the Campos Basin) is represented by a thick column of carbonate sediments whose deposition began soon after the evaporitic phase that marks the beginning of the marine occupation of the basin. The top of this interval is represented by an unconformity (Type I), indicative of a variation in the base level of the basin, on which the turbidities of the basal sequence of the Namorado Field were deposited. For a better understanding of the depositional geometry of these turbidities, the paleogeomorphology analysis demonstrated to be quite efficient. The method of work used for so was a combination among the seismic 3D visualization (VoxelGeo{sup R}), from the characterization of different physical attributes of the seismic signal, and the facies analysis of wells profiles of the referred field. The developed analysis allowed the individualization and the three-dimensional visualization of a sinuous paleochannel in the top of the interval, until then not described in previous interpretations of this depositional system. With the information coming from this study, a better understanding of the genesis of this accumulation can be reached, especially in the part regarding to the units of important economic character, represented by the turbidities deposits and whose occurrences are related with stages of relative lowering of the sea level. (author)

  8. Atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento da maçã 'Maxi Gala'

    OpenAIRE

    Weber,Anderson; Brackmann,Auri; Anese,Rogério de Oliveira; Both,Vanderlei; Pavanello,Elizandra Pivotto

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade da maçã 'Maxi Gala' submetida a diferentes combinações de níveis de O2 e CO2, temperaturas e perda de massa durante o armazenamento. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualisado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições de 25 frutos. Os tratamentos originaram-se da combinação de diferentes condições de atmosfera controlada (AC) em duas temperaturas (0,5 ºC e 1 ºC), que foram: (1) 1,2 kPa O2 + 2,5 kP...

  9. Exploitation of Hunting and Fishing Tourism in Galați County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camară Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.

  10. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Ana Ruiz; Carla Gonzales; Leon Villegas; Amanda Cordova

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract from the roots of Lepidium meyenii (maca)on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Male rats received an aqueous extract of the root (66.7 mg in one mL) twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Results: Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages Ⅰ-Ⅵ were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. Conclusion: The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e informales de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e infor- males de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  13. The successes and errors related to growth of a local economy with oil exploration: the Macae case; Os exitos e erros decorrentes do crescimento de uma economia local com a exploracao petrolifera: o caso de Macae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lariane Dallapicola [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais], e-mail: lariane2003@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The following essay has the purpose of showing the benefits and problems relations generated in one city that has the oil exploration as the main important task in its economy. One region can have its physical and economic structure drastically changed with the insertion of oil extraction task. An example that must be sentenced is the case of the city of Macae, situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the economy that has grown 600% in the period between 1999 and 2007, Macae is a city in constant growing and expansion process. Because of the industry and oil and gas extraction development, specially starting from the State's monopoly breaking in 1997, the city has turned very different from the little fisher's village that it was once, in the mid-1970's, having many alterations what its concerned about its population and increase of internal migrations, in terms of incomes and urbanization. These changing process's results are analyzed in this essay, aiming the positive and negative points of the situation of Macae, considering its new oil economy. (author)

  14. A GALA lipopeptide mediates pH- and membrane charge dependent fusion with stable giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas P.; Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas R.

    2012-01-01

    ,2-diamino propanoic acid (Dap) moiety, yielding the lipopeptide dimyristoyl-Dap-GALA (DMDGALA). We have investigated DMDGALA as a component in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and demonstrate pH-triggered fusion of peptide containing LUVs with stable target giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which were...... used as simple mimics of cell membranes. The number of fusion events was large at pH 5.0, which is a physiologically relevant pH-range for a drug delivery system....

  15. A novel mutation in the thyroglobulin gene that causes goiter and dwarfism in Wistar Hannover GALAS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Abe, Kuniya; Yuzuriha, Misako; Fujii, Sakiko; Takahashi, Naofumi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Shoji; Aoyama, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Outbred stocks of rats have been used extensively in biomedical, pharmaceutical and/or toxicological studies as a model of genetically heterogeneous human populations. One of such stocks is the Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. However, the colony of Wistar Hannover GALAS rat has been suspected of keeping a problematic mutation that manifests two distinct spontaneous abnormalities, goiter and dwarfism, which often confuses study results. We have successfully identified the responsible mutation, a guanine to thymine transversion at the acceptor site (3' end) of intron 6 in the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene (Tgc.749-1G>T), that induces a complete missing of exon 7 from the whole Tg transcript by mating experiments and subsequent molecular analyses. The following observations confirmed that Tgc.749-1G>T/Tgc.749-1G>T homozygotes manifested both dwarfism and goiter, while Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes had only a goiter with normal appearance, suggesting that the mutant phenotypes inherit as an autosomal semi-dominant trait. The mutant phenotypes, goiter and dwarfism, mimicked those caused by typical endocrine disrupters attacking the thyroid. Hence a simple and reliable diagnostic methodology has been developed for genomic DNA-based genotyping of animals. The diagnostic methodology reported here would allow users of Wistar Hannover GALAS rats to evaluate their study results precisely by carefully interpreting the data obtained from Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes having externally undetectable thyroidal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Graph-based Active Learning of Agglomeration (GALA: a Python library to segment 2D and 3D neuroimages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eNunez-Iglesias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim in high-resolution connectomics is to reconstruct complete neuronal connectivity in a tissue. Currently, the only technology capable of resolving the smallest neuronal processes is electron microscopy (EM. Thus, a common approach is to perform automatic segmentation of EM images, followed by manual proofreading by experts to fix errors. We developed an algorithm and software library to not only improve the accuracy of the initial automatic segmentation, but also point out the image coordinates where it is likely to have made errors. Our software, called gala (graph-based active learning of agglomeration, improves the state of the art in agglomerative image segmentation. It is implemented in Python and makes extensive use of the scientific Python stack (numpy, scipy, networkx, scikit-learn, scikit-image, and others. We present here the software architecture of the gala library, and discuss several designs that we consider would be generally useful for other segmentation packages. We also discuss the limitations of the gala library and how we intend to address them.

  17. Graph-based active learning of agglomeration (GALA): a Python library to segment 2D and 3D neuroimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Kennedy, Ryan; Plaza, Stephen M; Chakraborty, Anirban; Katz, William T

    2014-01-01

    The aim in high-resolution connectomics is to reconstruct complete neuronal connectivity in a tissue. Currently, the only technology capable of resolving the smallest neuronal processes is electron microscopy (EM). Thus, a common approach to network reconstruction is to perform (error-prone) automatic segmentation of EM images, followed by manual proofreading by experts to fix errors. We have developed an algorithm and software library to not only improve the accuracy of the initial automatic segmentation, but also point out the image coordinates where it is likely to have made errors. Our software, called gala (graph-based active learning of agglomeration), improves the state of the art in agglomerative image segmentation. It is implemented in Python and makes extensive use of the scientific Python stack (numpy, scipy, networkx, scikit-learn, scikit-image, and others). We present here the software architecture of the gala library, and discuss several designs that we consider would be generally useful for other segmentation packages. We also discuss the current limitations of the gala library and how we intend to address them.

  18. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov. y su Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA, las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la MACA realizado en 1960-1962, su hábitat y aclimatación a niveles de la costa. Esta especie cuyo nombre es MACA es oriunda de los Andes Centrales del Perú y se la conoce tanto por su valor alimenticio como farmacológico desde antes de la época del incanato. Crece en los Departamentos de Pasco y Junín en altitudes de 4100 y 4300 m sobre el nivel del mar. El clima en esta región es frío y seco durante el año caracterizándose el verano (enero, febrero y marzo como lluvioso con un promedio de 250,8 mm y con una temperatura ambiental promedio de 4.8 °C. En invierno (junio, julio y agosto las lluvias son escasas llegando a 34.4 mm y el promedio de la temperatura ambiental es alrededor de 3.5 °C. Los análisis químicos de la raíz realizados en 1960 y 1961 han demostrado la presencia de glúcidos y cuatro tipos de alcaloides, presentadas en cromatografía de papel Whatman. Estos alcaloides que he denominado "Extracto alcaloideo/marzo 1961", son los principios activos que intervienen en la frecuencia de procreación y dela clara y marcada estimulación de la maduración de los folículos de Graaf realizados en experimentos con ratas y en los machos, un aumento en la cantidad de espermatozoides en los tubos seminíferos y aumento de mitosis y espermatogonia. Estos ensayos los he realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina Humana [de la UNMSM] durante los años 1961 y 1962. Las observaciones histológicas e histoqu

  19. Measures to inhibit the growth of apple tree top with the `gala´ variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž BEBER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Fruit Research Center Maribor different methods of less vigorous growth of apple tree top with the variety `Gala´ were conducted during the period from 2010 to 2013: applying a coating of the central leader at a height of 2.2 m with 2 % solution of growth regulator NAA (Luxan Late – Val and plant resin, the use of the growth retardant Regalis (2 times, of replacing the the top of the tree with the highest appropriate bent branch, removal of new shoots 28 days after flowering (tearing and the June cut after the completion of the primary growth. Increment of annual shoots and harvest in the top (over 2.2 m was followed. Most commonly used practices, the June cut and tearing of young shoots resulted in the strongest growth in the top. The vigour of the top of the tree was the best reduced by the use of plant growth regulators (Regalis and NAA top coating and replacing the top of the tree. The highest yield of the top of the tree was achieved by using Regalis, meanwhile tearing of the young shoots gave the lowest yield. The replacing the top of the tree is suitable measure for organic production, because it successfully reduces the vigour of the tree top without the use of growth regulators.

  20. PERDAS QUALITATIVAS DE MAÇÃS CV. GALA EM ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDER RENAR JOÃO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de dimensionar as perdas de qualidade de maçãs cv. Gala durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Para determinar estas perdas, foi feito um acompanhamento durante três anos consecutivos, com frutos de três tamanhos: calibre em torno de 100 frutos/caixa de 18kg, calibre 130 e calibre acima de 200. Quinzenalmente, durante os primeiros 90 dias de armazenagem no primeiro ano, 144 dias no segundo ano e 211 dias no terceiro ano, amostras de 20 a 30 maçãs foram avaliadas para perda de peso e parâmetros qualitativos como a firmeza de polpa, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável. As variáveis que apresentaram as melhores correlações com o período de armazenagem e, portanto, podem auxiliar na estimativa de possíveis perdas quantitativas durante o armazenamento em ar-refrigerado foram a firmeza de polpa e a acidez titulável. As maiores perdas de qualidade, com exceção da firmeza de polpa, foram observadas em frutos dos tamanhos menores.

  1. Effects of brushing in a classifying machine on the cuticles of Fuji and Gala apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renar João Bender

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle, a layer that covers the fruit epidermis, has a protective function against environmental stresses such as wind, temperature, chemicals and drought, not only when the fruit is attached to the plant, but also after harvest. Some postharvest procedures may influence the external layers of the fruit, like the cuticle. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of brushing in a classifying machine on the cuticles of apples under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two experiments were conducted to test brushing on the cultivars Fuji and Gala using heavy and smooth brushes. The experiments consisted of three replicates of three apples each, with three samples taken from the equatorial area of the fruit to be analyzed under SEM. The brushes of the classifying machine altered the cuticular layer, dragging it, modifying the structure and removing crystalloids of the cuticular wax layer, and forming cracks. There were no differences between the effects of the two types of brushes tested on the cuticles of the apples. The classifying machine used commercially is capable of producing similar effects to those encountered in the brushing experiments conducted on the prototype in the laboratory, removing partially the protective wax content of the apple’s cuticle.

  2. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  3. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  4. 引种玛咖在功能食品中的市场潜力%The Potential of Maca in Functional Food Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 葛新; 刘英杰

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the historical aspects, pharmacological effects, domestic and foreign markets and products, domestic artificial cultivation of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) were discussed systematically. The research project of maca product was introduced and the industrial development of Maca in China was forecasted.%对玛咖(Lepidium meyenii, Maca)的发现历史、药理作用、国内外市场及其产品、玛咖的种植环境及中国引种现状进行了总结和分析,并介绍了玛咖产品研制方案,展望了中国玛咖产业发展前景。

  5. Extracto acuoso de Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca y su papel como adaptógeno, en un modelo animal de resistencia física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca es una raíz andina del Perú, utilizada como alimento por su valor nutricional y propiedades etnomedicinales; es parte de la medicina tradicional. Objetivos: Evaluar el papel de adaptógeno del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla sobre las enzimas del tejido muscular en un modelo animal de resistencia física y estrés oxidativo. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla y ratas macho recién destetados. Intervenciones: Administración del extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla en ratas macho recién destetados, distribuidos en cuatro grupos: (I, de control, (II 0,4 mg de maca/g de peso (III 0,8 mg de maca/g de peso y (IV, 1,2 mg de maca/g de peso. El extracto acuoso fue administrado por cánula orogástrica. Se realizó un control de los pesos. Se aplicó la prueba de nado forzado después de 30 días de tratamiento. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se preparó homogenizado de músculo al 10%. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, catalasa (CAT y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH; y, como indicador de proceso oxidativo, se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS. Resultados: El rendimiento en la prueba de resistencia fue la siguiente: (I 7,09 min; (II 11,25 min; (III 11,27 min; (IV 12,71 min, respectivamente. Las actividades enzimáticas de los grupos I, II, III y IV fueron: SOD (U/mL 36,6, 18,2, 17,2 y 18,2; CAT (U/L 18,6, 16,5, 13,4 y 10,3; y LDH (U/mL 11,6, 6,5, 6,0 y 5,8. TBARS (umol/g tejido: 5,82, 7,15, 4,11 y 4,06. Conclusiones: La administración del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla favorece la respuesta del organismo a una situación estresante y físicamente extenuante, lo que correspondería al papel de un adaptógeno.

  6. Germinação de embriões e crescimento inicial in vitro de macaúba Germination and early growth of embryos of macaúba seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A macaúba é uma palmeira oleaginosa altamente produtiva e seu óleo pode ser usado na produção de biocombustíveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência de concentrações dos sais do meio de cultura MS e de água de coco na germinação in vitro de embriões zigóticos de macaúba e no crescimento inicial de plântulas. Os embriões foram excisados e em seguida inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15mL de meio de cultura MS nas concentrações de 50 e 100% de sais minerais, acrescidos de água de coco (0, 50, 100 e 150mL L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 42W m-2, temperatura de 25±2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Maior porcentagem de germinação de embriões de macaúba foi obtida aos 60 dias, em meio MS, na concentração original dos sais. O crescimento e a conversão de plântulas viáveis ou normais, passíveis de serem aclimatizadas, requerem metade da concentração de sais do meio MS suplementado com 50mL L-1 de água de coco.The macaw is a palm oleaginous that it is highly productive and in which their oil can be used to produce biofuels.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of minerals of the culture medium MS and coconut water germination in vitro of zygotic embryos of macaw and initial growth of seedlings. The embryos were inoculated in test tubes containing 15mL of culture medium MS in concentrations of 50 and 100% of minerals, plus coconut water (0, 50, 100 and 150mL L-1. The cultures were kept in room for growth with irradiance around 42W m-2, at 25±2°C and photoperiod of 16 hours. Higher percentage of germination of embryos of 'macaúba' was obtained at 60 days in MS medium in the original concentration of salts. The growth and conversion to viable seedlings or normal, which can be acclimatized, require half the concentration of salts of MS medium supplemented with 50mL L-1 coconut water.

  7. Avaliação de métodos automáticos de limiarização para imagens de plantas de milho atacadas por Spodoptera frugiperda Evaluation of automatic thresholding methods for images of Spodoptera frugiperda affected corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly G. de Sena Júnior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos passos fundamentais no processamento de imagens para um sistema de visão artificial é a segmentação dos objetos de interesse na cena, e um dos métodos mais utilizados é a limiarização, em especial quando o objetivo é agrupar os pixels em duas classes. Neste método, o valor do limiar determina o número de pixels atribuídos a cada classe, além de influenciar a dimensão e a forma dos objetos nas imagens segmentadas. A utilização de métodos automáticos para definição do limiar, não só evitaria a influência de operadores mas, também, tornaria mais rápida a escolha dos limiares no campo, onde a variação da iluminação influencia os valores dos pixels. Este trabalho objetivou implementar e avaliar dois métodos automáticos de limiarização para identificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho. Foram utilizadas imagens de plantas atacadas e não-atacadas, em três épocas, correspondendo a diferentes dias após a infestação. As plantas foram reunidas em três grupos de 10, sendo as imagens de cada grupo obtidas sob uma intensidade luminosa diferente. As imagens processadas com o índice do excesso de verde normalizado foram limiarizadas, automaticamente, e comparadas com a limiarização manual das mesmas imagens. Os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos automáticos de limiarização foram satisfatórios, apresentando média acima de 99% de exatidão global, evidenciando-se, portanto, que ambos os métodos têm potencial para serem utilizados em um sistema de identificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho.A fundamental step in image processing for machine vision is the scene segmentation and one of the most used methods is the threshold, especially when one desires to cluster the pixels in two classes. The image threshold affects the number of pixels in each class and the object shape and dimension. An automatic thresholding method not only could avoid operator

  8. Measuring Ganymede's tidal deformation by laser altimetry: application to the GALA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, Gregor; Hussmann, Hauke; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of Ganymede's induced magnetic field suggest a salty water layer under the icy crust (Kivelson et al. 2002), in agreement with thermal models based on heat transfer and energy balance equations (e.g., Spohn and Schubert, 2003). Due to the small density contrast between ice-I and liquid water, interior structure models (e.g. Sohl et al. 2003) consistent with Ganymede's moment of inertia and total mass cannot constrain the ice thickness or ocean depth. In order to reduce the ambiguity of the structural models and to constrain the ice thickness, it has been proposed to measure the dynamic response of Ganymede's ice shell to tidal forces exerted by Jupiter characterized by the Love numbers h2 and k2. Similar strategies have been investigated in application to Europa (Wu 2001, Wahr 2006, Hussmann 2011). The body tide Love number h2 depends on the tidal frequency (main tidal cycle is the 7.15 days period of revolution), the internal structure, and the rheology, in particular on the presence of fluid layers, and the thickness and rigidity of an overlaying ice shell. Combined with measurements of the Love number k2, which can be inferred from radio science experiments, and a simultaneous determination of linear combinations of h2 and k2 the obtained data would significantly reduce the ambiguity in structural models (Wahr et al. 2006). A way to determine tidal effects in Ganymede's topography and therefore the h2 value by a spacecraft in orbit is the crossover method: Different orbit tracks will intersect at certain surface locations at different times so that the tidal signal can be extracted from a differential altimetry measurement. The Ganymede Laser Altimeter GALA is one of the instruments selected for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE). The GALA instrument will perform globally distributed altitude measurements from a low circular orbit. The main challenges for the determination of the tidal amplitude are Ganymede's high surface roughness and low

  9. Épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala ' Application timing of prohexadione calcium on vegetative growth control of 'Imperial Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo é fundamental na cultura da macieira, a fim de aumentar a eficiência produtiva e a qualidade dos frutos produzidos. O desenvolvimento dos ramos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de substâncias inibidoras da biossíntese de giberelinas, como o proexadione cálcio, sendo a resposta deste fitorregulador dependente do padrão sazonal do crescimento da parte aérea. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala', nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil. No ciclo de 2008/2009, foram avaliadas seis épocas de aplicação de 330 g ha-1 de proexadione cálcio (28; 58; 88; 118; 148 e 178 dias após a plena floração - DAPF e sete épocas de aplicação em 2009/2010 (20; 50; 80; 110; 140, 170 e 200 DAPF, além do tratamento-testemunha. Aplicações de proexadione cálcio a 330 g ha-1, realizadas aos 20 a 28 dias após a plena floração reduzem o comprimento médio e a massa fresca média dos ramos podados em macieiras 'Imperial Gala'.The control of vegetative growth is crucial in apple orchards in order to increase production efficiency and fruit quality. The shoot development may be reduced by inhibitors of gibberellins synthesis, as prohexadione calcium, and the response of this plant growth regulator depends on the seasonal pattern of shoot growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different application timing of prohexadione calcium on vegetative growth control of 'Imperial Gala' apple trees, in the climatic conditions of Southern Brazil. In 2008/2009 growing season, the following application timings of prohexadione calcium at 330 g ha-1 were evaluated: 28, 58, 88, 118, 148 and 178 days after full bloom - DAFB, and in 2009/2010 growing season, the application timings were: 20, 50, 80, 110, 140, 170 and 200 DAFB, and a control treatment. Applications of

  10. 玛卡大枣保健酒的研发%Research & Development of Maca & Jujube Healthcare Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春艳; 韩晓明; 赵德义

    2016-01-01

    以景芝产优质白干原酒为基酒和浸提液,采用玛卡、大枣为功能保健原料,经过精细加工,运用酒体设计技术进行多方案设计实验,确定最佳工艺方案,并对各项理化指标严格控制,设计研发酒精含量52%vol的优质营养保健酒。本品酒体清亮透明,色呈金黄微带棕红色,具有玛卡的清香香气,微带焦枣香,药香协调,入口微甘甜,柔绵,酒体细腻,尾爽净,风格独特。%Quality liquor produced in Jingzhi was used as the base liquor and the extracting agent, and maca and jujube were used as functional materials to produce healthcare liquor. After fine processing, the best technical program was determined by using liquor body design technolo-gy. Besides, each physiochemical index was under strict control. Finally, quality maca&jujube healthare liquor (52%vol) was developed. The produced liquor was clear and transparent, golden yellow with slight reddish brown in color. It had feint maca scent and the flavor of charred ju-jube, and it tasted slightly sweet, smooth and delicate, with unique style.

  11. Efecto del extracto acuoso de maca sobre la función cognitiva en ratas recién destetadas

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Oré; Silvia Suárez; Luis Rojas; Rubén Valdivieso; Rosa Oriondo; Fernando Tapia; Juan Trabuco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La maca, Lepidium meyenii walp, es una planta que crece en las alturas de los andes peruanos; es usada como alimento, por su valor nutricional y sus propiedades etnomedicinales, unidos a la fertilidad y vitalidad. En la actualidad, se ha incrementado el interés público en los polifenoles, que tendrían efecto inhibitorio sobre la actividad acetilcolinesterasa y butirilcolinesterasas, y de esta manera se mejoraría las funciones cognitivas, aunque los mecanismos aún no han sido dil...

  12. Logistic platform: an alternative to the logistic activities development in Macae (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Plataforma logistica: uma alternativa ao desenvolvimento das atividades logisticas em Macae (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Francisco A.M. [C. Foster Servicos e Equipamentos de Petroleo Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Esteves, Luis Sergio N.; Jesus, Jonas David [Universidade Estacio de Sa, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, Luiz Lucio A. [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Santana, Winston [Sistema FIRJAN, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, David B. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental - PGCA

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the system of supplying in attendance to the necessities demanded in the petroliferous sector inside of the norms and regulations established for the competent agencies in the country, the present work if considers to present a project of creation of a Logistic Platform as an alternative for the development of the logistic activities in Macae, creating a port infrastructure, aiming at the Also available optimization of the modal ones of transport in the region, with installation of one customs politics that makes possible the load, discharge and storage of parts, equipment and feedstocks, creating partnerships in the development and implantation of software that they speed the logistic system of the sector offshore, thus promoting, an improvement in the offered services the customer, reducing costs and increasing the productivity and globalization of the market, led for the agreement that Macae makes use of the main necessary requirements to its development for possessing the main modal axles of transport as alternative of circulation of merchandises and equipment favorable to the implantation of a Logistic Platform. (author)

  13. Armazenamento de maçã 'gala' em atmosfera controlada com remoção de etileno Storage of 'gala' apple in controlled atmosphere with removal of ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de etileno na câmara sobre a manutenção da qualidade da maçã cv. Gala, durante o armazenamento em AC. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e a unidade experimental composta por 50 frutos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: >10µl L-1 (sem absorção; The objective purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different ethylene levels on the quality of cv. Gala apples during CA storage. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replications of 50 fruits. The treatments were: >10µl L-1 (without absorption; < 0.4µl L-1 and < 0.04µl L-1. After 8 month storage, at the chambers opening and after 7 days shelf life at 20ºC fruits with ethylene absorption had higher firmness and titratable acidity and lower rot and senescent breakdown incidence. There was no statistic difference between treatments for TSS. After 7 days shelf life ground color was greener on the fruits stored with ethylene absorption. Mealy fruits incidence was lower with ethylene absorption, at the chambers opening.

  14. Desempenho de vacas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de macaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Azevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes quantidades de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Oito animais foram distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4x4, sendo quatro tratamentos, 0, 100, 200 e 300g kg-1 de TM na matéria seca da dieta, e quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias, 14 de adaptação e sete de avaliações. A adição de quantidades crescentes de torta de macaúba à dieta alterou o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos, produção e os teores de lactose, extrato seco desengordurado e sólidos totais do leite, bem como a eficiência alimentar e a digestibilidade da matéria seca. Por outro lado, não foi verificada diferença nos teores de gordura do leite. A adição da TM em até 300g kg-1 da dieta comprometeu o consumo e o desempenho produtivo dos animais.

  15. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  16. Exhaust gases and the eco-efficiency comparison between the most used means of transportation in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tudesco Moreira Rocha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the last few years, the city of Macaé has been suffering an impact on urban traffic due to increasing in number of vehicles. Between December 2010 and June 2011, for example, there was an increase of 1,974 cars (DETRAN-RJ, 2011. The oil industry caused a population growth of 159,507 inhabitants in the city between 1970 and 2010 (IBGE, 2012; TERRA e RESSIGUIER, 2011. With the increase in passenger transport demand, besides the increase in number of cars, the quantity of buses also registered a duplication of fleet between 2008 and 2011 (MELO, 2008; SIT, 2011. This study approaches a comparison between air pollutant emissions from cars and buses, the most commonly used transportation in Macaé. Despite an increase in number of cars, buses present a better cost-benefit because of pollutant per passenger-kilometer factor.

  17. Relación de glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas tratadas con maca (Lepidium meyenii walp

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    Ruth Cisneros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones representan un problema de salud pública. La hiperglucemia desencadena efectos bioquímicos dañinos para el organismo, como el estrés oxidativo y el proceso inflamatorio crónico, por lo que el uso de plantas medicinales con elevada capacidad antioxidante, como Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca, es una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar si la ingestión de harina de maca mejora la relación glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzman machos adultas. Intervenciones: Se utilizó 24 ratas, a los cuales se les indujo la diabetes con estreptozotocina (STZ 40 mg/kg de masa corporal y que fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos, de seis animales cada uno: control (CO, glibenclamida (GL 10 mg/kg de masa corporal, maca 4 g/día (M4 y maca 6 g/día (M6; el experimento duró 40 días. Se evaluó la glicemia, masa corporal y, al final del experimento, se determinó los niveles de GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Principales medidas de resultados: Masa corporal, glicemia, GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Resultados: A nivel plasmático, el glutatión circulante estuvo favorecido para la forma reducida. Los valores de la relación GSH/GSSG en los grupos tratados con maca estuvieron alrededor de 190, significativamente mayor al grupo CO. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a ratas diabéticas incrementó la relación GSH/GSSG a nivel plasmático, contribuyendo a mejorar su estado redox.

  18. 玛卡云南主产区发展现状调查%The investigation of industrial development of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万文婷; 张志鹏; 谭晓蕾; 易帆; 肖伟; 许利嘉; 肖培根

    2015-01-01

    目的:就玛卡在云南主产区的产业发展状况进行调查和分析,包括玛卡的种植面积、胚轴性状、产品种类、价格变化、宣传和专利等方面。方法:文献调查、实地调查和走访调查。结果:云南玛卡的种植面积、专利数量自2011年起快速增长;云南玛卡与秘鲁玛卡相比在性状上差异较大;产品种类较为单一,部分产品存在片面宣传或夸大功效的现象。结论:目前云南玛卡从源头到生产加工为成品各环节尚没有统一标准,不够规范化,应引起生产商及有关政府部门的注意。%Objective:To investigate and analysis the industrial development of maca in Yunnan province,including the growth area,characters,productions,price,advertisements and patents of Maca.Methods:Document investigation, field investigation and interview investigation.Results:Since 2011,the growth area in Yunnan and patent numbers of maca increase rapidly;Yunnan Maca has a great difference in appearance compared with Peruvian ones;the production form in the market are simple,and the advertisement of the product somehow does not meet the actual.Conclusion:The characters, productions and publication of Yunnan maca are lack of standardization,so the government and producer should pay more attention to those problems.

  19. Efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno na conservação de maçãs 'Royal Gala' em ar refrigerado e atmosfera controlada Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on 'Royal Gala' apples stored in refrigerated air and controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Corrent

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Royal Gala', colhidas em dois estádios de maturação, foram tratadas com 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno nas concentrações de 0; 625 e 1250 nL.L-1, durante 48 horas, à temperatura de 20 ± 2 ºC. Após este tratamento, foram armazenadas em dois diferentes sistemas: em atmosfera controlada à temperatura de 0 ± 0,5 ºC, 2,1 a 2,3 kPa de CO2 , 1,8 a 2,0 kPa de O2 e umidade relativa de 95 ± 5 %, durante 9 meses. Em ar refrigerado a 0,5 ± 0,5 ºC e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, durante 8 meses. As análises realizadas demonstraram a eficiência do 1-MCP em controlar a maturação das frutas durante o armazenamento em ambas as condições e pontos de colheita. A aplicação do 1-MCP reduziu drasticamente a produção de etileno, diminuiu a perda de firmeza, além de preservar a acidez total titulável.In the present work were evaluated the effects of 1-MCP on 'Royal Gala' apples stored in refrigerated air and controlled atmosphere. 'Royal Gala' apples were harvested at two ripeness stages and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP using two concentrations 625 and 1250 nL.L-1 which were applied during 48 hours at temperature of 20 ± 2 ºC. The control fruit was only kept in air. After the treatments the apples were stored in either controlled atmosphere 2,1 to 2,3 kPa CO2, 1,8 to 2,0 kPa O2 and 95 ± 0,5 % of relative humidity for 9 months at 0 ± 0,5 ºC or in refrigerated air storage at 0,5 ± 0,5 ºC and 95 ± 0,5 % of relative humidity, for 8 months. The 1-MCP applications on apples in both storages and ripening stages reduced dramatically the ethylene production. Pulp firmness losses and titratable acidity were also significanthy higher compared to control fruit.

  20. Muusika : Chopiniئvirtuoos ERSO ees. Teo Maiste 70. Virumaa noorteorkestri sünnipäev. "Jazzkaare" festivali peaesinejad. Kuningas Arthuri Gala 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Koos ERSOga astub üles poola tipp-pianist. Teo Maiste tähistab 70ndat juubelit laval. Virumaa noorteorkestr sai viie aastaseks. "Jazzkaare" festivali peaesinejateks on USA lauljatar-pianist Diane Schuur ja norra klahvpillimängija Bugge Wessetoft. Seekordne Kuningas Arthuri Gala 2002 toimub Narva Aleksandri kirikus

  1. Kaks rauast nooleotsa Jägala Jõesuu linnamäelt: arheoloogiline ja ajalooline kontekst / Mari Lõhmus, Ester Oras, Martti Veldi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Mari

    2010-01-01

    gala Jõesuu linnamäelt leitud vanemast rauaajast pärit kahest nooleotsast. Nooleotste avastamisest ja konserveerimisest ning olemasoleva info põhjal tehtud vaadetest minevikku. Nooleotsad viitavad rauaajal toimunud sõjalisele konfliktile Läänemere piirkonnas

  2. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.

  3. Optimization of fermentation process for Maca wine%玛咖发酵酒工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂行浩; 张弘; 郑华; 张雯雯; 宋国彬; 徐涓

    2015-01-01

    将玛咖单独发酵制备保健酒,可充分利用其多种醇溶性功效成分,避免同其他中药材混合而导致的功能模糊.实验中采用响应面法对温度、料液比、酵母接种量等因素进行了优化,确定玛咖酒的最佳发酵工艺条件为:发酵温度25℃、料液比1∶8、酵母接种量0.95%.在该条件下,乙醇产量为41.16 mL/100g,芥子油苷浸出率57.53%、生物碱浸出率42.71%.所得产品酒体呈棕红色,色泽均匀,略带醇香,具玛咖特殊气味,氨基酸组成合理,卫生指标良好,符合现代人的健康理念要求.%The production of health wine fermented by Maca only was a better way to develop functions from the alcohol solubles and avoid unclear effects from the mixture of maca and some other Chinese herbs.Therefore,parameters such as temperature,solid-to-liquid ratio and yeast inoculum size were optimized by response surface methodology.The best processing for the wine fermentation could be launched at the temperature of 25 ℃,solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶8 and the yeast inoculum size of 0.95%.Under the conditions,it reached the alcohol production of 41.16mL/100g,the glucosinolates leaching rate of 57.53% and the alkaloids leaching rate of 42.71%.The product looked with the uniform brown and red.It smelled a slightly mellow and special flavor of maca.With the appropriate composition of amino acids and qualification of health indicators,it was available to meet the current idea of health.

  4. Fosfitos aplicados em pós-colheita reduzem o mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' Postharvest application of phosphites reduces blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O mofo-azul (Penicillium expansum é uma podridão pós-colheita comum em maçãs (Malus domestica. O uso de substâncias menos ofensivas ao ambiente, como o fosfito (ácido fosforoso, é uma das alternativas de controle dessa doença. Visou-se, então, a avaliar neste estudo a eficiência de fosfito-K (40% de P2O5 e 30% de K2O e fosfito-CaB (10,7% de P2O5, 3,89% de Ca e 0,5% de B no controle do mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala'. Os testes foram delineados em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições de 20 frutos cada. Os frutos foram desinfestados em hipoclorito de Na (1% por três minutos, lavados em água esterilizada, feridos (1mm de diâmetro e de profundidade com agulha em quatro pontos eqüidistantes, imersos nos tratamentos por 15 minutos e armazenados a 15-20ºC. Nas suspensões contaminadas com Penicillium expansum (10² conídios.mL-1, foram adicionadas as seguintes substâncias: benomil (150 mg.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5 a 1,5 mL.L-1 e fosfito-CaB (1,5 a 3,0 mL.L-1. As maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' imersas em água com fosfito-CaB (1,5 mL.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5-1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 foram menos afetadas pelo mofo-azul. A aplicação de fosfito-K (1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 nos frutos foi mais eficiente do que os demais tratamentos no controle do mofo-azul.Blue mold (Penicillium expansum is a common postharvest disease of apples (Malus domestica. Applications of less hazardous substances to the environment, such as phosphite (phosphonic acid, is an alternative to the control of blue mold. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of phosphite-K (40% P2O5 and 30% K2O and phosphite-CaB (10.7% P2O5, 3.89% Ca, and 0.5% B for the control of blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples. Tests were designed in randomized blocks with six replications of 20 fruits. Fruits were decontaminated with Na hypochlorite (1% for three minutes, washed with sterilized water, needle wounded (with a diameter and deepness of 1mm in four

  5. Replanting Affects the Tree Growth and Fruit Quality of Gala Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU En-tai; WANG Gong-shuai; LI Yuan-yuan; SHEN Xiang; CHEN Xue-sen; SONG Fu-hai; WU Shu-jing; CHEN Qiang; MAO Zhi-quan

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) causes the inhibition of root system development, stunts tree growth and so on. To further investigate the effects of ARD on apple fruits, a 25-year-old apple orchard was remediated to establish a replant orchard between November 2008 and March 2009. A rotational cropping orchard was established on an adjacent wheat ifeld. The cultivar and rootstock-scion combination used in the newly established orchards was Royal Gala/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. Ripe fruits were collected in mid-August 2011 and mid-August 2012, meanwhile, the following indices were measured:yield per plant;fruit weight;the fruit shape index;the contents of anthocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll;the soluble sugar content in the lfesh;titratable acid;the sugar-acid ratio;ifrmness;and aroma components;apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots. The results showed that compared to rotational cropping, continuous cropping yielded statistically signiifcant reductions in fruit weight and yield per plant of 39.8 and 76.5%, respectively. However, there were no changes in the fruit shape index. The anthocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased by 81.7 and 37.7%, respectively, while the chlorophyll content increased by 251.0%. All of these differences in content were statistically signiifcant. The soluble sugar levels and sugar-acid ratio decreased by 25.4 and 60.9%, respectively, but the titratable acid levels and fruit ifrmness increased by 90.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Ten of the most important esters contributing to the apple aroma were analyzed, and the following changes were observed:hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl butyrate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 2-methyl-butyl butyrate, hexyl propionate and hexyl hexanoate decreased by 25.5, 78.4, 89.1, 55.5, 79.5, 77.2, 86.8, 69.9, 61.2, and 68.1%, respectively. The contents of three other aroma components, (E)-2-hexenal

  6. Quality of cv. 'Gala Brookfield' and ‘Fuji Kiku 8' apples grown under and outside hail net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž GERMŠEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hail nets for the production of apples has become a normally action for a new or update an old apple orchard. In 2007 and 2008, the development of quality and maturity parameters of cv. 'Gala Brookfield' and ‘Fuji Kiku 8' apples grafted on M9 were studied in the Fruit growing centre Maribor-Gačnik as a factor of being grown under a  blackhail net. The results showed that when grown under  the black hail net fruit of both cultivars reach a higher mean mass,  lower soluble solids content (0.6 to 1 ° Brix, and lower starch index, while no effect of the black hail net was detected on fruit flesh firmness and yield.

  7. The Oil Industry in Macaé: characteristics and socioeconomic impacts under the perspective of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz de Mello Loureiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and discuss the main socioeconomic aspects of the evolutionary process of local development, after the arrival of the oil industry in Macaé. The methodology consisted of an exploratory and documentary research to base the study on the concepts of sustainability and local development. Results show the existing social externalities, the exploratory and centralized model of the undertaking, its impacts on local enterprises and society, and the absence of a better planning and management shared among the social, business and political actors involved. These findings are supported by experiences reported worldwide, and are associated with distributive environmental conflicts. Therefore, one can consider as indicative, the need for a more useful discussion about the spatial, cultural, political and social problems of the regions as a tool able to provide planned actions towards sustainability.

  8. 西凤玛咖酒的生产工艺简介%Introduction to the Production of Xifeng Maca Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科岐

    2016-01-01

    Xifeng Maca Wine, a compound wine product developed based on the practical development of Xifeng liquor and market require-ments, is produced through steaming, soaking, filtration, and blending with Fengxiang Baijiu as base liquor and maca as raw material. The wine is transparent and golden yellow in color and it has soft taste and harmonious aroma with Fengxiang features.%西凤玛咖酒是基于西凤酒发展实际和消费市场需求而研制的配制酒,其以凤香型白酒作为基酒,玛咖为原料,经清蒸、浸泡、过滤、勾调等工序加工而成.西凤玛咖酒色泽金黄透明、口感绵柔,酒体药香味协调,是一种具有凤型特色的玛咖酒.

  9. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia%红玛卡的两种提取物对睾酮诱导雄性大鼠前列腺增生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Vanessa Vasquez; Daniella Rodriguez; Carmen Maldonado; Juliet Mormontoy; Jimmy Portella; Monica Pajuelo; León Villegas; Manuel Gasco

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Methods: Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1),one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4),one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg,group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a doseresponse effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Results:Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  10. Condições de atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento de maçãs 'Royal Gala' de diferentes tamanhos Controlled atmosphere-storage conditions for 'Royal Gala' apples of different sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação da qualidade de maçãs 'Royal Gala' de tamanho pequeno (5-6cm de diâmetro e grande (8-9cm de diâmetro. Os frutos foram armazenados durante oito meses em atmosfera controlada, seguido de sete dias a 20°C. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a condição de atmosfera controlada com 1,5kPa de O2 + 3,0kPa de CO2 permitiu melhor conservação dos frutos pequenos, por permitir menor ocorrência de degenerescência interna e elevados valores de acidez titulável. Em relação aos frutos grandes, a condição de atmosfera controlada com 1,0kPa de O2 + 3,0kPa de CO2 foi a mais adequada, pois permitiu uma maior firmeza de polpa e elevados valores de acidez titulável. Os frutos pequenos mantiveram a cor de fundo da epiderme mais verde e apresentaram menores incidências de podridões em relação aos frutos grandes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Royal Gala' apples of small-size (5-6cm of diameter and large-size (8-9cm of diameter. Fruit were kept during 8 months in controlled atmosphere, followed by 7 days of shelf-life at 20°C. According to the results, controlled atmosphere with 1.5kPa O2 + 3.0kPa CO2 decreased internal breakdown and maintained the highest level of tritable acidity on small size fruit. Large size fruit stored on controlled atmosphere condition with 1.0kPa O2 + 3.0kPa CO2 had higher flesh firmness and elevated tritable acidity, showing therefore better quality than fruits stored on the other evaluated conditions. Small size fruit maintained greener skin background colour and lower rot incidence than large size fruit.

  11. Maturação da maçã 'Gala' com a aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina e ethephon Maturation of the 'Gala' apple with preharvest sprays of aminoethoxyvynilglycine and ethephon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG e ethephon sobre a maturação da maçã 'Gala' colhidas em diferentes datas. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 e AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1 em combinação com quatro épocas de colheita (131, 138, 145 e 152 dias após o pleno florescimento. A aplicação pré-colheita de AVG, seguida ou não de ethephon, proporcionou frutos com maior firmeza de polpa, cor de fundo da epiderme mais verde e menor produção de etileno, respiração e índice iodo-amido. Entretanto, o AVG retardou a evolução da cor vermelha dos frutos, principalmente na maior dose. A aplicação de ethephon, em plantas anteriormente tratadas com AVG, proporcionou frutos com cor vermelha semelhante ao tratamento controle sem prejudicar a ação do AVG no controle da maturação dos frutos. O atraso na colheita causou amarelecimento da epiderme, índice iodo-amido mais elevado, alta produção de etileno e menor acidez titulável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of preharvest applications of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG and ethephon on the maturation of the 'Gala' apple harvested on differents dates. The treatments were: control, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 and AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1. These treatments were combined with 4 harvest date (131, 138, 145 and 152 days after full bloom. The application of AVG, combined or not with ethephon, maintained higher flesh firmness, greener peel color, lower starch index, ethylene and CO2 production. However, AVG retarded the development of the red color of the fruit. The application of ethephon in AVG-treated plants increased the red color of the fruit that was similar to control fruit without influencing effect of AVG on the control of

  12. 浅析色光对电视综艺晚会的影响%A Brief Analysis of An effect of Coloured Lights on TV Gala Evening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永

    2013-01-01

    Some roles of coloured lights was analyzed in TV Gala Evenings such as color keynote setting, typical environment modeling, image spacing expanding, and audience feeling guiding.%分析了色光在电视综艺晚会中的几项作用:奠定色彩基调、塑造典型环境、拓展画面空间及引导观众情感。

  13. 2012 CCTV Spring Festival Gala Evening Stage Design: LED Technology of Visual Effects%2012年CCTV春节联欢晚会舞美LED视效技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白明

    2012-01-01

    文章介绍了2012CCTV春晚中LED视效系统的实现方式:视效系统介绍、视效单元特点、控制系统介绍、视效技术展望。%2012 CCTV Spring Festival Gala LED visual effects system implementation. Visual effects system, the characteristics of the visual effects unit, control system, visual effects technology foresight.

  14. Analysis of Component and Extraction Technology of Maca Volatile Oil%玛卡挥发油的提取工艺与成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一波; 颜冬雪; 郑岩; 孙玉琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology and analyze the chemical composition of Maca volatile oil. Methods The yields of Maca volatile oil were investigated to compare different extraction technologies, including steam distillation (water), steam distillation ( salt water) , ultrasonic extraction method of petroleum ether and petroleum? ether soak extraction method. GC-MS was used to analyze the chemical composition of the volatile oil. Results Among the 4 methods, the steam distillation ( salt water) showed highest yield of Maca volatile oil. 78 chromatographic peaks were detected in the volatile oil sample by GC-MS and 26 chemi-cal compositions were identified, most of which were unsaturated components. Conclusion Steam distillation ( salt water) is an opti-mized method of extracting Maca volatile oil. phenylacetonitrile and benzyl isothiocyanate are main constituents of Maca volatilel oil ac-cording the GC-MS results.%目的:优化玛卡挥发油的提取工艺,并对挥发油的化学成分进行分析方法以挥发油得率为考察指标,比较水蒸气蒸馏法(水)、水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)、石油醚超声提取法、石油醚浸提法获取玛卡挥发油的提取工艺;采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对所提制的挥发油进行化学成分分析。结果4种玛卡挥发油提取方法,水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)提取的挥发油提取率最高。所得挥发油样品中检测出78个色谱峰,鉴定出26个化学成分,且多为不饱和成分。结论水蒸气蒸馏法(盐水)能较好提制玛卡挥发油,经气相色谱质谱法( GC-MS)鉴定主要成分为苯乙腈类和异硫氰酸酯类。

  15. Effect of gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh on lipidemia of hyperlipidemic rats Efeito da maçã gala (Malus domestica Borkh na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A healthy life style and a balanced diet, associated with a high fruit and vegetable intake, are linked to good health and the prevention of diseases. Apples contain bioactive compounds that help in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia. One of the Public Health concerns in Brazil is to reduce cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of Gala apples and to study the effect of their consumption on weight gain, food intake, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol and fecal cholesterol in male albino Wistar rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Six animals were utilized for each treatment (control, 5, 15 and 25% apple diet, during 30 and 60 days. This study showed that one apple (200 g can provide 14.5% of recommended total fiber and 55% of recommended vitamin C, besides supplying considerable quantities of phenolic compounds (0.38 g.100 g-1 and tannins (0.16 g.100 g-1. All animals showed a non-significant reduction in their weight gain and food intake with an increase in the concentration of apple in the diets. At the end of 30 days, all of the diets provided a significant reduction in the levels of triglycerides compared to the control group. The 15 and 25% apple diets showed significant reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and an increase in the level of fecal cholesterol in relation to the control group. The 25% apple diet provided a significant reduction in the hepatic cholesterol levels compared to the control group. After 60 days, the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides in rats fed with 5, 15 and 25% apple diets were similar to the control group. This probably happened due to a revertion of the process. These results show the importance of Gala apples in the control of hyperlipidemia in rats. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits, including apples, associated to a healthy life

  16. Produção de patulina em maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen, cultivares Gala e Fuji inoculadas com Penicillium spp. Production of patulin in apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen Gala and Fuji cultivars inoculated with Penicillium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.U. ROSS

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen é uma excelente fonte nutricional e de interesse econômico, sendo que a Região Sul do Brasil contribue com 90% da produção Nacional deste fruto com destaque aos cultivares Gala e Fuji. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de patulina nestes cultivares inoculados com Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 e Penicillium variabile toxigênico, isolado de maçãs regionais. As frutas contaminadas foram mantidas em condições de tempo de armazenamento e temperatura que variaram respectivamente de 15 a 90 dias e de 0 a 25°C. A produção de patulina ocorreu em todas as combinações de armazenagem e temperaturas empregadas para o ensaio, independentemente dos cultivares. A produção de patulina foi negativa no 30º dia nas maçãs estocadas a 0°C inoculadas com P.expansum, mas o aumento de temperatura para 4°C restringiu a margem de segurança, causando positividade na produção da toxina para ambos os cultivares inoculados com as duas linhagens fúngicas, no mesmo período. Nas maçãs inoculadas com P. variabile ocorreu maior concentração de patulina (F=68,05 do que as contaminadas com P. expansum NRRL 1172 (F=26,0. O risco freqüente de produção de patulina nas temperaturas de refrigeração, indicaram a necessidade de melhor controle nos estágios de colheita e armazenagem de maçãs, a fim de evitar constante ingestão de toxina.The apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen is an excellent nutritional source of economical interest, with emphasis to the Brazilian Southern Region which comprises 90% of national apple production, mainly Gala and Fuji cultivars.The aim of this research was to evaluate patulin production in both cultivars, inoculated with Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 and a toxigenic P. variabile strain isolated from commercialized apples. Samples for analysis were taken from apples stored under combined conditions of time and temperature, which ranged from 15 to 90 days period and 0 to

  17. Producción de mRNA para citoquinas hematopoyéticas (IL-3, GM-CSF e IL-7) en ratones inmunosuprimidos tratados con extracto acuoso de Lepidium meyenii walpers (Maca)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Salazar, Evelyn Katy

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium meyenni (maca) es un cultivo tradicional de los Andes Centrales del Perú. Se han demostrado sus propiedades antitumorales e inmunomoduladoras, que lo convierten en un excelente candidato para investigar su actividad hematopoyética. En el presente estudio, se trataron ratones Balb/c a dosis de 200 mg/kg de extracto acuoso (EAc) de maca amarilla por vía oral durante 2 meses previo a la inmunosupresión (IS) con ciclofosfamida (CF), y se evaluó la producción de mRNA para las citoquinas h...

  18. Projeto, construção e teste de protótipo de maca para transporte de crianças de um até dez anos de idades

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Ferreira Pinheiro Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: No transporte, por ambulâncias, as crianças estão expostas a riscos fatais ao serem transportadas em macas de adultos as quais não atendem a antropometria infantil. A situação é agravada ao considerar o fato das ambulâncias se locomoverem em altas velocidades e necessitarem frequentemente reduzi-las de modo abrupto. Neste cenário, buscou-se projetar, construir e testar um protótipo de maca com um sistema de retenção eficaz para transportes emergenciais de crianças. O diferencial do pr...

  19. Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R(2)adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kgwheat kg(-1)total flour , 0.37 kgyacon kg(-1)total flour , 0.14 kgmaca kg(-1)total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kgwheat kg(-1)total flour , 0.65 kgyacon kg(-1)total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kgmaca kg(-1)total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2017-08-28

    Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2015.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

  1. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos Natural and anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen, phosphorous and metals into the Macaé river basin (Macaé, RJ, Brazil Influenced by oil and gas exploration in Campos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  2. Amadurecimento pós-colheita de frutos de macaúba e qualidade do óleo para a produção de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Samuel de Melo

    2014-01-01

    A macaúba [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Martius] é uma espécie promissora como fonte de matéria prima para a produção do biodiesel devido a alta produtividade em óleo, a possibilidade de completo aproveitamento de seus frutos e sua adaptabilidade a diversos biomas brasileiros. Devido ao sistema extrativista de exploração da espécie praticado até os dias atuais, informações a respeito do comportamento fisiológico pós-colheita de seus frutos e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade do óleo, bem ...

  3. Regeneração de brotações de macieira (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHUCH MÁRCIA WULFF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Por meio deste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um protocolo de regeneração de brotações em explantes de macieira, cultivar Gala, visando a sua utilização em programas de transformação genética. Para tanto, testaram-se diferentes tipos de explante (folha escarificada, segmento foliar e entrenós, em diferentes meios de cultura, com Benzilaminopurina (BAP e Thidiazuron (TDZ, em concentrações de 0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0mg.L-1, e a exposição ou não das brotações, de onde foram retirados os explantes, a uma semana de escuro antes da retirada dos mesmos. As variáveis avaliadas foram percentagem de explantes regenerados, número de brotações por explante e presença de vitrificação. Concluiu-se que a folha escarificada e os segmentos foliares foram os melhores tipos de explantes; a colocação das brotações no escuro durante uma semana aumentou a taxa de regeneração e o número de brotações e diminuiu a necessidade de BAP para formar o mesmo número de brotações do que naqueles mantidos na luz; as melhores concentrações de BAP foram de 4,0 a 5,0mg.L-1 e o TDZ, nas maiores concentrações, causou vitrificação.

  4. GALA: group analysis leads to accuracy, a novel approach for solving the inverse problem in exploratory analysis of group MEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir V; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Although MEG/EEG signals are highly variable between subjects, they allow characterizing systematic changes of cortical activity in both space and time. Traditionally a two-step procedure is used. The first step is a transition from sensor to source space by the means of solving an ill-posed inverse problem for each subject individually. The second is mapping of cortical regions consistently active across subjects. In practice the first step often leads to a set of active cortical regions whose location and timecourses display a great amount of interindividual variability hindering the subsequent group analysis. We propose Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy (GALA)-a solution that combines the two steps into one. GALA takes advantage of individual variations of cortical geometry and sensor locations. It exploits the ensuing variability in electromagnetic forward model as a source of additional information. We assume that for different subjects functionally identical cortical regions are located in close proximity and partially overlap and their timecourses are correlated. This relaxed similarity constraint on the inverse solution can be expressed within a probabilistic framework, allowing for an iterative algorithm solving the inverse problem jointly for all subjects. A systematic simulation study showed that GALA, as compared with the standard min-norm approach, improves accuracy of true activity recovery, when accuracy is assessed both in terms of spatial proximity of the estimated and true activations and correct specification of spatial extent of the activated regions. This improvement obtained without using any noise normalization techniques for both solutions, preserved for a wide range of between-subject variations in both spatial and temporal features of regional activation. The corresponding activation timecourses exhibit significantly higher similarity across subjects. Similar results were obtained for a real MEG dataset of face-specific evoked responses.

  5. GALA: Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy, a novel approach for solving the inverse problem in exploratory analysis of group MEG recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eKozunov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although MEG/EEG signals are highly variable between subjects, they allow characterizing systematic changes of cortical activity in both space and time. Traditionally a two-step procedure is used. The first step is a transition from sensor to source space by the means of solving an ill-posed inverse problem for each subject individually. The second is mapping of cortical regions consistently active across subjects. In practice the first step often leads to a set of active cortical regions whose location and timecourses display a great amount of interindividual variability hindering the subsequent group analysis.We propose Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy (GALA - a solution that combines the two steps into one. GALA takes advantage of individual variations of cortical geometry and sensor locations. It exploits the ensuing variability in electromagnetic forward model as a source of additional information. We assume that for different subjects functionally identical cortical regions are located in close proximity and partially overlap and their timecourses are correlated. This relaxed similarity constraint on the inverse solution can be expressed within a probabilistic framework, allowing for an iterative algorithm solving the inverse problem jointly for all subjects.A systematic simulation study showed that GALA, as compared with the standard min-norm approach, improves accuracy of true activity recovery, when accuracy is assessed both in terms of spatial proximity of the estimated and true activations and correct specification of spatial extent of the activated regions. This improvement obtained without using any noise normalization techniques for both solutions, preserved for a wide range of between-subject variations in both spatial and temporal features of regional activation. The corresponding activation timecourses exhibit significantly higher similarity across subjects. Similar results were obtained for a real MEG dataset of face

  6. Impacto e sustentabilidade do turismo comunitário: Estudo de caso de Tinti Gala e Tsakane Ka Madjadjane Lodges em Maputo

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    Monica Frederico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} O artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a contribuição do turismo no desenvolvimento comunitário na província de Maputo em Moçambique. O estudo centrou-se na avaliação econômica de projetos turisticos (lodges em Gala e Madjadjane. Os indicadores usados para avaliar o impacto do turismo na comunidade são: emprego direto e indireto, além da partilha de benefício. Para avaliar a sustentabilidade dos lodges foram usados os critérios Custo-benefício, Valor atual líquido e Taxa de retorno. Os resultados mostraram que os lodges criaram novos empregos diretos para alguns chefes de famílias (10% dos agregados familiares de Madjadjane e 17% em Gala. Houve partilha de benefício na comunidade de Gala, porque os membros da comunidade partilharam os rendimentos da atividade turistica. A avaliação econômica mostrou que no lodge de Madjadjane as despesas são maiores que as receitas o que coloca riscos na sustentabilidade do projeto. Enquanto no lodge Gala registaram-se receitas que garantem um funcionamento modesto dos serviços. Os projetos turísticos comunitários são constrangidos principalmente pela formação deficiente das comunidades em gestão dos lodges.

  7. Armazenamento de Medicamentos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde de Macaíba, RN, Brasil

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    Renato Wagner Tinôco de Sousa SIMÃO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o armazenamento de medicamentos em 22 unidades básicas de saúde do município de Macaíba, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, no período de janeiro a março de 2012. Para isto, foi realizada verificação in loco da infraestrutura e observação da rotina do serviço destas unidades, além de aplicação de Roteiro de Inspeção, com base na RDC nº 44/09, o que proporcionou subsídios para contextualização do papel do farmacêutico frente à assistência farmacêutica no local. Para identificação e análise dos medicamentos com prazo de validade expirado, foram utilizadas a Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais e a Relação Municipal de Medicamentos Essenciais do município. Nenhuma das farmácias destas unidades apresentava responsável técnico farmacêutico, manual sobre armazenamento de medicamentos, controle de umidade e temperatura. Em todas as farmácias havia medicamentos com prazo de validade expirado, abrangendo 1395 unidades mínimas não fracionadas, pertencendo a 31 classes farmacológicas diferentes e abrangendo 34 especialidades farmacêuticas. Os resultados revelam a precariedade em que se encontram estas unidades e, consequentemente, de suas respectivas farmácias, o que pressupõe a necessidade de atuação mais intensa por parte de gestores, vigilância sanitária e Conselhos Regional e Federal de Farmácia

  8. Prevalencia de hongos en harina de Lepidium peruvianum «Maca» en mercados de Andahuaylas, Ica y Cañete - Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Orellana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia de hongos en la harina de Lepidium peruvianum «maca» en un total de 60 muestras procedentes de los mercados de Andahuaylas (20, Ica (20 y Cañete (20. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante el método de diluciones sucesivas y sembradas en superficie en Agar Papa Dextrosa (APD. El 96,7% del total de muestras estaban contaminadas; identificándose 9 géneros y un total de 14 especies de mohos filamentosos, incluyendo uno clasificado como Mycelia sterilia. El recuento general de colonias va desde 33x104 a 61x104 UFC/g., no existiendo diferencia significativa entre los centros de expendio. Los géneros con mayor incidencia fueron Penicillium y Fusarium. La alta prevalencia de hongos contaminantes en la harina de maca sugieren continuar estudios destinados a evaluar el efecto y riesgo sanitario que representa su consumo para la salud humana.

  9. Much-Anticipated Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Individual tickets for the 2010 World Expo Shanghai go on sale Dong Aizhen, a senior citizen living in Pudong of Shanghai, stood in front of a post office at 5:30 am. on July 1, the first day tickets for the

  10. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  11. Dinâmica temporal da mancha foliar da 'Gala' em macieiras conduzidas sob os sistemas de produção convencional e orgânico Temporal dynamic of 'Gala' leaf spot in apples under conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a dinâmica temporal da Mancha Foliar da 'Gala' em macieira nos sistemas convencional e orgânico de produção, em condições edafo-climáticas do Planalto Catarinense. A incidência e severidade foram quantificadas quinzenalmente, em 100 folhas, distribuídas em quatro ramos da cultivar 'Royal Gala' com 12 repetições, gerando 16 mapas em cada sistema de produção. A severidade foi avaliada de acordo com escala diagramática específica. Com os dados obtidos, foram plotadas curvas de progresso da doença, e as epidemias foram comparadas em relação à a início do aparecimento dos sintomas (IAS; b tempo para atingir a máxima incidência e severidade da doença (TAMID e TAMSD; c valor máximo de incidência e severidade da doença (Imax e Smax; e d área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência e severidade da doença (AACPID e AACPSD. Os dados de incidência e severidade foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão linear simples, sendo ajustados para três modelos empíricos, Logístico, Monomolecular e Gompertz. A cultivar 'Royal Gala' foi suscetível ao Colletotrichum sp., e as maiores intensidades de doença foram registradas no sistema de produção orgânico. O modelo mais apropriado para descrever o progresso da doença foi o Logístico e, por meio do uso da incidência, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os sistemas de produção, porém a taxa de progresso da severidade da doença foi significativamente maior no sistema de produção orgânico do que no convencional.This study aimed to evaluate the temporal dynamic of 'Gala' leaf spot under conventional and organic systems of production in edafoclimatic conditions of Santa Catarina plateau. The incidence and severity were quantified biweekly in 100 leaves distributed in four branches of the "Royal Gala" cultivar with 12 replications, generating 16 maps for each system of production. The disease severity was evaluated

  12. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls.

  13. 玛咖松花粉合剂抗疲劳作用的研究%Studies on the antifatigue function of Maca and Pine Pollen Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡水保; 李海龙; 陈琳婉; 王国付

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究玛咖松花粉合剂对小鼠抗运动性疲劳的作用。方法采用四批雄性 Balb/c小鼠,每批50只,按照体重分为5个实验组,分别给予生理盐水(15mL/(kg· d))、玛咖松花粉合剂0.5g/(kg· d)、1.0g/(kg· d)、2.5g/(kg· d),红牛饮料(15mL/(kg· d)),连续灌胃30d后分别测定各组小鼠游泳时间、尿素氮、肝糖原、血乳酸、谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶含量。结果玛咖松花粉合剂能显著延长小鼠游泳时间(P <0.05),降低运动后小鼠血尿素氮含量,增加肝糖原含量(P<0.05),快速降低血乳酸(P<0.05),且谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶含量与阴性对照组无明显差异( P>0.05)。结论玛咖松花粉合剂具有抗小鼠运动性疲劳的作用。它是通过提高运动耐力,增加肝糖原储备,加速乳酸的清除来抗运动性疲劳的,同时玛咖松花粉合剂对小鼠肝功能均无影响。%OBJECTIVE To study the antifatigue function of Maca and Pine pollen mixture to mouse.METHODS 4 experiments were carried out , in each of which 50 Balb/c male mice were used and they were divided into 5 groups:saline (15mL/(kg· d)),Maca and Pine pollen mixture 0.5g/(kg· d),1.0g/(kg· d),2.5g/(kg· d),Red Bull (15mL/(kg· d)) were given respectively by american ginseng ,content of ured nitro-gen、hepatic glycogen、blood lactic、AST and ALT were determined for 30days.The fourtestswere used to determine swimming time.RESULTS Maca and Pine pollen mixture could extend swimming time withweight loading in mice (P0.05 ).CONCLUSION Maca and Pine pollen mixture can relieve physical fatigue.It can improve exercise tolerance ,increase hepatic glycogen ,speed up the remov-al of blood lactose to antifatigue ,and had no effect on liver function.

  14. Analiza, structura şi direcţii de dezvoltare ale pieţei imobiliare. Studiu de caz Municipiul Galaţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean Mihalcea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed to analyze the main elements underlying the evaluation of a municipality-related real estate development pole passing through a slowdown. Its purpose is to provide those interested, public administration, companies and citizens, not least that municipality, relevant information on the structure of the housing market and its trends, closely related to the potential economic and social development of the municipality concerned. Based on the analysis performed, it can complete development strategies related to the city studied, encompassing social and urban studies marketing. In the case study were processed and valued elements of economic documentation made by the author for PUG Galati. The main chapters of the paper analyzes the structure of the real estate market, forecasting its economic-development binomial real estate development. The two planes are the main complex housing the city of Galaţi.

  15. 苹果新品种——泰山嘎拉的选育%Selection of a new early-ripening apple cultivar -- Taishan Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林光; 杨建明; 李慧峰; 王海波; 刘加芬; 何平

    2012-01-01

    Taishan Gala is a large and red bud mutation of Royal Gala. The fruit is large, weighing 212.8 g on average, and is conic in shape and uniform. Its yellow-green and smooth skin covers bright red. Its core is small and light yellow flesh is fine, crisp and juicy with moderate sweet-sour flavor and pleasant aroma. The quality is excellent, with 7.2 kg. cm-~ fruit firmness, 15.0% soluble solids content, 13.8% soluble sugar content, 0.39% titratable acidity. It bears early, and has high yield and strong resistance. It matures about 10, August in Tai'an area.%泰山嘎拉属皇家嘎拉大果红色芽变。该品种果个大,平均单果质量212.8g,大小整齐一致;果面盖色鲜红,底色黄绿,全面着片红,果面光滑;果心小,果肉淡黄色,肉质细、硬脆,汁液多,甜酸适度,有香气。果实去皮硬度为7.2kg·cm-2,可溶性固形物含量15.O%,可溶性糖13.8%,可滴定酸0.39%,品质上。早果性和丰产性好,抗性强。在泰安地区8月10日左右果实成熟。

  16. Épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala '

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo é fundamental na cultura da macieira, a fim de aumentar a eficiência produtiva e a qualidade dos frutos produzidos. O desenvolvimento dos ramos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de substâncias inibidoras da biossíntese de giberelinas, como o proexadione cálcio, sendo a resposta deste fitorregulador dependente do padrão sazonal do crescimento da parte aérea. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala', nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil. No ciclo de 2008/2009, foram avaliadas seis épocas de aplicação de 330 g ha-1 de proexadione cálcio (28; 58; 88; 118; 148 e 178 dias após a plena floração - DAPF e sete épocas de aplicação em 2009/2010 (20; 50; 80; 110; 140, 170 e 200 DAPF, além do tratamento-testemunha. Aplicações de proexadione cálcio a 330 g ha-1, realizadas aos 20 a 28 dias após a plena floração reduzem o comprimento médio e a massa fresca média dos ramos podados em macieiras 'Imperial Gala'.

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros alimentados com torta de macaúba Ingestive behavior of lambs fed with macauba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Azevedo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes porcentagens (0, 10, 20 e 30% de inclusão da torta de macaúba (TM no comportamento ingestivo de 24 cordeiros Santa Inês, com média de cinco meses de idade e peso vivo de 23,9kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. Foram avaliados os tempos médios despendidos com alimentação, ruminação (TR, ócio (TO, tempo de mastigação total (TMT, eficiência de alimentação (EA MS e EA FDN e eficiência de ruminação, além do número de bolos ruminados (NBR e número diário de mastigações merícicas (MMnd. A adição de TM à dieta aumentou linearmente o TR, TMT, NBR, MMnd e EA FDN e reduziu de forma linear o TO, em consequência do maior teor de fibra em detergente neutro das dietas com o coproduto. Mesmo com o aumento no TMT, não foi verificada diferença no consumo e na eficiência de ruminação e alimentação da matéria seca, possivelmente em razão da baixa efetividade de fibra da TM, demonstrando o potencial de utilização desse coproduto na dieta de ovinos em crescimento.The effects of different percentages (0, 10, 20 and 30% of inclusion of macauba meal (MM on the ingestive behavior of 24 Santa Inês male lambs, averaging five months of age and 23.9kg of initial body weight were studied. The animals were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments and six replications during 60 days of confinement. The variables measured were time spent in rumination (TR, idle time (IT, total chewing (TC, power efficiency (PE DM and PE NDF and efficiency of rumination, as well as the number of ruminated bolus (NRB and daily number of chews (Cnd. The addition of MM to the diet increased TR, TC, NRB, Cnb and PE NDF linearly, and reduced IT linearly, as a result of higher content of neutral detergent fiber in the diet. Although there was an increase in TC, no difference was verified in the

  18. Analysis on Composition and Content of Sterols in Three Color Types of Maca,Lepidium meyenii%三种色型玛咖甾醇组分及含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘瑾; 冯颖; 张弘; 何钊; 郑华; 李娴

    2013-01-01

    The composition and content of sterols in three color types of maca ( Lepidium meyenii) cultivated in Yunnan were analyzed by GC-MS. The result showed that all the three types of maca contained β-sitosterol and campesterol. The content of β-sitosterol was higher than that of campesterol. The total sterol content in white, purple and yellow samples were 36. 60, 32. 38, 27. 97 mg·(100 g-1) , respectively. Among them, the total sterol content in white sample was the highest. The differences in contents were significant among the three types of sample (P <0.01). The composition was consistent with that of sample cultivated in Peru, and the total content of sterol was also very similar.

  19. Parâmetros genéticos e diversidade em progênies de Macaúba com base em características morfológicas e fisiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Pereira Domiciano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de estimativas confiáveis de parâmetros genéticos, incluindo dados relacionados à variabilidade das populações sob melhoramento, é essencial para se elucidar a estrutura genética das populações e para se inferir sobre sua variabilidade genética e seu potencial de melhoramento. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar parâmetros genéticos e a diversidade em progênies de Macaúba com base em características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Para o estudo, foram avaliadas características morfológicas e fisiológicas em 15 progênies de macaúba, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 5 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela, no espaçamento de 5x5m. Não houve variabilidade para a maioria das características fisiológicas no conjunto de progênies avaliadas. Porém, verificou-se variabilidade genética para os caracteres morfológicos avaliados. As famílias de macaúba agruparam-se em três grupos distintos quanto à diversidade genética, sendo a família CPAC-03 a mais divergente em relação às demais. A eficiência no uso da água e o comprimento de raquis foram as características que mais contribuíram para a dissimilaridade das famílias de macaúba.

  20. Study on Optimization of Buckwheat Maca Biscuit by Using Response Surface Analysis%响应面分析在荞麦玛咖饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 李磊

    2013-01-01

      To optimize the processing of buckwheat maca biscuit,based on single-factor tests the response surface methodology was adopted with three levels and four factors that are buckwheat,maca,white sugar and skimmed milk powder.The result of the Sensory evaluation score was used as the data for the response surface methodology.Design expert was used to optimize the response surface.The result of the experiments demonstrates that:buckwheat content 26.40 %,maca content 2.63%,white sugar content 22.12 %,skimmed milk powder 5.49%. Under these conditions, the sensory analysis score of buckwheat maca biscuits was 85.77.%  以新资源食品玛咖粉和荞麦为主要原料,在单因素分析的基础上,通过对玛咖荞麦饼干生产配方进行4因素(荞麦粉、玛咖粉、白砂糖和脱脂奶粉)3水平的响应面试验设计,以饼干的感官评定结果,通过Design expert软件进行响应面优化。试验结果表明:荞麦粉添加量为26.40%,玛咖粉添加量为2.63%,白砂糖添加量为22.12%,脱脂奶粉添加量为5.49%,在此条件下,荞麦玛咖饼干的感官分析评分为85.77。

  1. Descontaminación microbiana de la maca (Lepidium meyenii aplicando el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS para preservar sus propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Guevara Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo aplicar el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS en maca, determinando los parámetros del proceso: tiempo y temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado que reduzcan el recuento de microorganismos aerobios, mohos, levaduras, E. Coli, salmonella y coliformes totales, y evaluando la influencia del proceso en el contenido total de glucosinolatos. La máxima descontaminación microbiana de la maca se logró aplicando una carga de 5 kg/saquillo, por 6 min. Con una temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado de 100 °C. Bajo estas condiciones, la reducción de la carga microbiana fue de 99,9% (< 10 UFC/g, 50% (< 10 UFC/g y 93,3% (< 10 UFC/g para aerobios, mohos, y levaduras, respectivamente; el comportamiento de patógenos fue muy similar al de la materia prima: E. coli < 3 UFC/g, ausencia de salmonella (25 g y < 3 UFC/g para coliformes totales. El contenido de glucosinolatos se mantuvo durante el proceso en 1,5 μmol/g, lo que evidenció que al aplicar la tecnología OSS se logra conservar la calidad nutricional, sensorial y funcional de la maca.

  2. Contribution of homeopathy to the control of an outbreak of dengue in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro Contribuição da Homeopatia para o controle da epidemia de dengue em Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Contribución de la homeopatía para el control de un brote de dengue en Macaé, Río de Janeiro,

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Aparecida de Souza Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Homeopathy has contributed throughout history to the control and eradication of epidemic diseases. Facing the challenge of controlling an outbreak of dengue, the Secretary of Health of the county of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in early 2007 carried out a “Homeopathy Campaign against Dengueâ€Â. 156,000 doses of homeopathic remedy were freely distributed in April and May 2007 to asymptomatic patients and 129 doses to symptomatic patients treated in outpatient clinics, according ...

  3. Consultarea publicului în documentaţiile de amenajarea teritoriului şi urbanism. Studiu de caz: Zonele Construite Protejate ale Municipiului Galaţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Chifelea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use statistical databases in urban and spatial planning is a necessity and a handicap of such documentation, large scale plans requires a large number of indicators, but their structure does not correspond fully in spatial planning. One of these methods of obtaining data to produce the most appropriate indicators is the participatory approach, based on engaging communities and groups in planning and decision making. The “Methodology for informing and consulting the public in the development or revision of spatial and urban plans" issued by order of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism, bring an improvement in the completion of these plans. In the substantiation studies conducted for Zone Urban Plan of the protected built area of Galaţi, a consultative method was chosen, based on a sociological survey questionnaire. It was found that the most serious problems are the renovation of heritage buildings, traffic congestion and water quality. The largest gaps identified in the study area are: lack of affordable housing, roads and air quality, public transportation, cultural life and shopping areas. Thus, the Galatians have prioritized the investment potential of the CBA; as a priority resulting into the rehabilitation of urban areas (streets, buildings, squares and modernization of infrastructure.

  4. Brotação de gemas em macieiras 'Imperial Gala' e 'Fuji Suprema' pelo uso de Erger® e nitrato de cálcio Budbreak in 'Imperial Gala' and 'Fuji Suprema' apples by use of Erger and calcium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da alta eficiência de algumas substâncias químicas na indução da brotação de frutíferas de clima temperado, a elevada toxicidade apresentada por esses compostos é um dos principais problemas relacionados ao seu uso. Resultados preliminares indicam que Erger®, composto à base de nitrogênio, combinado com nitrato de cálcio, tem efeito similar à cianamida hidrogenada, com a vantagem de ser menos agressivo ao ambiente. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência da combinação de Erger® e nitrato de cálcio como indutor de brotação em macieira. O experimento foi conduzido em Caçador-SC, no ano de 2007, sendo efetuada a aplicação de diferentes indutores de brotação em macieiras das cultivares 'Imperial Gala' e 'Fuji Suprema'. Os indutores de brotação testados foram Erger® a 3% + nitrato de cálcio a 3%, Erger® a 5% + nitrato de cálcio a 5%, Erger® a 7% + nitrato de cálcio a 7%, óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,34% e a testemunha (sem aplicação. Foram avaliadas as datas de ocorrência das fases de início, plena e fim de floração, brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, uniformidade da brotação de gemas axilares e frutificação efetiva. Os indutores de brotação aumentaram significativamente a brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, assim como aumentaram a uniformidade da brotação e a coincidência de florescimento das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. As combinações de Erger® e nitrato de cálcio apresentaram desempenho similar à cianamida hidrogenada e ao óleo mineral na brotação de gemas e na uniformização da brotação, mostrando ser uma eficiente alternativa para a indução da brotação em macieira. Em função do efeito negativo sobre a frutificação efetiva em macieiras 'Imperial Gala', indica-se a utilização de Erger® e nitrato de cálcio em concentrações inferiores a 7%.Despite the high efficiency of some chemicals on budbreak

  5. Águas Maravilhosas (Macaé, RJ: do rio ao lixão na memória de uma catadora de lixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the historical process of adulteration of a river and its transformation into a garbage dump based on the memory, narratives and insights of an ex-garbage picker about environmental changes on the site. It also aims to describe some aspects of Macaé city, the daily lives of garbage workers, as well as the process of activation and deactivation of this deposit. The study was done based on the film exhibition and exploratory interviews about the history and life of the landfill, conducted with an ex-garbage picker who reveals his view, sui generis, built from their condition and its perceptions of environmental changes experienced by the informant. It is expected that the historic rescue of the mischaracterization of an environment, with environmental, historical and social relevance, reported by a person who has seen and experienced all the stages of this lack of planning and technical studies, may contribute to future interventions to this site.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa, Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Babaçu (A. speciosa, Buriti (M. flexuosa, and Macaúba (A. aculeata are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic acid, lauric (dodecanoic acid, myristic (tetradecanoic acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid, stearic (octadecanoic acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6, linolenic (octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3, and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L.; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27529077

  8. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Idalina Torcato; Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; de Morais, Paula Benevides

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml(-1). Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Sexual Enhancement Products for Sale Online: Raising Awareness of the Psychoactive Effects of Yohimbine, Maca, Horny Goat Weed, and Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Corazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. Methods. A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN. Once the active constitutes of the products were identified, a comprehensive literature search was carried out using PsycInfo and PubMed. Results. The most common sexual enhancement products available on the Internet were identified. Their active ingredients included yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed and Ginkgo biloba. These four substances were reported with the occurrence of adverse events and the induction of psychological symptoms, such as mood changes, anxiety, and hallucinations as well as addictive behaviours. Conclusions. Uncontrolled availability of sexual enhancement products that contain potentially harmful substances is a major public health concern. The possible impact on population health, particularly among subjects with psychiatric disorders, usually at risk for sexual dysfunction, may be significant. This new trend needs to be extensively studied and monitored.

  10. Proceso de Atención de Enfermería en el Paciente Post Quirurgico Inmediato en la Sala de Recuperación del Hospital General Macas Marzo a Agosto del 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Morocho Cherrez, Margarita Isabel

    2015-01-01

    La finalidad de este estudio fue determinar el proceso de atención de Enfermería, en el Paciente post Quirúrgico inmediato en la sala de Recuperación del Hospital General Macas, estableciendo las determinantes que influyen en la aplicación del proceso de atención de enfermería para satisfacer las necesidades básicas del paciente, dando respuesta a procesos adecuados en el manejo del paciente post quirúrgico y ofrecer a la población los medios técnicos y humanos de diagnóstico, tratamiento y...

  11. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.

  12. 产地与种源对玛咖化学质量的影响%Contribution of environmental and genetic variation to chemical similarity of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文彬; 成哲弘; 赵云鹏; 傅承新

    2016-01-01

    Summary Maca,Lepidiummeyenii Walp.(Brassicaceae),has been domesticated as a medicinal crop at high altitude of the Peruvian Andes for two millennia.Its cultivars or landraces with different chemical profiles were bred and introduced out of Peru to various countries for industrial cultivation as driven by the increasing demand. Maca,which was approved on the ChinaInventory of NewResource Food in 2011,was also massively cultivated in multiple regions in China.The applied Maca cultivars differed among the producers,which may result in significant inconsistency of Maca quality.Thus,it is increasingly urgent to assess the quality of Maca roots with different cultivars and cultivation localities. We simultaneously conducted both common garden and translocation experiments to address the contribution of both genetic and environmental variation to chemical similarity of Maca.Contents of mineral elements,amino acids,total alkaloid,and macamides were determined on five replicate samples of each Maca category using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), L8900 amino acid analyzer, UV-2700 spectrophotometer and ProStar 210 high performance liquid chromatograph.Both the chemical component contents and overall similarity coefficients were calculated and compared for the four parameters above using analysis of variance(ANOVA),principal component analysis (PCA),hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and cosine coefficient.Data analyses were conducted using SPSS version 22.0. The results showed that the same cultivar from the translocation experiment (H6 ,A6) demonstrated remarkably greater chemical dissimilarity than the four cultivars (H1 ,H2 ,H3 ,H6) from the common garden experiment.The former experimental pair significantly differed in 1 1 components,while the latter four cultivars differed in five components.Although different groups of components differed to different extents between either cultivars or localities,the contents of mineral elements were

  13. 浅析电视综艺晚会灯光设计中LED大屏幕的运用%A Brief Talk abut Application of LED Large Screen in TV Gala Lighting Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐璐

    2014-01-01

    总结了电视综艺晚会中,LED大屏幕的应用对灯光设计的不利影响,分析在灯光设计中合理运用LED大屏幕,使灯光与LED大屏幕良好配合、相得益彰的方法。%Some methods of the reasonable use for large screen cooperated well with lighting design were summarized in TV gala.

  14. Qualidade de maçãs ‘Gala’ armazenadas em atmosfera controlada dinâmica e estática com renovação do ar

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da remoção periódica da atmosfera das câmaras de atmosfera controlada com ar e nova instalação, bem como o uso da atmosfera dinâmica, sobre a manutenção da qualidade da maçã 'Gala'. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: (1) controle (sem renovação); (2) renovação da atmosfera diariamente durante o resfriamento dos frutos; (3) renovação da atmosfera diariamente durante o resfriamento e mensalmente no período de armazenamento em atmosfera controla...

  15. Suculência e solubilização de pectinas de maçãs 'Gala' submetidas a diferentes tempos de resfriamento e aplicação de 1-MCP Juiciness and pectins solubilization of 'Gala' apples submited to different cooling times and 1-methylcyclopropene application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Lunardi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação pós-colheita de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, 625nL.L-1 e tempo de resfriamento (Resfriamento Lento (RL = oito dias; Resfriamento Rápido (RR = três dias em maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas por seis meses em armazenamento refrigerado (AR sobre a perda de suculência, a firmeza de polpa, o conteúdo de pectina solúvel (PS e a atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A temperatura de armazenamento foi de 0,5°C. Ao final do período em AR e mais sete dias a 20°C, foram avaliados a suculência, a firmeza de polpa, o conteúdo de PS e as atividades da PME e PG. A aplicação de 1-MCP manteve a firmeza mais elevada e não afetou a suculência das maçãs após seis meses em AR; o resfriamento rápido manteve as maçãs mais suculentas e firmes que o resfriamento lento após 7 dias a 20°C.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 625 nL.L-1 and cooling time of 'Gala' apples (slow cooling (SC for eight days or fast cooling (FC for three days on the juiciness loss, flesh firmness, soluble pectin content (SPC and pectinmethylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG activities after 6 months under refrigerated storage (RS. The storage temperature was 0.5°C. At the end of the RS period, and more 7 days at 20°C, the juiciness, flesh firmness, SPC, PME and PG were evaluated. Application of 1-MCP resulted in the highest firmness and it did not affect the juiciness of the apples after 6 months in RS; the fast cooling compared to slow cooling maintained apples juicier and firmer after 7 days at 20°C.

  16. Respiração, produção de etileno e qualidade de maçãs "Gala" em função do dano mecânico por impacto e da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno Respiration, ethylene production and quality of 'Gala' apples in function to impact injury and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dano mecânico por impacto e da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno sobre a atividade respiratória e a taxa de produção de etileno e a qualidade físico-química de maçãs "Gala", após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada. Os tratamentos avaliados foram T1: controle; T2: dano mecânico; T3: 1-metilciclopropeno; T4: dano mecânico + 1-metilciclopropeno; e T5: 1-metilciclopropeno + dano mecânico. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados sob condição ambiente (20±2°C/65±5% UR. Os frutos submetidos ao dano mecânico e não tratados com 1-metilciclopropeno apresentaram um maior incremento na produção de etileno. O tratamento dano mecânico não aumentou a atividade respiratória e pouco influenciou o amadurecimento dos frutos, comparado ao controle, porém, aumentou a ocorrência de podridões. O 1-metilciclopropeno reduziu o metabolismo e a perda de qualidade dos frutos. Nos frutos submetidos ao dano mecânico, a aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno reduziu a incidência de podridões.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the impact injury and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene on respiration and ethylene production rates and on quality of 'Gala' apples after the storage in controlled atmosphere. The treatments evaluated were: T1: control, T2: mechanical injury; T3: 1-methylcyclopropene; T4: mechanical injury + 1-methylcyclopropene; and T5: 1-methylcyclopropene + mechanical injury. Fruits were then left at ambient conditions (20±2°C/65±5% RH. Fruits submitted to mechanical injury, without the treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, showed the highest increment of ethylene production. The mechanical injury did not increase the respiratory rate and had small effect on fruit ripening, compared to the control treatment, but increased rot incidence. The 1-methylcyclopropene reduced the metabolism and the loss of fruit quality. In fruits

  17. Estudo da diversidade de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre Macaé (22º23'S e Ilha de Santa Catarina (27º35'S: 1. Crescimento de dimensões corporais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of body proportions of Sardinella brasiliensis was not homogeneous in the study area, between Macaé (RJ and Santa Catarina Island (SC; the growth rates (K of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were greater than growth rates for another áreas. In this area the biomass estimates for pelagic fish is poor, and near Cabo Frio occurs an upwelling zone. These facts permit the sardines to attain large lengths in this area. Between Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis the growth rates were lower than in the northern part and Paranaguá Bay. On the other hand the biomass estimates for pelagic fish in Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis region was very high, and in this zone the population density is high and the growth rates are small. Paranaguá Bay is a particular region because of its geographical and oceanographic conditons; this is a shelter region with different features and the sardines living there attain small length. In this area the growth rates are intermediary among growth rates for fishes from Macaé-Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis regions. Therefore, the growth rates for sardines in southeast Brazilian proves to be dependent of the population density, food and oceanographic conditions.

  18. 玛咖对果蝇和小鼠繁殖能力与睡眠的影响%Effects of Maca on the Reproductive Capacities and Sleep of Drosophila Melanogasters and Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琪; 陈曹鑫; 黄骏; 朱璐佳; 高晓旭; 秦正红; 林芳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the effects of maca on the sexual ability ,reproductive capacity ,and sleep of Drosophila melanogasters and male mice .[Methods] Firstly ,the mating numbers and hatching numbers of Drosophila melanogaster were detected by culturing with medium containing maca powder (0 .1% ,0 .2% ) . Then ,the reproductive capacity of mice with the treatment of maca solution(0 1. g/kg ,0 2. g/kg) by gavage for 15 days were evaluated through tests of semen quality ,histologic changes of the testis and epididymis ,and filial mice .In addition ,the effects of maca (0 1. g/kg ,0 2. g/kg ,0 4. g/kg) on sleep of mice were evaluated through observations of the direct sleeping number ,sleeping latency and sleeping time induced by pentobarbi‐tal sodium ,and sleep onset of mice treated by subhypnotic dosage of pentobarbital sodium .[Results]Maca could significantly improve the mating rate and proliferation rate of flies .It enhanced the testis development and semen quality of male mice and increased fertility rate ,the average litter size of parent mice ,the average litter weight ,and survival rate of filial mice .Sleeping test illustrated that maca didn't cause direct sleep of mice;however ,it shortened the sleeping latency time ,prolonged the sleeping time of mice induced by pento‐barbital sodium ,and raised the sleeping number of mice treated by subhypnotic dosage of pentobarbital sodium either .[Conclusion]Maca shows effects on improving sexual ability and reproductive capacity in different ani‐mal models .Moreover ,maca also improves sleep .%【目的】研究玛咖对果蝇和雄性小鼠性能力、繁殖能力以及睡眠的影响。【方法】用含有玛咖粉末(01.%,02.%)的培养基培养果蝇,检测玛咖对果蝇交配数以及羽化成虫数量的影响。进一步用玛咖混悬溶液按01.g/kg剂量和02.g/kg剂量给成年雄鼠连续灌胃15d,通过检测小鼠精液品质、观察其睾丸和附睾的组织学变化

  19. Influence of impact and compression mechanical damage on respiration of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples Influência do dano mecânico de impacto e compressão sobre a respiração de maçãs cultivares Fuji Suprema e Royal Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Salete Andreazza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of cell respiration is related to the storage potential of a horticultural product. In the case of apples the main modification during storage is the metabolization of organic acids. Mechanical damage is frequent in fruit post harvest handling and the external forces involved can accelerate the respiratory pattern of fruits leading to further losses. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mechanical damage by impact and compressing on the respiratory pattern of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples. The experiments consisted of five treatments with three repetitions of six fruit each. After the treatment application, fruit were set in closed flasks and maintained in room temperature during the CO2 determination (ml CO2 kg-1 h-1. The measurements were made with a CO2 analyzer equipped with a zircon detector. The readings were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 e 168 hours after the treatment and data were submitted to a regression analysis. There was an increase in fruit respiration after the treatment application. The respiratory profiles along the evaluated period show increase of the respiratory rate after the treatment application. The greatest increase for most treatments occurred within the first six hours after the treatment, with posterior reduction. The regression curves of the respiratory rate in function of the treatment applied showed there is an increment in the respiratory rates associated with the intensity of applied forces. The increments of respiratory rates were greater for Gala than Fuji apples and impacts produce a greater effect over the respiration than compression forces. A intensidade da respiração celular está relacionada com o potencial de armazenamento nos produtos hortícolas; no caso de maçãs, a principal modificação é a metabolização dos ácidos orgânicos. Danos mecânicos são freqüentes na pós-colheita de frutos, e estas forças externas podem acelerar o padrão respirat

  20. O tratamento pré-colheita com AVG, aliado à absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado, preserva a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' Preharvest treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine, in association with ethylene absorption during cold storage preserves fruit quality of 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo do estádio de maturação na colheita e a remoção do etileno no ambiente de armazenamento são estratégias importantes na preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ação combinada do manejo da maturação na colheita, através da pulverização pré-colheita com aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG, com a utilização de sachê contendo absorvedor de etileno à base de permanganato de potássio (KMnO4, na preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs 'Gala'. Frutos dos tratamentos envolvendo combinações de doses de AVG (0; 62,5; 125 e 250 mg L-1 e datas de colheita (0; 5; 10 e 14 dias após o início da colheita comercial foram acondicionados em caixas, envoltos em filme de polietileno de alta densidade (30µm, sem (controle ou com a inclusão de um sachê de KMnO4, e armazenados por dois meses em câmara fria convencional (0±0,5ºC/90-95% de UR e mais sete dias em condição ambiente (20±4ºC/70-80% de UR. A pulverização pré-colheita com AVG retardou substancialmente a maturação dos frutos na colheita, bem como o amadurecimento durante o armazenamento refrigerado em mais de uma semana em condição ambiente. O armazenamento refrigerado com a utilização de sachê de KMnO4 retardou o amadurecimento, avaliado imediatamente após a remoção da câmara fria, expressa em maiores valores de firmeza de polpa e de ângulo 'hue' (hº no lado verde (menos exposto à luz, em frutos tratados com AVG nas doses de 125 e 250 mg L-1 e colhidos antecipadamente. Todavia, após uma semana de armazenamento em condição ambiente, o emprego de sachê de KMnO4 retardou o amadurecimento de frutos colhidos tardiamente e tratados com AVG nas doses >62,5 mg L-1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o tratamento pré-colheita com AVG permite retardar a data de colheita e preservar a qualidade durante o armazenamento pós-colheita de maçãs 'Gala', com a utilização de sachê de KMnO4.The

  1. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala; Comptes rendus du colloque sur l'industrie eolienne : developper, innover, exporter : tenue en conjonction avec le premier gala quebecois de l'industrie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Methane concentration in water column and in pore water of a coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas lagoon, Macaé, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz dos Santos Fonseca

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate methane concentration in water column and pore water at limnetic and littoral regions of a coastal lagoon. At the littoral region samples were taken from three monospecific macrophytes stands (Typha domingensis, Eleocharis interstincta and Potamogeton stenostachys. The methane concentration in the pore water at the littoral region was higher than the concentration found at the limnetic region in each fraction of the sediment. The higher methane concentration in the superficial fraction of the sediment (0-2 cm was shown at the P. stenostachys stand (3.7 mM. It was the only significantly different (p0.05. It could be concluded that there was a high influence of aquatic macrophytes on the pore water methane concentration.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi determinar a concentração de metano na coluna d'água e na água intersticial do sedimento nas regiões limnética e litorânea de uma lagoa costeira (Lagoa Cabiúnas, Macaé, RJ. Na região litorânea as amostras foram coletadas em três estandes de macrófitas (Typha domingensis, Eleocharis interstincta e Potamogeton stenostachys. A concentração de metano na água intersticial na região litorânea foi maior do que aquela encontrada na região limnética em cada fração do sedimento. A maior concentração de metano na fração superficial do sedimento (0-2 cm foi observada no estande de P. stenostachys (3.7 mM. Este resultado foi o único significativamente diferente (p0.05. Os resultados sugerem que há uma considerável influência das macrófitas aquáticas estudadas na concentração de metano na água intersticial do sedimento.

  3. Respostas fisiológicas de plantas jovens de macaúba a condições de seca cíclica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os impactos de três ciclos de seca/ reirrigação sobre os rendimentos quânticos da fluorescência da clorofila a, acúmulo de prolina e ajustamento osmótico. Dez plantas cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 150 L de solo foram submetidas a três ciclos sucessivos de seca/reirrigação (S/R e outras dez foram mantidas irrigadas em capacidade de campo. Os ciclos S/R não promoveram ajustamento osmótico nas plantas mantidas com suspensão da irrigação (CSI, apesar do acúmulo de prolina. A fluorescência mínima adaptada ao escuro aumentou e a eficiência quântica máxima do PSII teve redução nas plantas CSI. O rendimento quântico de conversão de energia fotoquímica do fotossistema II (PSII e a taxa aparente de transporte de elétrons apresentaram redução, enquanto o rendimento quântico de dissipação regulada de energia não fotoquímica no PSII apresentou aumento nas plantas do grupo CSI em relação às plantas sem suspensão da irrigação (SSI. O rendimento quântico de dissipação não regulada de energia não fotoquímica do PSII e os teores de clorofilas e carotenoides não apresentaram alterações entre as plantas CSI e SSI ao longo dos ciclos S/R. Observa-se, assim, que a macaúba apresenta um eficiente mecanismo de dissipação de energia não fotoquímica.

  4. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  5. 嘎拉苹果、橘子复合果汁的防褐变及感官评价%Anti-browning and Sensory Evaluation of Compound Juice of Gala Apple and Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼波; 郭明月; 刘少阳

    2013-01-01

      分别研究橘子、抗坏血酸(VC)和柠檬酸对嘎拉苹果多酚氧化酶的抑制效果,并通过正交试验确定在嘎拉苹果、橘子复合果汁中,橘子与复合抑制剂防止褐变的最优组合;用模糊数学法对复合果汁进行感官评价。结果表明,在嘎拉苹果、橘子复合果汁中,橘子可抑制PPO的活性,具有抑制复合果汁褐变的作用。橘子与复合抑制剂联合作用,抑制复合果汁褐变的效果比单一因素好,其最佳配比是0.015%VC,0.2%柠檬酸,15%橘子。模糊数学法对复合果汁的感官综合评价结果为“优”,表明该果汁的感官性能很好,易于被消费者认可。%The effects of orange, ascorbic acid (VC) and citric acid on inhibiting the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the Gala apples were studied. And the optimum combination of orange and composite inhibitors was investigated by orthogonal test. Fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation was applied to compound juice of Gala apple and orange. The results showed that orange could protect the compound juice of Gala apple and orange from browning, because it could inhibit the activity of PPO. The anti-browning effect of orange combined with composite inhibitors was better than single. The best ratio was 0.015%VC,0.2%citric acid, 15 % orange. The result of fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation was excellent. And it verified that sensory quality of the compound juice was good , and it would be accepted by consumers.

  6. Efeito da inclusão da torta de macaúba na população de protozoários do rúmen de vacas leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    A.C.R. dos Santos; D.Q. Magalhães; R.A. Azevedo; I.L.N.L. Vieira; D.E.G. França; L.C. Geraseev; E.R. Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da inclusão da torta de macaúba (TM) na dieta sobre a concentração e o perfil da população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen. Foram utilizadas oito vacas Holandesas, dispostas em dois quadrados latinos 4x4 e alimentadas com diferentes níveis de inclusão da TM (0, 100, 200 e 300g kg-1 de matéria seca na dieta total). Para quantificação e identificação dos protozoários, amostras de 1mL do líquido ruminal de cada animal foram diluídas em 9mL de solução de formaldeído a 10...

  7. Geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) e Sm-Nd de xistos verdes basálticos do orógeno araçuaí: implicações para a idade do grupo macaúbas.

    OpenAIRE

    Babinski,Marly; Soares, Antônio Carlos Pedrosa; Gradim, Rafael Jaude; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha de; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Liu, Dunyi

    2005-01-01

    No vale do Rio Preto, setor ocidental do Orógeno Araçuaí (ca. 60 km a NE de Diamantina), ocorrem xistos verdes de filiação basáltica, cuja idade e posição estratigráfica foram motivo de controvérsia, pois os autores dividiram-se naqueles que os atribuíram ao Grupo Macaúbas (Neoproterozóico) e naqueles que os correlacionaram ao Supergrupo Espinhaço inferior (ca. 1,7 Ga). Entretanto, estudos detalhados demonstram que os xistos verdes representam derrames basálticos submarinos, sedimentação vulc...

  8. Limites e possibilidades do programa nacional de alimentação escolar enquanto estratégia de promoção da segurança alimentar e nutricional no municipio de Macaíba/RN

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Emanuella Gracy Nunes Cadó

    2013-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem como objetivo compreender a importância do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar enquanto estratégia para garantia da promoção da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional do município de Macaíba/RN, levando em consideração a implementação da Lei da Alimentação Escolar, 11.947 de 2009. O programa foi estendido para toda a rede pública de educação básica, de jovens e de adultos, além de garantir que 30% dos repasses do FNDE, fossem destinados para a aqui...

  9. Odiseo a través de la parodia. Desmitificación e ironía de una Ítaca nostálgica en Prometeo de Pérez de Ayala y ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? de Gala. – Odysseus through parody. Demythologization and irony of a nostalgic Ithaca in Prometeo by Pérez de Ayala and ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? by Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López López, Carmen María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose a critical and comparative study beginning from the epic model variations on the Spanish Literature from the twentieth century: Prometeo by Ramón Pérez de Ayala and ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? by Antonio Gala. To this purpose, a historic perspective will be designed, according to some Homeric episodes inside of the Odisea: the stay of the hero with Nausicaa in the phaeacians’ land, with the nymph Calypso in Ogygia, with the magician Circe in the Eea’s island, in the Lotofagi’s land, the Nekuia and the re-encounter with Penelope. To conclude, this article pretends to analyze the sense of the laugh from the tradition, to deal with the reinterpretation of the myth as a parody and an irony regarding the Homeric narration.

  10. Contribution of homeopathy to the control of an outbreak of dengue in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro Contribuição da Homeopatia para o controle da epidemia de dengue em Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Contribución de la homeopatía para el control de un brote de dengue en Macaé, Río de Janeiro,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Aparecida de Souza Nunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy has contributed throughout history to the control and eradication of epidemic diseases. Facing the challenge of controlling an outbreak of dengue, the Secretary of Health of the county of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in early 2007 carried out a “Homeopathy Campaign against Dengue”. 156,000 doses of homeopathic remedy were freely distributed in April and May 2007 to asymptomatic patients and 129 doses to symptomatic patients treated in outpatient clinics, according to the notion of “epidemic genus”. The remedy used was a homeopathic complex against dengue containing Phosphorus 30cH, Crotalus horridus 30cH and Eupatorium perfoliatum 30cH. The incidence of the disease in the first three months of 2008 fell 93% by comparison to the corresponding period in 2007, whereas in the rest of the State of Rio de Janeiro there was an increase of 128%. While confounding factors were not controlled for, these results suggest that homeopathy may be an effective adjunct in Dengue outbreak prevention. Keywords: Homeopathy; Collective Health; Epidemics; Dengue.   Contribuição da Homeopatia para o controle da epidemia de dengue em Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Resumo A Homepatia tem contribuído através da História no controle e erradicação de epidemias. Em face ao desafio de controlar uma epidemia de dengue, a Secretaria de Saúde do município de Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, iniciou em 2007 a “Campanha da Homeopatia contra a Dengue”. 156,000 doses de medicamento foram gratuitamente distribuídas entre Abril e Maio de 2007 para pacientes assintomáticos e 129 doses para pacientes que já apresentavam os sintomas. Seguindo o conceito de “Gênio Epidêmico” foi usado um complexo homeopático contendo Phosphorus 30c

  11. Relação entre características morfológicas de frutos e incidência de podridão carpelar em clones de macieira 'Gala' e 'Fuji' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Nunes Silveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão carpelar tem-se tornado uma importante doença no Brasil, deixando de ser considerada uma doença secundária dentro do grupo das doenças de verão. O desenvolvimento e o formato dos frutos podem ser influenciados por eventos climáticos que ocorrem durante o período de polinização e frutificação da macieira. Além de outros fatores como nutrição das plantas, manejo da condução, tipo de porta-enxerto e cultivar copa. As alterações no formato dos frutos advindas destes fatores podem influenciar no aumento da intensidade da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar características morfológicas de frutos com a incidência de podridão carpelar, em clones de macieira, utilizando diferentes porta-enxertos, durante os ciclos de produção de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, no município de Vacaria, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 9 x 2, com nove clones das cultivares Gala e Fuji e dois porta-enxertos EM-9 e Marubakaido com interenxerto de EM-9. As características morfológicas dos frutos avaliados foram: relação entre comprimento e diâmetro de frutos (C/D, distância entre lóbulos, abertura calicinar, comprimento do tubo calicinar, número de sementes e classe de sintomas da doença nos carpelos. A doença não foi identificada nos clones da cultivar Gala, em ambos os ciclos de produção. Houve interação entre os fatores clones e porta-enxertos para as características morfológicas avaliadas, em ambos os ciclos de produção. A maior incidência da doença nos clones de 'Fuji' apresentou uma relação positiva com as características morfológicas dos frutos com maior abertura calicinar, menor relação C/D e maior distância entre lóbulos dos frutos, quando comparados aos clones de 'Gala'. O clone 'Fuji Suprema', enxertado sobre porta-enxerto EM-9, apresentou 19,33 % de incidência de podridão carpelar, sendo significativamente superior

  12. Dinâmica da dormência de gemas de dois anos de macieira 'Imperial Gala' em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Dormancy dynamics of two year old buds of 'Imperial Gala' apple tree in a region of low chill occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dinâmica da dormência de gemas em ramos de dois anos de macieira 'Imperial Gala' com ou sem frio suplementar durante o outono e inverno, cultivadas em Porto Amazonas - PR, região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19-04, 10-05, 31-05, 21-06, 12-07, 02-08 e 23-08 e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas, à temperatura de 4 a 7° C. A avaliação da dormência foi realizada pelo teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados (temperatura de 25° C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas por meio dos parâmetros: tempo médio para brotação (TMB, velocidade de brotação (VB, taxa final de brotação (TF, taxa de brotações vigorosas (TBV e tempo médio para aparecimento de folhas abertas (TMFA. A dormência mais intensa de gemas de dois anos ocorre no final de maio, com oscilações até o início de agosto. A aplicação de 1.440 horas de frio suplementar de 4 a 7° C altera a dinâmica da dormência das gemas de dois anos, reduzindo o seu tempo médio de brotação. Uma vez propiciada a brotação de gemas não-dormentes de dois anos, as mesmas possuem boa capacidade para se desenvolver.This work aims to evaluate the dormancy dynamics of two year old apple tree buds with or without supplementary chill during autumn and winter, in a region of low chill occurence. The stems were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were either treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The evaluation of dormancy was observed through the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions (25° C and long days of 16 hours by the following parameters: average time for budburst (TMB, velocity of budburst (VB, final rate of budburst (TF, rate of vigorous budburst (TBV and

  13. Dinâmica da dormência de gemas de macieira 'Imperial Gala' durante o outono e inverno em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Dormancy dynamics of 'Imperial Gala' apple tree buds during autumn and winter in a region of low chill occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dinâmica da dormência de gemas de um ano de macieira 'Imperial Gala' com ou sem frio suplementar durante o outono e o inverno, cultivadas em região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19-04, 10-05, 31-05, 21-06, 12-07, 02-08 e 23-08 e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas à temperatura de 4 a 7° C. A avaliação da dormência foi realizada pelo teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados (temperatura de 25° C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas por meio dos parâmetros: tempo médio para brotação (TMB, velocidade de brotação (VB, taxa final de brotação (TF, taxa de brotações vigorosas (TBV e tempo médio para aparecimento de folhas abertas (TMFA. A dormência mais intensa das gemas de um ano ocorreu em 12 de julho. A aplicação de 1.440 horas de frio suplementar de 4 a 7° C foi efetivo para a redução do tempo médio de brotação das gemas. A utilização da variável TBV nos testes de estacas de nós isolados foi uma importante forma de avaliação da capacidade real de desenvolvimento da gema, diminuindo-se a interferência do corte da estaca como estimulador de início de desenvolvimento.This work aimed to evaluate the dormancy dynamics of one year old apple tree buds with or without supplementary chill during autumn and winter, in a region of low chill occurence. The stems were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (04/19, 05/10, 05/31, 06/21, 07/12, 08/02 and 08/23 and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions (25° C and long days of 16 hours by following parameters: average time for budburst (TMB, velocity of budburst (VB, final rate of budburst (TF, rate of vigorous budburst (TBV and

  14. Study on Properties and Inhibition Methods of Polyphenol Oxidase from Gala Apple%嘎拉苹果多酚氧化酶性质及其抑制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼波; 陈琦; 冯金丹

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from Gala apples, and its properties were studied. Its optimum activity pH was 6. 0,and the optimum temperature was 45℃. The PPO was inactivated when it was incubated at 80℃ , 90℃ , 100℃ for 280 s, 240s, 200s respectively. NaCl and sucrose had no effect on PPO activity. The activity was inhibited by ascorbic acid, citric acid, lemon juice and orange juice. Lemon juice and orange juice could be applied in Gala apples processing as safe, harmless and natural inhibitors of enzymatic browning. Vc, citric acid, orange juice,the interaction of Vc and citric acid had highly significant effects on PPO activity. The order inhibiting PPO from strong to weak was Vc>citric acid>the interaction of Vc and citric acid>or-ange juice. The optimum combination of combined inhibitors was 0. 02% Vc,0. 2% citric acid and 15% orange juice.%从嘎拉苹果中提取多酚氧化酶(PPO),对其最适反应pH值、最适反应温度、热稳定性进行研究,同时研究了抗坏血酸(Vc)、NaCl、柠檬酸、蔗糖、柠檬汁和橘子汁对PPO活性的影响.结果表明:嘎拉苹果PPO的最适反应pH值为6.0,最适反应温度是45℃,在80、90、100℃分别处理280、240、200s时完全失活.NaCl和蔗糖对嘎拉苹果PPO活性没有影响,抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、柠檬汁和橘子汁对其有很好的抑制作用,尤其是柠檬汁和橘子汁在嘎拉苹果加工中的应用是天然、安全无害的.Vc、柠檬酸、橘子汁以及Vc和柠檬酸的交互作用对PPO的抑制作用极显著,它们对PPO的抑制顺序是Vc>柠檬酸>Vc×柠檬酸>橘子汁.复合抑制剂的最优组合是0.2 g/LVc、2g/L柠檬酸、15%(V/V)橘子汁.

  15. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora.

  16. Suculência e solubilização de pectinas em maçãs ?Gala?, armazenadas em atmosfera controlada, em dois níveis de umidade relativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunardi Rosangela

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito de umidades relativas (UR de 96 e 90%, em maçãs ?Gala? armazenadas por 8 meses em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a perda de suculência, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de pectina solúvel (PS e atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A temperatura de armazenamento em AC foi de 0,5degreesC. Ao final do período em AC e mais 7 dias a 20degreesC, foram avaliadas a suculência, a firmeza de polpa, o conteúdo de PS e as atividades da PME e PG. A UR na faixa de 96 a 90% não afetou a suculência, a firmeza, o conteúdo de PS e a atividade da PME, mas em 90% de UR ocorreu aumento da atividade da PG, após 8 meses em AC e mais 7 dias a 20degreesC.

  17. Restabelecimento ("recovery" em plantas de fumo atacadas pelo virus de "vira-cabeça"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Forster

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made with tobacco plants which, after being naturally infected in the field by the virus of "vira-cabeça", a disease identical to spotted wilt (3, not only resisted to it, but exhibited complete recovery. Several trials were carried out in order to ascertain the following points : 1 whether the recovery means a greater degree of individual constitutional resistance ; 2 whether it represents an acquired immunity or ; 3 whether it is just of pure accidental nature. Plants showing recovery were selfed and seeds collected from them sown in separate rows. The same procedure was always applied with the new recovered plants. Thus, strains of plants were obtained representing several succeeding generations of recovered plants. In 1940-41 recovery progenies were planted at two different transplanting periods. During the next season 1941-42 these progenies, which represented already one more generation in comparison with those of 1940-41, were planted in two districts where the average occurrence of "vira-cabeça" was different. The percentages of "vira-cabeça", observed in all trials, were submitted to statistical analysis, comparing the errors obtained for difference of districts, transplanting time, varieties and progenies representing several generations of recovered plants. Comparing the calculated errors it was found that the greatest effect in the occurrence of ' Vira-cabeça" observed should be attributed to different transplanting times or different districts. The selection of recovered plants showed no influence in lowering the incidence of * vira-cabeça" : hence the impossibility of getting types of tobacco resistant to "vira-cabeça" through selection of recovered plants. Plants were observed in the field that after the first recovery exhibited symptoms of the disease, and then completely recovered from it again. This is in accordance with the results of Smith (11 in the reinoculation of tobacco plants after recovery from spotted wilt and of Costa (4 who reinoculated "vira-cabeça" - recovered tobacco plants with it. Therefore, as far as our knowledge is concerned districts should be selected where the disease does not appear very frequently; transplanting periods should be chosen, tc guarantee the lowest possible incidence of the disease.

  18. Efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra) en ratas crías frente al daño cerebral inducido por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C durante la gestación de las ratas madre

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Guija, Emilio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Palomino, Felio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Soberón, Mercedes; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Oliveira, Gisela; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Núñez, Marco; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Flores, Juana; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Acuña, Sheresnarda; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Terrazas, Carmen; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro en ratas crías por ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C (SFC) durante la gestación de ratas madre. Diseño: Experimental, analítico. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Material biológico: Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra: MN), ratas. Intervenciones: Se distribuyeron 30 ratas albinas de dos meses de edad, en tres grupos. Tratamiento en los últimos 7 días de gestación: grupo ...

  19. 寒富×四倍体嘎拉苹果三倍体后代果实风味品质的研究%Fruit Flavor Quality of Apple Triploid Hybrids of Hanfu × Tetraploid Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 王玉霞; 李林光; 程来亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the differences of fruit flavor quality of new apple triploid genotypes, the volatile compounds, sugar and acid compounds in fruits of six triploid hybrids and parents of Hanfu and Tetraploid Gala were identified and analyzed by static headspace -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.There were six, four, seven, four, four, eight, five and three characteristic compounds (CICs) in H4G1, H4G2, H4G4, H4G5, H4G8, H4G9, Hanfu and Tetraploid Ga-la, respectively.Hexyl acetate and hexyl-2-methylbutyrate were the common compounds of all tested varie-ties.Among which, hexyl acetate was the CIC for all hybrids and their parental cultivars, meanwhile hexyl-2-methylbutyrate contributed to odor of all tested varieties except for Hanfu.Fructose, glucose, sucrose and malic acid were the common taste compounds of all tested varieties, and their contributions to taste of H4G4 were larger than other varieties.The transgressive segregations of volatile characteristic compounds and taste compounds were all generated in six triploid hybrids.%为了解苹果三倍体新种质果实风味品质的差异,本研究采用静态顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用和高效液相色谱技术,测定了6份苹果三倍体杂交后代及2个亲本寒富、四倍体嘎拉果实挥发性成分、糖酸组分等风味物质的含量和组成。结果表明,H4G1、H4G2、H4G4、H4G5、H4G8、H4G9、寒富、四倍体嘎拉分别含有6、4、7、4、4、8、5、3种特征香气成分,其果实中均检测到乙酸己酯和2-甲基丁酸己酯,前者影响所有三倍体株系及2个亲本果实香味,后者仅对寒富果实香味没有贡献;果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖和苹果酸是苹果果实的味感组分,且对H4 G4的味感贡献大于其他株系;6份子代特征香气成分和味感成分在遗传过程中均产生了超亲分离现象。

  20. 近红外光谱信息筛选在玛咖产地鉴别中的应用%Study on Application of NIR Spectral Information Screening in Identification of Maca Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元忠; 赵艳丽; 张霁; 金航

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal and edible plant Maca is rich in various nutrients and owns great medicinal value .Based on near infrared dif-fuse reflectance spectra ,139 Maca samples collected from Peru and Yunnan were used to identify their geographical origins . Multiplication signal correction (MSC) coupled with second derivative (SD) and Norris derivative filter (ND) was employed in spectral pretreatment .Spectrum range (7 500~4 061 cm-1 ) was chosen by spectrum standard deviation .Combined with princi-pal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD) ,the appropriate number of principal components was selected as 5 . Based on the spectrum range and the number of principal components selected ,two abnormal samples were eliminated by modu-lar group iterative singular sample diagnosis method .Then ,four methods were used to filter spectral variable information ,com-petitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) ,monte carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) ,genetic algorithm(GA) and subwindow permutation analysis (SPA) .The spectral variable information filtered was evaluated by model population analysis (MPA).The results showed that RMSECV(SPA)> RMSECV(CARS)> RMSECV(MC-UVE)> RMSECV(GA), were 2.14 ,2.05 ,2.02 ,and 1.98 ,and the spectral variables were 250 ,240 ,250 and 70 ,respectively .According to the spectral variable filtered ,partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build the model ,with random selection of 97 samples as training set ,and the other 40 samples as validation set .The results showed that ,R2 :GA> MC-UVE> CARS>SPA ,RMSEC and RMSEP :GARMSECV(CARS)> RMSECV(MC-UVE)> RMSECV(GA) ,分别为2.14 ,2.05 ,2.02 , 1. 98 ,光谱变量数分别为250 ,240 ,250和70.采用偏最小二乘判别分析法(partial least squares discriminant analysis ,PLS-DA )对四种方法筛选的光谱变量建立判别模型 ,随机选择97份样品作为建模集 ,其余40份样品作为验证集.通过 R2 ,RMSEC和RMSEP分析可知 ,R2 :GA> MC-UVE>CARS> SPA

  1. Avaliação da influência da casca no processamento de sucos clarificados de maçãs Fuji e Gala - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i1.95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento da produção de maçãs no Brasil, um excedente do consumo in natura pode ser destinado à industrialização. Os sucos de maçãs são uma interessante alternativa de aproveitamento de frutas. Os componentes aromáticos estão distribuídos na fruta e o processamento pode influenciar a sua composição. Além disso, as enzimas responsáveis por escurecimento e off-flavor devem ser inibidas ou eliminadas para melhorar a qualidade dos sucos. Maçãs das variedades Fuji e Gala foram processadas com a casca e sem a casca para obtenção de sucos clarificados através de enzimas pectinolíticas e tratamento com gelatina e bentonita. As maçãs e os sucos obtidos foram submetidos a análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, sensoriais e de rendimento. Os resultados das análises microbiológicas mostraram a eficiência do processamento e do tratamento térmico adotado. Pelo fato dos atributos físico-químicos e a aceitabilidade global, nos sucos com e sem a casca, não terem diferido de forma significativa (nível de significância de 5%, pode-se concluir que o processamento de sucos clarificados com a casca é o mais indicado, uma vez que assim obtêm-se rendimentos superiores.

  2. Study on optimization of extraction of total alkaloids from maca(Lepidium meyenii Walp.) cultivated in Yunnan%云南栽培玛咖总生物碱提取工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜月蒙; 鲁吉珂; 巴建明; 郝利民; 余坚勇; 于沥博

    2013-01-01

    以云南栽培玛咖干粉为原料,对其中总生物碱的提取工艺进行优化.采用热水为提取溶剂,以提取温度、提取时间和料液比为考察对象,在单因素优化的基础上设计3因素3水平正交实验,研究玛咖总生物碱的最优提取条件.结果表明,各因素对玛咖总生物碱提取得率的影响顺序依次为:提取时间>料液比>提取温度.最优提取工艺为:料液比1∶20(g∶mL),温度70℃,时间100min,在此条件下,玛咖总生物碱提取得率为1.58%.%Extraction process of total alkaloids from maca (Lepidium meyenii walp.)cultivated in Yunnan was investigated.With hot water as extraction solvent,the effect of extraction temperature,extraction time and solidliquid ratio on the yield of total alkaloids were optimized and the best extraction conditions were determined with single factor test followed by three factor-three level orthogonal experiment.The results showed that the effect of the investigated factors on the total alkaloids extraction yield was in the order as:extraction time > solid-liquid ratio >extraction temperature.The optimal extraction conditions were that solid-liquid ratio of 1 ∶ 20 (g ∶ mL),extraction temperature of 70℃ and extraction time of 100min.Under these conditions the total alkaloids extraction yield was 1.58%.

  3. Crescimento Econômico versus Gestão Social e Desenvolvimento Territorial Sustentável. Análise dos Impactos de Megaempreendimentos nos Municípios de Macaé-RJ e de Itaguaí-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamounier Erthal Villela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the accelerated economic growth processes motivated by mega enterprises activities in the cities of Macaé and Itaguaí, located on the coast of Rio de Janeiro¿s State. Such processes, although delayed in time, does not mean improvements in the socio-economic and environmental development indicators but a disordered growth process of these municipalities. The article aims to analyze the situation by the optics of the social management theoretical references, i.e., by the participatory models proposed by Tenório, et. al. (2008 and the theoretical framework of Sustainable Territorial Development in order to build a critical analysis of how these processes occurred and how they could have been if based on democratic principles of social cohesion, the appreciation of local identity and territoriality. The justification of the analysis is to take lessons from the case of Macaé, that has had an exponential growth after the installations of oil rigs in Campos Basin, and also to verify the similarities of this case for the municipality of Itaguaí, which is presently undergoing structural changes due to the investments of Itaguaí Port Complex. The article is based on two surveys which had as objects of study the respective municipalities and the results indicated the low participation of civil society vis-à-vis the power of business organizations and the inability of local public authorities in dealing with the power of the market.

  4. 玛咖对一次力竭运动小鼠抗疲劳作用及T-SOD、肝糖原的影响%Influence of Maca on Resist-fatigue and T-SOD, Liver Glycogen of the Mice After Exhaustive Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱良武; 王路; 王丽; 柏春玲; 保文莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish the resist-fatigue animal test through using Maca, in order to provide reference for the relevant departments to exploit new sports nutrition . Methods Thirty male KM mice were randomly divided into Quiet control group (A),Exhaustive group (B,high altitude),Maca exhaustive group (C), there were 10 mice in each group. Drinking water containing Maca (Maca =500 mg/L) was supplied in group C. Additional exhaustive group (D,low altitude) was set.Thirty days later, all mice were killed after one exhaustive test, then we tested the exhaustive time, the level of T-SOD and liver glycogen. Results The exhaustive time of group C was significantly longer than group B (P<0.05), the T-SOD level of group C was significantly higher than group A and group B (P<0.05), and the liver glycogen content of group C was significantly higher than group B (P<0.05) . Conclusion Maca can raise T-SOD and liver glycogen level of the mice after exhaustive swimming, and has function of resist-fatigue.%目的:应用玛咖进行抗疲劳动物实验,为相关部门开发新型的运动补剂提供参考.方法将30只SPF昆明种雄性小鼠随机分为安静对照组(A组)、力竭运动组(B组、高海拔)、玛咖+力竭运动组(C组),每组各10只;另加力竭运动组(D组、低海拔)20只.C组在饮用水中溶入玛咖,浓度为5%.30 d后,进行一次力竭实验,测定力竭时间,即刻处死小鼠测试T-SOD、肝糖原等生化指标.结果 C组小鼠力竭游泳时间比B组长且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),T-SOD比A组和B组高差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),肝糖原含量比B组高且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).D组小鼠力竭游泳时间比B组长且有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论玛咖能够提高T-SOD活性,提高肝糖原含量,具有较好的抗疲劳作用;低海拔地区小鼠力竭游泳运动时间高于高海拔地区小鼠.

  5. Effect of M26 interstock on fruit qualities and taste of Malus domestica cv .Taishan Gala%M26中间砧对‘泰山嘎拉’苹果果实品质和味感的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 李慧峰; 李云; 何平; 杨建明; 李林光

    2014-01-01

    为了给‘泰山嘎拉’苹果的优质生产理论和技术提供基本资料,研究探讨了M 26中间砧对‘泰山嘎拉’果实品质和味感的影响。结果表明:以八棱海棠为基砧,采用M 26中间砧嫁接‘泰山嘎拉’,与未采用M 26中间砧嫁接的对照相比,果实单果重由208.06 g增加到232.83 g ,差异极显著,果皮花青苷、可溶性固形物和维生素C含量显著升高,果肉硬度显著增加,但果形指数没有显著性变化;在采用和未采用M26中间砧嫁接的‘泰山嘎拉’果实中均检测到3种糖与6种有机酸组分,其中糖组分均以果糖含量较高,葡萄糖、蔗糖次之,有机酸组分含量均以苹果酸最高,琥珀酸、草酸、乙酸、柠檬酸、酒石酸较低;采用M 26中间砧嫁接的‘泰山嘎拉’果实果糖、葡萄糖含量及糖总量显著高于对照,其果实甜味指数绝对值与风味指数值分别为1759和3999,也显著高于对照值。上述结果表明,M26中间砧对提高‘泰山嘎拉’的果实品质和味感具有促进作用。%Effect of M26 interstock on fruit qualities and taste of Taishan Gala apple was stud-ied to offer the theoretical and technological references for high quality production of the new cultivar .Results showed that compared to fruits of Taishan Gala grafted on M .robusta root-stock directly ,fruit weight on M26 interstock changed at a signi cance level of 1% (from 208.06 g to 232 .83g) .And anthocyanin in peel ,total soluble solid and vitamin C in flesh , and firmer flesh of test cultivar were also improved significantly by inserting M 26 interstock . Three sugars and six acids were detected in fruits of Taishan Gala on both stock types , simultaneously .Fructose was the most dominant sugar ,followed by glucose and sucrose , while malic acid was the principal organic acid ,followed by succinic ,oxalic ,acetic ,citric and tartaric acid in fruits of test cultivars with and without M

  6. 2009 China-Vietnam Border Friendship Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>International dragon boat races at sea, youth ex- changes, art performances and a symbolic friendship tree plant- ing ceremony were among the many colourful activities held during the 2009 China-Vietnam

  7. Fotomeenutus USBF-i galaõhtult

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Juuresoleval fotol president T. H. Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves koos samuti autasu pälvinud riskikapitalist Steve Jürvetsoniga Ameerika-Balti Fondi pidulikul vastuvõtul. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  8. 高温短时蒸汽处理对玛咖黑芥子酶活性及品质的影响%Effects of High Temperature-Short Time Steam Blanching (HTSTSB) on Myrosinase Activity and Nutrients of Maca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂行涪; 郑华; 张弘; 甘瑾; 张雯雯; 李坤; 徐涓

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to obtain more glucosinolates and improve the quality of the maca after storage and processing, the application of high temperature-short time steam blanching (HTSTSB) on myrosinase inactivation was investigated. [ Method ] Three main factors, which would influence the myrosinase activity and glucosinolates content of maca, such as steam pressure, steam processing time and material capacities, were considered in the phase of single factor tests. Based on the result, the response surface methodology (RSM) test was designed. [Result] With the comprehensive evaluation and analysis of effects of myrosinase inactivation and glucosinolates preservation, the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: steam pressure was 0.35 Mpa, steam processing time was 50 s, and the material capacity was 240 g. Under the optimal conditions, the myrosinase activity of maca was lowered to 1.96%, and the retained content of glucosinolates could reach to 0.98%. Nutrients were retained more by HTSTSB compared to hot water blanching and microwave blanching. [Conclusion] The myrosinase activity of maca could be effectively passivated by HTSTSB, and sensory quality was better maintained after treatment. Compared with conventional blanching, HTSTSB has a clear advantage.%[目的]为了提高玛咖贮藏和加工后芥子油苷的含量及改善品质,探讨高温蒸汽烫漂在玛咖块根黑芥子酶钝化上的应用效果.[方法]通过单因素试验考察蒸汽压力、蒸汽处理时间和载料量3个主要因素对玛咖块根黑芥子酶活性及芥子油苷含量的影响,在单因素试验的基础上,以黑芬子酶活性以及芥子油苷含量为响应值,进行Box-Behnken中心组合试验.[结果]利用响应曲面法分析优化最佳蒸汽处理工艺条件为:蒸汽压力0.35 MPa,蒸汽处理时间50 s,载料量为240 g,在此条件下玛咖块根黑芥子酶相对酶活性降低到1.96%,且保留的芥子油苷含量达到0.98%.在达到烫漂终

  9. Effect of Maca Extract on the Ability of Learning and Memory Acquired Disorder Induced by Scopolamine in mice%玛咖提取物对氢溴酸东莨菪碱所致小鼠记忆获得障碍模型学习能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑慧婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the memory-promoting effects of the Maca extract on mice. Methods:100 male Kunming mice were ran-domly divided into blank control group( two groups),model group( two groups),Piracetam Tablets group( two groups),Maca high dose group(1.17 ·kg-1)(two groups),low dose group(0.585 ·kg-1)(two groups)and daily administration of stomach,gastric gavage for 20 days. The learning and memory ability was estimated by jumping test and Y maze test in mice. Acetylcholine( Ach),choline ace-tyl transferase( ChAT)and acetyl-cholinesterase( AchE)were separately determined by alkalescence hydrochloride method and colori-metry. Results:The Maca extract reduced mistakes in step down test and step through test on mice,increasing contents of Ach and activ-ity of ChAT in mice cerebral tissue,and the activity of AchE was down. Conclusion:Maca extract can significantly improve mice's mem-ory.%目的:观察玛咖提取物对氢溴酸东莨菪碱所致小鼠记忆获得障碍模型的影响。方法:100只昆明种小鼠随机平均分为空白对照组,模型组,吡拉西坦片组,玛咖高剂量组(1.17 g·kg-1)、低剂量组(0.585 g·kg-1),每天灌胃1次,连续灌胃20 d,空白对照组和模型组给予同体积的蒸馏水。各组以跳台法和电迷宫测试小鼠学习记忆的能力,用比色法测定小鼠脑组织胆碱乙酰转移酶( choline acetyl transferase,ChAT)、乙酰胆碱酯酶( acetylcholin esterase,AchE)活性,用碱性羟胺法测定乙酰胆碱( a-cetyl choline,Ach)含量。结果:玛咖提取物可减少小鼠跳台错误次数,提高电迷宫小鼠空间辨别正确次数,并能增加小鼠脑组织Ach含量和ChAT活性,同时降低脑组织AchE活性,有助于氢溴酸东莨菪碱所致小鼠空间学习记忆能力的改善。结论:玛咖提取物可以显著提高小鼠学习能力。

  10. The Image of the Migrant Workers in the Spring Festival Gala:The Reproduction of Group Identity Under the Conspiracy of the Mass Media and the Power%农民工的春晚镜像--媒介与权力合谋下的群体性身份再生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2016-01-01

    Migrant worker as a whole is regarded as a group identity.The image of migrant workers on the stage of the CCTV Spring Festival Gala has changed with the official recognition of migrant workers questions and issues.The Spring Festival Gala reproduces the images of migrant workers starting from the construction of the meaning of their identity using the strategy of the transformation and replacement from the implicit meaning of the symbols and thus recuperating and disciplining youth subculture represented by new generation of migrant workers.At the root of this is the inherent mechanism of the cultural hegemony undermining other sectors of discourse using symbolic violence in the production of media texts.However, the discourse of CCTV Spring Festival Gala has encountered in the plight of the reality of social and media changes,and the fundamental cause is the dual census register system.%农民工是一个群体性身份。央视春晚舞台上的农民工形象随着官方对现实中农民工问题和议题的认识及变化而变化。春晚对农民工形象的再现从建构其身份意义入手,实际上是运用符号明示义到隐含义的转化和置换这一方式,对新生代农民工所代表的青年亚文化实施吸纳、恢复与规训。而究其根本,则是在媒介文本生产中,文化霸权利用符号暴力削弱其他阶层话语的内在机制在起作用。央视的这一话语权力在社会变迁和媒介变迁的现实中遭遇了困境,其困境的根源是二元户籍制度。

  11. Elaboración y Ejecución de un Manual de Estrategias de Intervención Psicopedagógica para Resolver Problemas de Confusión de Letras de Orientación Simétrica de los Estudiantes del Cuarto Año A y B de la Escuela Dolores Sucre de la Ciudad de Macas Durante el Año Lectivo 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia Paredes, Rufina Eduviges

    2015-01-01

    El Tema denominado impacto de la elaboración y ejecución de un manual de estrategias de intervención psicopedagógica para resolver problemas de confusión de letras de orientación simétrica, de los estudiantes del cuarto año A de la escuela dolores sucre, de la ciudad de Macas, es una preocupación de todos los que estamos involucrados en el desarrollo del proceso educativo, manejamos habitualmente la expresión problemas de aprendizaje como si se tratara de un término común y corrient...

  12. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: MACA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  13. Tree Morphology,Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Mineral Nutrient in Root System of Gala Apple Young Tree with Different Dwarfing Interstocks%不同矮化中间砧嘎啦苹果幼树形态与不同径级根系养分累积分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德英; 袁继存; 徐锴; 程存刚; 闫帅

    2016-01-01

    为了明确不同中间砧嘎啦苹果幼树的树体形态和不同径级根系养分分布特征,揭示树体矮化与根系矿质营养分布和积累之间的关系,选取 GM256、辽砧2号、SH1、SH6、SH38和 SH40矮化中间砧和乔砧的3年嘎啦苹果盆栽幼树为试材,测定树体的形态指标和根系结构特征,将根系分不同径级解析后,测定矿质营养含量和养分累积量。结果表明,与乔砧嘎啦苹果相比,不同中间砧嘎啦苹果的树体高度和干截面积明显减小,致矮程度由强到弱依次为:SH38、SH1、SH6、GM256、SH40和辽砧2号。不同矮化中间砧、不同径级根系矿质营养的含量存在明显的差异,矮化中间砧嘎啦苹果<0.5 mm 根系中矿质营养含量最高,随着根系直径的增加,矿质营养含量呈递减趋势,SH38中间砧嘎啦苹果根系对 K 和 Mg 的吸收能力较强,SH1中间砧嘎啦苹果根系对 Cu、Fe 和 Zn 的吸收能力强。GM256中间砧嘎啦苹果各径级根系中 P、Ca、Fe 累积量以及直径>3 mm 粗根中的 K、Mg、Zn 累积量最高,辽砧2号直径<3 mm 细根中的K、Mg 和 Zn 累积量高于乔砧和其他中间砧。生长势较弱的 SH38、SH1和 SH6嘎啦苹果根系养分的累积量较低,可作为冷凉气候苹果产区嘎啦苹果适宜的矮化中间砧。实际应用中应当充分考虑果园的立地条件、土壤供肥能力以及不同砧穗组合的营养需求特性,以实现苹果的优质高效生产。%In this study,we aimed to identify the differences of tree morphology,accumulation and distribution characteristics of mineral nutrient in root system of Gala apple young tree with different dwarfing interstocks.The re-sults were expected to reveal the relations between the tree dwarfing ability and accumulation,distribution of mineral nutrient in root system.Gala apple saplings (in pots)grafted onto dwarfing interstocks (GM256,Liaozhen No.2, SH1 ,SH6,SH38,and SH40

  14. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  15. Media Violence and Collective Unconsciousness:The Gender Discrimination Controversy over the Comedy Joy Street during the Spring Festival Gala%媒介暴力与集体无意识:春晚小品《喜乐街》的性别歧视争议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一; 王蕾

    2015-01-01

    2015年春晚小品《喜乐街》引发了大量关于该节目是否存有性别歧视问题的争议。通过对大学生群体的网络问卷调查和文本分析,发现该节目存在明显的性别符号暴力,具体表现为对“女神”符号的简化处理和对“女汉子”符号的贬损化构建。调查还发现,受众普遍缺乏对媒介性别议题的必要敏感度,且对女性自身权利持犹疑、观望态度。这反映出公众对媒介性别暴力的集体无意识,也是男权意识形态合法化的结果。%Joy Street, a comedy at the 2015 Spring Festival Gala, caused considerable controversy over whether it showed discrimination in gender terms. To investigate this, we carried out an online questionnaire for college students. Through text analysis, I think this program contained obvious symbolic violence, specifically the simplification of the“goddess”stereotype and derogating the“feminine man”stereotype. Combining the results of the questionnaire, we found that audiences generally lacked the required sensitivity on media and gender issues. Besides, they were also uncertain about women’s rights. We believe that this reflects a collective unconsciousness of media gender violence, as well as the legalization of patriarchal ideology.

  16. 49. Grammy gala tõi auhinna ka Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta septembris ilmunud plaadifirma Harmonia Mundi heliplaadi Arvo Pärt "Da Pacem", esitab Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, dirigent Paul Hillier Grammy võidust. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoori koostööst USA plaadirmaga Harmonia Mundi. Grammy võitnud heliplaadist. EFK solisti Iris Oja kommentaar

  17. 2013 Awards Gala Event | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I. Glass , M.D., Ph.D. (right), was Jack Andraka , 16 (middle), who recently won the 2012 ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Dr. Richard Wallace , M.S.L.S., Ed.D., Professor and Assistant ...

  18. CIMT 2003--An attractive gala of world machine tool industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With the support of the Chinese Government and through close cooperation with related machine tool associations from all countries of the world, the China Machine Tool & Tool Builders' Association(CMTBA) has successfully hosted seven times of the China International Machine Tool Show(CIMT). With expanding scales and exhibition of more advanced products, CIMT has become the largest and best- known international machine tool exhibition in China. Domestic and overseas machine tool manufacturers consider CIMT an important venue to demonstrate their new products, conduct technological exchanges, promote trade and seek cooperative and joint venture partners. The 8th China International Machine Tool Show, also known as CIMT 2003, will be held at the China International Exhibition Center in Beijing on April 16 - 22 next year. The organizer of CIMT 2003 has started the work of inviting domestic and overseas machine tool manufacturers to attend the grand exhibition.

  19. Maria Teatri gala pakkus tasemel meelelahutust / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    14. veebr. andsid Maria Teatri balletisolistid Tallinna Linnahallis galakontserdi. Esinesid teatri solistid Natalja Sologub, Darja Pavlenkova, Igor Kolb, Anton Korsakov ja tõmbenumbrina reklaamitud Farukh Ruzimatov

  20. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 14. septembril 2011. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  1. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 18. septembril 2008. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  2. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 14. septembril 2011. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  3. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 18. septembril 2008. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  4. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  5. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  6. Avaliação da suculência e da solubilização de pectinas em maçãs 'gala' armazenadas em atmosfera controlada, em função de diferentes pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 Evaluation of juiciness and pectins solubilization in ‘Gala’ apples, stored in controlled atmosphere, in function of different partial pressures of O2 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Lunardi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 (1,0 kPa+2,5 kPa, 1,0 kPa+2,0 kPa, 0,8 kPa+2,0 kPa, 0,8 kPa+2,5 kPa e 20,8 kPa+0,03 kPa, respectivamente em maçãs `Gala´ (Malus domestica Baumg. armazenadas por 8 meses em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a perda de suculência, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de pectina solúvel (PS e atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A temperatura de armazenamento foi de 0,5°C e umidade relativa do ar, em torno de 96%. Ao final do período em AC e mais 7 dias a 20°C, foram avaliadas a suculência, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de PS e atividades da PME e PG. As pressões parciais de 1,0 kPa de O2 + 2,0 kPa de CO2 e 0,8 kPa de O2 + 2,0 kPa de CO2 conferiram maior suculência após 8 meses em AC; e as maçãs mais firmes foram as mais suculentas, independente da concentração da atmosfera.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of O2 and CO2 partial pressures (1.0 kPa+2.5 kPa; 1.0 kPa+2.0 kPa; 0.8 kPa+2.0 kPa; 0.8 kPa+2.5 kPa and 20.8 kPa+0.03 kPa, respectively in apples `Gala´ (Malus domestica Baumg. stored by 8 months in controlled atmosphere (CA on the juiciness loss, flesh firmness, soluble pectin content (SPC and activities of pectinmethylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The storage temperature was 0.5°C and relative humidities around 96%. At the end of the CA period in and 7 more days at 20°C were evaluated the juiciness, flesh firmness, SPC, PME and PG. The partial pressures of 1.0 kPa O2 and 2.0 kPa CO2 or 0.8 kPa O2 and 2.0 kPa CO2 were more juicy after 8 months in CA; firmer apples were more juicy independent by of the concentration of the atmosphere.

  7. COMPORTAMENTO ESPECTRAL DE FOLHAS DE Eucalyptus globulus (Labill. ATACADAS POR Mycosphaerella spp. NAS REGIÕES DO VISÍVEL E DO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO DO ESPECTRO ELETROMAGNÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Belmonte Lippert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the spectral behavior of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus attacked in four different severity levels by Mycosphaerella spp. in different positions in the canopy of the tree in the four seasons, considering two regions of the electromagnetic spectrum: visible and near infrared. The plant material was collected in all seasons, in different positions in the tree (base, middle and top of the canopy extract. In the laboratory, leaves were classified into four levels of severity (healthy, little, medium and heavy fire and then made measurements of spectral reflectance measured with a spectroradiometer. The spectral behavior of Eucalyptus globules leaves is characteristic according to the severity degree of the disease, differing primarily in the other high levels of infection by Mycosphaerella spp. and differ mainly of healthy leaves and leaves which are little attacked, in both regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, this behavior occurs for different treetop positions and climate seasons, varying the amount of reflected energy. It is concluded that the reflectance of the Eucalyptus globules leaves attacked by Mycosphaerella spp. differs according to the position in the tree crown and the weather station when they were collected and to the advanced levels of disease severity.

  8. Noored tähed Puccinile pühendatud galaõhtul Endlas / Toomas Kuter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuter, Toomas, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Puccini galakontserdist Pärnu rahvusvahelise ooperimuusika festivali PromFest raames 15. mail Endla teatris ja 16. mail Tallinnas Vene teatris (laval rahvusvahelise Klaudia Taevi konkursi võitjad läbi aegade)

  9. The Last Gala Pagos%最后一只"鞍背龟"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水兵

    2004-01-01

    @@ "乔治"一只生活在南太平洋加拉帕戈斯群岛的陆地龟,又叫鞍背龟(Gal á pagos)加拉帕戈斯龟.它是目前世界上最仅存的一只鞍背龟,它一死这个物种就算灭绝了,所以生物学家目前都忙着给它找伴侣……

  10. ATRF Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony Coincides with Chamber of Commerce Centennial Gala | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer U.S. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, NCI Deputy Director for Management John Czajkowski, and SAIC Corporate Chief Executive Officer (CEO) John Jumper were joined by representatives of the Frederick County Chamber of Commerce in cutting the ribbon for the National Cancer Institute’s Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF).

  11. ATRF Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony Coincides with Chamber of Commerce Centennial Gala | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer U.S. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, NCI Deputy Director for Management John Czajkowski, and SAIC Corporate Chief Executive Officer (CEO) John Jumper were joined by representatives of the Frederick County Chamber of Commerce in cutting the ribbon for the National Cancer Institute’s Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF).

  12. Absorción de hierro en "Maca" lepidum meyenii walp. (Brasicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery L. Suni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii Walp (Brasicaceae “maca” es una planta andina apreciada por sus hipocótilos de alto valor medicinal y nutritivo, entre estos, su elevado contenido de hierro. Para determinar la posibilidad de incrementarlo se llevó a cabo un experimento en invernadero, en Lima, durante el periodo de mayo a noviembre de 1999, en el cual se proporcionó tres niveles de hierro natural (5, 15 y 25 ppm en soluciones nutritivas. Se utilizaron semillas, entrada ARB5441 (CIP. Se determinó el contenido de hierro a los 50 y 179 días después del tratamiento (ddt por el método de fenantrolina. Se encontró diferencias significativas en el contenido de hierro en hojas e hipocótilo a los 50 ddt, incrementado este en relación a la cantidad de hierro suministrada, mientras que a los 179 ddt esta misma respuesta se observa sólo a nivel de hojas. La concentración de hierro obtenida en el hipocótilo para cada tratamiento no incrementó en el tiempo mientras que en la hoja sí. En general los valores de concentración de hierro obtenidos son mayores a los reportados en la literatura. El peso de la planta tendió a disminuir en relación al nivel de hierro a los 50 ddt, pero a los 179 ddt tendió a incrementar. En función al tiempo, el peso de los hipocótilos en cada tratamiento incrementó notablemente; mientras que las hojas, ligeramente. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten señalar que un nivel de 5 ppm de hierro resulta adecuado y suficiente para obtener concentraciones altas de hierro en los hipocótilos de “maca”.

  13. Physiological responses of macaúba young plants to cyclical drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three cycles of drought/irrigation on the quantum yields of chlorophyll a fluorescence, proline accumulation and osmotic adjustment. Ten plants were submitted to three consecutive cycles of drought/irrigation (D/I and the other ten were maintained at field capacity.Cycles D/I did not promote osmotic adjustment in plants with suspension of irrigation (WSI, despite the proline accumulation. The minimum fluorescence adapted to dark increased and the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII was reduced in WSI plants. Quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion of photosystem II (PSII and the apparent rate of electron transport decreased, while quantum yield dissipation regulated non-photochemical energy in PSII showed an increase in WSI plants over those without suspension of irrigation (WOSI. Quantum yield of no regulated dissipation of PSII non-photochemical energy and chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed no change between WSI and WOSI plants over D/I cycles. Thus it was observed that macaubeira presents an efficient mechanism of non-photochemical energy dissipation.

  14. Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2012 Annual Awards Gala | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2012 Annual ... the public. Help Out for Health: Be a Friend You can be part of the Friends' mission ...

  15. Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2015 Awards Gala Event | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn JavaScript on. Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2015 Awards ... her community. Help Out for Health: Be a Friend If you or your company can help support ...

  16. Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2012 Annual Awards Gala | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West King, M.D. FNLM Chairman John Edward Porter Photo: John Edward Porter Alfred Sommer, M.D., MHS Photo: Dr. Alfred ... Award for Public Service: The Honorable John Edward Porter, longtime U.S. Congressman from Illinois' 10th district, currently ...

  17. Perceived Discrimination Associated With Asthma and Related Outcomes in Minority Youth: The GALA II and SAGE II Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neeta; Barcelo, Nicolas E; Borrell, Luisa N; Singh, Smriti; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Avila, Pedro C; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Sen, Saunak; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez

    2017-04-01

    Asthma disproportionately affects minority populations and is associated with psychosocial stress such as racial/ethnic discrimination. We aimed to examine the association of perceived discrimination with asthma and poor asthma control in African American and Latino youth. We included African American (n = 954), Mexican American (n = 1,086), other Latino (n = 522), and Puerto Rican Islander (n = 1,025) youth aged 8 to 21 years from the Genes-Environments and Admixture in Latino Americans study and the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments. Asthma was defined by physician diagnosis, and asthma control was defined based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination questionnaire, with a focus on school, medical, and public settings. We examined the associations of perceived discrimination with each outcome and whether socioeconomic status (SES) and global African ancestry modified these associations. African American children reporting any discrimination had a 78% greater odds of experiencing asthma (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33-2.39) than did those not reporting discrimination. Similarly, African American children faced increased odds of poor asthma control with any experience of discrimination (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.76) over their counterparts not reporting discrimination. These associations were not observed among Latino children. We observed heterogeneity of the association between reports of discrimination and asthma according to SES, with reports of discrimination increasing the odds of having asthma among low-SES Mexican American youth (interaction P = .01) and among high-SES other Latino youth (interaction P = .04). Perceived discrimination is associated with increased odds of asthma and poorer control among African American youth. SES exacerbates the effect of perceived discrimination on having asthma among Mexican American and other Latino youth. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Red Journey Following the Footsteps of Uncle Ho Chi Minh and China-Vietnam Border Gala Held in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Organized by CPAFFC,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organization(VUFO),the Red Journey Following the Footsteps of Uncle Ho Chi Minh and China-Vietnam

  19. Event planning the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This bestselling all–in–one guide to the event planning business is back and better than ever, fully updated and revised to reflect the very latest trends and best practices in the industry. This handy, comprehensive guide includes forms, checklists, and tips for managing events, as well as examples and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful events. Judy Allen (Toronto, ON, Canada) is founder and President of Judy Allen Productions, a full–service event planning production company.

  20. Lactancia materna y la relación filial en madres adolescentes que acuden al Hospital IESS Macas

    OpenAIRE

    Guaman Agualongo, Lourdes Belén

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en Venezuela por el Autor: Ruiz Ernemelys J, en el año Junio 2010 quien determina la influencia de un programa educativo sobre lactancia materna en el conocimiento de las adolescentes embarazadas, que asistieron al control prenatal, IVSS “Lino Mara dey”, Ciudad Bolívar, durante el primer trimestre del año 2010. Se diseñó el presente estudio, de tipo cuasi experimental y prospectivo. Se evaluaron 30 gestantes adolescentes, a través de una encuest...

  1. Los paralogismos en el discurso Agonal de Andrómaca de Eurípides, VV. 577-746

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Schamun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the characteristics of paralogisms due to composition and division [Rhetoric II 24.II, 1401a], due to consequent [Rhetoric II 24.VI, 1401b20-30], and due to false cause [Rhetoric II 24.VII, 1401b30-34], in order to analyze if Euripides uses them in the agon in Andromache [577-746

  2. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  3. Aspects of the uptake of dissolved oxygen in Cabiúnas and Imboassica Lagoons (Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Brum

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cycling of detritus of aquatic macrophytes and carbohydrates in two coastal lagoons of the northeastern part of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Samples of water of the Imboassica and Cabiúnas lagoons were enriched with sucrose. Samples of water of the Cabiúnas lagoon were also utilized to arrange mineralization chambers with fragments of three species of aquatic macrophytes found in these lagoons (Typha domingensis, Potamogeton stenostachys and Nymphaea ampla. Following that, the bottles were aerated and incubated (in the laboratory for a period of 8 days. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen, the pH, the electrical conductivity and the temperature were daily measured. The anaerobic processes were inhibited by periodical aeration of the bottles. The results suggested that the mineralization process in Imboassica lagoon was more efficient; in Cabiúnas lagoon the process of immobilization of the organic matter was dominant. In the short term, maximum oxygen uptake occurred in the mineralization of N. ampla, followed by the mineralization of P. stenostachys and of T. domingensis. However, it was estimated that in long term the mineralization of P. stenostachys showed a greater oxygen uptake.Nesta pesquisa, descrevemos aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos da ciclagem de detritos de macrófitas aquáticas e carboidratos em duas lagoas costeiras do nordeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Amostras de água das lagoas Imboassica e Cabiúnas foram enriquecidas com sacarose. Amostras de água da lagoa Cabiúnas foram também utilizadas para a montagem de câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de três espécies de macrófitas aquáticas encontradas nestas lagoas (Typha domingensis, Potamogeton stenostachys e Nymphaea ampla. Em seguida, as garrafas foram aeradas e incubadas (no laboratório por um período de 8 dias. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, o pH, a condutividade elétrica e a temperatura foram medidos diariamente. Os processos anaeróbicos foram inibidos pela aeração periódica das garrafas. Os resultados sugerem que o processo de mineralização na lagoa Imboassica foi mais eficiente; na lagoa Cabiúnas o processo de imobilização da matéria orgânica foi dominante. No curto prazo, o maior consumo de oxigênio ocorreu na mineralização de N. ampla, seguida pela mineralização de P. stenostachys e de T. domingensis. Entretanto, foi estimado que no longo prazo a mineralização de P. stenostachys consumiria uma quantidade maior de oxigênio.

  4. Postrera voluntad de Rodríguez Freile hoy olvidada: restitución de galas ajenas para su propia obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Achury Valenzuela

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available "Paréceme que ha de haber muchos que digan: ¿qué tiene que ver la conquista del Nuevo Reino, costumbres y ritos de sus naturales, con los lugares de la Escritura y Testamento Viejo y otras historias antiguas? Curioso lector, respondo: Que esta doncella es huérfana, aunque hermosa y cuidada de todos, y porque es llegado el día para componerla, es necesario pedir ropas y joyas prestadas para que salga a visitas, y de los mejores jardines coger las más agraciadas flores para la mesa de los convidados; y al que no le agrade, devuelva a cada uno lo que fuese suyo, haciendo con ella lo del ave de la fábula, y esta respuesta sirva a toda la obra". (Juan Rodríguez Freile, El Carnero, cap. V, pág. 48, ed. 1965 y pág. 36, ed. Caracas, 1979.

  5. "La Vayssonnié" et "La Salaberdié" : deux occupations domestiques de l'âge du cuivre dans le Ségala (Tarn, France).

    OpenAIRE

    Tchérémissinoff, Yaramila; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Coularou, Jacques; Ranché, Christophe; Salmon, Christian; Sendra, Benoît; Servelle, Christian; Marion, Viarouge

    2006-01-01

    The chrono-cultural frameworkAs a result of the studies presented here, we can give an entirely positive assessment of the contributions of the excavations carried out at the Chalcolithic sites on the Carmaux by-pass.To start with, the site of "La vayssonnié" yields a fine series of pottery (cf. Chap. 4), that is to say, 5498 shards derived from 121 individuals and comprising 42 partial forms. They make up a homogeneous vessel assemblage, except for two pieces that are unexpected but containe...

  6. Épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala '

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando José Hawerroth; José Luiz Petri; Gabriel Berenhauser Leite; Eiji Reonardo Yoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    O controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo é fundamental na cultura da macieira, a fim de aumentar a eficiência produtiva e a qualidade dos frutos produzidos. O desenvolvimento dos ramos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de substâncias inibidoras da biossíntese de giberelinas, como o proexadione cálcio, sendo a resposta deste fitorregulador dependente do padrão sazonal do crescimento da parte aérea. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no ...

  7. Flood Analysis Using Hydrological Modeling. Case Study – The Flood In The Upper Catchment Of River Geru, Galaţi County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the flood that occurred between 11th and 13th of September 2013 in the upper catchment of the river Geru. The flood was simulated using the program Mike by DHI with the Unitary Hydrograph Method. As input data, we used the precipitation measured at the Automated Hydrological Sensor Station Cudalbi and radar precipitations. We analyzed the importance of accuracy for input data on the simulation results and the direct influence of setting the proper time steps in achieving the simulated discharge hydrograph. It appears that radar precipitations used as input data lead to a discharge hydrograph with low errors for amplitude and phase of the runoff peak.

  8. A People's Gala to Promote Mutual Under standing between China and Other Countries——2012 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by CAFIU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正The Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue, Sponsored by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) and the China Foundation for Peace and Development (CFPD), and Co-organized by the Chinese People' s Association for Peace and Disarmament

  9. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  10. Cadena Agroalimentaria de la Quinua y la Maca Peruana y su Comercialización en el Mercado Español

    OpenAIRE

    Salcines Minaya, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    El Perú es considerado como el país megadiverso del planeta, por sus distintos aportes de especies, variedades de plantas y por sus diversos pisos ecológicos y microclimas, contando con 84 zonas climáticas de las 103 que existen en el mundo. Dentro de este contexto, el Perú cuenta con grandes riquezas en recursos naturales y condiciones climáticas especiales que dan lugar a productos andinos singulares. Estos productos no son aprovechados debidamente por la carencia de estrategia para el desa...

  11. Evaluation of the structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) using different spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando; Iramain, Maximiliano Alberto; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2017-01-01

    N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide (DMH) was characterized by using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (FT-Raman), Ultraviolet- Visible (UV-Visible) and Hydrogen and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopies. The structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties were evaluated in gas phase and in n-hexane employing ONIOM and self-consistent force field (SCRF) calculations. The atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies and topological properties of DMH were analyzed and compared with those calculated for N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-acetamide (DMA) in order to evaluate the effect of the side chain on the properties of DMH. The reactivity and behavior of this alkamide were predicted by using the gap energies and some descriptors. Force fields and the corresponding force constants were reported for DMA only in gas phase and n-hexane due to the high number of vibration normal modes showed by DMH, while the complete vibrational assignments are presented for DMA and both forms of DMH. The comparisons between the experimental FTIR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and 1H and 13C NMR spectra with the corresponding theoretical ones showed a reasonable concordance.

  12. Produção de amilase por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens utilizando torta de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) e farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) como substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isadora Ferreira da

    2012-01-01

    Amilases são enzimas que atuam no rompimento das ligações glicosídicas presentes nas cadeias de amilose e amilopectina. As amilases possuem aplicações em diversas áreas tais como: indústria de papel e celulose, indústria têxtil, indústria de detergentes e produtos de limpeza, indústria química e farmacêutica, na produção de vitaminas e antibióticos. Embora as amilases sejam encontradas em plantas, animais e micro-organismos, as enzimas microbianas geralmente atendem de maneira satisfatória à ...

  13. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara I.; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticized with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  14. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticised with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  15. Lavagem e sanitização em maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivar Royal Gala: avaliação na redução de pesticidas organofosforados
    Washing and sanitizing in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Royal Gala cultivate: evaluation in reducing organophospho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. ROCHA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lavar e sanitizar produtos hortifrutíferos para impedir doenças transmitidas por agentes biológicos é importante e se faz necessário. Normalmente os estudos avaliam a efi cácia desses processos em relação a destruição dos microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, enquanto que as respostas sobre a remoção dos resíduos de agrotóxicos não são conclusivos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos de sanitização utilizados rotineiramente em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição para sanitização de frutas e hortaliças com vista à redução de agrotóxico organofosforado Parationa-Metílica, muito utilizado nos tratos culturais de hortifruticolas. Foram contaminadas amostras de maçãs em solução de 5ppm do agrotóxico e posteriormente foram submersas por 15 e 60 minutos nos seguintes veículos sanitizantes: água potável, solução de detergente 10% v/v, solução de bicarbonato de sódio 1% p/v, solução de vinagre 6% v/v, solução de água sanitária 200ppm de cloro ativo. Verifi cou-se após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização que a solução de vinagre teve o melhor resultado, seguido pelo detergente, água potável, bicarbonato de sódio e água sanitária, os respectivos resultados atingiram 32%, 22%, 16%, 12% e 12,5% de efi ciência. Mesmo tendo ocorrido a redução de resíduos de Parationa-Metílica, não foram sufi cientes para assegurar que o alimento se tornasse isento de resíduos de agrotóxicos ou mesmo permanecesse abaixo da ingestão diária aceitável (IDA, não garantindo, após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização, a segurança do alimento, no aspecto toxicológico. Estudos que avaliem resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos consumidos “in natura” após aplicação dos métodos de lavagem e sanitização e o consumo per capita desses pela população são necessários, objetivando dados mais precisos sobre o consumo crônico de agrotóxicos através das frutas e hortaliças.

  16. Variação temporal de características morfológicas de folhas em dez espécies do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ, Brasil Temporal variation of morphological leaf traits in ten species from Restinga of Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Pimentel Rosado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ordenar espécies em relação a um contínuo de variação de características foliares pode ser útil para inferir sobre a suscetibilidade de uma comunidade a alterações na disponibilidade de recursos e/ou condições ambientais ao longo do tempo. Dez espécies lenhosas de restinga foram acompanhadas quanto à variação temporal de atributos morfológicos foliares. Folhas de dez espécies de restinga foram coletadas nos meses de fevereiro, abril e agosto ao longo de três anos para caracterização da variação temporal da massa de folha por unidade de área (MFA, suculência (SUC, espessura (ESP e densidade (DEN. As espécies apresentaram uma tendência de valores mais elevados para as características estudadas nos meses mais secos. A partir da comparação sazonal e interanual da MFA, SUC, ESP e DEN sugerimos que a natureza das respostas das plantas à heterogeneidade temporal na disponibilidade de água foi convergente, independentemente do padrão fenológico de produção foliar e filogenia. Portanto, a similaridade observada entre as espécies na dinâmica temporal dos atributos foliares indica a disponibilidade hídrica como um fator determinante para o sucesso na ocupação das planícies arenosas costeiras do norte fluminense.Ranking species in relation to a continuum of leaf-trait variation can be useful to infer community susceptibility to changes in resource availability and/or environmental conditions over time. Leaves of ten woody restinga species were sampled in February, April and August over a period of 3 years to characterize temporal variability of leaf mass per area (LMA, succulence (SUC, thickness (THI and density (DEN. The species showed a trend toward higher leaf-trait values in dry months during the three-year study. Based on seasonal and interannual comparison of LMA, SUC, THI and DEN we suggest that plant responses to temporal heterogeneity in water availability were convergent, independent of leaf phenological patterns and phylogeny. Thus, the similarity observed among species in temporal dynamics of leaf traits points to water availability as a limiting factor for the success of sandy-coastal-plain occupation in northeastern Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Naine, kes ei vaadanud tagasi / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Raamatututvuistus: Bona, Dominique. Gala : [Dalí võimukas muusa] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Margot Endjärv. [Tallinn] : Kunst, 2008. Venelanna Jelena Djakonova (Gala) suhetest prantsuse luuletaja Paul Eluard'iga ja hispaania maalikunstniku Salvador Daliga

  18. Naine, kes ei vaadanud tagasi / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Raamatututvuistus: Bona, Dominique. Gala : [Dalí võimukas muusa] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Margot Endjärv. [Tallinn] : Kunst, 2008. Venelanna Jelena Djakonova (Gala) suhetest prantsuse luuletaja Paul Eluard'iga ja hispaania maalikunstniku Salvador Daliga

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10660-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gala fruit stored... 44 5.5 1 ( EB142040 ) 010811AASB002181HT (AASB) Royal Gala ...10 DAFB frui... 44 5.5 1 ( EB141246 ) 010813AASB003355HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB frui... 44 5.5 1 ( EB141215 ) 010813AASB...001629HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB frui... 44 5.5 1 ( EB118124 ) 000817AALB001312HT (AALB) Ro

  20. Environ: E00816 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00816 Maca Medicinal herb Glucosinalbin, Benzyl isothiocyanate [CPD:C03098], Macaridine, Linoleate [CPD:C01595], Phytosterol, L-Arginine [CPD:C00062] [DR:D02982], B vitamins, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072], Iron [CPD:C00023], Calcium [CPD:C00076], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Lepidium meyenii [TAX:153348] Brassicaceae (mustard family) Maca tuber Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Brassicaceae (mustard family) E00816 Maca ...

  1. Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon in Gala apple%苹果中Ty1-copia型逆转座子逆转录酶序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊; 房经贵; 高兵; 章镇; 孙其宝

    2005-01-01

    利用苹果叶片为材料,通过PCR扩增、克隆研究了苹果中Ty1-copia型逆转座子的逆转录酶序列.结果表明:(1)逆转座子在1个砧木及7个品种中都能检测到,说明逆转座子在苹果砧木及不同种质中普遍存在.(2)克隆、分析了嘎拉品种中23条逆转座子的逆转录酶序列,分析表明同一基因组中克隆到的逆转录酶序列存在高度的异质性,具体表现为23条逆转录酶序列核苷酸序列长度变化范围是247-279 bp,其长度相差32 bp,主要表现为缺失突变;其中6条序列中存在1-4个程度不同的终止密码子突变;氨基酸序列同源性的变化范围为21%-98.9%.(3)将23条序列与已发表的不同物种同一类型逆转座子的逆转录酶序列进行聚类分析,表明苹果的Ty1-copia型逆转座子与甜菜、水稻、马铃薯、燕麦及挪威云杉等物种的同类型逆转座子可能有相同的起源.

  2. ITS-rDNA phylogeny of Colletotrichum spp. causal agent of apple Glomerella leaf spot Filogenia por ITS-rDNA de Colletotrichum spp., agente causal da mancha foliar da Gala em macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diorvania Ribeiro Giaretta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several diseases have affected apple production, among them there is Glomerella leaf spot (GLS caused by Colletotrichum spp. The first report of this disease in apple was in plants nearby citrus orchards in São Paulo State, Brazil. The origin of this disease is still not clear, and studies based on the molecular phylogeny could relate the organisms evolutionarily and characterize possible mechanisms of divergent evolution. The amplification of 5.8S-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA of 51 pathogenic Colletotrichum spp. isolates from apples, pineapple guava and citrus produced one fragment of approximately 600 bases pairs (bp for all the isolates analyzed. The amplified fragments were cleaved with restriction enzymes, and fragments from 90 to 500bp were obtained. The sequencing of this region allowed the generation of a phylogenetic tree, regardless of their hosts, and 5 isolated groups were obtained. From the "in silico" comparison, it was possible to verify a variation from 93 to 100% of similarity between the sequences studied and the Genbank data base. The causal agent of GLS is nearly related (clustered to isolates of pineapple guava and to the citrus isolates used as control.A produção de maçã vem sendo comprometida pela ocorrência de muitas doenças, entre as quais se destaca a Mancha Foliar de Glomerella (MFG, causada por Colletotrichum spp. O primeiro relato dessa doença em maçã foi registrado em plantas próximas a pomares de citrus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A origem da MFG ainda não está bem clara, e estudos baseados na filogenia permitirão relacionar o organismo evolutivamente, possibilitando caracterizar possíveis mecanismos divergentes de evolução. A amplificação da região 5.8S-ITS (espaçador interno transcrito do rDNA de 51 isolados de Colletotrichum patogênicos em de maçã, goiabeira serrana e citrus produziu um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de bases (pb para todos os isolados analisados. Os fragmentos amplificados foram digeridos por enzimas de restrição, sendo obtidos fragmentos de 90 a 500pb. O sequenciamento dessa região permitiu a construção de uma árvore filogenética com a distribuição dos isolados em cinco grupos, independentemente de seus hospedeiros. A partir da comparação in silico, foi possível verificar uma variação de 93 a 100% de similaridade entre as sequências estudadas e o banco de dados do GenBank. O agente causal da MFG está relacionado (agrupado a isolados de goiabeira serrana e aos isolados padrões de citrus.

  3. Hidrólise do óleo da amêndoa da macaúba com lipase extracelular de "Colletotrichum gloesporioides" produzida por fermentação em substrato líquido

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Amaral de Faria

    2010-01-01

    No presente estudo foi testada a capacidade de produção de lipase extracelular pelofungo filamentoso Colletotrichum gloesporioides, por dois métodos de fermentação: emsubstrato líquido e em substrato sólido. A fermentação em substrato líquido propiciou a maior produção de lipase por este microorganismo e foi selecionado como método para a obtençãoda preparação bruta de lipase extracelular. Alíquotas da preparação bruta de lipasearmazenadas a 4°C e a -20°C não se mantiveram estáveis, apresenta...

  4. Andrómaca de Eurípides: el prólogo y la noción de unidad en la Poética de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Werner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle’s notion of unity as developed in the Poetics is used to discuss how Euripides builds the prologue of Andromache in a way that enhances the perception of the audience that the dramatic action is built into a cohesive whole, and not into a group of singular actions

  5. Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples; Agua aquecida e radiacao UV-C no controle pos-colheita de Cryptosporiopsis perennans em macas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do, E-mail: vinibart@hotmail.co, E-mail: amarante@cav.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Valdebenito-Sanhueza, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosamaria@m2net.com.b [Proterra Engenharia Agronomica, Vacaria, RS (Brazil); Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de, E-mail: suita@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de, E-mail: marar@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Fisica. Grupo de Fisica das Radiacoes

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)

  6. Effect of Lijiang Maca on the sexual function of male hemi castrated rats%丽江产玛咖对雄性半去势大鼠性功能影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曦晨; 姜京徽; 肖敏; 刘美; 陈海涛; 陈重华

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究丽江产玛咖对半去势大鼠交配能力与阴茎勃起功能的影响,评价其作用效果.方法 将♂大鼠随机分为6组,除正常对照组外,其余5组摘除右侧睾丸.正常对照、模型组(ig 10 mL·kg-1生理盐水)、阳性对照组(sc 2 mg· kg-1丙酸睾酮)及玛咖组(ig 0.64、0.32、0.16 g·kg-1玛咖)给药32 d,进行交配和勃起实验,记录骑跨潜伏期、骑跨次数、勃起潜伏期并检测血清睾酮(T)、促间质细胞激素(LH)、促精子生成素(FSH)水平、前列腺和精囊腺脏器系数等指标.结果 玛咖和丙酸睾酮能明显缩短半去势大鼠的骑跨潜伏期、勃起潜伏期,提高半去势大鼠的骑跨次数;显著降低血清中的LH水平,提高精囊腺脏器系数.结论 玛咖具有提高半去势大鼠的交配能力和阴茎勃起功能的作用,其机制可能与调整失衡的血清性激素水平有关.

  7. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  8. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  9. Sticky water surfaces: Helix-coil transitions suppressed in a cell-penetrating peptide at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schach, Denise; Globisch, Christoph; Roeters, Steven J.; Woutersen, Sander; Fuchs, Adrian; Weiss, Clemens K.; Backus, Ellen H. G.; Landfester, Katharina; Bonn, Mischa; Peter, Christine; Weidner, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    GALA is a 30 amino acid synthetic peptide consisting of a Glu-Ala-Leu-Ala repeat and is known to undergo a reversible structural transition from a disordered to an α-helical structure when changing the pH from basic to acidic values. In its helical state GALA can insert into and disintegrate lipid membranes. This effect has generated much interest in GALA as a candidate for pH triggered, targeted drug delivery. GALA also serves as a well-defined model system to understand cell penetration mechanisms and protein folding triggered by external stimuli. Structural transitions of GALA in solution have been studied extensively. However, cell penetration is an interfacial effect and potential biomedical applications of GALA would involve a variety of surfaces, e.g., nanoparticles, lipid membranes, tubing, and liquid-gas interfaces. Despite the apparent importance of interfaces in the functioning of GALA, the effect of surfaces on the reversible folding of GALA has not yet been studied. Here, we use sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) to probe the structural response of GALA at the air-water interface and IR spectroscopy to follow GALA folding in bulk solution. We combine the SFG data with molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a molecular-level picture of the interaction of GALA with the air-water interface. Surprisingly, while the fully reversible structural transition was observed in solution, at the water-air interface, a large fraction of the GALA population remained helical at high pH. This "stickiness" of the air-water interface can be explained by the stabilizing interactions of hydrophobic leucine and alanine side chains with the water surface.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05175-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 1 ( CN883882 ) 010814AASB004303HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB frui... 52 0.036 1 ( CN883035 ) 010813AASB003592HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB frui... 52 0.036 1 ( CN881967 ) 010621AASB999141HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB ...frui... 52 0.036 1 ( CN881960 ) 010621AASB999130HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB frui...0.036 1 ( CX526709 ) s13dNF25G09AT072_513930 Aphid-Infected Shoots Med... 52 0.03

  11. A Remark on the Regularity Criterion for the 3D Boussinesq Equations Involving the Pressure Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zujin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations and obtain a regularity criterion involving the pressure gradient in the Morrey-Companato space Mp,q. This extends and improves the result of Gala (Gala 2013 for the Navier-Stokes equations.

  12. Why Do Some but not All 5-year-Old Dutch Children Draw Scalar Implicatures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Myrthe; Overweg, Jennigje; van Hout, Anna; Stravakaki, Stravoula; Lalioti, Marina; Konstantinopoulou, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This book contains 51 chapters based on papers presented at the GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 2011. It thus reflects the GALA 2011 scientific presentations and discussions and raises issues that are currently at the centre of

  13. Valitsus tõmbab PPP-skeemidele pidurit? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Nii rahandusministeerium kui ka Reformierakond kahtlevad, kas Kose-Mäo teelõigu neljarealiseks ehitamisel ja Jägala sõjaväelinnaku ehitamisel oleks mõistlik kasutada PPP-skeemi. Kaitseminister Mart Laar on Jägala sõjaväelinnaku rajamise ettepaneku tagasi võtnud

  14. NMR studies of the interaction between inner membrane-associated and periplasmic cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Joana M; Brausemann, Anton; Einsle, Oliver; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with notable properties and significance in biotechnological applications. Biochemical studies suggest that the inner membrane-associated diheme cytochrome MacA and the periplasmic triheme cytochrome PpcA from G. sulfurreducens can exchange electrons. In this work, NMR chemical shift perturbation measurements were used to map the interface region and to measure the binding affinity between PpcA and MacA. The results show that MacA binds to PpcA in a cleft defined by hemes I and IV, favoring the contact between PpcA heme IV and the MacA high-potential heme. The dissociation constant values indicate the formation of a low-affinity complex between the proteins, which is consistent with the transient interaction observed in electron transfer complexes. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  16. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-03-08

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity.

  17. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho GMO; Gomes AIS; Ribeiro BG; EA. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can ...

  18. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  19. Un modelo del desarrollo del sida a nivel celular

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El desarrollo de la enfermedad del SIDA (Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida), es provocado por la acción de un virus, denominado Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH). Este virus al entrar al organismo ataca una gran variedad de células, aún cuando las células más suceptibles a ser atacadas por este virus, son las denominadas células T.

  20. 腺病毒载体介导的人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶的表达降低Galα(1,3)Gal抗原表位水平%Adenovirus-mediated expression of human secretor type a(1,2)fucosyltransferase reduces level of Gala(1,3)Gal epitop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢力; 夏国宏; 费俭; 白旭芳; 郭礼和

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To test the potential of human secretor type α(1, 2) fucosyltransferase [Seα(1,2)FT] to downregulate the expression of Galα(1,3)Gal epitope (gal epitope) in cultured cell lines. METHODS: Expression of Seα(1,2) FT was mediated by human adenoviral vector. Flow cytometric analysis was used to compare the expression level of H blood group antigen or gal epitope. MTT was employed to assess the susceptibility of mouse NIH3T3 cells to human natural antibody and complement mediated lysis. RESULTS: A recombinant replication-deficient adenovims (rAdv) containing human Seα( 1,2)FT cDNA (Ad5hSeFT) was designed and successfully constructed. Flow cytometric analysis showed that after mock infection, Ad5null infection, and Ad5hSeFT infection, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for the binding of Ulex europaeus I (UEA-I) lectin to NIH3T3 cells were 2.3 ± 0.6, 2.1 ± 1.0, and 36.5 ± 5.9, respectively; MFI values for the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GS-IB4) lectin to NIH3T3 cells were 167 ±23, 170 ± 19, and 100 ± 14, respectively; MFI values for the binding of human natural IgG and IgM antibodies to NIH3T3 cells were 31 ± 3, 32 ± 4, and 22 ± 4, respectively. CONCLUSION: H blood group antigen was detected on NIH3T3 cells after Ad5hSeFT infection and resulted in more than 40 % reduction in the level of gal epitope on the cell surface. This reduction increased the resistance of NIH3T3 cells to lysis by normal human serum.%目的:检测人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶降低Galα(1,3)Gal表位(gal表位)水平.方法:以人腺病毒载体表达人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶.流式细胞术比较H血型抗原和gal表位的表达水平.MTT法分析小鼠NIH3T3细胞对人天然抗体和补体介导的细胞裂解作用的敏感性.结果:设计并构建了表达人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶基因的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒载体Ad5hSeFT.流式细胞分析结果表明,NIH3T3细胞及Ad5null和Ad5hSeFT感染后的NIH3T3细胞,UEA-I凝集素结合细胞的平均荧光强度(MFI)分别为2.3±0.6,2.1±1.0和36.5±5.9;GS-IB4凝集素结合细胞的MFI值分别为167±23,170±19和100±14;人天然IgG和IgM抗体结合细胞的MFI值分别为31±3,32±4和22±4.结论:NIH3T3细胞被Ad5hSeFT感染后在细胞表面表达了H血型抗原,导致细胞表面gal表位的表达下降了40%,并且这种下降增强了细胞对正常人血清裂解作用的抵抗力.

  1. Agenda-Setting Evolve under the New Media Environment——It was analyzed for cctv spring festival gala reports from 2005 to 2010%新媒体环境下的"议程设置"嬗变——2005-2010年央视春晚新闻报道分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝雨; 王祎

    2010-01-01

    议程设置理论从20世纪20年代起源,经过了四个阶段的共同演进与发展,在传播学领域具有一定影响力.但进入新媒体时代之后,媒体环境的变化打破了议程设置理论的传统模式,使得如今的议程设置面临了许多新的问题.根据我国的社会文化背景,我们选取2005年至2010年5年间对于央视春晚新闻报道的标题为研究对象,可以归纳出在新媒体环境下议程设置所呈现出来的新特征.

  2. Properties of dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, B N; Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Laming, R I

    1997-05-15

    In light of recent progress in the fabrication of gallium lanthanum sulfide (GaLaS) fibers, we have modeled the performance of dysprosium-doped GaLaS fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm . Based on experimental data, we find that the incorporation of a codopant (terbium) in the fiber core significantly shortens the optimum amplifier length from >30 m to approximately 3 m . Such a device may be practical, given the fiber losses currently achieved in GaLaS fibers.

  3. In vitro mutants identification of banana (Musa sp.) with tolerance to toxin from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, treating buds with several gamma radiation doses; Identificacao in vitro de mutantes de banana maca (Musa sp.) tolerantes a toxina do Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, a partir de gemas tratadas com diferentes doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Muniz Mendes de; Houllou-Kido, Laureen Michelle; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Recife, PE (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Mutants of banana, obtained through treatment with different level of gamma-radiation (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 Gy), were initially cultivated in vitro in medium for rapid clonal propagation during 30 days. These treatment affected the shoot tips development ratio. Some plants developed necrosis and died, but some of the shoot tips emitted new gems. These material were cultivated in medium 20% of the toxin of Fusarium oxysporum cubense. During the selection period, the necrosis occurrence and death of susceptible shoot tips were observed. Whereas the tolerant shoot tips kept themselves green during the entire selection process. At the end of the selection process, eight shoot tips were obtained. (author) 7 refs.

  4. Elaboración de recursos didácticos para mejorar la lecto escritura en los niños del segundo año de Educación General Básica, de la escuela Ciudad de Macas de la comunidad Guadalupe del cantón Morona, año lectivo 2011-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mayacu Cevallos, Bethy Claudia

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende determinar la injerencia que tiene la utilización de recursos didácticos para enseñar lecto-escritura y proponer alternativas de solución para mitigar el problema planteado. La metodología utilizada para ejecutar esta investigación se fundamentó en algunas técnicas como la observación, la encuesta y la entrevista estructuradas realizadas a profesores, estudiantes y padres de familia; también acudimos a la consulta bibliográfica y lincográfica, principalmente para ...

  5. Akustika! Akustika! Akustika! / Tiiu Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Tiiu, 1940-

    2009-01-01

    Kahest kontserdist: 1. oktoobril rahvusooperis Estonia toimunud pidulikust galaõhtust, mis oli pühendatud Miliza Korjusele. 2. oktoobril Estonia kontserdisaalis Berliozi "Fausti needmine" ERSO, segakoor Latvia ja solistide ettekandes, dirigent Olari Elts

  6. Skoro v Jõhvi opredeljatsja mestnõje "Oskarõ" / Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korsten, Teet, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Jõhvi kultuuri- ja huvikeskus korraldab aprillis 2008 esimese harrastusfilmide festivali "Võlulatern". Võistluse korraldajad direktor Sandor Stefil ja noorsootöö juht Anna Maskajeva asjade seisust enne festivali algust, mille gala toimub Amadeuses 25. aprillil

  7. Jõhvis selguvad peagi kohalikud Oscarid / Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korsten, Teet, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Jõhvi kultuuri- ja huvikeskus korraldab aprillis 2008 esimese harrastusfilmide festivali "Võlulatern". Võistluse korraldajad direktor Sandor Stefil ja noorsootöö juht Anna Maskajeva asjade seisust enne festivali algust, mille gala toimub Amadeuses 25. aprillil

  8. National Pavilion Days Display Brilliant Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2010-01-01

    @@ South Africa--Rise of a Modern Economy-Ke Nako! South Africa celebrates its National Pavilion Day on August 9 with an evening gala dedicated to South African women and their contributions to freedom.

  9. Genetic analysis among selected vernonia lines through seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... 3African Center for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa. ... and widely distributed with 4 botanical varieties viz. gala- ... List of test lines, geographic locations and.

  10. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE ... for kids Learn how Maria Shriver is raising awareness FIND YOUR WALK Get help and support I ...

  11. FNLM Medical Awards | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Medicine Award winner Dr. Mehmet Oz and wife Lisa at the Awards Gala. Photo: Michael Spencer Drs. Michael Roizen and Mehmet Oz helped improve patient education and health literacy in their bestselling YOU: ...

  12. Kirev moepillerkaar / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad ja Kuldnõela gala Viru keskuses. Eesti parima moekunstniku tiitli pälvis Riina Põldroos. Kommentaarid Riina Põldroosilt, Aldo Järvsoolt, Urmas Väljaotsalt, Kirill Safonovilt. 17 ill

  13. Nokia saali laval sajab lund / Anneli Sihvart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sihvart, Anneli, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas toimuva Euroopa Filmiakadeemia aastaauhindade kätteandmise gala lavakujundusest, mille loovad Iir Hermeliin, Katrin Sipelgas ja René Vilbre. Iir Hermeliin tutvustab kujunduse kontseptsiooni "Ice Cold Story"

  14. Akustika! Akustika! Akustika! / Tiiu Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Tiiu, 1940-

    2009-01-01

    Kahest kontserdist: 1. oktoobril rahvusooperis Estonia toimunud pidulikust galaõhtust, mis oli pühendatud Miliza Korjusele. 2. oktoobril Estonia kontserdisaalis Berliozi "Fausti needmine" ERSO, segakoor Latvia ja solistide ettekandes, dirigent Olari Elts

  15. Pärnus on nädalavahetus täis ooperit / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    V. Bellini ooperist "Norma" Moskva Novaja Opera solistide, sümfooniaorkestri ja ooperikoori esituses ning galaõhtust "Bravissimo" Pärnu IV ooperipäevade raames 14.-15. juulil Pärnu Kontserdimajas

  16. Stalo izvestno imja lutshshego dizainera Estonii za proshlõi god

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kuldnõela nominentide gala toimus 7. märtsil FIBIT moepäevadel Viru Keskuses. Kuldnõela auhinna sai Riina Põldroos. Riina Põldroosi, Jaanika Sootna, Oksana Tanditi ja Tiia Orgna kollektsioonidest sõnas ja pildis

  17. The effects of sous-vide cooking parameters on texture and cell wall modifications in two apple cultivars: A response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abel; Le Meurlay, Dominique; Lara, Isabel; Symoneaux, Ronan; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in 'Mondial Gala' apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in 'Mondial Gala' apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to 'Granny Smith' samples.

  18. Shanxi Aims to Boost Nat'l Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Li Yinghong

    2007-01-01

    @@ This September 16 to 18,an international coal trade gala was held in Taiyuan,the nation's coal logistics hub,featuring 312 domestic and foreign enterprises and 115 organizations from 44 countries and regions.

  19. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  20. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  1. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-28

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice.

  2. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  3. Euroopa filmiakadeemia auhinnad asetavad Tallinna filmiuudiste keskpunkti / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas toimuva Euroopa Filmiakadeemia aastaauhindade kätteandmise gala (produtsendid Tiina Lokk, Peeter Rebane) korraldamisest ja külalistest. Šveitsi näitlejast Bruno Granzist, kes saab Euroopa Filmiakadeemia elutöö auhinna ja liibanoni heliloojast Gabriel Yaredist, kes saab auhinna panuse eest maailma filmikunsti. Euroopa Filmiakadeemia koostööpartneriks telekokkuvõtte tegemisel on ETV. Gala otseülekannet näeb Eestis

  4. 2011 Special Operations Forces Industry Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Adjourned - Free Time 6:00 PM - 7:00 PM Gala Reception Marriott Waterside Hotel - Grand Ballroom Foyer; Registration Required 7:00 PM - 10:00...PM Gala Dinner with Guest Speaker Marriott Waterside Hotel - Grand Ballroom; Registration Required  Gen James n. mattis, usmC...a modular, scalable family of computer network equipment and workstations. $500M May-11 Aug-11 SPEAR Backpack Replace existing Load Carrying System

  5. Euroopa filmiakadeemia auhinnad asetavad Tallinna filmiuudiste keskpunkti / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas toimuva Euroopa Filmiakadeemia aastaauhindade kätteandmise gala (produtsendid Tiina Lokk, Peeter Rebane) korraldamisest ja külalistest. Šveitsi näitlejast Bruno Granzist, kes saab Euroopa Filmiakadeemia elutöö auhinna ja liibanoni heliloojast Gabriel Yaredist, kes saab auhinna panuse eest maailma filmikunsti. Euroopa Filmiakadeemia koostööpartneriks telekokkuvõtte tegemisel on ETV. Gala otseülekannet näeb Eestis

  6. Effect of aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG on preharvest fruit drop and maturity of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante Cassandro Vidal Talamini do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees cultivars Gala and Fuji were sprayed four weeks before commercial harvest with aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG, at doses of 0, 125, or 250 mg L-1, and assessed for preharvest fruit drop, fruit growth, and maturation on tree. In 'Gala', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control treatment was 85%, and AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 reduced it to 10%. In 'Fuji', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control was 6%, while treatments with AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 increased fruit drop to 10%. AVG was a powerful retardant of fruit maturation for 'Gala' but not for 'Fuji'. In 'Gala', the most affected attribute was the skin background color, followed, in decreasing order, by soluble solids content, the starch index, skin red color, the flesh firmness, and titratable acidity. In 'Gala', only flesh firmness retention was improved by increasing AVG dose from 125 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The AVG at 250 mg L-1 inhibited "Gala" late fruit growth but not 'Fuji'.

  7. Intensidade de pigmentação vermelha em maçãs e sua relação com os teores de compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidativa Intensity of red pigmentation in apples and its influence onphenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danianni Marinho Zardo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos fenólicos influenciam a qualidade de maçãs e seus produtos tanto em termos de aparência e sabor quanto em propriedades nutricionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas, flavonóis e atividade antioxidante em maçãs da cultivar Gala e de duas mutações somáticas, Royal Gala e Galaxy Gala, com diferentes intensidades de pigmentação vermelha. Os teores de fenóis totais foram semelhantes nas frutas inteiras. A atividade antioxidante apresentou diferença significativa na fruta inteira, sendo que a cultivar Gala foi a que obteve maior valor (17559 µm.g-1 e a cv. Galaxy Gala, com pouca pigmentação, o menor (6160 µg.g-1. A cultivar Royal Gala apresentou valores intermediários de atividade antioxidante de 12050 µm.g-1, para as frutas com muita pigmentação vermelha, e 13546 µm.g-1 para as com pouca pigmentação. O teor de antocianinas na fruta inteira variou de 5,79 a 13,73 mg.100 g-1 e o teor de flavonóis oscilou entre 23,37 e 382,83 mg.100 g-1 nas cvs. Royal Gala e Galaxy Gala, respectivamente. Analisado nas diferentes partes das maçãs, o epicarpo apresentou a maior concentração de fenóis com aproximadamente 57% do conteúdo total e 42% da atividade antioxidante. Os compostos fenólicos e a atividade antioxidante nos sucos oxidados foram significativamente reduzidos com o escurecimento enzimático, com perdas de 69% e 83%, respectivamente. As frutas de mesma cultivar com maior e menor intensidade de cor apresentaram teores de compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante semelhantes, porém as cultivares variaram significativamente.Phenolic compounds influence the quality of apples and their products in appearance, flavor, and nutritional properties. The aim of this work was to quantify the phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, flavonols, and antioxidant activity in Gala apples and of two somatic mutations, Royal Gala and Galaxy Gala, with different

  8. Producción de IFN−γ en cultivos de linfocitos humanos por efecto de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunoduladora sobre cultivos de linfocitos T humanos de sangre periférica. Se evaluó la producción de IFN−γ inducida por los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, negro, rojo y morado de Lepidium peruvianum (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. maca. Luego de cultivar los linfocitos con los respectivos EM de maca durante 14 horas sólo el EM del ecotipo morado indujo la producción significativa de IFN−γ cuantificada mediante Elispot. El extracto metanólico del ecotipo morado de maca posee propiedades inmunoestimuladoras importantes, desencadenando la activación de linfocitos T humanos.

  9. Multiple ant colony algorithm method for selecting tag SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa; Wang, Shulin

    2012-10-01

    The search for the association between complex disease and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes has recently received great attention. Finding a set of tag SNPs for haplotyping in a great number of samples is an important step to reduce cost for association study. Therefore, it is essential to select tag SNPs with more efficient algorithms. In this paper, we model problem of selection tag SNPs by MINIMUM TEST SET and use multiple ant colony algorithm (MACA) to search a smaller set of tag SNPs for haplotyping. The various experimental results on various datasets show that the running time of our method is less than GTagger and MLR. And MACA can find the most representative SNPs for haplotyping, so that MACA is more stable and the number of tag SNPs is also smaller than other evolutionary methods (like GTagger and NSGA-II). Our software is available upon request to the corresponding author.

  10. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C.

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing experiments contribute to the four specific aims in our current 3-year project period studying lymphopoiesis using CE mammary adenocarcinoma (CE maca) mice. Specific Aim 1: Function of Bone Marrow Stroma in CE Maca Bearing Mice. We have concluded that bone marrow stromal cells from tumor bearing animals are as effective as bone marrow stromal cells from normal animals at supporting B lymphopoiesis in culture. If stromal cell disfunction occurs in tumor bearing animals, the effect is not long lasting. Specific Aim 2: Factors Elaborated by CE Maca. Conditioned medium from CE maca cultures induces bone resorbing activity in bone organ cultures. We have identified a 32 kDa protein that meets the criteria for an osteoclast specific growth factor in this medium. However, we have also found that even though an osteoclast specific growth factor exists, a growth factor whose primary targets are granulocyte precursors will also stimulate osteoclast activity. Specific Aim 3: In Vitro Systems for Investigating Modulation of NK Lymphopoiesis by CE Maca. CE maca is shown to inhibit NK all production as well as B all production. In the course of the these experiments, we have established conditions for enriching NK precursors and have established a prototype long term bone marrow culture system which shows NK cell production. Specific Aim 4: Relationship Between Myclogenic and Intrathymic T Cell Precursors. There is evidence for a stream of T all maturation in both host (or intrathymic) cells and non-host (both hematogenous and intrathymic) cells. If thymic atrophy is induced by cortisone (a depopulation equivalent to that caused by 1000 rad) our data conclusively show thymic recovery is effected almost exclusively by intrathymic cells. This assigns a much greater importance to intrathymic T all progenitors in the maintenance of T cell production in the thymus than has been hitherto recognized. (MHB)

  11. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  12. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trissolcus urichi Crawford (Hymenoptera: Scelionidade) em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Wanto, Mônyka Maria

    2012-01-01

    Diversas culturas são atacadas por percevejos fitófagos, especialmente da família Pentatomidae, que se alimentam de estruturas de plantas hospedeiras e causam danos severos, sendo as sementes e frutos imaturos os locais preferenciais para sua alimentação. Na cultura da soja, os ovos destres pentatomídeos são eficientemente parasitados por microhimenópteros pertencentes às famílias Scelionidae e Encyrtudae. Dentre as espécies de parasitóides encontradas, os gêneros Trissolcus e Telenomus apres...

  13. Evaluación del potencial de promoción del crecimiento vegetal de microorganismos aislados a partir de residuos de higerilla (Recinus communis) en zanahoria (daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Villota, Claudia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Microbiología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales, 2013 Las hortalizas representan el 85% del área sembrada en Colombia, entre ellas están la arveja, tomate, cebolla de bulbo, cebolla junca, arracacha, zanahoria, cilantro, habichuela, zapallo y repollo . Al ser atacadas por plagas y enfermedades, el agricultor realiza control químico alterando de esta manera la economía, la salud y el medio ambiente. El indiscriminado uso de fertilizantes y agroquímicos en...

  14. Mucho ruido y pocas nueces: cobertura mediática y participación ciudadana en el debate de la nueva ley de comunicación en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Debate que ha tenido como protagonista a las empresas periodísticas quienes se sienten atacadas, no tanto por las expresiones del Presidente, como por el afán del gobierno de regular actividades que, como la de la comunicación, han estado liberadas las lógicas del mercado. Su campaña mediática ha logrado simplificar la discusión a una defesa de la libertad de expresión en contra del “autoritarismo” con el que caracterizan al gobierno de Correa. El gobierno por su parte, no ha logrado incluir ...

  15. Los péptidos antimicrobianos de origen vegetal con un breve enfoque en las proteínas de transferencia de lípidos: minirevisión

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Alejandro López-Pazos; Diana-Daniela Portela; Adriana Rojas; Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de defensa de los organismos vivientes abarcan una gran gama de biomoléculas, un importante grupo de estas, son los péptidos antimicrobianos (AMP del inglés Antimicrobial Peptides). Estas péptidos forman parte de la inmunidad no específica e innata de los seres vivos y son activos contra patógenos(bacterias, hongos, virus y protozoarios). Las plantas, al ser una fuente de alimento, son atacadas pormuchas clases de microorganismos, aunque solo unos pocos les pueden causar enfermed...

  16. Apoptosis de las células beta del páncreas durante la diabetes de tipo i

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Camila; Silva, Diego G.

    2014-01-01

    La diabetes de tipo 1 se produce como resultadode la destrucción de las células â del páncreas.Durante la progresión de la enfermedad las célulasâ se ven crónicamente atacadas por uninfiltrado inflamatorio de tipo autoinmune congran cantidad de productos entre los cuales seencuentran citocinas y derivados de la oxidación.Estos compuestos son dañinos para la célulaâ, y la obligan a montar mecanismos de defensapara contrarrestar el ataque inmunológicoinespecífico. Sin embargo, y debido a lacron...

  17. Diseño e implementación de un sistema integral de gestión para manejo de los residuos sólidos generados en el área de hospedaje de la Estación Biológica Kutukú y en el área de preparación de alimentos del internado y cocina de Sevilla Don Bosco, Macas- Ecuador 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Calahorrano Ortega, Wily Alfonso; Quispe Ramos, Byron Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The design and implementation of the management system for the solid waste management that is generated in the study area, part of the diagnosis that determined the current condition of waste disposal, and allowed the evaluation of the area of study. Therefore, the design will provide sufficient information to promote a technically adequate management of the waste generated in the study area and reduce the environmental impact that the activity can produce. The fundamental objective of the sy...

  18. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  19. Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Ozzie Paez, “Emergency Managers’ Views on Improving Defense Support/ Military Assistance to Civil Authorities (DSCA/MACA) Educa - tion Programs...contrary, in fact. The prob- 74 lems that occurred during the Sandy response in most cases can be attributed largely to lack of formal educa - tion

  20. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  1. Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GustavoF.Gonzales; JulioRubio; ArturoChung; ManuelGasco; LeonVillegas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of the alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the spermatogenesisin male rats. Methods: In Holtzman rats, Maca alcoholic extract (5 %) was given by oral route at doses of 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day for 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Testicular function was assessed by measurements of lengths of different stages of seminiferous epithelia and by epididymal sperm count. Results: Ethanolic extract of Maca increased the length of stages IX-XI of seminiferous epithelium at treatment day 7, day 14 and day 21. Progression of spermatogenesis was evident only after day 21 when lengths of stages XII-XIV of seminiferous epithelium were increased; at day 7 and day 14, no important change in spermatogenesis was observed. Epididymal sperm count was increased with 48 mg/day at all times. With 96 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed at day 7, but it was reduced at day 14 and day 21 of treatment. Serum testosterone levels were not affected. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of Maca activates onset ant progression of spermatogenesis at 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day in rats.

  2. Effects of rapid antigen degradation and VEE glycoprotein specificity on immune responses induced by a VEE replicon vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, M E; Whitmore, A C; Moshkoff, D A; Fu, K; Tang, Y; Collier, M L; West, A; Moore, D T; Swanstrom, R; Johnston, R E; Davis, N L

    2008-01-05

    Genetic vaccines are engineered to produce immunogens de novo in the cells of the host for stimulation of a protective immune response. In some of these systems, antigens engineered for rapid degradation have produced an enhanced cellular immune response by more efficient entry into pathways for processing and presentation of MHC class I peptides. VEE replicon particles (VRP), single cycle vaccine vectors derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), are examined here for the effect of an increased rate of immunogen degradation on VRP vaccine efficacy. VRP expressing the matrix capsid (MA/CA) portion of SIV Gag were altered to promote rapid degradation of MA/CA by various linkages to co-translated ubiquitin or by destabilizing mutations and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for quantitation of anti-MA/CA cellular and humoral immune responses. Rapid degradation by the N-end rule correlated with a dampened immune response relative to unmodified MA/CA when the VRP carried a glycoprotein spike from an attenuated strain of VEE. In contrast, statistically equivalent numbers of IFNgamma(+)T-cells resulted when VRP expressing unstable MA/CA were packaged with the wild-type VEE glycoproteins. These results suggest that the cell types targeted in vivo by VRP carrying mutant or wild type glycoprotein spikes are functionally different, and are consistent with previous findings suggesting that wild-type VEE glycoproteins preferentially target professional antigen presenting cells that use peptides generated from the degraded antigen for direct presentation on MHC.

  3. Potencial da variedade Joaquina para o processamento de suco clarificado e vinho seco de maçã Evaluation of apple cultivar Joaquina as raw material for juice and wine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Cristina Ramos Fertonani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Na classificação das maçãs para o comércio doméstico, uma parcela de até 30% pode ser descartada. As frutas de descarte, também chamadas de industriais, apresentam potencial tecnológico e podem ser aproveitadas na fabricação de diversos produtos, como sucos e fermentados alcoólicos. Cerca de 90% da produção brasileira de maçãs correspondem as cultivares Fuji e Gala, que apresentam baixa aptidão industrial, entretanto outras cultivares podem apresentar características que tornem o produto final com qualidade superior. Assim, foi avaliado o potencial tecnológico da cultivar Joaquina para a fabricação de suco clarificado e de vinho de maçã em comparação com as cultivares Fuji e Gala. Maçãs das cultivares Fuji e Gala foram obtidas no comercio local e da cultivar Joaquina, colocadas à disposição pela Estação Experimental de São Joaquim (Epagri. O suco clarificado e o vinho de maçã foram obtidos em bancada de laboratório com protocolos definidos. O suco varietal da Joaquina, quando comparado físico-quimicamente com os da Fuji e da Gala não diferiu significativamente, porém os julgadores em avaliação sensorial atribuíram-lhe as menores notas (3,78, com alto grau de rejeição (64%. O vinho varietal da maçã Joaquina, físico-quimicamente idêntico aos da Fuji e da Gala, foi considerado de aceitação semelhante ao da Gala (4,52 sendo o da Fuji (3,80 absolutamente rejeitado, com 67%. Assim, a maçã da variedade Joaquina pode ser usada com parcimônia no processamento de suco e com segurança na produção de vinho.The classification process of apples to domestic market, around 30% can be considered as a sub-product, but still with some economical value: they are the so-called industrial fruits. They have a very high technological potential and can be used in the processing of many food products, as apple juices and alcoholic beverage. Around 90% of the apple production are related to Fuji and Gala varieties

  4. A green analytical method for rapid determination of pectin degree of esterification using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Mahsa; Larsen, Jan; Georgiou, Constantinos; Olsen, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    A novel method for automated determination pectin degree of esterification (DE) using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve (μSI-LOV) system is developed. A face-centered central composite response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise system parameters. A calibration graph for determination of non-esterified galacturonic acid (GalA) content in pectin solutions with linear range of 0.08-0.34% (w/v) and the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.057% (w/v) under optimal condition was achieved. The difference between concentrations (w/v, %) of total GalA and non-esterified GalA was applied to estimate DE (%) of pectin samples. Results indicated a good agreement (tstatmanual reference method. The current method provided precision of less than 6% RSD, (n=10) with sample throughput of 15 samples h(-1). The presented method requires remarkably low consumption of sample and reagents and is thereby environmental friendly.

  5. Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3- mu m transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Hewak, D. W.; Samson, B. N.; Payne, D. N.

    1996-10-01

    Infrared emission at 1.8, 2.9, and 4.3 mu m is measured in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ga:La:S) glass excited at 815 nm. Emission cross sections were calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis, the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg equation, and the theory of McCumber. The sigma tau value for the 4.3- mu m transition is \\similar 4000 times larger in the Ga:La:S glass than in a dysprosium-doped LiYF4 crystal, which has lased on this transition. The large sigma tau value and the recently reported ability of Ga:La:S glass to be fabricated into fiber form show the potential for an efficient, low-threshold mid-infrared fiber laser. The fluorescence peak at 4.3 mu m coincides with the fundamental absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide, making the glass a potential laser source for gas-sensing applications.

  6. Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3-microm transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Samson, B N; Payne, D N

    1996-10-01

    Infrared emission at 1.8, 2.9, and 4.3 microm is measured in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ga:La:S) glass excited at 815 nm. Emission cross sections were calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis, the Füchtbauer- Ladenburg equation, and the theory of McCumber. The sigmatau value for the 4.3-microm transition is ~4000 times larger in the Ga:La:S glass than in a dysprosium-doped LiYF(4) crystal, which has lased on this transition. The large sigmatau value and the recently reported ability of Ga:La:S glass to be fabricated into fiber form show the potential for an efficient, low-threshold mid-infrared fiber laser. The f luorescence peak at 4.3 microm coincides with the fundamental absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide, making the glass a potential laser source for gas-sensing applications.

  7. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  8. Two-step enzymatic fingerprinting of sugar beet pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Broxterman, S; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2014-08-01

    A two-step enzymatic fingerprinting method was introduced to analyze a highly methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectin having a degree of methylesterification (DM) of 62 and acetylation of 30. A cocktail of pectolytic enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase II (endo-PGII) and pectin lyase (PL), was used for the first digestion. The endo-PGII and PL resistant pectin fragments were isolated and subjected to a second digestion using fungal pectin methylesterase and endo-PGII. After the two sequential digestions, 78% of the total GalA residues present in the parental pectin were recovered as mono- and oligomers, which were used to quantitatively describe the parental SBP. For this reason, the descriptive parameters degree of blockiness (DBabs), degree of hydrolysis by PG (DHPG) and degree of hydrolysis by PL (DHPL) were established for both digestions. The first digestion revealed the presence of short blocks of nonesterified GalA residues and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues in the parental SBP, in addition to blocks of highly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues. The second digestion revealed the presence of blocks of methylesterified, partly methylesterified and/or acetylated GalA residues in a sequence not to be degradable by neither endo-PGII nor by PL. The acetyl groups were present in an blockwise manner. Application of the method to two differently prepared DM 50 SBPs showed that the two pectins differ in the ratio of blocks of nonesterified and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues.

  9. Síntese de trans-resveratrol e controle de podridão em maçãs com uso de elicitores em pós-colheita Synthesis of trans-resveratrol and rotting control in apples with use of elicitors in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Kaehler Sautter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de elicitores abióticos na biossíntese de resveratrol e na indução de resistência à podridão póscolheita de maçãs 'Gala' e 'Fuji'. Foram realizados os tratamentos: radiação ultravioleta, fosfito e acibenzolar-Smetil - aplicados antes do armazenamento - e ozônio - aplicado intermitente durante o armazenamento. As condições de armazenamento foram: 'Gala', 1,5 kPa de O2 e 2,5 kPa de CO2, a 0,5±0,1ºC, por oito meses, e 'Fuji', 1,0 kPa de O2 e fosfito> irradiação UV-C> ozônio. Na maçã 'Gala', o fosfito reduz a ocorrência de podridão, porém, em ambas as cultivares, não há correlação entre síntese de trans-resveratrol e controle de podridão.The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of the application of abiotic elicitors of resveratrol in 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apples, and rotting control. The treatment was with ultraviolet irradiation, phosphite and acibenzolar-Smethyl, applied before controlled atmosphere storage and ozone, applied so intermittently during storage. The storage conditions were: 'Gala' (1.5 kPa O2 and 2.5 kPa CO2, at 0.5±0.1°C by eight months and 'Fuji' (1.0 kPa O2 and phosphite>UV-C irradiation>ozone. There isn't correlation between synthesis of trans-resveratrol and rotting control, but the phosphite controlled rot in 'Gala'.

  10. Pavlovi protivnici u Galaciji

    OpenAIRE

    Matak, Dragutin

    1993-01-01

    Nije moguće dati direktni odgovor na pitanje: "Tko su bili Pavlovi protivnici u Galaciji?" Smatra se da je najcjelovitiji pristup rekonstrukciji lažnih učitelja u Galaciji "čitanje u ogledalu", kada se iz odgovora nastoji oblikovati pitanje i utvrditi identitet onih koji ga postavljaju. Autor najprije navodi zaključke značajnijih komentatora Poslanice Galaćanima. Zatim, na osnovi kratke analize tekstova iz Poslanice Galaćanima zaključuje da su Pavlovi protivnici u Galaciji ...

  11. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yao; Zhenxing Shi; Guixing Ren

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results s...

  12. Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.; Castro-Urgal, R.

    2012-01-01

    We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well...... as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possible routes to the Gala´pagos....

  13. Exome screening to identify loss-of-function mutations in the rhesus macaque for development of preclinical models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Adam S; Gibbs, Robert M; Norgren, Robert B

    2016-03-02

    Exome sequencing has been utilized to identify genetic variants associated with disease in humans. Identification of loss-of-function mutations with exome sequencing in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could lead to valuable animal models of genetic disease. Attempts have been made to identify variants in rhesus macaques by aligning exome data against the rheMac2 draft genome. However, such efforts have been impaired due to the incompleteness and annotation errors associated with rheMac2. We wished to determine whether aligning exome reads against our new, improved rhesus genome, MacaM, could be used to identify high impact, loss-of-function mutations in rhesus macaques that would be relevant to human disease. We compared alignments of exome reads from four rhesus macaques, the reference animal and three unrelated animals, against rheMac2 and MacaM. Substantially more reads aligned against MacaM than rheMac2. We followed the Broad Institute's Best Practice guidelines for variant discovery which utilizes the Genome Analysis Toolkit to identify high impact mutations. When rheMac2 was used as the reference genome, a large number of apparent false positives were identified. When MacaM was used as the reference genome, the number of false positives was greatly reduced. After examining the variant analyses conducted with MacaM as reference genome, we identified two putative loss-of-function mutations, in the heterozygous state, in genes related to human health. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations. We followed the transmission of one of these mutations (in the butyrylthiocholine gene) through three generations of rhesus macaques. Further, we demonstrated a functional decrease in butyrylthiocholinesterase activity similar to that observed in human heterozygotes with loss-of-function mutations in the same gene. The new MacaM genome can be effectively utilized to identify loss-of-function mutations in rhesus macaques without generating a high level of

  14. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods: Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (~0.40 arcsec) resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 μm, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio gala

  15. Muusikamaailm : Hooaja algus Kuninglikus Ooperis. Gian Carlo Menotti Helsingis. Messiaeni ooper heliplaadil. Salzburgi festivali ette Ruzicka / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Londoni Royal Opera House avati 1. dets. galaõhtuga pärast 2 aastat kestnud ümberehitusi. Seoses oma ooperi "Konsul" uuslavastusega Soome Rahvusooperis viibis Helsingis C. G. Menotti. O. Messiaeni ainus ooper "Püha Franciscus Assisist" jõudis heliplaadile. Salzburgi festivali kunstiliseks juhiks aastast 2001 valiti P. Ruzicka

  16. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chicago National Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project ... help us change the way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on ...

  17. Võlgades nõunik küsib ministriga õhtustamise eest 4000 krooni / Merike Ojasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasson, Merike

    2002-01-01

    Maksuvõlgades osaühing Prime Time, mille omanik on rahandusministri nõunik Rain Rosimannus ja tegevjuht Tõnis Kons Res Publicast, kutsuvad ettevõtjaid pidulikule galaõhtusöögile, mille eest peab iga osavõtja tasuma 4012 krooni

  18. The Cultural Impact on the Traditional Spring Festival Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳

    2015-01-01

    Spring Festival will surely be considered as the most important festival among Chinese colorful occasions.This study attempts to analyze several typical rituals of Spring Festival from the cultural aspects,digging out the cultural factors and cultur-al connotation from the activity like the Family Reunion Dinner,Spring Couplets,the Spring Festival Gala,etc.

  19. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  20. Производители мяса: ставка на качество / Ольга Кудрявцева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кудрявцева, Ольга

    2011-01-01

    Maailma toiduaineteturu trendiks on toorainete kallinemisest tingitud hinnatõus. Eesti lihatööstused investeerivad praegu oma toodete kvaliteedi parandamisse. AS Rakvere Lihakombinaat on omandanud 98,84% Jelgavas Galas Kombinats aktsiatest. AS-i Rakvere Lihakombinaat ja Uvic AS-i juhtide kommentaare

  1. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  2. "Ruumi" elutubade top

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Andekamaid leiutisi ja ilusaimaid asju maailma arhitektidelt ja disaineritelt - Barbara Dujardini ja Michael Hofmani sissetõmmatav rõdu, disainiklassiku Finn Juhli romantiline sohva "Poet", John Braueri läbipaistev laudlina imiteeriv lauake, Gala Writhi õhus hõljuv lamamistool, Kalle-Priit Pruudeni diivanid ja lillemustriline tool "Luisa" disainistuudiolt GAMplusFRATESI ning kell disainirühmituselt Thwart Design

  3. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  4. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  5. Rock’s Yesterday Once More

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Influential Chinese rock stars,many middle-aged,make an effort to keep the music young It was a rare gathering of rock stars.On the evening of August 27 at Beijing Workers’Stadium,one of the most sensational galas in the history of Chinese rock and roll was put on.

  6. Võlgades nõunik küsib ministriga õhtustamise eest 4000 krooni / Merike Ojasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasson, Merike

    2002-01-01

    Maksuvõlgades osaühing Prime Time, mille omanik on rahandusministri nõunik Rain Rosimannus ja tegevjuht Tõnis Kons Res Publicast, kutsuvad ettevõtjaid pidulikule galaõhtusöögile, mille eest peab iga osavõtja tasuma 4012 krooni

  7. Dynamics of ascorbic acid in ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Gala’ apples during on-tree development and storage in atmospheres conducive to internal browning development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The underlying causes as well as chemical and biochemical alleviation for CO2-induced browning in apple fruit are poorly understood. Ascorbic acid (AsA) dynamics in ‘Braeburn,’ a susceptible cultivar, and ‘Gala,’ a resistant cultivar, were evaluated during on-tree development and storage at 0.5' C ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHP817 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inbrain parietal lobe. 42 0.045 2 CN884777 |CN884777.1 010815AASB006570HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Ma...lus x domestica cDNA clone AASB006570, mRNA sequence. 38 0.095 2 DT040596 |AC011020_9 putative receptor prot

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFK775 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A008546, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB)... Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN902319 |CN902

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHB575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Roya...l Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CV150833 |CV150833.1

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHD321 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN8

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFI163 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 68 3e-07 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA se

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHA891 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHC281 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB...004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequ

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHC749 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ping fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-10 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHD180 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d at 0.5 degrees C for 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB...004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHM895 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available under low oxygen/high CO2 Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABDA004496, mRNA sequence. 103 2e-18 1 CN883016 |CN883016.1 010813AASB...003555HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB003555, mRNA seq

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHA156 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal ...Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CV150833 |CV150833.1 M

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHC526 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHA610 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce. 74 4e-12 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB ...fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 020813AARA0085

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFK555 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequenc

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHC140 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apple fruit development, complete cds. 72 2e-08 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala ...10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 020813

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFI736 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Ma...lus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 020813AARA008546HT (AA

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHE460 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PMENT. ;, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit ...Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 020813AARA008546HT (

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHA777 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN895

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHA546 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN895

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHC118 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB0048

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHE175 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ca cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gal...a 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHC564 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SSED DURING APPLE FRUIT DEVELOPMENT. ;, mRNA sequence. 50 0.009 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 50 0.009 1 CN875989 |C

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHD110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHD807 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN8

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHA279 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone PP_LEa0014A23f, mRNA sequence. 74 9e-12 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10... DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 020813AA

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHC616 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB)... Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence.

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFI741 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 74 4e-12 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal G...ala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN875989 |CN875989.1 02

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHD620 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C for 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHC309 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or 24 hours Malus x domestica cDNA clone ABCA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB...) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHC634 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA005552, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit ...Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CN895049 |CN89

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHC111 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877,...omestica mRNA for protein abundantly expressed during apple fruit development, complete cds. 72 1e-08 1 CN88

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHE290 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f, mRNA sequence. 74 4e-12 2 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB...004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus x domestica cDNA clone AASB

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHA117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 52, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CN883223 |CN883223.1 010813AASB004877HT (AASB) Royal Gala 10 DAFB fruit Malus ...x domestica cDNA clone AASB004877, mRNA sequence. 72 1e-08 1 CV150833 |CV150833.1

  1. Drug: D06801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly) Alpinia Officinarum Rhizome Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan ...D06801 Crude, Drug Alpinia offcinarum rhizome (JP16) Kaempferide [CPD:C10098], Gala...ngin [CPD:C10044], 1,8-Cineole [CPD:C09844], Pinene [CPD:C06077], Eugenol [CPD:C10453], Kaempferol [CPD:C059

  2. Teatriaasta tähendusi I - prügikottidest nabasärgid ja linased hamed / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti teatri aasta meediakajastustest. Peatutakse põhliselt "Postimehe" artiklitel ja ETV teatriloofilmidel (filmid Ugalast, Linnateatrist ja Vanemuisest), samuti teatripäeva galaõhtul Vanemuises, kus etendati Andrus Kivirähki kirjutatud ja Ain Mäeotsa lavastatud "Teatriparadiisi"

  3. 国际交流(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka——Beyond Your Dreams斯里兰卡——"飞越你的梦想"A gala dinner,with the theme Beyond Your Dreams,was hosted by the Sri Lankan Embassy in Beijing on March 3 to celebrate the successful conclusion of the

  4. Effect of location in the canopy on the colour development of three apple cultivars during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unuk, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Germsek, B.; Zadravec, P.; Vogrin, A.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homogeneity in appearance is one of the quality aspects asked for in the supply chain. Decreasing the biological variation in batches of harvested apples (cultivars Braeburn, Fuji and Gala) becomes increasingly important. Skin colour is one of the aspects that determine both optimal

  5. The Grand Tour A look at 2007’s Venice Biennale, 38 Art Basel and Documenta 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diana; Freundl

    2007-01-01

    ■The world’s most prestigious art shows teamed up in Europe this spring to create a European art tour that offered an unparalleled opportunity to examine contemporary art from around the world.It was an endless experience of gala

  6. Maailma jalgpallis valitseb nooruslik uljus / Aet Süvari, Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Täna õhtul selgub Zürichis rahvusvahelise jalgpalliliidu FIFA galaõhtul, kes on 2007. aasta parim jalgpallur. Sõelale on jäänud kolm meest - Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, Lionel Andres Messi ja Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite

  7. Muusikamaailm : Hooaja algus Kuninglikus Ooperis. Gian Carlo Menotti Helsingis. Messiaeni ooper heliplaadil. Salzburgi festivali ette Ruzicka / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Londoni Royal Opera House avati 1. dets. galaõhtuga pärast 2 aastat kestnud ümberehitusi. Seoses oma ooperi "Konsul" uuslavastusega Soome Rahvusooperis viibis Helsingis C. G. Menotti. O. Messiaeni ainus ooper "Püha Franciscus Assisist" jõudis heliplaadile. Salzburgi festivali kunstiliseks juhiks aastast 2001 valiti P. Ruzicka

  8. 2008 Beijing Auto Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automakers wage war over Chinese market Athletes from around the world will contend for gold this August during the Beijing Olympic Games, but before the sports gala begins, automakers are already locked in an intense competition of their own to see which will catch the most Chinese buyers.

  9. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  10. Desarrrollo de habilidades sociales en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Gloria Hidalgo; Nureya Abarca

    1990-01-01

    paldedesarrollodehabilidadessocialesenuniversitarioschilenosquepresentandíficitsdeasertividad.Atravésdetrescuestionariosdeautoreporteaplicadosa300estudiantesuniversitariostomadosalazar(lBSdeMaugeryAdkinson,1978;SAndeWatsonyFriend,]969;CSESdeGalassiyGalassi,1974),seseleccionaron45sujetoscondificultadesenasertividad.Fueronsometidosalassiguientesme-dicionesbasales:(1)Autoreportes(lBS,SAn,FNE,SISST);(2)Evaluaciónconductualenunasituaciónde"rechazodepetición";(3)PruebaFisiológica(GSR).Lossujetossed...

  11. Moeuudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Kodukollektsioonid on valminud moedisaineritel : Dolce & Gabbanal, Versacel, Armanil, Ralph Laurenil, Guccil, Christian Lacroix'il, kodutekstiilide tootmist alustas Tocca. Kirjastuse 'Conde Nast' poolt venekeelse 'Vogue'i' väljaandmise algust tähistava galaürituse ärajäämisest 10. septembril Moskvas. Loetletud neid, kellel jäi Venemaale sõitmata.. Luksmantel koerale Burberrylt.

  12. Moeuudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Kodukollektsioonid on valminud moedisaineritel : Dolce & Gabbanal, Versacel, Armanil, Ralph Laurenil, Guccil, Christian Lacroix'il, kodutekstiilide tootmist alustas Tocca. Kirjastuse 'Conde Nast' poolt venekeelse 'Vogue'i' väljaandmise algust tähistava galaürituse ärajäämisest 10. septembril Moskvas. Loetletud neid, kellel jäi Venemaale sõitmata.. Luksmantel koerale Burberrylt.

  13. Impacto da intensificação da densidade de plantio na rentabilidade em duas cultivares de macieira em Fraiburgo-SC Economic analysis of investment in the agribusiness of the apples in Fraiburgo, state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leomar Kreuz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio da maçã, com base em pomares existentes na região de Fraiburgo-SC. Detalham-se os custos de produção das cultivares Gala e Fuji implantadas em sistemas de alta e superalta densidade. Os resultados indicam ser apenas mediana a rentabilidade do agronegócio em análise. A intensificação tecnológica via ampliação da densidade de plantio, propicia um incremento na rentabilidade. O mesmo pode ser dito da cultivar Fuji em relação à cultivar Gala.The present article aims at analyzing the production costs, profitability and risks involved in the apple agro-business concerning two varieties grown in Fraiburgo, Brazil: Gala and Fuji. Production costs, profitability and risks involved in this activity are described based on two plant densities. The methodology, based on the discounted cash flow, generated return and risk indicators. These indicators show medium profitability associated with this agro-business. Nevertheless use of technology, measured by plant density, improves profitability, as well as to change cultivar Gala by Fuji.

  14. Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen Luisa; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    Westera, W., Berta, R., Moreno-Ger, P., Bellotti, F., Nadolski, R., Padrón-Nápoles, C. L., Boyle, L., Beligan, D., & Baalsrud Hauge, J. (2013, December 12). Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming. Presentation on the GALA project review meeting. Luxembourg: European Commission.

  15. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crowne Plaza Park View Wuzhou Beijing Crowne Plaza Park View Wuzhou Beijing,the officially appointed hotel of The Rock-Record 30th Anniversary Concert in the Bird’s Nest,provides a high standard of service both in accommodation and dining areas.A celebration Gala Dinner was held in the hotel’s Crowne Ballroom after the successful

  16. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan as a tank mix when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘O’Henry’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 31 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 9 Apr (shuck split to 10% shuck...

  17. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014 (Flameprince)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Flameprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 3 Apr (shuck split to 10% s...

  18. Efficacy of Prophyt plus Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Julyprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 2 Apr (shuck split to 10% sh...

  19. 100-day Countdown Celebrated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The spring comes,and the summer is not far away.In the approaching green season,China will hold a grand sport meeting,which Chinese and other nations thirst for.Chinese people welcomed the upcoming Olympic Games in various Ways on April 30,100 days ahead of the gala.

  20. Maailma jalgpallis valitseb nooruslik uljus / Aet Süvari, Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Täna õhtul selgub Zürichis rahvusvahelise jalgpalliliidu FIFA galaõhtul, kes on 2007. aasta parim jalgpallur. Sõelale on jäänud kolm meest - Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, Lionel Andres Messi ja Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite

  1. Jourism Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Germany Fever at Soccer Gala If Germans love sport, they truly adore soccer, both as players and fans in the stands! As the host nation of the 2006 FIFA World Cup tournament, it again opens its arms to the whole world! Brandenburg Gate Erected in the late 1700s by the Prussian authorities

  2. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  3. Pärnumaa "Kultuuripärl" on Bruno Sõmeri / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    28. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas toimunud Pärnumaa kultuuri- ja sporditegijate aastalõpu galaõhtul "Tähesära 2006" pälvisid teisete seas preemiad ka lauluõpetaja Anne Uusna, laulukonkursi "Sügisulg" korraldaja Helen Erastus, koorijuht Toomas Voll, rahvatantsurühma Kajakas juht Rita Mändla ja kunstnik Toomas Kuusing

  4. A comparison of the activities of three beta-galactosidases in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, JH; Mckenzie, D

    2005-01-01

    The hydrolytic activities of beta-galactosidases from three different sources have been determined in various 50% (v/v) organic solvent-buffer mixtures with a view to finding solvent systems of reduced water content suitable for the synthesis of glycosides and oligosaccharides. K. fragilis beta-gala

  5. The Legend of a Chinese Centenarian Uniting a Chinese and French City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Brighter Is The Hometown’s Moon-the 2010 China Zhenjiang Mid-Autumn Festival Gala-was held in the evening of Sept. 22 at the city’s Beiguwan Square. Over a thousand well-known personages of Zhenjiang origin from home and broad,

  6. Jänes, Rebane ja Ilves Euroopa filmi suures plaanis / Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Piret, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    4. dets. 2010 toimunud Euroopa Filmiakadeemia filmiauhindade kätteandmise gala teleülekandest ETV-s, mida kommenteerisid Karlo Funk ja Ilmar Raag. Õhtujuhid: saksa koomik Anke Engelke ja eesti näitleja Märt Avandi. Režissöör Jaak Kilmi vaheklipid. Galal viibis ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves koos abikaasaga

  7. Filmiauhindade galat võib jälgida ka ETVst / Hanno Tomberg ; intervjueerinud Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Hanno, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas Solarise Keskuses toimuvat 23. Euroopa Filmiauhindade gala kannab üle Eesti Televisioon. Õhtut juhivad eesti näitleja Märt Avandi ja saksa koomik Anke Engelke. Intervjuu ERRI juhatuse liikme Hanno Tombergiga. ETV otseülekandest

  8. Näost näha, et näitleja! / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    4. dets. 2010 toimunud Euroopa Filmiakadeemia aastaauhindade kätteandmise gala teleülekandest ETV-s, mida kommenteerisid Karlo Funk ja Ilmar Raag. Õhtujuhid: saksa koomik Anke Engelke ja eesti näitleja Märt Avandi

  9. EFA juht: "Eesti peaks oma kino üle uhkust tundma" / Marion Döring ; intervjueerinud Andreas Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Döring, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia tegevdirektor Marion Döring Euroopa filmikunstist, huvist Euroopa filmide vastu, Baltimaade ja Eesti kinost, Eesti filmist "Püha Tõnu kiusamine", EFA gala ja PÖFF-i koostoimumisest, Tallinna kultuuripealinna aastast, EFA galast jm. Samas EFA filmiauhindadest, Eesti esindajad EFA-s, Eesti filmide edust Euroopas

  10. Tallinlased kostitavad Euroopa filmitähti / Andreas Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Eesti-poolne korraldaja Ave Ungro projektist "Kino kiikab kööki", mille raames kostitavad Tallinna kodud Euroopa Filmiakadeemia gala külalisi. EFA külalist võõrustavast kunstnik Andres Lõost ja kino "Sõprus" loovjuhist Tiina Savist

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357137776 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctomannan galactosyltransferase 1-like Brachypodium distachyon MARALGDALLFSAGAAVATV...024:2964 3398:2964 4447:4420 4734:4420 38820:4420 4479:4420 359160:2412 147368:2211 147385:2211 15367:2211 15368:2211 PREDICTED: gala

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357152031 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctomannan galactosyltransferase 1-like Brachypodium distachyon MASESAPFCLSGTGGGKGAA...024:2964 3398:2964 4447:4420 4734:4420 38820:4420 4479:4420 359160:2412 147368:2211 147385:2211 15367:2211 15368:2211 PREDICTED: gala

  13. Производители мяса: ставка на качество / Ольга Кудрявцева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кудрявцева, Ольга

    2011-01-01

    Maailma toiduaineteturu trendiks on toorainete kallinemisest tingitud hinnatõus. Eesti lihatööstused investeerivad praegu oma toodete kvaliteedi parandamisse. AS Rakvere Lihakombinaat on omandanud 98,84% Jelgavas Galas Kombinats aktsiatest. AS-i Rakvere Lihakombinaat ja Uvic AS-i juhtide kommentaare

  14. Fruit dry matter concentration: a new quality metric for apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John W; Harker, F Roger; Tustin, D Stuart; Johnston, Jason

    2010-12-01

    In the fresh apple market fruit must be crisp and juicy to attract buyers to purchase again. However, recent studies have shown that consumer acceptability could be further enhanced by improving taste. This study evaluates the use of fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) as a new fruit quality metric for apple. Fruit samples collected at harvest, in the two main fruit growing regions of New Zealand, showed a variation in mean fruit DMC from 130 to 156 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and with 'Scifresh' from 152 to 176 g kg(-1). Individual fruit DMC showed a larger range, from 108 to 189 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and from 125 to 201 g kg(-1) with 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC proved a more reliable predictor of total soluble solids after 12 weeks of air storage at 0.5 °C than TSS at harvest for both 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC was also positively related to flesh firmness, although this relationship was not as strong as that seen with soluble solids and was more dependent on cultivar. Consumer studies showed that consumer preference was positively related to fruit DMC of 'Royal Gala' apples. Fruit DMC can therefore be measured before or at harvest, and be used to predict the sensory potential for the fruit after storage. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Development of Broadband VLBI System and its Application to T&F Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Ujihara, Hideki; Kondo, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Miyauchi, Yuka; Kawai, Eiji; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shingo; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Hanado, Yuko; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Komuro, Jun-ichi; Terada, Kenjiro; Namba, Kunitaka; Takahashi, Rumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takatoshi; Aoki, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a new broadband VLBI system, named GALA-V, for frequency comparison. Atomic time standards connected to transportable small antennas are compared via broadband VLBI observation with large diameter antenna. Disadvantages of small antenna in sensitivity is compensated (1) by ten times wider frequency range of observation and (2) by joint observation with large diameter antenna. NICT has originally developed broadband feed system (6.5-15GHz) for Kashima 34m radio telescope. The system development and performance evaluation of the Gala-V system are being conducted at NICT (Koganei)- NMIJ (Tsukuba) baseline, where both NICT and NMIJ are institutes of maintaining their UTC.The broadband GALA-V system is designed to be compatible with the VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System), which is the next generation geodetic VLBI system promoted by the IVS. We have successfully made the first VLBI observation between the new Ishioka 13m VGOS antenna of GSI and Kashima 34m antenna. Additionally super broadband VLBI observation over 8GHz bandwidth, and coherent signal synthesis for quite high delay resolution were achieved for the first time in the world. This paper will report recent progress of the broadband system development and results of frequency comparison experiments with the GALA-V system.

  16. Mechanisms of Pantoea agglomerans Strain E325 as Antagonist of Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325, the active ingredient in Bloomtime Biological (superscript)TM, was originally isolated from apple blossoms and selected based on broad screening with detached crab apple flowers. To evaluate pH modification on Gala apple stigmas as a possible mode of antagonism, exud...

  17. Tibetan Cultural Heritages under Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTERS

    2011-01-01

    @@ From the annual grand gala celebrating the Spring Festival on the state broadcaster China Central Television to the World Expo in Shanghai in 2010,Tibetan culture is a highlight in the show,which has grabbed the attention of domestic and international audience with its uniqueness and rich diversity.

  18. Antibacterial Effect of Five Zingiberaceae Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Orapin Kerdchoechuen; Natta Laohakunjit; Krittika Norajit

    2007-01-01

    Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, gala...

  19. The ionic interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae K2 capsule and core lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Sandra; Jiménez, Natalia; Izquierdo, Luis; Merino, Susana; Corsaro, Maria Michela; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Naldi, Teresa; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M

    2006-06-01

    The complete structures of LPS core types 1 and 2 from Klebsiella pneumoniae have been described by other authors. They are characterized by a lack of phosphoryl residues, but they contain galacturonic acid (GalA) residues, which contribute to the necessary negative charges. The presence of a capsule was determined in core-LPS non-polar mutants from strains 52145 (O1 : K2), DL1 (O1 : K1) and C3 (O8 : K66). O-antigen ligase (waaL) mutants produced a capsule. Core mutants containing the GalA residues were capsulated, while those lacking the residues were non capsulated. Since the proteins involved in the transfer of GalA (WabG) and glucosamine residues (WabH) are known, the chemical basis of the capsular-K2-cell-surface association was studied. Phenol/water extracts from K. pneumoniae 52145DeltawabH waaL and 52145DeltawaaL mutants, but not those from from K. pneumoniae 52145DeltawabG waaL mutant, contained both LPS and capsular polysaccharide, even after hydrophobic chromatography. The two polysaccharides were dissociated by gel-filtration chromatography, eluting with detergent and metal-ion chelators. From these results, it is concluded that the K2 capsular polysaccharide is associated by an ionic interaction to the LPS through the negative charge provided by the carboxyl groups of the GalA residues.

  20. Belgia kuningas Albert II ja kuninganna Paola jõudsid Eestsse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eestisse saabusid riigivisiidile Belgia kuningas Albert II ja kuninganna Paola. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves võtsid külalised vastu Kadriorus. Päeva ametliku osa lõpetas galaõhtusöök Mustpeade majas, kus riigipead kõne pidasid

  1. Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen Luisa; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    Westera, W., Berta, R., Moreno-Ger, P., Bellotti, F., Nadolski, R., Padrón-Nápoles, C. L., Boyle, L., Beligan, D., & Baalsrud Hauge, J. (2013, December 12). Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming. Presentation on the GALA project review meeting. Luxembourg: European Commission.

  2. Taste and appearance in the supply chain, where to start? spatial distribution of colour, sugars and acids in growing apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadar, N.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Urbanek Krajnc, A.; Tojnko, S.; Unuk, T.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were taken from apple flesh while at the tree ('Gala' and 'Pinova') using a biopsy sampling system. After sampling the wound was closed with vaseline, which prevented wound responses. Samples were taken at different times over the circumference of the apples (at about 70 above the

  3. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  4. Thidiazuron effects on shoot growth, return bloom, fruit set and nutrition of apples Efeito do thidiazuron no crescimento, no florescimento, na frutificação e na nutrição em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g ha-1 of a.i. in order to evaluate its effects on plant growth and development, return bloom, fruit set, nutrition, and fruit yield. Fruit set increased with TDZ dose in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ did not affect fruit yield in any cultivar. In 'Gala', the return bloom was reduced in about 50% at TDZ doses of 10 or 20 g ha-1. TDZ increased shoot growth in both cultivars. In leaves, TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and Mg in 'Gala' and of Mg in 'Fuji', but did not affect the chlorophyll content, leaf area, length, width, and dry mass per cm² regardless of cultivar. In fruits, the effect of TDZ varied according to the portion evaluated. Highest doses of TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and K in 'Gala' and of K in 'Fuji' in the entire fruits (flesh + skin; in the skin, highest doses of TDZ reduced the levels of N, Ca, and Mg in both cultivars, in addition to the level of K in 'Fuji'.Macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh., cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas na plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ nas doses de 0, 5, 10 e 20 g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo com o objetivo de serem avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, florescimento, nutrição, frutificação e rendimento de frutos. A frutificação efetiva aumentou com a dose de TDZ na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de frutos em nenhuma cultivar. Na cultivar Gala o florescimento no ano posterior ao da aplicação de TDZ foi reduzido em cerca de 50% nas doses de 10 e 20 g ha-1. O TDZ promoveu aumento no crescimento dos ramos do ano em ambas as cultivares. Nas folhas, o aumento nas doses de TDZ reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na cultivar Gala, e de Mg na cultivar Fuji mas não afetou o conteúdo de clorofila, área, comprimento, diâmetro e massa seca cm-2 da folha, em ambas as cultivares. Em frutos inteiros

  5. MAQF/MAC:A New QoS Provisioning MAC Mechanism for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOYinxion; WANGHaoxing; WANXiang

    2003-01-01

    QoS provisioning is not an easy problem under the time varying and dynamic environment of MANET.Based on MANET Adaptive QoS Framework(MAQF)and through improving the scheme of MACA/PR,a new mechanism MAQF/MAC that can provide MAC layer QoS guarantees for MANET has been presented.MAQF/MAC can measure the variation of resource in real time,change the channel access policy and adapt the amount of resource captured by trafflc.In addition,this paper also concerns some key components of MAQF/MAC,including reservation table(RT),QoS routing,resource compression algorithm and etc.Simulation result show that MAQF/MAC ls superior to MACA/PR in the aspects of multi-level trafflc QoS provisioning and resource utilization.

  6. Novel O-D-galacturonoyl esters in the pectic polysaccharides of suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Fry, S C

    1993-11-01

    Driselase digestion of uronate-6-14C-labeled primary walls of cultured spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cells yielded about 18 novel uronate-containing compounds, most of which could be hydrolyzed by cold dilute alkali to yield oligo-[14C]galacturonides. One typical Driselase digestion product (compound 17) yielded alpha-(1-->4)-D-[14C]galacturonotriose(GalA3) upon very mild treatment with alkali (50% yield of GalA3 in 7.2 min at pH 11 and 25 degrees C). One of the three galacturonate residues in compound 17 was reducible to a galactose residue with sodium borohydride, indicating that that GalA residue was esterified, via its--COOH group, to a putative alcohol. Compound 17 had a higher mobility than GalA3 on paper chromatography, indicating that the putative alcohol was relatively nonpolar. The putative alcohol could not have been methanol because Driselase readily hydrolyzed mono-, di-, and trimethyl esters of GalA3 to yield free galacturonic acid. Another Driselase digestion product (compound 12) was a derivative of GalA3 that apparently possessed two nonpolar esterified substituents: one about as labile as in compound 17, and the other approximately 10 times more stable. Compounds 12 and 17 could not labeled by in vivo feeding of [U-14C]cinnamate, suggesting that they were not phenolic conjugates. Similar but chromatographically distinguishable uronate-14C-labeled esters were obtained by Driselase digestion of walls of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.), Paul's Scarlet rose (Rosa sp.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber) cells. In spinach, the novel compounds constituted about 5% of the total galacturonate residues of the cell wall. The observations suggest that pectic polysaccharides are linked, via O-D-galacturonoyl ester bonds, to relatively hydrophobic constituents of the primary cell wall. Their possible role in wall architecture is discussed.

  7. Distribution of Information in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    2.4. MACA Protocol ...................................20 Figure 2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]).............28 Figure 2.6. Creation of a...2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]) The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing ) protocol [33], proposed by Johnson and Maltz, is very similar to AODV ...Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing ( AODV ) [30] and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [48] version unicast are reactive protocols (the paths are built

  8. Delapparentia turolensis nov. gen et sp., un nuevo dinosaurio iguanodontoideo (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) en el Cretácico Inferior de Galve

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Omeñaca, J. I.

    2011-01-01

    An ornithopod dinosaur postcranial skeleton from the Early Cretaceous of Galve (Teruel province, Spain), assigned to Iguanodon bernissartensis by the French paleontologist Albert de Lapparent in 1960, is redescribed. It comes from La Maca 3 locality, early Barremian in age (Camarillas Formation) and it is made of several cervical vertebrae, fragmentary remains of the dorsal and sacral series, several caudal vertebrae, fragments of cervical, dorsal and sternal ribs, fragments of chevrons and o...

  9. Structure and Immunogenicity of Alternative Forms of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Gag Protein Expressed Using Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Cecil, Chad; West, Ande; Collier, Martha; Jurgens, Christy; Madden, Victoria; Whitmore, Alan; Johnston, Robert; Moore, Dominic T.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Davis, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) were engineered to express different forms of SIV Gag to compare expression in vitro, formation of intra- and extracellular structures and induction of humoral and cellular immunity in mice. The three forms examined were full-length myristylated SIV Gag (Gagmyr+), full-length Gag lacking the myristylation signal (Gagmyr-), or a truncated form of Gagmyr- comprising only the matrix and capsid domains (MA/CA). Comparison of VRP-infect...

  10. Elaboración de una guía didáctica de la enseñanza de la pintura indígena de tigua para los niños/as de séptimo año de educación básica del centgro educativo"María Salome Changoluisa" Maca Milipungo de la parroquia Poaló, cantón Latacunga, provincia de Cotopaxi para el periodo 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ugsha Ilaquiche, César

    2011-01-01

    La gratitud es la expresión máxima del ser humano, es por esto que quiero expresar mis agradecimientos a la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana que me abrió las puertas para concluir mis estudios superiores, a las distinguidas autoridades y catedráticos que con sus sabias enseñanzas guiaron el camino para alcanzar la meta propuesta. De manera particular mi eterna gratitud a la Máster Ana María Narváez que con paciencia y sapiencia me orientó y me guió diariamente para po...

  11. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population.

  12. Cascading Multi-Hop Reservation and Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT. In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT. The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay.

  13. Cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2014-01-01

    The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC) protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT). In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U) and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT)). The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay.

  14. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  15. Piribebuy, a capital mártir: história, historiografia e ideologia na Guerra no Paraguai = Piribebuy, the capital martyr: history, historiography and ideology in War of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piribebuy, terceira capital provisória do Paraguai, foi cercada e atacada pelas tropas aliancistas em 10-12 de agosto de 1869, durante a derradeira Campanha das Cordilheiras. Divergem as historiografias tradicionais paraguaia e brasileira sobre o desenvolvimento do ataque, que resultou em verdadeira mortandade entre os defensores da vila, e os sucessos posteriores a ele. A análise daquele fato histórico, a partir da documentação primária e dos relatos testemunhais de paraguaios e imperiais, permite aproximação dos sucessos objetivos e melhor percepção dos sentidos dos desvios das narrativas nacional-patrióticas destes últimos

  16. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    ência de estratégias defensivas contra herbivoria no padrão alimentar intra-específico de A. pulchella, sobre folhas da bromélia A. blanchetiana, nós: i quantificamos a aparente preferência intra-específica deste padrão alimentar, ii comparamos folhas e partes distintas em relação à estratégias morfo-fisiológicas, mecânicas, nutricionais e químicas contra herbivoria e iii avaliamos se algumas ou todas estas estratégias defensivas ajudariam a explicar o padrão alimentar observado. O raspador A. pulchella atacada preferencialmente a metade superior de folhas intermediárias e adultas de A. blanchetiana, mas não a metade inferior das mesmas folhas, as quais são mais resistentes à perfuração, mais espessas e apresentam menor teor de nitrogênio do que a parte superior. Ao mesmo tempo, porém, folhas jovens e tenras não foram atacadas. As metades atacadas também apresentaram maior teor de fenóis totais em comparação as não atacadas, indicando que os fenóis não atuam defensivamente neste caso. Outras estratégias morfo-fisiológicas e químicas contra herbivoria não variaram entre as partes ou folhas aqui avaliadas. O herbívoro estudado se alimenta preferencialmente de partes das folhas com maior teor de nitrogênio, evitando ao mesmo tempo outras com maior resistência à perfuração. Concluímos que o raspador A. pulchella apresenta claro padrão seletivo de forrageamento, onde o mesmo é direcionado mais por benefícios nutricionais do que estritamente por estratégias mecânicas ou químicas contra herbivoria.

  17. POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS Y DERECHOS HUMANOS EN LOS GRUPOS ÉTNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Donato Molina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Los derechos humanos de los grupos étnicos en Colombia requieren una aproximación específica, tanto filosófica como política y normativa. Estos sectores sociales de gran particularidad histórica y sociocultural tienen derechos específicos en cuanto a la protección de su cultura, su autonomía y sus territorios. Poblaciones indígenas y negras han sido brutalmente atacadas y perjudicadas por las bandas armadas de izquierda y derecha enfrentados en la guerra que se libra en Colombia. Las instituciones oficiales, y las universidades deben proponer e implementar políticas públicas hacia los grupos ètnicos basados en valores humanistas y en una comprensión informada de los Derechos Humanos colectivos de éstas poblaciones.

  18. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  19. Análise comparativa dos surtos e danos causados pelos besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em plantios de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Os besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae são pragas importantes da cultura do eucalipto. A biologia e comportamento daninho de C. ferruginea já foram caracterizados. Todavia, não existem estudos sobre o potencial de C. lurida como praga da cultura. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma comparativa, os surtos e as injúrias causadas por C. ferruginea e C. lurida em plantios de eucalipto. Para isso, 202,8 mil ha de plantios clonais de eucalipto, nos Estados do Espírito Santo, da Bahia e de Minas Gerais, foram monitorados no período crítico de ocorrência (quente e chuvoso. Os surtos detectados foram caracterizados, determinando-se, por meio de amostragens, a incidência, a severidade e as populações absoluta e relativa do inseto por planta atacada. De forma geral, o comportamento daninho de C. lurida foi similar ao de C. ferruginea, em termos de época de ocorrência e tipo de injúrias causadas. Todavia, C. lurida apresentou maiores picos populacionais, em termos absolutos (insetos por planta e relativos (razão entre o número de insetos e altura das plantas atacadas, e atingiu maior proporção de área, podendo ser considerado mais daninho que C. ferruginea. O besouro C. lurida deve ser monitorado considerando os mesmos critérios. Além disso, os surtos desta nova praga poderão ser avaliados quanto ao nível crítico para controle, empregando-se as mesmas premissas adotadas para C. ferruginea. Adicionalmente aos resultados, registrou-se, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de C. lurida no Estado da Bahia, em plantas de araçá (Psidium guineense, Swartz (Myrtaceae.

  20. Infestação de girassol pela lagarta Chlosyne lacinia saundersii em duas épocas de cultivo Sunflower infestation by Chlosyne lacinia saundersii in two cropping seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Boiça Júnior

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o comportamento de cultivares de girassol em relação ao ataque de Chlosyne lacinia saundersii em condições de campo, avaliando-se o número de lagartas por planta, numero de lagartas por metro linear de plantas, porcentagem de plantas atacadas e porcentagem de desfolha. Concluiu-se que: a os métodos mais adequados para a avaliação da infestação desse inseto foram a porcentagem de plantas atacadas e o número de lagartas por metro linear de plantas; b as cultivares de girassol menos infestadas pela praga foram 'Cargill-33', 'Contissol', 'Issanka-P, 'PIGB', 'Uruguai' e 'Contissol-621', enquanto 'Contissol-711% 'Contissol-112' e 'Rumano-P4' foram as mais infestadas e, c a ocorrência de C. lacinia saundersii foi maior na segunda época de cultivo (fevereiro a junho do que na primeira (outubro a fevereiro.The behavior of sunflower cultivars was evaluated in relation to the attack of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii, under field conditions. The following parameters were evaluated: number of larvae per plant, number of larvae per linear meter of plants, percentage of attacked plants and percentage of defoliation. The results were as follows: the most suitable methods for evaluating the insect infestation were the percentage of attacked plants and the number of larvae per linear meter of plants; the less infested sunflower cultivare were 'Cargill-33', 'Contissol', 'Issanka-F', 'PIGB', 'Uruguai' and 'Contissol-621', while 'Contissol-711', 'Contissol-112', and 'Ruinano-P/ were the most infested ones. The occurrence of C. lacinia saundersii was higher in the second period of cultivation (February to June than in the first (October to February.

  1. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Marsih, I. Nyoman; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai; Ismunandar

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H2/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  2. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan [Chemistry Education Study Program, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Marsih, I. Nyoman, E-mail: nyoman@chem.itb.ac.id; Ismunandar [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Departement of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Makertihartha, I. G. B. N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai [Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2015-09-30

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H{sub 2}/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  3. Effect of preharvest spraying with thidiazuron on fruit quality and maturity of apples Efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita com thidiazuron sobre a qualidade e a maturação de frutos em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at the doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g (a.i. ha-1 and fruit were assessed for quality and maturity. In both cultivars, the increase of TDZ dose had detrimental effects on fruit quality, causing a reduction of fruit red surface and an increase of percentage of fruit that was asymmetrical and with calyx-end rot. TDZ caused an increment of calyx-end aperture that might have increased calyx-end rot. TDZ increased density and the length : diameter (L : D ratio of the fruit. The number of viable seeds was not affected by TDZ. TDZ resulted in a substantial delay of fruit maturity in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ also reduced soluble solids content (SSC in 'Gala' and reduced titratable acidity in both cultivars.Macieiras, cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas em plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ, nas doses de 0; 5; 10 e 20 g (i.a. ha-1, e os frutos avaliados em termos de qualidade e maturação. Em ambas as cultivares, o TDZ apresentou efeitos negativos na qualidade dos frutos, com redução na percentagem de cor vermelha na casca e aumento na percentagem de frutos assimétricos e com podridão carpelar. O TDZ causou aumento na abertura carpelar, o que pode ter ocasionado aumento de incidência de podridão carpelar. O TDZ aumentou a densidade e a relação comprimento : diâmetro (C : D dos frutos. O número de sementes viáveis não foi afetado pelo TDZ. O TDZ retardou substancialmente a maturação dos frutos na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. O TDZ reduziu os teores de sólidos solúveis totais na cultivar Gala e reduziu a acidez titulável em ambas as cultivares.

  4. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  5. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  6. Effect ofthydiazuron and choline chloride bioregulators on yield and fruit quality ofthree apple (Malus domestica Borkh. varieties Efecto de Thidiazuron y cloruro de colina como biorreguladores sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto en tres variedades de manzano (Malus domestica borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincore Mauricio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve yield and quality of Colombian apple fruits, Thydiazuron (TDZ and Choline Chloride (CC biorregulators were evaluated as supposed stimulants of growth and development of 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' varieties in the «La Calera» zone (2650 masl. 50, lOOand 150 mg-L:' of TDZ were sprayed between 30 and 45 days after blooming (dab and 500, 1000 and 1500 mg-L-' of CC 118 dab, using a completely randomized design for 'Princesa' and 'Golden Delicious' and a completely randomized
    block design for 'Gala'. TDZ showed chemical thinning and
    cytokinine activity, decreasing the number and acidity of harvested fruits, but increased mean fruit weight, In 'Gala', TDZ increased the harvested fruit number per tree; with 150 mg-L:' fruit color increased while soluble solids (SS concentration declined. On the other side, in 'Gala' apples, CC applications decreased fruit number per tree and showed higher mean weights, volume and SS content of fruits, especially with 500 mg-L:'. In 'Golden Delicious' CC produced oblong fruits with higher SS content and lower flesh firrnness.
    Con el fin de mejorar rendimiento y calidad del fruto de la manzana nacional, se evaluaron los biorreguladores Thidiazuron (TDZ y Cloruro de Colina (CC como supuestos estimuladores del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto en las variedades 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' en la zona de «La Calera» (2650 msnm. Para tal fin, se aplicaron 50, 100 y 150 mg-L" de TDZ entre los 30 y 45 días después de floración (ddt y 500, 1000 y 1500 mg-L-' de CC 118 ddf,
    bajo diseño completamente aleatorizado para 'Princesa' y 'Golden Delicious' y bloque completos al azar para 'Gala'. Thidiazuron actuó como agente químico raleante y como citoquinina, disminuyendo en 'Golden Delicious' el número de frutos cosechados y la acidez, pero aumentando el peso promedio del fruto. En 'Gala', TDZ aumentó el número de frutos por árbol, a 150 mg-L-' aumentó la

  7. Application of Celluclast 1.5L in apple pectin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-12-10

    Pectins were extracted from apple pomace with Celluclast 1.5L at a dose of 25, 50 and 75 μl per 1g of material. In obtained pectin, the galacturonic acid (GalA) content, the neutral sugars (NS) profile, the degree of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the molecular mass, protein, ash and polyphenol levels as well as antioxidant and antitumor activity were determined. The lowest dose of enzymatic preparation resulted in the yield of pectin isolation comparable with acidic treatment (15.3%). Application of higher dose caused further, almost 4% increase in polymer recovery. Enzymatically isolated pectin was characterised by larger molecular mass and contained more GalA of higher DM and DAc than polymer extracted with acid. It was also richer in protein and polyphenols, and had different NS profile, which resulted in higher antiradical activity as well as the ability to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells.

  8. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  9. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  10. Molecular characterization of the gallate dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The prototype of a new subgroup of extradiol dioxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Juan; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2005-10-21

    In this work we have characterized the galA gene product from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a ring-cleavage dioxygenase that acts specifically on gallate to produce 4-oxalomesaconate. The protein is a trimer composed by three identical subunits of 47.6 kDa (419 amino acids) that uses Fe2+ as the main cofactor. The gallate dioxygenase showed maximum activity at pH 7.0, and the Km and Vmax values for gallate were 144 microM and 53.2 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. A phylogenetic study suggests that the gallate dioxygenase from P. putida KT2440 is the prototype of a new subgroup of type II extradiol dioxygenases that share a common ancestor with protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenases and whose two-domain architecture might have evolved from the fusion of the large and small subunits of the latter. A three-dimensional model for the N-terminal domain (residues 1-281) and C-terminal domain (residues 294-420) of the gallate dioxygenase from P. putida KT2440 was generated by comparison with the crystal structures of the large (LigB) and small (LigA) subunits of the protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. The expression of the galA gene was specifically induced when P. putida KT2440 cells grew in the presence of gallate. A P. putida KT2440 galA mutant strain was unable to use gallate as the sole carbon source and it did not show gallate dioxygenase activity, suggesting that the GalA protein is the only dioxygenase involved in gallate cleavage in this bacterium. This work points to the existence of a new pathway that is devoted to the catabolism of gallic acid and that remained unknown in the paradigmatic P. putida KT2440 strain.

  11. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, R. H.; Olesen, Jens Mogens; Nogales, M.

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Gala´pagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most...... plants were dispersed via two pathways: dryfruited plants were preferentially dispersed by finches, while fleshy fruited species were mostly dispersed by other birds and reptiles....

  12. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  13. Ajaloo ja kaasaja süntees Rebala muinasmaastikul / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Arhitekt Andres Siimu projekteeritud Estonian Golf Countri Club'i Jägala golfiklubi (Mannila küla, Jõelähtme) sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember, kes projekteeris ka tammepuust mööbli. Ehitus: AS Restor. Nõupidamisruumi toolide ja nagide autor on Toivo Raidmets, metallvalgustite autor Tarmo Luisk. A. Siimu ja J. Lemberi tööd on hinnatud Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemiaga. Ill.: 3 korruste plaani, värv. välisvaade, 22 sisevaadet

  14. Birgitta festivali elav tuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Birgitta festivalil Pirita kloostri müüride vahel 10.-19. aug. mängukavas: Moskva ooperiteatri Novaya Opera trupp esitamas ooperit, Maria Callase gala, klassikalist ja dzhässballetti, Vene Keiserlik Ballett kava "Tshaikovski in Swing", Anton Rubinshteini ooper "Deemon" (lavastaja Mihhail Jefremov), Arthur Honeggeri oratoorium "Jeanne d'Arc tuleriidal" (lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe, peaosas Mirtel Pohla)

  15. EST Table: DC555520 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC555520 E_FL_wd--_10G24_F_0 10/09/28 54 %/131 aa ref|XP_001865270.1| beta-1,4-gala...asciatus] 10/09/02 61 %/107 aa FBpp0268552|Dyakbeta4GalT7-PA 10/08/28 42 %/133 aa R10E11.4#CE00306#WBGene000

  16. ATLAS Virtual Visit from University of Liverpool

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The event is part of a competition for female high school, being run jointly between Universities of Liverpool & Warwick in the UK. The girls will be competing for a residential visit to the XMaS research facility in Grenoble, France. The idea of the Science Gala is to enhance the competition by bringing the girls, their families & teachers together to meet with different science professionals (academic and industrial), and to learn more about the opportunities afforded by studying physical sciences courses.

  17. 2006年12月大学英语四级考试真题(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>PartⅠWriting(30 minutes) Directions: For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Spring Festival Gala on CCTV.You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below. 1.许多人喜欢在除夕夜观看春节晚会2.有些人却提出取消春节晚会3.在我看来……

  18. New looks at and for Onespa, Buzyges, and Librita (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae), with new combinations and descriptions of a new genus and six new species

    OpenAIRE

    Austin,George T; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen species of skippers (six newly described; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Hesperiini) from higher elevations of Mexico and Central America are reviewed. These are included in four genera (one newly described), some with proposed new combinations. Onespa Steinhauser, 1974, originally described as monotypic, is shown to include three species in addition to its type species, Onespa nubis Steinhauser, 1974. One of these, Atrytone gala Godman, 1900, that has been misplaced in sever...

  19. Loomingulised tandemid / Ants Juske, Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    1999-01-01

    Loomingulisi tandemeid lääne ja eesti kunstimaailmast. Pikemalt J. Pollock'ist ja L. Krasner'ist; R. Rauschenberg'ist ja J Johns'ist; R. Rauschenberg'ist ja C. Twombly'st; Paul ja Gala Eluard'ist ning M. Ernst'ist; M. Ernst'ist ja L. Carrington'ist. Naiskunstnike olulisest rollist eesti kunstis nõukogude ajal. L. Lapinist.

  20. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples - a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in 'Gala' apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for 'Empire' and 'Gala' fruits, but not for 'Honeycrisp'. During maturation and ripening of 'Empire', the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in 'Gala'. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of 'Gala' with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening.

  1. 奥运短讯(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Beijing, Athens Mayors MeetThe mayors of Athens and Beijing,the hosts for the 2004 and 2008Olympic Games respectively, haveagreed to cooperate for the successfulorganization of the world's majorsporting gala.Beijing is interested in learning fromAthens' extensive experience inhosting Olympic Games, said BeijingMayor Liu Qi on September 25 whenmeeting with visiting Athens MayorDimitris L. Avramopoulos.Avramopoulos said host cities of theOlympic Games should strengthencooperation.

  2. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    1980). 120 Mexican Government Press Release, “Crecimiento con Calidad : El Presidente Vicente Fox encabezará la cena de gala de la XI Cumbre Anual...particular class of cases to be of great public import , it is not unprecedented for it to require prompt review in the highest court of the land. As...development and deployment activity in the BSFIT account. However, it is important to note that other items, such as the deployment of cameras and

  3. Efeito da tela antigranizo em algumas características dos frutos de macieira Effects of net shield against hailstorm on feature of apples production and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Berenhauser Leite

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do pomar com telas de náilon é uma opção de combate ao granizo, principalmente em pequenas áreas. Durante cinco anos, avaliou-se o efeito do sombreamento provocado pela tela antigranizo, com níveis de sombreamento de 12%, 18% e 30%, sobre os fatores de produção na macieira, cvs. Gala e Fuji. A coloração vermelha dos frutos foi a variável mais afetada pelo sombreamento, reduzindo-se até 14,2% da coloração na cv. Gala e 7,2% na cv. Fuji. O sombreamento reduziu a incidência de "russeting" nos frutos, mas aumentou a incidência da mancha de glomerela. No último ano de avaliação, as plantas com cobertura de tela apresentaram uma redução de 19% no número de gemas com flor, quando comparadas com as plantas sem cobertura.A net shield is a good option for protection of apple trees against hailstorm, especially for small orchards. The shading effects caused by net shield on production feature and fruit quality was evaluated for five years. Three types of net shield that caused 12%, 18% and 30% of shading were used on 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees. Reduction of fruit red color was the main negative effect of shading. Fruit red color was reduced up to 14.2 % for 'Gala' and 7.2 % for 'Fuji' when net shield was applied. The shading also reduced incidence of fruit with 'russeting' but increased incidence of 'glomerela' spot. Apple trees covered with the net for five years developed approximately 19% less bud flowers than uncovered trees.

  4. 北京2008年奥运会吉祥物亮相%Beijing Unveils Mascots for 2008 Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德林

    2005-01-01

    @@ After years of fierce lobbying2 and months of secrecy, Beijing unveiled five mascots for the 2008 Olympics on Nov. 11, opening a marketing blitz that is expected to reap record profits.3 In an elaborate, nationally televised gala4 at a Beijing sports arena5 to mark the 1,000-day countdown6 until the Games, senior Chinese leaders introduced the mascots-Beibei, Jingjing, Huanhuan, Yingying and Nini- which, put together, translates to "Beijing welcomes you!"

  5. Loomingulised tandemid / Ants Juske, Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    1999-01-01

    Loomingulisi tandemeid lääne ja eesti kunstimaailmast. Pikemalt J. Pollock'ist ja L. Krasner'ist; R. Rauschenberg'ist ja J Johns'ist; R. Rauschenberg'ist ja C. Twombly'st; Paul ja Gala Eluard'ist ning M. Ernst'ist; M. Ernst'ist ja L. Carrington'ist. Naiskunstnike olulisest rollist eesti kunstis nõukogude ajal. L. Lapinist.

  6. Ajaloo ja kaasaja süntees Rebala muinasmaastikul / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Arhitekt Andres Siimu projekteeritud Estonian Golf Countri Club'i Jägala golfiklubi (Mannila küla, Jõelähtme) sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember, kes projekteeris ka tammepuust mööbli. Ehitus: AS Restor. Nõupidamisruumi toolide ja nagide autor on Toivo Raidmets, metallvalgustite autor Tarmo Luisk. A. Siimu ja J. Lemberi tööd on hinnatud Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemiaga. Ill.: 3 korruste plaani, värv. välisvaade, 22 sisevaadet

  7. Influence of floral structure and flower bud quality on productivity and fruit shape in different apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hansen Madail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between floral structure and bud quality with the productivity and fruit shape of Gala, Fuji and Daiane apple cultivars under the mild winter conditions in Southern Brazil. Six different types of floral structures were characterized in field growing plants, according to their nature and bud size: spurs, short and long twigs with weak and vigorous buds. Variables related to the phenology and the productivity for these different structures were evaluated. Gala and Fuji cvs. showed earlier phenological development in the twigs, and cv. Daiane in the spurs. For the three cvs. the highest percentage of buds in each phenological phase was observed in the long twigs. The long twigs also showed the highest sprout and fruit set index, floral number per cluster, and leaf area in the three cvs., while the bud abortion was higher in the spurs than in the twigs. No difference was observed among the structures in cvs. Gala and Fuji regarding to the fruit shape. In the cv. Daiane, however, a tendency to higher length diameter ratio of the fruits produced by the long twigs was observed.

  8. Romanian–British Commercial Exchanges at the Lower Danube: The Consular Report of Percy Sanderson on the Year 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Constantin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers consider that the slight increase in commerce through Brăila and Galaţi after 1883 was mainly due to the reorientation of Romanian foreign trade by the dualist monarchy towards other European states. The Danube route-way regained some of its importance, although the port of Galaţi still suffered after the loss of the rich region of Southern Bessarabia and because of the inconvenient manner by which the town was linked to the Romanian railway system. Thus, the paper insists on the quantity and value of commercial exchanges (exports, imports, the grains, the main economic partners and the specific character of Brăila, Galaţi and Sulina in the Romanian economy. This study analyses the results of this fact upon the foreign commerce of the ports, as there are opinions that it had positive consequences for development of commerce and navigation at the Maritime Danube. The text proper is preceded by a short historical comment on the activity of the International Trade in the Lower Danube region.

  9. Las Relaciones Públicas como estrategia de comunicación en los eventos cinematográficos: los Premios Goya.- Public relations and communication strategy in the film events: Goya Awards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Amorós Pons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La gala de los Premios Goya se convierte en un modelo de organización y conjunción de los elementos personales, espaciales y temporales propios de eventos internacionales, así como una interesante herramienta de comunicación de Relaciones Públicas. Analizar cómo se planifica este tipo de gala y los resultados comunicacionales que se obtienen a partir de ella, sirve para advertir la importancia que adquieren como generadora de tendencias para otros acontecimientos especiales que buscan imitarla. La escenografía, la decoración, el atrezzo, la moda y complementos (masculinos y femeninos se cuidan con exquisito detalle para alcanzar estándar de calidad y distinción que los espectadores exigen de este acontecimiento. Esta cita anual con el cine producido en España se convierte en una puesta en escena mediática que no deja lugar a improvisaciones, a pesar de que en ocasiones se producen situaciones inesperadas y disfuncionales. Estudiar todos los elementos de esta gala sirve para diseñar otros eventos similares, poniéndolos en valor como un soporte para desarrollar comunicación persuasiva indirecta y/o encubierta.

  10. Patterns of methyl and O-acetyl esterification in spinach pectins: new complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Paola; Hewage, Chandralal M; Thomson, Adam R; Bailey, Kevin; Sadler, Ian H; Fry, Stephen C

    2002-05-01

    Driselase-digestion of cell walls from suspension-cultures of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), followed by anion-exchange chromatography, gel-permeation chromatography, preparative paper chromatography and preparative paper electrophoresis, yielded ten uronic acid-containing products in addition to free galacturonic acid (GalA). These included 4-O-methylglucuronic acid, alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucuronic acid and several oligosaccharides containing GalA residues. The structures were unambiguously determined by a combination of 1- and 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques. Five of the six homogalacturonan-derived oligosaccharides purified contained 3-O-acetyl-GalA residues; however, methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred adjacent to both 2-O-acetyl-GalA and 3-O-acetyl-GalA residues. An acetylated, rhamnogalacturonan-I-derived oligosaccharide that was purified also contained 3-O-acetyl-GalA residues. Taken together with published data, our findings indicate considerable diversity in the patterns of pectin esterification. The implications for the action of pectin esterases are discussed.

  11. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence Composição mineral determinado por fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energia de frutos exóticos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.O sabor exótico dos frutos tropicais brasileiros vem contribuindo para o aumento de seu consumo. Ao se considerar a busca por uma alimentação balanceada, por consumidores cada vez mais exigentes, o conhecimento da composição de vitaminas e sais minerais dos frutos que compõe a dieta se faz necessário. Desta forma o presente trabalho vem contribuir com a determinação da concentração de macro (K e Ca e microelementos (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn e Br em oito frutos tropicais exóticos brasileiros: abiu (Lucuma caimito Ruiz

  12. Synthesis of the Low Molecular Weight Polycarboxylic Superplasticizer with Short Side Chain and the Consideration of its Action Mechanism%含短侧基低分子量聚羧酸系减水剂的合成与作用机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周科利; 刘瑾; 李真

    2011-01-01

    A maleic anhydride citric acid ester (MACA) was synthesized by using an esterification reaction. A novel polycarboxylic superplasticizer with low molecular weight and short side chain was synthesized through free radical polymerization from acrylic acid (AA), sodium alkyl sulfonate (SAS) and MACA. In order to study its action mechanism, the composition of the novel polycarboxylic superplasticizer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and intrinsic viscosity measurements, and the effects of novel superplasticizer in cement paste were explored by testing the fluidity of cement grout and the ζ potential. The results show that the cement paste with novel superplasticizer had higher fluidity, less fluidity loss and homogeneousness without bleeding. In addition, it was suggested that the action mechanism of the novel superplasticizer with cement agreed with the theory model of electrostatic repulsive force and steric hindrance.%利用合成的马来酸酐柠檬酸酯类大单体(MACA)与丙烯酸(AA)、烯丙基磺酸钠(SAS)等进行自由基聚合,制备出一种含短侧基低分子量的新型聚羧酸系减水剂.通过红外光谱、黏度、水泥净浆流动度和ζ电位等方法对共聚物的结构组成和性能进行了表征,并初步探讨了新型聚羧酸系减水剂与水泥的作用机理.研究表明:该减水剂有较好的分散性,且水泥净浆流动度保持性较好,无泌水离析现象;该减水剂与水泥粒子的塑化机理符合静电斥力与空间位阻理论.

  13. C-, Sr-isotope stratigraphy of carbonate rocks from the Southern Espinhaço Ridge, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    LUCIO M.S. FRAGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic carbonate rocks comprise different stratigraphic units in the southern part of the Espinhaço Ridge, Minas Gerais, Brazil. C, O- and Sr-isotope analyses were carried out along four selected stratigraphic sections across these formations. These are: (i the Rio Pardo Grande Formation in the upper portion of the Espinhaço Supergroup, sampled in section 3; (ii Macaúbas Group laminated limestones (Tijucuçu Farm and dolostone layers (Domingas Formation have been respectively sampled along the so-called sections 1 and 2, and (iii the lower stratigraphic units of the Bambuí Group, sampled in section 4. Laminated limestone samples from the Macaúbas Group have δ13C values as high as 10.9‰ decreasing up section to -1.1‰ and 87Sr/86Sr values vary from 0.7072 to 0.7076, a range commonly observed in Cryogenian rocks. In section 2, dolomitic samples exhibit 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7076 to 0.7077 while in section 3, 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7074 to 0.7079. In section 4, 87Sr/86Sr values are around 0.7080. The values of 87Sr/86Sr observed in carbonate samples from the Macaúbas Group are similar to those observed in the Sr-isotope secular curve for the Neoproterozoic. Carbonate samples from the base of the Bambuí Group correlate with Ediacaran fingerprints, after the Marinoan (ca. 635 Ma glaciation.

  14. Characterization of the pulp and kernel oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Michelle Cardoso; Jorge, Neuza

    2011-10-01

    Vegetable oils are important sources of essential fatty acids. It is, therefore, important to characterize plant species that can be used as new oil sources. This study aimed to characterize the oils from guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana), and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). The physicochemical characterization was performed using official analytical methods for oils and fats, free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification number, and unsaponifiable matter. The oxidative stability was determined using the Rancimat at 110 °C. The fatty acid composition was performed by gas chromatography. The results were submitted to Tukey's test for the medium to 5% using the ESTAT program. The pulp oils were more unsaturated than kernel oils, as evidenced by the higher refractive index and iodine value, especially the macaúba pulp oil which gave 1.4556 and 80 g I(2) /100 g, respectively, for these indices. The kernel oils were less altered by oxidative process and had high induction period, free fatty acids below 0.5%, and peroxide value around 0.19 meq/kg. The guariroba kernel oil showed the largest induction period, 91.82 h. Practical Application:  The vegetable oils, besides being consumed directly as food, are important raw material for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In recent years, the world market of vegetable oils has been characterized by stronger growth of demand over supply. Several species of palm trees are shown to be promising sources of oils. The characterization of oils extracted from some species, such as guariroba, jerivá, and macaúba, has not yet been fully elucidated. For this reason, it becomes important to investigate the physicochemical characterization of these oils, aiming at a possible use in food or in the industry.

  15. Retrospective of fossil dinoflagellate studies in Brazil: their relationship with the evolution of petroleum exploration in the Cretaceous of continental margin basins; Historico do estudo de dinoflagelados fosseis no Brasil: sua relacao com a evolucao da exploracao petrolifera no Cretaceo das bacias da margem continental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Mitsuru; Lana, Cecilia Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: arai@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2004-05-01

    Palynostratigraphy of the Brazilian Cretaceous was mainly based on terrestrial palynomorphs (mostly spores and pollen grains) until the end of the nineteen eighties. This was so because, for several decades, petroleum exploration in Brazil was focused on the essentially non marine sediments of the Reconcavo Basin. During the nineteen sixties, PETROBRAS extended oil exploration to the Brazilian continental shelf (offshore areas). Nevertheless, at that time the company did not invest immediately in marine palynostratigraphy, because it was believed that bio stratigraphic schemes based on foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossils would be more efficient than palynology in marine sequences. This belief changed only in the seventies, when commercial oil reservoirs were discovered in the Campos Basin, within the Macae Formation, a rock unit deposited in a carbonate shelf environment. Its environmental conditions were certainly hostile to the development and post-mortem preservation of foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossil-producing algae. As a result, no more than two or three bio zones could be identified in the Macae carbonate section on the basis of such organisms. Besides, carbonate shelf sediments, subject to only minor terrigenous input, are usually poor in terrestrial palynomorphs. On the other hand, the palynological content of some Macae strata consists mainly (up to 100%) of such marine palynomorphs as dino flagellates, acritarchs e palynoforaminifera. Consequently, PETROBRAS recognized the importance of developing a zonal framework based on these organisms. The first Cretaceous dinoflagellate zonation in Brazil was erected in 1976, and since the nineteen eighties, marine Cretaceous palynostratigraphy has made significant advances mainly due to the use of dino flagellates. Hundreds of Cretaceous dinoflagellate index species have been introduced into PETROBRAS databanks, becoming widely applicable to the bio stratigraphy of all Brazilian continental margin

  16. 一种三维环境中的无人机多路径规划方法%A Multi-Path Planning Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in 3D Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 章卫国; 李广文; 史静平

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems existing in the multi-path planning for UAV in the 3D environment, we improve the probability roadmap method ( PRM) by moving the sampling points to increase their number in their narrow passage so that the PRM can better serve the multi-path planning environment. Then we propose the multi-objective ant colony algorithm ( MACA) based on the PRM and apply it to the multi-path planning of the UAV. The MACA can optimize the path length and threat size of the UAV at the same time by updating their pheromones, thus obtaining a set of non-dominant solutions for the decision maker to select appropriate paths. To verify the effective-ness of the MACA, we simulate the multi-path planning environment as shown in Fig. 1; the simulation results, given in Fig.4 and 5 and Tables 1 and 2, and their analysis show preliminarily that our MACA based on PRM serves the 3D multi-path planning environment very well and can obtain a set of non-dominant solutions and con-verge to optimal solutions quickly.%为了解决三维环境中的无人机多路径规划问题,提出了一种基于改进概率地图的多目标蚁群算法。在构建地图时为了增加窄通道中的采样点数量,改进了概率地图法的采样策略,将落在威胁上的采样点移动到自由空间中,可以更好地覆盖规划环境。为了使蚁群算法可以得到多个解,提出了一种多目标蚁群算法。通过引入Pareto解集,播撒不同种类的信息素,使蚁群算法可以同时优化路径长度和威胁大小2个目标,并能得到一组非支配解,有利于决策者选择合适的路径。仿真结果表明,改进的概率地图法可以更好地覆盖规划环境,多目标蚁群算法可以得到一组解,并能收敛到最终解集。

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF DISTRIBUTION CENTERS AS LOGISTICS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: STUDY ON OIL COMPANY DISTRIBUTOR IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Albernaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present how distribution centers implementation in organization is able to provide a competitive advantage over its competitors. The qualitative research was based on multiple case studies. Thus, these cases were focused on lubricants segment national distribution company. It was intended to introduce improvements recognizing distribution centers (DCs importance as competitive advantage. DC Macaé-RJ and Piracicaba-SP were chosen to represent this scenario. Therefore, as results it was found increased sales and operating leverage of results within the market in which it operates.

  18. Obtention of Free Fatty Acids of Macauba Oil (Acrocomia Aculeata in Organic Solvent Free System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Portilho Trentini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil Macaúba, to obtain a hydrolyzate rich in free fatty acids (FFA for later use in step esterification. The effect of process variables (percentage of catalyst, temperature and water content was evaluated in the FFA yield, using a factorial experimental design 23, where the positive and significant effect of the variables was observed. The results reported yields of 50.5% in FFA in 6 hours of reaction at 60ºC, water percentage of 15 wt% and catalyst percentage of 5 wt%.

  19. El teatro de la guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Holzner, Brigitte M.; Mair, Dominique-Claire

    2007-01-01

    En su narración sobre el destino de las mujeres de Troya, Eurípides nos ofrece el guión de lo que podría ser una guerra moderna: el gran dramaturgo griego nos describe a los niños de Hecuba asesinados, la esclavitud sexual de Briseida, a Andrómaca como prisionera de guerra, a Polixena quemada en sacrificio y a Casandra violada y convertida en la concubina del señor de la guerra Agamenón.

  20. Sustainability of ancestral methods of agricultural production in Perú: ¿keep or replace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Eduardo Vargas Huanca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the success of some Andean products such as quinoa, potatoes or maca in international food trade and the growing environmental degradation facing developing countries, resulting from intensive exploitation activities; Our research seeks to show the trend that is assumed from the academic / scientific community and public officials in the food sector in Peru, against the need to maintain sustainable various ancestral modes of agricultural production (case quinoa, for it analyze quantitative and qualitative obtained from public institutions and Peruvian universities.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DA CONDIÇÃO GEOMORFOLÓGICA DA BACIA DO RIO MACAÉ – RJ A PARTIR DA METODOLOGIA DE CLASSIFICAÇÃO DOS ESTILOS FLUVIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nunes de Souza Lima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante dos problemas ambientais, que direta ou indiretamente afetam a funcionalidade geomorfológica e ecológica dos rios, a utilização de técnicas para classificação de tipologias fluviais vem se tornando uma metodologia com apelo para a gestão de bacias hidrográficas por permitir compreender as interdependências que ocorrem entre os diferentes trechos do rio desde a nascente até a foz. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar tipologias fluviais ao longo de diferentes ambientes na bacia do rio Macaé, contextualizando-os no processo de evolução da paisagem a partir da metodologia de classificação geomorfológica de canais denominada estilos fluviais (river styles. A caracterização de estilos fluviais na bacia do rio Macaé foi realizada a partir de uma rede de avaliação hierarquizada de “parâmetros chave”, referente aos principais controles da forma e comportamento do rio, sendo eles: compartimentação geomorfológica; característica do vale; forma em planta do canal; geometria do canal; unidades geomorfológicas; e composição do leito. Com base na metodologia proposta foram identificados sete estilos fluviais cuja diferenciação permitiu compreender, de forma integrada, as formas e processos que caracterizam os diferentes ambientes fluviais, compará-los, assim como identificar sua distribuição espacial na bacia. Neste contexto, o sistema hidrográfico do rio Macaé pôde ser caracterizado como uma grande área de nascentes e canais erosivos que produzem e liberam eficientemente matéria e energia até os compartimentos mais baixos do relevo, que por sua vez o processam com menor velocidade até os trechos retificados, onde há novamente um aumento da capacidade de transporte até a saída do sistema na cidade de Macaé.

  2. Study on distribution model of clothing timeliness and modified ant colony algorithm%时效性服装配送模型与改进蚁群算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华铨平; 王昕

    2012-01-01

    This paper theoretically completed the research on the optimal route distribution of clothing timeliness. First, according to the features of clothing distribution timeliness, the clothing timelines fuzzy math model is built. With the model, the model of vehicle routing problem ( VRP) with the clothing timeliness is discussed. And then, on the basis the conventional ant colony algorithm is analyzed, and a modified ant colony algorithm ( MACA) which is fit for clothing VRP model is studied. The optimal attributes of the MACA, utilizing the variables of clothing timeliness as the updating function of the weighting, updates the function of information element at all clothing distribution points. The results indicate that compared with the existing ant colony algorithm, the MACA proposed by the paper can enhance the ability to find the solution of the clothing VRP with timeliness. The feasibility and rationality of the models and the algorithm are verified by practical examples.%从理论角度对具有时效性服装最优路径的配送进行研究.首先确定服装具有时效性等特点,建立了服装时效性的模糊数学模型,通过对服装配送问题的变量研究,结合服装时效性的模糊数学模型,研究了具有时效性的服装车辆路径问题(vehicle routing problem,VRP)模型;在此基础上,通过对传统的蚁群算法(ant colony algorithm)分析,研究了与服装VRP模型相匹配的改进型蚁群算法(modified ant colony algorithm,MACA);MACA具有的最优属性是以服装时效性变量为权重的更新函数作为各配送点信息素更新函数.结果表明,改进的蚁群算法,对具有时效性服装的VRP模型的最优路径的求解更优,证明了MACA对具有时效性服装VRP模型求解的合理性与有效性.

  3. Synthesis of N-glyoxylyl peptides and their in vitro evaluation as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasmi, D; de Rosny, E; René, L; Badet, B; Vergely, I; Boggetto, N; Reboud-Ravaux, M

    1997-04-01

    A series of novel synthetic peptides containing an N-terminal glyoxylyl function (CHOCO-) have been tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 protease. The N-glyoxylyl peptide CHOCO-Pro-Ile-Val-NH2, which fulfills the specificity requirements of the MA/CA protease cleavage site together with the criteria of transition state analogue of the catalyzed reaction, was found to be a moderate competitive inhibitor although favorable interactions were visualized between its hydrated form and the catalytic aspartates using molecular modeling. Increasing the length of the peptide sequence led to compounds acting only as substrates.

  4. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Index of Publications, 1986-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    blltttedettt ttgntata fators peso N87-13955 Pumtpingaostatns and ctittiattaceas rut taptd respotnse IAGARDA8-730r pa 30aN-27276 vibrattion measenents ott tt...6052nlnn ccmponrt heCoptar User anpldno secoe Maca compansattntetlremants tot hig.h Illsetut~n HO 131TTI PRESSING2 p23 N89-rc430 spetttght TAO p t26...of l secoe jpgnee Opsoat~of 0 gas 7 lsp -gees5 In cut-laden Bnq-00 p 239 NOD7 13295 p270 68M0-0VO mplnnents P 63 NN0- 1 50 A-42 SUBJIECT INDEX LASER

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  6. Diferenciação geográfica de Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 na costa brasileira, entre as latitudes 18º36'S e 32º10'S: etapa I The geographical differentiation of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 in the Brazilian coast between Lat. 18º36'S and 32º10'S: phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Yamaguti

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple range tests according to Kramer, 1956 were performed on 3 meristic and 15 morphometric characters of "pescada-foguete" (Macrodon ancylodon samples collected off coast near Conceição da Barra (Espirito Santo State, Atafona, Macaé, Ubatuba cities, Bom Abrigo Island and Rio Grande do Sul State coast. It was also observed morphological differences in otoliths collected at each region. The number of statistical differences among samples and different morphological characteristics presented by otoliths suggested the existence of four populations along the studied area: (1 along Espírito Santo State coast; (2 near the region between Atafona and Macaé coasts; (3 along São Paulo, Paraná and north Santa Catarina States coasts and (4 along Rio Grande do Sul State coast. Probably the differentiation was caused by different environmental conditions observed among regions. Other papers about life history corroborate these results except for the Espírito Santo population about which there is no biological information up to the moment.

  7. Analysis of the Appendicularia class (subphylum Urochordata) as a possible tool for biomonitoring four estuaries of the tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Freitas; Bonecker, Sérgio Luiz Costa; Nassar, Cristina Aparecida Gomes

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to characterize the differences between physical and chemical parameters of water quality indicators and eutrophication in four estuaries of the state of Rio de Janeiro and relate them to full density of the species that belong to the Appendicularia class with the purpose of seeking bioindicators for estuarine areas. The estuaries studied were from the rivers Macaé, São João, Bracuí, and Perequê-Açu. The physicochemical parameters monitored for evaluation of the water bodies and used for the correlation with the appendicularians were pH, temperature, nitrite, nitrate, N-ammonia, total nitrogen, phosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll a, heterotrophic bacteria, and fecal coliform. The estuaries Bracuí and São João showed enhanced qualities of water and lower degrees of eutrophication than Macae and Perequê-Açu estuaries. The species of the Appendicularia class found in this study were Oikopleura longicauda (Vogt, 1854), Oikopleura dioica Fol, 1872, Oikopleura fusiformis Fol, 1872, and Fritillaria haplostoma Fol, 1872. The density of appendicularians and O. longicauda was inversely related to the nutrient values and SPM; nonetheless, no species of appendicularians could be used as a bioindicator of any estuary in the current study. Studies on the quality of estuary waters and the search for other bioindicators belonging to other zooplankton groups are recommended to confirm the obtained results and to expand the knowledge of these coastal environments.

  8. CONFLICTS PARTNER ENVIRONMENTAL MOTIVATED BY THE OCCUPATION OF GROWTH OF MANGROVES AND SANDBANKS FOR HABITATIONAL ENDS IN URBAN SPACE OF MACAÉ, RJ

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    Jailse Vasconcelos Tougeiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous occupation of mangroves and sandbanks, for habitation ends, has been carting conflicting situations in Macaé, located city to the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro.  Our objective is to analyze the specificities of the conflicts motivated by the occupation of growth of mangroves and sandbanks for habitation ends that won institutional visibility through accusations directed by the that she were harmed. The data were collected starting from documental research in the State Public Prosecution Service and in the Federal Public Prosecution Service. We identified three groups of actors involved in the conflicts: the ones that defend the occupants’ retreat and the restoration of the degraded areas, the ones that defend the occupants’ permanence and urbanization of the busy areas, and the ones that defend the need of a study of each situation seeking urbanization of the occupation areas, already consolidated, and removal of the families that are in risk areas or still committing the ecosystems existent. We verified that the conflicts, current of the occupation of the growth of mangroves and sandbanks, demonstrate the existence of  another conflict that is related to the picture of segregation socioespacial of the city of Macaé. We could conclude that the conflicts were propeller of social changes, and that still exist  many challenges to be faced.

  9. Evaluación preliminar del efecto de Lepidium meyenii Walp en el desarrollo embrionario de ratón

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    Guadalupe D´Arrigo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La "maca", Lepidium meyenii Walp, especie vegetal nativa del Perú, es un recurso de gran valor nutricional. Además son varias las investigaciones realizadas en la última década en las cuales se ha comprobado sus efectos sobre la fertilidad de mamíferos. En este trabajo, evaluamos el posible efecto del extracto liofilizado del hipocótilo de L. meyenii Walp en el desarrollo de los embriones preimplantacionales de Mus musculus. Se suministró el liofilizado intra-peritonealmente, en una concentración de 0 g/Kg (grupo control y 1 g/Kg de peso corporal a dos grupos de ratonas preñadas respectivamente, desde el día 1 hasta el día 4 de preñez. Se evaluaron el estadío de desarrollo, condición y morfología embrionarias, no encontrándose efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso liofilizado de "maca" en el desarrollo normal de los embriones pre-implantacionales de ratón.

  10. Fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira em resposta à aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production by hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil application

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    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de indutores de brotação é uma das principais estratégias de manejo utilizadas para minimizar os problemas da falta de frio em frutíferas de clima temperado. Em razão da influência dos indutores de brotação sobre a resposta produtiva das plantas, a mensuração de seus efeitos ao longo do ciclo produtivo torna-se importante. Assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no ciclo 2007/2008, em Caçador/SC, objetivando avaliar diferentes combinações de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral sobre a fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos em macieiras. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições compostas de uma planta, seguindo arranjo fatorial (5x2, com cinco níveis de indutor de brotação (1. testemunha; 2. óleo mineral 3,2%; 3. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,20%; 4. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,39%; 5. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,59% e duas cultivares (Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. A aplicação dos indutores de brotação antecipou e reduziu o período de florescimento, aumentando a coincidência de florescimento das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. Os indutores de brotação uniformizaram e aumentaram a brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, obtendo-se máxima brotação na cultivar Imperial Gala com 0,44% de cianamida hidrogenada e 3,2% de óleo mineral. O aumento da concentração de cianamida hidrogenada revelou a tendência de diminuir a frutificação efetiva. Observaram-se respostas diferenciadas entre tratamentos quanto à produção e à massa média dos frutos, podendo ser atribuídas ao predomínio da produção de frutos em distintas estruturas de frutificação.The budbreak promoters application is one of main management strategies used to decrease the problems of insufficient winter chilling on temperate fruit trees. Because the influence of budbreak promoters on productive behaviour of plants

  11. Época apropriada para a poda apical do algodoeiro para o controle de pragas

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    Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a época apropriada para a realização da poda apical em algodoeiro. O trabalho foi realizado durante as safras de 2008 e 2009 (maio a novembro em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em dois ambientes, com as variedades: BRS 201, de fibra branca, e BRS Rubi, BRS Safira e BRS Verde, de fibra colorida, em Paudalho, PE; e BRS 201 e BRS Rubi, em Surubim, PE. A poda apical consistiu na retirada dos ápices das plantas com estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas, em duas idades fenológicas: com 50% das maçãs maduras (poda I e no surgimento dos primeiros capulhos (poda II. A poda I resultou em maior retirada de botões florais do que a poda II. Em ambas as podas, houve a retirada de cinco nós dos ponteiros. A produção e a qualidade de fibra não diferiram entre plantas podadas ou não. Um número significativo de estruturas atacadas foi eliminado pela poda. A poda apical é recomendada para reduzir o número de estruturas não produtivas, ao final da safra, que são utilizadas como hospedeiras de pragas

  12. Reação de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar à broca do colmo

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    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a reação de dez cultivares de cana-de-açúcar à Diatraea saccharalis Fabr., em experimento desenvolvido em delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições e tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2x10. O primeiro fator foi constituído por dois níveis de infestação de broca (infestado e não infestado, e o segundo fator, pelas dez cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em estudo (IAC87-3396, IAC91-1099, IACSP93-3046, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-4004, IACSP95-5000, IACSP96-3060, IACSP96-2042 e SP91-1115. O ensaio foi avaliado em dois ciclos da cultura, cana-planta e primeira soca. Todas as cultivares foram muito atacadas pela broca, sendo IACSP94-4004, IACSP96-2042 e SP91-1115 as mais infestadas e danificadas pelo inseto. Para cana-planta, parcelas infestadas pela broca tiveram maior teor de fibra que parcelas não infestadas. Para soqueira, parcelas infestadas produziram 10% menos, com menores teores de pureza e maiores teores de açúcares redutores totais que as não infestadas.

  13. Reseña. PRINCIPALES BENEFICIOS QUE SE ALCANZAN CON LA PRÁCTICA ADECUADA DEL DRENAJE AGRÍCOLA

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    Ricardo Polón Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El drenaje es una de las prácticas agrícolas másimportantes para el mejoramiento de los suelos, evitar lasinundaciones y una vía efectiva para incrementar losrendimientos agrícolas de los cultivos son, entre otras, lasventajas de su práctica en la agricultura mundial. Con el dre-naje se eliminan las malas condiciones y se reducen al míni-mo las posibilidades de que las plantas sean atacadas porplagas y enfermedades. Con el mejoramiento de las propiedadesfísicas del suelo así como las condiciones favorables para losprocesos de su formación aumenta la fertilidad, lo que garantizauna alta producción de las cosechas. Igualmente, la producti-vidad del suelo depende del grado de avenamiento y las medidasagrícolas realizadas. Ambas aseguran el aumento del rendimiento de las cosechas entre dos y tres veces, encomparación con los terrenos no drenados, empantanados oinundados.

  14. Del hospital a la comunidad: El "Case Management" y la virtualización de las instituciones

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    Ana Vítores González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Las certezas espaciales de las instituciones totales han sigo atacadas en casi todos los países industriales avanzados. A nuestro alrededor podemos ver como un importante cambio desde las instituciones  tradicionales hacia la “comunidad” o hacia los llamados programas en el “medio abierto”. Podemos encontrar un buen ejemplo de esto en el campo de la salud mental en lo que se conoce como el paso de una Psiquiatría institucional a una Comunitaria. La contracción de las establecimientos institucionales tradicionales y la tendencia hacia los servicios psiquiátricos basados en la comunidad hacen que los hospitales psiquiátricos parezcan viejas reliquias del pasado. Aunque a menudo se suele hablar de desinstitucionalización para referirse a este proceso, este texto ofrece la noción  de “virtualización” como herramienta para explorar las relaciones que definen ese proceso.

  15. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  16. Mucho ruido y pocas nueces: cobertura mediática y participación ciudadana en el debate de la nueva ley de comunicación en Ecuador

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    Isabel Ramos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Debate que ha tenido como protagonista a las empresas periodísticas quienes se sienten atacadas, no tanto por las expresiones del Presidente, como por el afán del gobierno de regular actividades que, como la de la comunicación, han estado liberadas las lógicas del mercado. Su campaña mediática ha logrado simplificar la discusión a una defesa de la libertad de expresión en contra del “autoritarismo” con el que caracterizan al gobierno de Correa. El gobierno por su parte, no ha logrado incluir en esta discusión, que no afecta únicamente intereses económicos y políticos de los grandes emporios mediáticos, al conjunto de la ciudadanía: profesionales y estudiantes de comunicación social y las organizaciones nacionales y regionales de comunicadores, que por ahora no sienten suya esta iniciativa de regulación. La discusión definitiva para empatar con los derechos que garantiza el texto constitucional tiene todavía tareas pendientes.

  17. Resistência de cultivares de videira ao ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae na região de Jales, estado de São Paulo

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    Gisele Santos Valadão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As videiras da região de Jales, Estado de São Paulo, têm sido intensamente atacadas pelo ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar cultivares de uva quanto à adequação como hospedeiras da espécie. Em experimento de campo, naquele local, a ocorrência da praga, ao longo de 12 meses, foi acompanhada nas cultivares de uvas finas, Itália e Benitaka, e na cultivar de uva rústica, Niagara Rosada. No laboratório, a biologia de T. urticae foi estudada nessas três cultivares e na 'Redimeire'. Na cultivar Niagara Rosada, o ácaro-rajado apresentou menor fecundidade e menor sobrevivência, indicando a presença de mecanismos de resistência por antibiose. Além disso, houve maior tentativa de fuga dessa cultivar, sugerindo resistência por não preferência.

  18. Gestação e cárie dental Pregnancy and dental caries

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    Yvette Viegas

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar se a incidência de cárie aumenta durante a gestação. Foram incluídas neste estudo 82 gestantes e 40 não gestantes nas quais se observou a incidência de superfícies atacadas pela cárie durante um período de 6 meses. À análise dos dados constatamos que não ocorreu diferença estatìsticamente significante entre os dois grupos quanto à incidência de cárie.The purpose of this investigation was to verify if the incidence of dental decay increases during pregnancy.In this study 82 pregnant and 40 nonpregnant women were included. In both groups the incidence of attacked surfaces was studied in a period of six months. The observed incidence of dental caries between the groups was not statistically significant.

  19. El liberalismo institucionista en la residencia de estudiantes: una ética, una estética

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    Isabel PÉREZ- VILLANUEVA TOVAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La Residencia de Estudiantes fue un peculiar organismo en la trama de la Instrucción Pública española desde su creación, por Real Decreto, el 6 de mayo de 1910, hasta su brusca interrupción en el verano de 1936. Constituye sin duda una experiencia única —y de gran relieve—, que gozó ya en su tiempo de notable resonancia en escogidos ambientes intelectuales y sociales. Con el paso de los años, la institución residencial, envuelta en un halo poético, se ha ido convirtiendo en una referencia casi legendaria, en un símbolo espiritual, en un hito cultural que ejemplifica lo mejor de toda una época; naturalmente, con ello se ha ido simplificando y esquematizando su atractiva complejidad. Ensalzada hasta el ditirambo en numerosas ocasiones, atacada o silenciada otras muchas veces, la Residencia de Estudiantes es más variada y sutil de lo que unos cuantos lugares comunes, de uno u otro signo, indican a menudo.

  20. Spittlebug Cephisus siccifolius damaging eucalypt plants in the State of Bahia, Brazil Cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius em plantio de eucalipto clonal no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Most common pests of eucalyptus plants in Brazil are leaf cutting ants and defoliating caterpillars. Other groups, eventually, feeding on eucalyptus include Heteroptera and cicadas. The objectives of this work were to identify and to describe attack symptoms of Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae on eucalyptus trees in a stand of 25.77 hectares in the State of Bahia, Brazil, where 99.3% of them were attacked by this spittlebug. Damage was more severe on branches and leaves. Tree death was, relatively, low while those cut showed 4.7 colonies of this spittlebug with 21.9 nymphs per colony. Cultural control with the removal of trees attacked was recommended.Os insetos-praga mais comuns em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil são formigas cortadeiras e lagartas desfolhadoras. Eventualmente, outros insetos como percevejos e cigarrinhas podem danificar essas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e descrever os sintomas de ataque, em um plantio de eucalipto de 25,77 hectares, no Estado da Bahia, onde 99,3% das árvores tinham sido atacadas pela cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae. Os danos foram maiores em galhos e folhas. A mortalidade de árvores foi baixa, apesar de se observar 4,7 colônias de cigarrinhas por árvore, com 21,9 ninfas por colônia. O corte das árvores infestadas foi recomendado como controle.

  1. Alianza y conflicto interracial en los Llanos de Casanare (Virreinato del Nuevo Reino de Granada. El caso del adelantado Juan Francisco Parales, 1795-1806

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    José Eduardo Rueda Enciso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo narra y analiza los hechos de violencia interétnica sucedidos en los Llanos de Arauca, Casanare y Meta entre 1795 y 1806, cuando el adelantado Juan Francisco Parales, afrodescendiente de Barinas, Venezuela, intentó dos reducciones de indígenas guahibo-chiricoas en los sitios de Las Cachamas y el Zumi, las cuales, al menos en un principio, contaron con el apoyo de los hacendados y los pobladores de la zona, y luego, por el contrario, fueron violentamente atacadas por ellos mismos, lo cual generó permanentes hechos de violencia que derivaron en odio y resentimiento contra los indígenas de la mencionada etnia, y en una odiosa práctica cultural, conocida como "la guahibiada", que desde entonces y hasta años recientes estuvo presente en la región. Parales no solo logró organizar a los guahibo-chiricoas, sino que a las bandas de indígenas se unieron blancos pobres, mestizos y mulatos que pusieron en aprietos a las autoridades.

  2. Influencia del deterioro incipiente producido por el hongo de pudrición parda Serpula lacrymans, sobre las propiedades mecánicas de compresión normal y paralela a la fibra en madera de Pinus radiata D. Don

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    Pereira, A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several buildings and structures of wood are attacked by rot fungi, leading in some cases, slight weight losses that result in reductions in the strength properties of the material. In this work was evaluated the influence of early rot decay in wood, in mechanical properties of normal and parallel compression. For this, were inoculated samples of Pinus radiata D. Don with brown rot fungi Serpula Lacrymans. These samples were tested in three differents periods of fungal exposure. The results identified a significant decrease in percentage of the properties under study.Diversas edificaciones y estructuras construidas en madera son atacadas por hongos de pudrición, provocando en algunos casos, leves pérdidas de peso que se traducen en disminución en las propiedades resistentes del material. En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de estados incipientes de pudrición en madera, en las propiedades mecánicas de compresión paralela y compresión normal. Para esto, se inocularon probetas de Pinus radiata D. Don. con el hongo de pudrición parda Serpula lacrymans, las cuales fueron posteriormente ensayadas mecánicamente en tres diferentes períodos de exposición fúngica. Los resultados obtenidos determinaron una importante disminución porcentual de las propiedades bajo estudio.

  3. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  4. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  5. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

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    Thomas D Kost

    Full Text Available The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5, and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  6. Mulan: Multiple-Sequence Local Alignment and Visualization for Studying Function and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Loots, G; Giardine, B; Hou, M; Ma, J; Hardison, R; Stubbs, L; Miller, W

    2004-07-14

    Multiple sequence alignment analysis is a powerful approach for understanding phylogenetic relationships, annotating genes and detecting functional regulatory elements. With a growing number of partly or fully sequenced vertebrate genomes, effective tools for performing multiple comparisons are required to accurately and efficiently assist biological discoveries. Here we introduce Mulan (http://mulan.dcode.org/), a novel method and a network server for comparing multiple draft and finished-quality sequences to identify functional elements conserved over evolutionary time. Mulan brings together several novel algorithms: the tba multi-aligner program for rapid identification of local sequence conservation and the multiTF program for detecting evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites in multiple alignments. In addition, Mulan supports two-way communication with the GALA database; alignments of multiple species dynamically generated in GALA can be viewed in Mulan, and conserved transcription factor binding sites identified with Mulan/multiTF can be integrated and overlaid with extensive genome annotation data using GALA. Local multiple alignments computed by Mulan ensure reliable representation of short-and large-scale genomic rearrangements in distant organisms. Mulan allows for interactive modification of critical conservation parameters to differentially predict conserved regions in comparisons of both closely and distantly related species. We illustrate the uses and applications of the Mulan tool through multi-species comparisons of the GATA3 gene locus and the identification of elements that are conserved differently in avians than in other genomes allowing speculation on the evolution of birds. Source code for the aligners and the aligner-evaluation software can be freely downloaded from http://bio.cse.psu.edu/.

  7. Testing the limits of rational design by engineering pH sensitivity into membrane-active peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Gregory; Wimley, William C; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we sought to rationally design membrane-active peptides that are triggered by low pH to form macromolecular-sized pores in lipid bilayers. Such peptides could have broad utility in biotechnology and in nanomedicine as cancer therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that promote release of macromolecules from endosomes. Our approach to rational design was to combine the properties of a pH-independent peptide, MelP5, which forms large pores allowing passage of macromolecules, with the properties of two pH-dependent membrane-active peptides, pHlip and GALA. We created two hybrid sequences, MelP5_Δ4 and MelP5_Δ6, by using the distribution of acidic residues on pHlip and GALA as a guide to insert acidic amino acids into the amphipathic helix of MelP5. We show that the new peptides bind to lipid bilayers and acquire secondary structure in a pH-dependent manner. The peptides also destabilize bilayers in a pH-dependent manner, such that lipid vesicles release the small molecules ANTS/DPX at low pH only. Thus, we were successful in designing pH-triggered pore-forming peptides. However, no macromolecular release was observed under any conditions. Therefore, we abolished the unique macromolecular poration properties of MelP5 by introducing pH sensitivity into its sequence. We conclude that the properties of pHlip, GALA, and MelP5 are additive, but only partially so. We propose that this lack of additivity is a limitation in the rational design of novel membrane-active peptides, and that high-throughput approaches to discovery will be critical for continued progress in the field.

  8. Testing the limits of rational design by engineering pH sensitivity into membrane active peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we sought to rationally design membrane active peptides that are triggered by low pH to form macromolecular-sized pores in lipid bilayers. Such peptides could have broad utility in biotechnology and in nanomedicine as cancer therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that promote release of macromolecules from endosomes. Our approach to rational design was to combine the properties of a pH-independent peptide, MelP5, which forms large pores allowing passage of macromolecules, with the properties of two pH-dependent membrane active peptides, pHlip and GALA. We created two hybrid sequences, MelP5_Δ4 and MelP5_Δ6 by using the distribution of acidic residues on pHlip and GALA as a guide to insert acidic amino acids into the amphipathic helix of MelP5. We show that the new peptides bind to lipid bilayers and acquire secondary structure in a pH-dependent manner. The peptides also destabilize bilayers in a pH-dependent manner, such that lipid vesicles release the small molecules ANTS/DPX at low pH only. Thus, we were successful in designing pH-triggered pore-forming peptides. However, no macro-molecular release was observed under any conditions. Therefore, we abolished the unique macromolecular poration properties of MelP5 by introducing pH-sensitivity into its sequence. We conclude that the properties of pHlip, GALA and MelP5 are additive, but only partially so. We propose that this lack of additivity is a limitation in the rational design of novel membrane active peptides, and that high-throughput approaches to discovery will be critical for continued progress in the field. PMID:25572997

  9. PRECOCIDADE DE PRODUÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE MACIEIRA SOBRE DOIS PORTA-ENXERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO CAETANO FIORAVANÇO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Em ensaios de competição, muitos fatores são avaliados visando a diferenciar as cultivares e a proceder à recomendação de uso. Em relação ao desempenho produtivo, cultivares que entram em produção precocemente, produzem regularmente ao longo dos anos e, ao final, apresentam produções superiores, destacam-se em relação às demais. Desta forma, o trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a precocidade de produção, por meio da aplicação do índice de precocidade de produção, e a produção acumulada de nove cultivares de macieira enxertadas sobre dois porta-enxertos, durante as seis primeiras safras. Os mais elevados índices de precocidade de produção foram exibidos pelas cultivares Daiane, Mishima e Fuji Select no porta-enxerto M-9, e pelas cultivares Fuji Suprema, Daiane e Gala Real no porta-enxerto Marubakaido/M-9. Ao final das seis safras, ‘Baigent’ e ‘Cripps Pink’, no porta-enxerto M-9, e ‘Maxi-Gala’, ‘Baigent’, ‘Daiane’, ‘Gala Real’ e ‘Royal Gala’, no Marubakaido/M-9, apresentaram as maiores produções acumuladas. Somente ‘Daiane’ e ‘Gala Real’, sobre a combinação Marubakaido/M-9, destacaram-se para as variáveis índice de precocidade de produção e produção acumulada, simultaneamente. O índice de precocidade de produção é um parâmetro importante para, junto com outros fatores, como a produção e a qualidade dos frutos, diferenciar cultivares de macieira.

  10. Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Man-Miao; Lin, Yu-Che; Wu, Yaojun; Fisher, Nicole; Saimanee, Titiporn; Sangtongpraow, Benjakhun; Zhu, Chaodong; Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; La Salle, John

    2014-08-01

    Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 

  11. México Francia

    OpenAIRE

    Boadella, Montserrat Galí; Cházaro, Laura; Christlieb, Federico Fernández; Cramaussel, Chantal; Díaz, Bernardo García; Franco, Adela Pineda; Gaitán, Julieta Ortíz; López, María Adelina Arredondo; Martínez, Paul Hersch; Meyer, Jean,; Nüñez, Fernanda; Ojeda, Leticia Gamboa; Pérez Siller, Javier; Septién, Valentina Torres; Skerritt, David

    2013-01-01

    «El espíritu de la cultura francesa es el ropaje del alma que los países latinos han adoptado desde hace dos siglos». Estas palabras de Justo Sierra, expresadas en 1902, evocan la importancia atribuida a la influencia gala en la sociedad decimonónica. Si ella es perceptible aún hoy en día, los estudios que se le han consagrado son muy escasos. Fruto de un programa de investigación, este libro propone cuatro ejes de análisis, desde la perspectiva de la mundialización, sobre el sentido y el imp...

  12. Proper Motion Of Teh Magellanic Clouds Using SPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tos propios fueron combinadas en una solución de traslapo usando estrellas fotométricamente seleccionadas del disco galáctico como sistema de...dominante de los errores se debe a la incertidumbre estimada del sistema inercial del Catálogo Hipparcos. Se logró sin embargo una determi- nación...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND

  13. Stellar and Black Hole Mass Densities as Empirical Tracers of Co-evolution Show Lock-step Growth since $z{\\sim}3$

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2016-01-01

    At redshifts beyond $z{\\sim}1$ measuring the black hole galaxy relations proves to be a difficult task. The bright light of the AGN aggravates deconvolution of black hole and galaxy properties. On the other hand high redshift data on these relations is vital to understand in what ways galaxies and black holes co-evolve and in what ways they don't. In this work we use black hole (BHMDs) and stellar mass densities (SMDs) to constrain the possible co-evolution of black holes with their host gala...

  14. Reportajes especiales en los cibermedios: análisis de diez años de Premios Goya y Oscar Awards en Elpais.com

    OpenAIRE

    Freixa Font, Pere

    2015-01-01

    La transformación de los medios de comunicación tradicionales en cibermedios supuso, en un primer momento, un proceso de traslación a la red de los formatos y procedimientos definidos para el soporte en papel. Las primeras redacciones digitales integraron los distintos géneros periodísticos, entre los que se encontraban los reportajes especiales de acontecimientos previstos, como son los procesos electorales, las galas o entregas de premios y los festivales musicales. Desde 2005, anualment...

  15. Lähme, naised / Tiina Kuuler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuler, Tiina, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Muusikasündmustest: Rahvusooper Estonia koostöös Nukuteatri ning Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumiga kutsub lapsi kolmepäevastesse laagritesse kahe nädala jooksul ajavahemikus 9.-20. juunini (vt. www. junior.opera.ee), ansambel "Skriimsilm" 16. mail Tallinnas Rock Cafes, Eesti Kontserdi hooaja lõpp-kontserdid (esineb Helsingi Filharmoonia orkester) 16. mail Jõhvi kontserdimajas ja 17. mail Pärnu kontserdimajas, Puccini gala 16. mail Tallinnas Vene teatris, Backstreet Boys 19. mail Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis, "Küünikontsert: Liisi Koikson" 17. mail Kuusalu vallas Kolgaküla küünis, Busta Rhymes 18. mail Tallinnas Club von Überblingenis

  16. Lähme, naised / Tiina Kuuler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuler, Tiina, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Muusikasündmustest: "Flamenkofantaasiad" 2. mail Jõhvi kontserdimajas, "Frank Sinatra gala" 6. mail Vanemuise kontserdisaalis, 7. mail Pärnu kontserdimajas ja 9. mail Tallinna Linnahallis, Brides in Bloom 2. mail Tallinnas Rock Cafes, Demis Roussos 6. mail Saku Suurhallis, Vaiko Epilk ja Eliit heliplaadi "3: Kosmoseodüsseia" esitluskontsert 8. mail Rock Cafés, Chalice'i ja Jürmo Eespere trio kontserdist 6. mail Estonia Talveaias, Ultima Thule, Evergreen 86, Groundhog Day rokk-kontserdil 2. mail Tartus Vabaduse puiesteel

  17. iKamikaze!

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Al cumplirse los 50 años de haberse iniciado la segunda guerra mundial con todas sus consecuencias desastrosas para la humanidad en todos los continentes, unos directamente, otros indirectamente recibieron los efectos nefastos de ese espantoso conflicto, donde se desataron odios de razas y la vanidad humana hizo gala de la más cruel impiedad y nos dejó un mundo complicado que aún no se repone y encuentra una real paz para la humanidad. Por ello queremos recordar un capítulo de la guerra del P...

  18. Connections of the amygdaloid structures integrating olfactory and vomeronasal information in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cadiz Moretti, Bernardita Josr

    2015-01-01

    La amígdala es considerada una estructura clave en el aprendizaje emocional asociativo en roedores. La mayor parte de los estudios sobre aprendizaje emocional se han centrado en paradigmas de aprendizaje aversivo, cuando al menos, parte de la amígdala es también relevante en el procesamiento de estímulos reforzantes, particularmente estímulos de naturaleza química (olores y feromonas), dado que los roedores son animales macrosmáticos. La amígala es primer relevo telencefalico en donde converg...

  19. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE A ATIVIDADE DE PEROXIDASE (POD E POLIFENOLOXIDASE (PPO EM MAÇÃ (Mallus comunis EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON PEROXIDASE (POD AND POLYPHENOLOXIDASE (PPO ACTIVITIES OF APPLE (Mallus comunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia VALDERRAMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O extrato enzimático foi preparado a partir da polpa e casca da maçã de cultivares Fuji e Gala utilizando tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM, pH 5,0 como solução extratora. Dentre as análises determinou-se a concentração de proteína nos extratos enzimáticos concentrados de polpa e casca, sendo que o cultivar Fuji apresentou teores mais elevados em comparação ao cultivar Gala. Os tratamentos térmicos foram realizados nas temperaturas de 60, 65, 70 e 75°C por períodos que variaram de 1 a 10 minutos, sendo observado diminuição da atividade de POD e PPO com o aumento da temperatura e tempo; no entanto a POD não chegou a ser inativada em nenhum dos tratamentos realizados. A PPO foi inativada totalmente após 10 minutos de tratamento a 75°C. A eletroforese mostrou uma composição diferente de isoenzimas aniônicas e catiônicas da peroxidase.The enzymatic extract was prepared using the pulp and the peel of the apples from Fuji and Gala cultivar using sodium phosphate buffer 100 mM, pH 5.0 as the extraction solution. The protein concentration was determined and the Fuji cultivar showed higher amounts of protein than the Gala cultivar. The thermal treatments were carried out in the temperatures of 60, 65, 70 and 75°C for periods that varied from 1 to 10 minutes. A decrease in the activities of POD and PPO with the increase of the temperature and time was observed; however POD was not inactived following any of the treatments used. PPO was totally inativated after 10 minutes of treatment for 75°C. The electrophoresis showed a different pattern for the anionic and cationic peroxidase isoenzymes.

  20. Kontsert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vanemuise kontserdimajas 11. nov. isadepäeva kontserdil "Isad ja pojad" esinemas Olav Ehala ja Tanel Ehala klaveril ja Pärnu Linnaorkester, kaastegev Kiigelaulukuuik (dirigent Erki Pehk). 12. nov. kammerlaval festivalil "Fiesta de la guitarra '05" kitarriduo Katona Twins, 17. nov. Aleksander Rudini ja Tallinna Kammerorkestri kontsert. TÜ aulas 11. nov. kitarrikontsert: Rody van Gemert & Mikko Ikäheimo, 13. nov. "Fiesta de la guitarra '05" pidulik gala. TÜ ajaloo muuseumis 14. nov. Elleri Muusikakooli kontsert "Sügisbarokk". Jaani kirikus 13. nov. festivalil "Fiesta de la guitarra '05" Miguel Rivera ja Luis Carro Barquero