WorldWideScience

Sample records for macas gala atacadas

  1. Maca

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product (Maca Gelatinizada La Molina, Laboratories Hersil, Lima, Peru) daily for 12 weeks can increase sexual desire in healthy men. "Tired blood" (anemia). Leukemia. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Improving energy and ...

  2. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety; Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama com tratamento termico na conservacao de suco natural de maca da variedade Gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; heat at 80{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60{sup 0}); radiation plus heat 80{sup 0} C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5{+-}3{sup 0} C up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs.

  3. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  4. The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) is one of the instruments selected for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). A fundamental goal of any exploratory space mission is to characterize and measure the shape, topography, and rotation of the target bodies. A state of the art tool for this task is laser altimetry because it can provide absolute topographic height and position with respect to a body centered reference system. With respect to Ganymede, the GALA instrument aims at mapping of global, regional and local topography; confirming the global subsurface ocean and further characterization of the water-ice/liquid shell by monitoring the dynamic response of the ice shell to tidal forces; providing constraints on the forced physical librations and spin-axis obliquity; determining Ganymede's shape; obtaining detailed topographic profiles across the linear features of grooved terrain, impact structures, possible cryo-volcanic features and other different surface units; providing information about slope, roughness and albedo (at 1064nm) of Ganymede's surface. GALA uses the direct-detection (classical) approach of laser altimetry. Laser pulses are emitted at a wavelength of 1064 nm by using an actively Q-switched Nd:Yag laser. The pulse energy and pulse repetition frequency are 17 mJ at 30 Hz, respectively. The emission time of each pulse is measured by the detector. The beam is reflected from the surface and received at a 25 cm diameter F/1 telescope. The returning laser pulse is refocused onto a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) through back-end optics including a narrow bandpass interference filter for isolating the 1064 nm wavelength. The APD-signal is then amplified, sampled and fed to a digital range finder. The minimum acceptable SNR is approx. 1.2. This system determines the time of flight, pulse intensity, width and full shape. The GALA instrument is developed in collaboration of institutes and industry from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and Spain.

  5. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the hi...

  6. Gala: A Python package for galactic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2017-10-01

    Gala is an Astropy-affiliated Python package for galactic dynamics. Python enables wrapping low-level languages (e.g., C) for speed without losing flexibility or ease-of-use in the user-interface. The API for Gala was designed to provide a class-based and user-friendly interface to fast (C or Cython-optimized) implementations of common operations such as gravitational potential and force evaluation, orbit integration, dynamical transformations, and chaos indicators for nonlinear dynamics. Gala also relies heavily on and interfaces well with the implementations of physical units and astronomical coordinate systems in the Astropy package (astropy.units and astropy.coordinates). Gala was designed to be used by both astronomical researchers and by students in courses on gravitational dynamics or astronomy. It has already been used in a number of scientific publications and has also been used in graduate courses on Galactic dynamics to, e.g., provide interactive visualizations of textbook material.

  7. Avaliação nutricional de plantas de erva-mate atacadas e não-atacadas pelo Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar e comparar os teores nutricionais de plantas de erva-      -mate, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., atacadas e não-atacadas pela broca-da-erva-mate Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Col.: Cerambycidae, para identificar possíveis desequilíbrios nutricionais no solo e nas folhas. A área amostrada está localizada no município de Catanduvas, SC. O erval estudado é homogêneo, com idade de 8 anos e densidade de 2.100 plantas/ha. As amostragens de folhas e de solo foram realizadas nos meses de fevereiro e abril de 1999. As amostras foram submetidas à análise química, em Laboratório de Análise Química. Foram interpretados os teores para cada elemento químico,  realizaram-se os testes de comparações de médias "t" e "f" e  o teste de homogeneidade de variâncias.  Observou-se que o solo apresenta teores considerados adequados de N e P, teores baixos de K, Ca e Mg e altos para S, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, Al, Al+H, Ph e SMP, para a erva-mate. Já na análise foliar, as plantas apresentam teores considerados adequados de K, Ca, B, Zn e Na, teores baixos de P, Mn e S e altos de N, Mg, Fe, e Cu. Nessa análise, chamou a atenção, as altas concentrações de N e os baixos níveis de S no tecido foliar. O teste "t" registrou diferença significativa para o P do solo e de folhas e o teste "f", revelou o ferro do solo, como elemento químico com diferença significativa entre as médias das duas condições de plantas. O P e o Fe do solo e ainda, o K, S e Mn de folhas foram os elementos químicos que registraram heterogeneidade significativa de variâncias. Das variáveis estudadas, as plantas atacadas foram as que revelaram maior variação entre as médias.

  8. Puccini galaõhtu Eesti Televisioonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia helilooja Giacomo Puccini 150. sünniaastapäeva puhul näeb 21. detsembril ETVs saadet Pärnu Endla teatris 15. mail toimunud galaõhtust, kus XXI Sajandi Orkestri saatel esinesid rahvusvahelise Klaudia Taevi konkursi laureaadid

  9. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing.

  11. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl

  12. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  13. Oscarite gala pole enam miljoni valge mehe marss / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2007-01-01

    79. Oscarite gala oli Martin Scorsese maffiadraama "Kahe tule vahel" ja mustanahaliste näitlejate triumf. Parimaks meesnäitlejaks kuulutati Forest Whitaker ja parimaks naiskõrvalosatäitjaks Jennifer Hudson. Ka varasematest võitjatest

  14. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histology of Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Bravo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las característica...

  16. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Elizabeth; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also,

  17. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  18. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Chen, Longfei; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Song; Fan, Liuping

    2017-01-01

    Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein conte...

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  20. Maca (L. meyenii for improving sexual function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Byung-Cheul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  1. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Suk; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-08-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  2. [Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru's Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don't show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (PMaca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (PMaca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (PMaca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant PMaca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.

  4. Maca (Lepidium meyenii WALP), a review of its biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina y doctor en Ciencias.; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión. Cerro de Pasco, Perú. doctor en Economía.; Gasco, Manuel; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. magíster en Ciencias.; Rubio, Julio; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciado en Biología.; Gonzales, Carla; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. doctora en Ciencias.

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in...

  5. Unit and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2018-03-01

    Unit chain length distributions of amylopectin and its φ, β-limit dextrins, which reflect amylopectin internal structure from three maca starches, were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection after debranching, and the samples were compared with maize starch. The amylopectins exhibited average chain lengths ranging from 16.72 to 17.16, with ranges of total internal chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of the maca amylopectins at 12.49 to 13.68, 11.24 to 11.89, and 4.27 to 4.48. The average chain length, external chain length, internal chain length, and total internal chain length were comparable in three maca amylopectins. Amylopectins of the three maca genotypes studied here presented no significant differences in their unit chain length profiles, but did show significant differences in their internal chain profiles. Additional genetic variations between different maca genotypes need to be studied to provide unit- and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.

  7. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomàs; Gonzales, Libertad Alzamora; Del Valle, Luis J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza-induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively. In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gala Concert for the 50th Anniversary of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN 50th Anniversary celebrations will wrap up with music on 18 December with a Gala Concert by the Philharmonic Orchestra of London in Victoria Hall, Geneva. The orchestra will be directed by Tommaso Placidi, a young talented conductor, and will also enjoy the presence of Maxim Vengerov as first violin. This evening is organised by Mrs Suzanne Hurter, with the support of private companies as well as of the city and the canton of Geneva. The concert will begin with the Overture of Wagner's Flying Dutchman. Maxim Vengerov will then interpret Beethoven's Concert for violin and orchestra. The second part of the concert will be devoted to Tschaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. Tickets cost between 35CHF and 140 CHF according to the seat. People working at CERN will have a 10% discount. You may buy your tickets at the Kiosque FK inside the building Pfister Meubles in Meyrin (ch de Rianbosson 5-9) and get your discount by showing your CERN card. Find out more about the seats available, go to the Resaplus Ticket Book...

  9. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomas; Alzamora Gonzales, Libertad; Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier del

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Methods Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic ...

  10. The Methyltetrahydro-β-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca, a plant native to the Peruvian highlands, contains (1R,3S-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA. The family of the tetrahydro-β-carbolines has been associated with both biologically helpful and harmful compounds. We present evidence that MTCA is a natural constituent of Maca, and on consumption no toxicity is found. This suggests that, when consumed as multi-component, MTCA may loose its adversity as drug action.

  11. Effect of butanolic fraction of yellow and black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on the sperm count of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N; Farfan, C; Gonzales, G F

    2016-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii, known as maca, is a popular nutraceutical food which is grown over 4,000 m above sea level in the Peruvian central highlands. Maca contains alkaloids, but there are no studies on their biological effects. The butanol fraction obtained from methanol extract of maca hypocotyls contains alkaloids. The effects of butanol/aqueous fractions partitioned from methanol extract of yellow and black maca were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were used to evaluate maca fractions in vitro. Daily sperm production and sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens in mice were determined as biological effect of maca extracts in vivo. Yellow maca (21.7%±0.69) had better antioxidant capacity than black maca (18.2% ± 0.12; p maca. TPC is higher in the aqueous fraction than in the methanolic extract of yellow or black maca. Black maca administration resulted in higher concentration of sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens compared to yellow maca. A higher biological effect was observed in methanolic extract and in aqueous extract than in the butanol fraction of maca. In conclusion, better biological effect was observed in the methanolic extract of maca than in its partitioned fractions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein content and amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as Valine and Isoleucine related to the effect of antifatigue. It also has considerable minerals ions such as Ca and Mg. Besides, bioactive ingredients such as maca amide, glucosinolate, and alkaloid of Xinjiang maca are similar to those of maca from other areas, which qualify the biological value of Xinjiang maca. The results of mice model suggest that maca has a dose-dependent antifatigue activity by decreasing blood lactic acid, as well as increasing liver glycogen content and the forced swimming time.

  13. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzales Gustavo F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae, known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau and is used traditionally to enhance fertility. Maca is a cultivated plant and different cultivars are described according to the color of the hypocotyls. Methods The study aimed to elucidate the effect of Yellow, Red and Black Maca on cognitive function and depression in ovariectomized (OVX mice. In all experiments OVX mice were treated during 21 days and divided in four groups: control group, Yellow Maca, Red Maca and Black Maca. Latent learning was assessed using the water finding task and the antidepressant activity of the three varieties of Maca was evaluated using the forced swimming test. Animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment and the uterus were excised and weighed. Results Black Maca was the variety that showed the best response in the water finding task, particularly in the trained mice. The three varieties were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P Conclusion Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.

  14. Archaeological test excavations at the mesolithic and iron age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV / Aivar Kriiska, Kaarel Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriiska, Aivar, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    gala jõe alamjooksul on mitmeid eriaegseid muinasjäänuseid. Vanim neist on Jägala-Joa IV asulakoht. Mesoliitiline asustuskoht annab tuge hüpoteesile, et Eesti rannikuala asustamise esimesel etapil ei asunud elupaigad vahetult mererannal, vaid veidi kaugemal jõgede kallastel ja tööriistu valmistati sellel ajal üldiselt tulekivist

  15. Salient features of MACA and CMACA systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, C.; Goud, S. L.; Rao, V. Lakshmana

    2007-09-01

    The Fourier Analytical Investigation results of the Performance of the Multiple Annuli Coded Aperture (MACA) and Complementary Multiple Annuli Coded Aperture Systems (CMACA) are summarised and the probable application of these systems in Astronomy, High energy radiation Imaging, optical filters, and in the field of metallurgy, are suggested.

  16. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952

  18. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) - III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates' characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as "Yellow", "Black", "Red" and "Purple" were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher ( P Maca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates' content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant ( P 0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated.

  19. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Nieto, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M

    2006-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment.

  20. Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earp, Jeffrey; Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Earp, J., & Klemke, R. (2011, 21 September). Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues. Presented at TEL-Think-Tank Workshop at the 6th European conference on Technology enhanced learning: towards ubiquitous learning (EC-TEL 2011), Palermo, Italy.

  1. Recordando y descubriendo a Gala, la última descendiente de Rosalía de Castro

    OpenAIRE

    García Vega, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Recientemente, se ha cumplido medio siglo del fallecimiento de Gala Martínez de Castro (1871-1964), último miembro de la familia ilustre fundada por la escritora Rosalía de Castro (1837-1885) y el historiador Manuel Martínez Murguía (1833-1923). A tr

  2. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) – III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates’ characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple” were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher (PMaca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates’ content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant (P0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated. PMID:28824342

  3. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  5. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C; Kneubühler, J; Urwyler, A; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2010-07-15

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers), is an Andean crop that grows between 3,800 and 4,500 m a.s.l. The persistent interest in this plant is based on its assumed effects on fertility of male mammals due to the prevalence of certain, partially specific, secondary compounds. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of maca supplementation on quality and quantity of semen, mating behavior, and clinical status of peripubertal breeding bulls. The experiment followed a cross-over design lasting for 23 wk with 3 wk of adaptation and baseline measurements, and 2 x 10 wk of treatment feeding thus covering two times the complete 8-wk spermatogenic cycle. Seventy-eight 55 wk to 84 wk old breeding bulls received either no maca (control) or maca (233 mg dried hypocotyls/kg body weight/day) for 10 wk followed by 10 wk without maca (maca early) or maca only in the last 10 wk (maca late). Measurements were always made in the last 2 wk of each period. Apart from standard analyses, ejaculates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Data was evaluated by analysis of variance considering the repeated measurement structure of the data. Significant treatment by measurement period indicated direct or carry-over effects of maca. Maca supplementation had no direct effect on body weight, testes circumference, rectal temperature, mating behavior, and ejaculate volume. However, supplementing maca in the first 10 wk period increased the number of sperms in the second 10 wk period, i.e., when the animals no longer received maca. The DNA fragmentation index and the visually assessed motility of the sperms of bulls, that initially showed a borderline sperm quality, were significantly improved with early maca supplementation, while no such effect was observed in the two other groups. No effects occurred in the proportion of intact sperm plasma membranes or acrosomes or both. In conclusion, maca supplementation seems to improve sperm quantity and quality of bulls to a certain degree, while mating

  6. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  7. [Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2014-01-01

    Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-γ compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-γ levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-γ levels was shown (r = 0.57, p maca administration increases levels of IFN-γ in ovariectomized rats.

  8. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  9. Origin and evolution of GALA-LRR, a new member of the CC-LRR subfamily: from plants to bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V Kajava

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum.

  10. Chemical pattern of brazilian apples: a chemometric approach based on the Fuji and Gala varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Renato Giovanetti; Prestes,Rosilene Aparecida; Denardi,Frederico; Nogueira,Alessandro; Wosiacki,Gilvan

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of apple juices may be used to discriminate between the varieties for consumption and those for raw material. Fuji and Gala have a chemical pattern that can be used for this classification. Multivariate methods correlate independent continuous chemical descriptors with the categorical apple variety. Three main descriptors of apple juice were selected: malic acid, total reducing sugar and total phenolic compounds. A chemometric approach, employing PCA and SIMCA, was us...

  11. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  12. Chemical pattern of brazilian apples: a chemometric approach based on the Fuji and Gala varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Giovanetti Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of apple juices may be used to discriminate between the varieties for consumption and those for raw material. Fuji and Gala have a chemical pattern that can be used for this classification. Multivariate methods correlate independent continuous chemical descriptors with the categorical apple variety. Three main descriptors of apple juice were selected: malic acid, total reducing sugar and total phenolic compounds. A chemometric approach, employing PCA and SIMCA, was used to classify apple juice samples. PCA was performed with 24 juices from Fuji and Gala, and SIMCA, with 15 juices. The exploratory and predictive models recognized 88% and 64%, respectively, as belonging to a mixed domain. The apple juice from commercial fruits shows a pattern related to cv. Fuji and Gala with boundaries from 0.18 to 0.389 g.100 mL-1 (malic acid, from 8.65 to 15.18 g.100 mL-1 (total reducing sugar and from 100 to 400 mg.L-1 (total phenolic compounds, but such boundaries were slightly shorter in the remaining set of commercial apple juices, specifically from 0.16 to 0.36 g.100 mL-1, from 9.25 to 15.5 g.100 mL-1 and from 180 to 606 mg.L-1 for acidity, reducing sugar and phenolic compounds, respectively, representing the acid, sweet and bitter tastes.

  13. Thidiazuron affects the quality of 'Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere Thidiazuron afeta a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas sob atmosfera controlada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer Giehl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ on the quality of 'Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere (CA conditions. Plants were sprayed at full bloom with TDZ at 0, 10, 20, or 40g ha-1 (a.i.. Harvested fruits were then stored in CA with 1.0+2.5, 1.5+2.5 and 1.5+5.0 (kPa O2+kPa CO2, both at 0.5°C. In addition, the partial pressure of 1.5kPa of O2+2.5kPa of CO2 was also evaluated at -0.5°C. Higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity was obtained by applying 20 or 40g ha-1 TDZ. Furthermore, these TDZ doses decreased the respiration rate as well as the occurrence of flesh breakdown, mealiness and decay. The application of TDZ at doses ranging from 20 to 40g ha-1 maintains higher fruit quality for up to 8 months under CA. In addition, the storage of 'Gala' apples under CA with 1.0kPa O2+2.5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C results in higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity. Moreover, this CA condition reduces the incidence of flesh breakdown, mealiness and postharvest decay in 'Gala' apple fruits.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de thidiazuron (TDZ na qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas em condições de atmosfera controlada (AC. Avaliou-se o efeito do TDZ nas doses de 0, 10, 20 e 40g ha-1 (i.a., aplicadas no pleno florescimento. Após a colheita, os frutos foram armazenados em condições de AC com 1,0+2,5; 1,5+2,5 ou 1,5+5,0 (kPa de O2+kPa de CO2, ambas a 0,5°C. Além disso, a pressão parcial de 1,5kPa de O2+2,5kPa de CO2 também foi avaliada a -0,5°C. Doses de TDZ entre 20 e 40g ha-1 mantiveram maior firmeza da polpa e acidez titulável. Além disso, essas mesmas doses reduziram a atividade respiratória e a incidência de degenerescência da polpa, de polpa farinhenta e de podridões. A aplicação pré-colheita de TDZ, especialmente em doses entre 20 e 40g ha-1, melhora a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas em AC por até oito meses. Em relação às condições de AC

  14. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-11-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family has been used for centuries in the Andes as an adaptogenic plant to manage anemia, infertility and female hormone balance. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for and against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. We searched 17 databases from their inception up to June 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane 'risk of bias' assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of maca. There have been very few rigorous trials of maca for menopausal symptoms. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies, were too limited to draw firm conclusions. Furthermore, the safety has not been proved yet. Therefore, the efficacy and safety should be tested in larger studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca, a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii (maca is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  16. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2012-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  17. The Research on the Impact of Maca Polypeptide on Sport Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of maca polypeptide on sport fatigue, this paper selected 40 male mice, and they were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. group A, B and C were fed food with different concentrations of maca polypeptide, and group D was control group. After two weeks of feeding, measured physiological indexes of mice, including blood glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine. At last gived the experimental results, as well as the analysis. Experimental results show that maca polypeptide can improve the ability of anti-fatigue mice, and in a certain concentration range, the higher the concentration, the better the resistance to fatigue.

  18. Capacidad antioxidante in vitro y efecto hipoglucemiante de la maca negra (Lepidium meyenii) preparada tradicionalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Troya-Santos, Jhon; Ale-Borja, Neptalí; Suárez-Cunza, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta peruana nativa de los Andes centrales a la que se le atribuyen diversas propiedades, como mejorar la función sexual y la espermatogénesis, mejorar el aprendizaje, y la reducción del estrés; las mismas que podrían estar relacionadas con la variedad de este hipocótilo. Sin embargo, estas propiedades no sólo están basadas en el ecotipo o el color sino también en el tipo de prácticas del procesamiento de la maca. Tradicionalmente, la maca es preparada haci...

  19. Topoare medievale identifi cate în judeţul Galaţi / Mediaeval axes discovered in the Galaţi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Croitoru

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Random discoveries have allowed us to discover some very interesting artifacts – four iron axes, relating to the period of the Middle Ages. None of them has archaeological context; they were found in the collections of two school museums from the villages in the county of Galaţi, where we carried out archaeological research: Tuluceşti (A and Valea Mărului (B. These items are not rarities (such artifacts are known in Romania, as well as in Europe, but to date it is the only finds of this kind in southern Moldova. In addition, the presence of the original ornamentation on two axes, which has no analogies in the literature available to us, prompted us to present them in this publication, although some of these items have already been published.

  20. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of maca has been considered to be the basis for other bioactivities, and revealing the active antioxidant compounds would help to elucidate a variety of bioactive compounds. In this study, the correlation between the antioxidant activity of maca and secondary metabolites, including ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (HRSA, lipid peroxidation inhibition ability (LPIA, total phenolic contents (TPCs, total alkaloid contents (TACs, and total sterol contents (TSCs, was investigated by measuring. Chloroform was selected to be an efficient extraction solvent for antioxidant compounds in maca by polarity fractions test. The results showed that TPC exhibited significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP and LPIA, while TAC had significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP, HRSA, and LPIA. These results suggested that alkaloids and phenols were the most important substances for the antioxidation of maca, of which the antioxidant effect of alkaloids seemed to be higher than that of phenols.

  2. Maca polysaccharides: Extraction optimization, structural features and anti-fatigue activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Xin, Yizhou; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Cao, Hui; Guo, Hong; Han, Chunchao

    2018-08-01

    The maca polysaccharides optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) method and the anti-fatigue activity of maca polysaccharides (MCP) was explored. The maca polysaccharides extract yield of RSM could reach 9.97 mg/g by using the model predicts, and the total sugar and protein purity were 61.00% and 4.46% with the further isolation process, respectively. And the monosaccharide compositions obtained by gas chromatograph (GC) were composed of rhamnose (rha), glucose (glc), galactose (gal) with the ratio of 2.34:10.21:1.00. Furthermore, the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated by the swimming parameter, biochemistry parameters (liver glycogen (LG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and lactic acid (LD)), the result indicated that the low-dose maca polysaccharides group had the significant anti-fatigue activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerial parts of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) as functional vegetables with gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenwen; Chen, Xuemin; Huo, Qing; Cui, Yajie; Yu, Zejun; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-06-20

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) has been utilized in the Andean region because of its edibleness and medicinal value. The aerial parts of maca (APM) were analyzed for protein, total sugar, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals and its characteristic active ingredients at five different growth stages. The results showed the high protein, total sugar, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and calcium contents of APM. All 17 amino acids and the characteristic active ingredients, namely, macamide, glucosinolates, adenosine, and total saponins, were detected. We examined the effects of maca plant powders on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion and the levels of serum motilin and gastrin in atropine-treated mice. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated to identify the potential active material in APM. The results revealed that both maca plant powders and BITC can promote the gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. Thus, APM feature potential as new functional vegetable sources.

  4. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carla; Cárdenas-Valencia, Isaias; Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Anza-Ramirez, Cecilia; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of different varieties of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. 36 female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham and OVX rats treated with vehicle, estradiol (40 microg/kg), black, yellow or red maca (63 mg/ml) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, uterine weight, femoral bone and lumbar vertebra histomorphology were assessed. Ovariectomy reduced weight, diameter and width of the femoral bone. Estradiol, black and red maca treatment reduced the effect of ovariectomy on these variables. Histological analyses revealed that estradiol, black and red maca treatments reversed the effect of ovariectomy by increasing the trabecular bone area in the second lumbar vertebra. Uterine weight was reduced in OVX rats, and estradiol but neither black nor red maca increased uterine weight. Red and black maca have protective effects on bone architecture in OVX rats without showing estrogenic effects on uterine weight. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The use of maca (Lepidium meyenii) to improve semen quality: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Hye Won; You, Sooseong; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of maca (Lepidium meyenii) in improving semen quality. We searched 11 databases from their inception to March 2016 and included all clinical trials on the improvement of semen quality parameters in infertile and healthy men, regardless of the study design or the type of maca. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by the first two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the same two authors. Five studies - 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) - met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT found favorable effects of maca on sperm mobility in infertile men. The two other RCTs showed positive effects of maca on several semen quality parameters in healthy men. The two UOSs also suggested favorable effects of maca on semen quality. The results of our systematic review provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving semen quality. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the risk of bias of the included studies prevent the drawing firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  8. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  9. Cyclophosphamide-induced male subfertility in mice: An assessment of the potential benefits of Maca supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, A Y; Oladipo, B P; Onaolapo, O J

    2018-04-01

    Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced gonadal toxicity in male mice were investigated. Mice were assigned to six treatment groups: Vehicle control, CYP control, CYP plus oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg), and oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg). CYP was administered via the intraperitoneal route (days 1-2), while vehicle or Maca were administered daily for 28 days. On day 28, half of the animals in each group were either sacrificed or paired with age-matched females for fertility assessment. Plasma testosterone assay, sperm analysis and assessment of tissue antioxidant/morphological status were also carried out. CYP administration was associated with oxidative stress, subfertility and morphometric/morphological indices of gonadal injury, while administration of Maca mitigated CYP-induced gonadal toxicity and subfertility. This study shows that Maca is beneficial in the mitigation of CYP-induced male gonadal insufficiency and/or testicular morphological changes; however, further studies will be needed to ascertain its usability for this purpose in humans. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  12. PERDAS QUALITATIVAS DE MAÇÃS CV. GALA EM ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO

    OpenAIRE

    BENDER, RENAR JOÃO; LUNARDI, ROSÂNGELA

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de dimensionar as perdas de qualidade de maçãs cv. Gala durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Para determinar estas perdas, foi feito um acompanhamento durante três anos consecutivos, com frutos de três tamanhos: calibre em torno de 100 frutos/caixa de 18kg, calibre 130 e calibre acima de 200. Quinzenalmente, durante os primeiros 90 dias de armazenagem no primeiro ano, 144 dias no segundo ano e 211 dias no terceiro ano, amostras de 20 a 30 ma...

  13. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Shruti; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-01-30

    Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp. has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1300-2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led

  14. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (PMaca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women.

  15. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active...

  16. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  17. Mathematical modeling of dehydration of 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples slices using infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio de Souza Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine and model the infrared dehydration curves of apple slices - Fuji and Gala varieties. The slices were dehydrated until constant mass, in a prototype dryer with infrared heating source. The applied temperatures ranged from 50 to 100 °C. Due to the physical characteristics of the product, the dehydration curve was divided in two periods, constant and falling, separated by the critical moisture content. A linear model was used to describe the constant dehydration period. Empirical models traditionally used to model the drying behavior of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data of the falling dehydration period. Critical moisture contents of 2.811 and 3.103 kgw kgs-1 were observed for the Fuji and Gala varieties, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that the constant dehydration rates presented a direct relationship with the temperature; thus, it was possible to fit a model that describes the moisture content variation in function of time and temperature. Among the tested models, which describe the falling dehydration period, the model proposed by Midilli presented the best fit for all studied conditions.

  18. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, L; Law, C; Lai, B; Chung, T; Nelson, K; Day, S; Apostolopoulos, V; Haines, C

    2015-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women's Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life. There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment. Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.

  19. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, una revisión sobre sus propiedades biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F Gonzales

    Full Text Available La maca (Lepidium meyenii es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados

  20. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using

  1. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on testicular function of mice with chemically and physically induced subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Cuya, M; Yarasca De La Vega, K; Lévano Sánchez, G; Vásquez Cavero, J; Temoche García, H; Torres Torres, L; Cruz Ornetta, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) in chemically and physically subfertile mice. After 35 days, the following groups of mice were evaluated: control, sham, chemical subfertility, chemical subfertility-maca-supplemented, physical subfertility, physical subfertility-maca-supplemented and maca-supplemented only. Motility (32.36% ± 5.34%) and sperm count (44.4 ± 5.37 × 10(6) /ml) in the chemically and physically subfertile mice (11.81% ± 4.06%, 17.34 ± 13.07 × 10(6) /ml) decreased compared to the control (75.53% ± 2.97% and 57.4 ± 19.6 10(6) /ml) and sham (53.5% ± 7.86% and 58.4 ± 14.10 10(6) /ml). Maca was able to reverse the deleterious effect of motility (76.36 ± 1.97) as well as sperm count (53.5 ± 9.18 × 10(6) /ml) on chemical subfertility. In contrast, maca did not reverse the effects of induced physical subfertility nor motility (18.78% ± 14.41%) or sperm count (20.17 ± 11.20 × 10(6) /ml). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation in the physically subfertile mice increased (11.1% ± 19.29%) compared to the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). However, in the physically subfertile group, maca decreased sperm DNA fragmentation (2.29% ± 2.30%) closer to the sham (1.04% ± 0.62%) and the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). The group supplemented only with maca showed 0.54% ± 0.50% of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Yet, the differences observed were statistically not significant. In conclusion, it appears that maca activates the cytochrome P450 system after chemically induced subfertility. However, it does not reverse the low mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa compromised in the physical subfertility group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Cultivated in Different Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. was introduced to China in the recent two decades. Proximate compositions and secondary metabolites in dried maca tuber powders of different cultivation areas and colour types were analyzed and compared in order to provide the scientific guideline for its application. Cultivation region significantly affects the compositions of maca. The protein content of maca ranged from 9.31% to 21.02% by dry basis of maca powders and Xiaopingba-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y have the higher protein contents. The essential amino acids (EAA contents ranged from 189.19 to 312.90 mg/g protein. The crude lipid content of different maca ranged from 0.59% to 1.00% and has no significant difference (P>0.05. The total dietary fiber (TDF contents ranged from 17.82% to 26.00% and soluble dietary fiber (SDF ranged from 2.46% to 7.88%, respectively. Maca samples were rich in Na, Mg, Ca, and K elements which ranged 138.3–187.8, 625.2–837.2, 3838.9–4502.7, and 5394.8–8063.3 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Xiaopingba-Y has the highest benzyl glucosinolate content which was 2.31 mg/g DM. Peru-Y and Xiaopingba have the higher contents of total alkaloids contents which was 2.61 and 2.56 mg/kg DM. Yongsheng-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y were rich in N-benzyl hexadecanamide contents, which were 0.164, 0.174, and 0.173 mg/g DM, respectively. Significant higher protein, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, total alkaloids, and benzyl glucosinolate contents were found in purple and black maca compared to yellow maca in Pamirs, while there was no significant difference in N-benzyl hexadecanamide content.

  3. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do They Keep Coming? The Emergence of New Spatial Mobility Patterns in Macaé/RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faber Paganoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macaé is the “Oil Capital” of Brazil: a city of opportunity, full of jobs andwhere royalties fatten public coffers or that is the image presented in the media that has attracted thousands of migrants to Macaé. This study investigated why people feel that migrants keep coming to Macaé even though recent statistics show that in-migration to the city has decreased. Also, new forms of spatial mobility of the population have emerged so that Macaé can be characterized as region of polar attraction. Commuting from neighbouring cities is a common pattern in metropolitan areas and in Macaé it is associated to the high cost of living and violence present there so that many workers have their residence elsewhere, especially Rio das Ostras. In addition to daily commuting, another kind was detected in the research: "long distance commuting". This kind of commuting is associated basically to specific characteristics of the labour market in the oil sector involving periods on the platforms interspaced with periods off duty on the mainland as well as outsourcing practices. A third trend noted was the presence of a significant number of transients, who keep coming to the city in large numbers but do not lay residence.

  5. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level.

  6. Exploitation of Hunting and Fishing Tourism in Galați County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camară Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.

  7. Columbian Secrets: Cristóbal Colón by Leonardo Balada and Antonio Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías Gutiérrez Meza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The play Cristóbal Colón premiered in 1989 at the Teatro del Liceu. Composed by the musician Leonardo Balada and the playwright Antonio Gala, this opera was commissioned by the Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario as part of the festivities organized by the Spanish government to commemorate the Discovery of America. Unlike the so-called "des-celebración del 92", Cristóbal Colón champions the figure of the discoverer and emphasizes the participation of Spain through the praised role of Martín Alonso Pinzón. However, the opera was cut at the last minute. This article asserts that such alteration may have been the result of political censorship attempting to counteract the criticism of the Discovery of America contained in the original version.

  8. Ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinilglycine on glomerella leaf spot in apple cultivar 'Royal Gala' Inibidor de etileno aminoetoxivinilglicina sobre a mancha foliar de 'Glomerella' na cultivar de macieira 'Royal Gala'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solution of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG has been commercialized in Brazil as ReTainTM C, 15% mainly as a potent inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis by prevention of pre-harvest abscission and ripening of apple fruits. The effect of the product was evaluated during the 2007-08 and 2008-09 crop seasons in edafoclimatic conditions of Santa Catarina upland. Plants of 'Royal Gala' cultivar were sprayed with ReTainTM C, four weeks before the first commercial harvest at doses of 0; 62,5; 125, and 250mg a.i L-1. The incidence and severity were quantified weekly in 100 leaves distributed in four branches with 12 replications and assessed the area under the incidence -I and severity -S disease progress curve (AUIDPC and AUSDPC of Glomerella leaf spot (GLS. The AUIDPC and AUSDPC were significantly higher after AVG application and although there was no significant difference between 125 and 250mg a.i L-1 doses in both 2007-08 and 2008-09 crop seasons. In general, the symptoms of GLS (e.g. chlorosis, necrosis increased between the fourth and eighth week after application.Solução aquosa de Aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG tem sido comercializada no Brasil como ReTainTM C, 15%, principalmente como um potente inibidor da biossíntese do etileno na prevenção da abscisão e maturação de frutos em macieira. O efeito do produto foi avaliado durante as safras 2007-08 e 2008-09 nas condições edafo-climáticas do planalto Catarinense. Plantas de maçãs 'Royal Gala' foram pulverizadas com o ReTainTM C, quatro semanas antes da primeira colheita comercial, nas concentrações de 0;62,5; 125 e 250mg i.a L-1. A incidência e a severidade foram quantificadas semanalmente em 100 folhas, distribuídas em quatro ramos por plantas, com 12 repetições e calculado a área abaixo da curva do progresso da incidência -I e severidade -S da doença (AACPID e AACPSD. A AACPID e AACPSD foram significativamente maiores após a aplicação do AVG e não houve diferen

  9. Qualidade da maçã cv. Gala tratada com 1-metilciclopropeno Quality of apples cv. Gala treated with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação inicial de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e o efeito de diferentes doses na reaplicação após quatro meses de armazenamento refrigerado, na manutenção da qualidade de maçãs cultivar Gala. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e unidade experimental composta por 25 frutos. Os tratamentos originaram-se da combinação entre o momento da aplicação (início do armazenamento e após 4 meses de armazenamento e doses de 1-MCP (0, 312, 625nLL-1. Os tratamentos de 1-MCP foram: 0+0nLL-1; 0+312nLL-1; 0+625nLL-1; 625+0nLL-1; 625+312nLL-1 e 625+625nLL-1. Após 180 dias de armazenamento a 0,5ºC mais 14 dias a 20ºC, a aplicação inicial de 625nLL-1 de 1-MCP proporcionou frutos com maior firmeza de polpa e acidez titulável e manteve os frutos mais verdes, porém não apresentando efeito sobre a ocorrência de podridões e sólidos solúveis totais. A reaplicação de 1-MCP, aos quatro meses de armazenamento, não apresentou efeito na manutenção da qualidade dos frutos. Após 14 dias de exposição dos frutos a 20ºC, o 1-MCP, aplicado no início do armazenamento, propiciou maior firmeza de polpa, manteve os frutos mais verdes, com maiores níveis de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável e menor ocorrência de podridões, independente da reaplicação do produto.The objective of this work was to verify the efficacy of the initial application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and the effect of different reapplication dosis after 4 months of cold storage on quality of apple cv. Gala. The treatments originated from the combination between application time (at storage and after four months of storage and dosis of 1-MCP (0, 312, 625nLL-1. The treatments were: 0+0nLL-1; 0+312nLL-1; 0+625nLL-1; 625+0nLL-1; 625+312nLL-1 and 625+625nLL-1. After 180 days of storage at 0.5ºC and 14 days at 20ºC, the initial application of 625nLL-1 of 1

  10. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-γ) en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO); Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivament...

  11. El enjambre sísmico de Macas (cordillera de Cutucú)

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Denis; Baby, Patrice; Bondoux, Francis; Dorbath, Catherine; Bès de Berc, Séverine; Rivadeneira, Marco

    2015-01-01

    La sismicidad de la región de Macas es comparada a la sismicidad global del Ecuador. Un experimento con diez estaciones sismológicas de corto período fue realizado entre 1999 y 2000, cerca de la ciudad de Macas, en la parte sur del piedemonte subandino del Ecuador (Cordillera de Cutucú). Las ubicaciones de los terremotos registrados fueron comparadas y correlacionadas con las estructuras geológicas. Algunos eventos están alineados en una dirección NNE-SSW que corresponde a la orientación de l...

  12. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.

  13. Video Release: 47th Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden Jr. Speech at HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has released a video of the keynote speech given by the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R. Biden Jr. at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala. Under the gala theme “International Cooperation in the Fight Against Cancer,” Biden recognized cancer as a collection of related diseases, the importance of data sharing and harmonization, and the need for collaboration across scientific disciplines as inflection points in cancer research.

  14. Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant of the Peruvian highlands, prevent ultraviolet A-, B-, and C-induced skin damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively in the Peruvian Central Andes, where ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is predominant. Determine if two extracts of maca can provide dermal protection against UVR. We have administered two maca extracts (0.13 mg/ml), one obtained after boiling and the other without boiling, on the dorsal surface of male Holtzman rats exposed to UVC radiation once a week during 3 consecutive weeks. A dose-response effect of an aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process under exposure of rats to UVA, UVB, or UVC was also studied. A commercial sunscreen was used as a positive control. UVR caused significant increase in skin epidermal thickness. The epidermal height in animals treated with maca was similar to those who did not receive UVR. The aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process had better effect than maca extract without a boiling process. A dose-response effect was observed with increasing doses of aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process. Maca extract had benzyl glucosinolates and polyphenols. Maca extracts protect the skin of rats against UV irradiations and can be suggested as an alternative means of solar protection.

  15. Manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs 'Royal Gala' e 'Galaxy' sob armazenamento em atmosfera controlada Postharvest quality maintenance of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples stored under controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de condições de atmosfera controlada na conservação de maçãs 'Royal Gala' e 'Galaxy'. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e unidade experimental composta por 25 frutos. Os tratamentos utilizados se originaram da combinação de duas culivares ('Royal Gala' e 'Galaxy' e sete diferentes condições de armazenamento, que foram: [1] Armazenamento refrigerado (AR; [2] 1,0kPa O2 + 2,0kPa CO2; [3] 1,0kPa O2 + 2,5kPa CO2; [4] 1,0kPa O2 + 3,0kPa CO2; [5] 0,8kPa O2 + 2,5kPa CO2; [6] 1,2kPa O2 + 2,5kPa CO2 e [7] 1,0kPa O2 + 2,5 kPa CO2. A temperatura nos tratamentos 1 ao 6 foi de +0,5°C e no tratamento 7, -0,5°C As avaliações foram realizadas após oito meses de armazenamento mais sete dias de exposição a 20°C. A maçã 'Galaxy' apresentou menor porcentagem de podridões e polpa farinácea e maior firmeza de polpa em relação à 'Royal Gala', não apresentando interação nestes parâmetros com as condições de armazenamento. A 'Galaxy' apresentou a menor porcentagem de frutos com degenerescência senescente e maior acidez titulável quando comparada com a 'Royal Gala', ocorrendo interação destes parâmetros com as condições de armazenamento. A melhor condição de armazenamento para a cultivar 'Royal Gala' foi de 1,0kPa O2 + 2,5kPa CO2 e para a 'Galaxy' foi de 0,8 a 1,0kPa O2 e 2,5kPa CO2, porém a 'Galaxy' pode ser armazenada por um período maior, pois, apresentou potencial de armazenamento superior a 'Royal Gala'.The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of controlled atmosphere conditions in the conservation of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates and the experimental unit composed by 25 fruits. Treatments were originated from the combination of two cultivars (Royal Gala and Galaxy and seven storage conditions, that were: [1] Cold storage (CS; [2

  16. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  17. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Rao, Vadlamudi Lakshmana; Goud, Sivagouni Lachaa

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper

  18. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña C, Charles; Córdova P, Ofelia; Vargas V¹, Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determi...

  19. A novel mutation in the thyroglobulin gene that causes goiter and dwarfism in Wistar Hannover GALAS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Abe, Kuniya; Yuzuriha, Misako; Fujii, Sakiko; Takahashi, Naofumi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Shoji; Aoyama, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Outbred stocks of rats have been used extensively in biomedical, pharmaceutical and/or toxicological studies as a model of genetically heterogeneous human populations. One of such stocks is the Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. However, the colony of Wistar Hannover GALAS rat has been suspected of keeping a problematic mutation that manifests two distinct spontaneous abnormalities, goiter and dwarfism, which often confuses study results. We have successfully identified the responsible mutation, a guanine to thymine transversion at the acceptor site (3' end) of intron 6 in the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene (Tgc.749-1G>T), that induces a complete missing of exon 7 from the whole Tg transcript by mating experiments and subsequent molecular analyses. The following observations confirmed that Tgc.749-1G>T/Tgc.749-1G>T homozygotes manifested both dwarfism and goiter, while Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes had only a goiter with normal appearance, suggesting that the mutant phenotypes inherit as an autosomal semi-dominant trait. The mutant phenotypes, goiter and dwarfism, mimicked those caused by typical endocrine disrupters attacking the thyroid. Hence a simple and reliable diagnostic methodology has been developed for genomic DNA-based genotyping of animals. The diagnostic methodology reported here would allow users of Wistar Hannover GALAS rats to evaluate their study results precisely by carefully interpreting the data obtained from Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes having externally undetectable thyroidal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-01-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul, E-mail: hnc@pusan.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  2. MacA is a second cytochrome c peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J; Einsle, Oliver

    2012-04-03

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS(-2) as an electron donor. The observed K(M) was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H(2)O(2) and v(max) was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol of H(2)O(2)·min(-1)·mg(-1), resulting in a turnover number k(cat) = 0.46 · s(-1). In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display electrochemical properties similar to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in addition to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergoes conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein, the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation.

  3. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60 0 C for 20 minutes; heat at 80 0 C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60 0 ); radiation plus heat 80 0 C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5±3 0 C) up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  4. Measures to inhibit the growth of apple tree top with the `gala´ variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž BEBER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Fruit Research Center Maribor different methods of less vigorous growth of apple tree top with the variety `Gala´ were conducted during the period from 2010 to 2013: applying a coating of the central leader at a height of 2.2 m with 2 % solution of growth regulator NAA (Luxan Late – Val and plant resin, the use of the growth retardant Regalis (2 times, of replacing the the top of the tree with the highest appropriate bent branch, removal of new shoots 28 days after flowering (tearing and the June cut after the completion of the primary growth. Increment of annual shoots and harvest in the top (over 2.2 m was followed. Most commonly used practices, the June cut and tearing of young shoots resulted in the strongest growth in the top. The vigour of the top of the tree was the best reduced by the use of plant growth regulators (Regalis and NAA top coating and replacing the top of the tree. The highest yield of the top of the tree was achieved by using Regalis, meanwhile tearing of the young shoots gave the lowest yield. The replacing the top of the tree is suitable measure for organic production, because it successfully reduces the vigour of the tree top without the use of growth regulators.

  5. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  6. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  7. Cuticle of 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples cultivars under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Andréia Tessmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the cuticle thickness and pattern of epicuticular wax deposition in 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh, from three Brazilian producing areas: Vacaria (RS, Fraiburgo (SC and São Joaquim (SC with altitudes of 971, 1,048 and 1,353m, respectively. Harvested fruit were kept under two storage conditions: regular atmosphere (RA (0 ºC and 90% RH and controlled atmosphere (CA (1.5% O2, 2.5% CO2, 0ºC and 90% RH. Cuticle thickness measurements were made using LM and the deposition pattern of epicuticular wax observed with a SEM. Altitude among the apple producing areas was not a factor in deposition pattern of waxes between the cultivars but at higher altitudes, the cuticle was thicker in both the cultivars. In the freshly-harvested fruits, waxes deposition in the form of platelets and the mechanism of “tear and repair” were observed. Severity of microcracks in the cuticle was more evident on the fruits from CA.

  8. Fortalecimiento de la identidad shuar a través del proyecto curricular institucional del colegio de bachillerato Macas

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Vintimilla, Leliz Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this proposal is "Strengthening the Shuar identity through institutional curricular project Macas Baccalaureate College". The central problem of this research is that the institutional curriculum does not incorporate Shuar identity, although in Morona Santiago population there is large population belonging to this ethnic and above all there is a large percentage of students Shuar Baccalaureate College in Macas. The overall objective is to help the Shuar identity within the Col...

  9. Characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides for discrimination of maca (Lepidium meyenii) by LC/MS/MS and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Zhang, Ji; Li, Hong; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among maca from China and Peru. Twenty-seven batches of maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV/MS/MS). Twelve macamides were identified by MS operated in multiple scanning modes. Similarity analysis showed that maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as chemical markers for sample classification. When combined with a PLS-DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommended for labelling for the authentication of maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Protective Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Aqueous Extract and Lycopene on Testosterone Propionate-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Aboshora, Waleed; Li, Jing; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of maca extractant, lycopene, and their combination was evaluated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mice induced by testosterone propionate. Mice were divided into a saline group, solvent control group and testosterone propionate-induced BPH mice [BPH model group, solvent BPH model group, benzyl glucosinolate group (1.44 mg/kg), maca group (60 mg/kg), lycopene treated (15, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg), maca (30 mg/kg) combine lycopene treated (7.5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg), and finasteride treated]. Benzyl glucosinolate was used in order to evaluate its pharmacological activity on BPH to find out whether it is the major active component of maca aqueous extract. Finasteride was used as positive control. The compounds were administered once for 30 successive days. Compared with solvent BPH model group, BPH mice fed with maca (30 mg/kg) and lycopene (7.5 mg/kg) combination exhibited significant reductions in the prostatic index, prostatic acid phospatase, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone levels in serum. They also had similar histological compared with those aspects observed in the mice in the solvent control group. The results indicated that combination of maca and lycopene synergistically inhibits BPH in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dording, Christina M; Schettler, Pamela J; Dalton, Elizabeth D; Parkin, Susannah R; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fehling, Kara B; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126.

  12. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Dording

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ. Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo, attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo. Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126.

  13. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Alvarez, A.L.F.; Mendez, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD 50 in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the removal of

  14. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Domingues, E T; Alvarez, A L.F.; Mendez, B M.J.; Ando, A [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. (Brazil)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD{sub 50} in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the

  15. Efecto del extracto acuoso de maca sobre la función cognitiva en ratas recién destetadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca, Lepidium meyenii walp, es una planta que crece en las alturas de los andes peruanos; es usada como alimento, por su valor nutricional y sus propiedades etnomedicinales, unidos a la fertilidad y vitalidad. En la actualidad, se ha incrementado el interés público en los polifenoles, que tendrían efecto inhibitorio sobre la actividad acetilcolinesterasa y butirilcolinesterasas, y de esta manera se mejoraría las funciones cognitivas, aunque los mecanismos aún no han sido dilucidados. Por esta razón, se ha propuesto que la maca es un adaptógeno, que aumenta la energía, resistencia y reduce el estrés. Objetivos: Demostrar y evaluar el efecto energizante de la maca amarilla sobre la memoria y el aprendizaje por medio de pruebas bioquímicas, en un modelo animal de ratas destetadas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas recién destetadas y extracto acuoso de maca amarillo. Intervenciones: A ratas recién destetadas se les administró extracto acuoso de maca amarillo (0,4 mg, 0,8 mg y 1,2 mg/g de peso, durante 15 días, y luego se les sometió a la prueba de aprendizaje espacial acuática de Morris. También, se tomó muestras de cerebro para determinaciones bioquímicas. Principales medidas de resultados: Mejoría del aprendizaje y la memoria. Resultados: Se encontró inhibición de la butirilcolinesterasa, cuando se administró dosis crecientes de maca, excepto el grupo que recibió 0,8 mg/g. Los niveles de lipoperoxidación en el cerebro (daño oxidativo disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca; así mismo, los tiempos (s en hallar la plataforma en la prueba de Morris disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca amarilla. La concentración de glutatión en el cerebro se incrementó con la administración de maca, pero sin ser significativo. Conclusiones

  16. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala') vascular tissue and phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gould, Nick; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Sutherland, Paul; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2010-08-04

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'). We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Andean crop with therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The maca is a native product of the Central Andes of Peru, it is resistant to hail, to frost and to prolonged droughts. It is cultivated from the Inca period in altitudes between 3800 - 4500 meters above sea level. This herbaceous plant, has not only a high nutritional value, but it is also valued for its medicinal role. Among the chemical components of this andean crop that have been related with therapeutic actions the increasing fertility and the energy levels, the antioxidant actions, the improving sexual desire and the growth rate. There are glucosinolates, sterols, fatty acids (macaene and their corresponding amides (macamides, alkaloids (lepidilines A and B, macaridine and polyphenols. This article presents a compilation of the researches that has been performed on the therapeutic properties of maca and its compounds responsible of them.

  19. Application of decision support systems in county urban planning: a proposal for Macaé county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALANTE, A. C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Macaé County is one of the greatest economy of the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the use of the information technology is possible to create a powerful tool for supporting the decision making processing for this County, aiding the process of improvement of life quality. For that one, intends to use a Decision Support System able to give different kind of information of County areas, like health and education. For the union of all information the datawarehouse technology will be used. For query implementation the technologies of OLAP and GIS are used together. Therefore, those technologies together make a powerful tool for aiding the decision making process of the Macaé County.

  20. A GALA lipopeptide mediates pH- and membrane charge dependent fusion with stable giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas P.; Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas R.

    2012-01-01

    sporadic and there is a strong need to characterize and increase our understanding of the membrane fusion properties of these peptides. Many fusion studies have focused on the ability of free peptides in solution that mediate fusion between liposomes. For drug delivery purposes it is a necessity to attach......,2-diamino propanoic acid (Dap) moiety, yielding the lipopeptide dimyristoyl-Dap-GALA (DMDGALA). We have investigated DMDGALA as a component in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and demonstrate pH-triggered fusion of peptide containing LUVs with stable target giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which were...

  1. Unintentional and Sequential Lead Exposure from a Ceramic Mug and Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly; Vo, Kathy; Wong, Flavia; Gajek, Ryszard

    2018-06-01

    Although the incidence of lead poisoning has decreased in the USA over the last 30 years, human exposures to lead-containing products are still reported. We present a case of unintentional lead exposure from a store-bought ceramic mug and a nutritional supplement. A 32-year-old female was found to have a whole blood lead concentration of 44 μg/dL. Evaluation of her home, occupation, and hobbies initially did not identify a source of lead exposure. Further investigation revealed that the likely etiology of the exposure was lead leaching from a ceramic mug used by the patient to drink hot lemon water while she was pregnant. She stopped drinking from the mug and her blood lead levels decreased, but increased a year later after she began to ingest a maca root powder supplement. Upon discontinuation of maca root powder ingestion, her blood lead levels decreased further. Over time, the acidity and heat of the hot lemon water used in the ceramic mug enhanced the breakdown of its leaded glaze. Maca powder, which is available as a nutritional supplement and is used to treat fatigue and enhance fertility, may contain lead and other minerals. Consumers, particularly women of childbearing age, and their physicians should be aware that imported products available from commercial retailers and internet vendors may contain significant amounts of lead.

  2. [Determination of 27 elements in Maca nationality's medicine by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-fang; Zhong, Hai-jie; Hu, Jun-hua; Wang, Jing; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An analysis method has been established to test 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Hg, Pb, Bi) in Maca nationality's medicine with microwave digestion-ICP-MS. Sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion, and the contents of elements were calculated according to their calibration curves, and internal standard method was adopted to reduce matrix effect and other interference effects. The experimental results showed that the linear relations of all the elements were very good; the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994-1.0000 (Hg was 0.9982) ; the limits of detection were 0.003-2.662 microg x L(-1); the relative standard deviations for all elements of reproducibility were lower than 5% (except the individual elements); the recovery rate were 78.5%-123.7% with RSD lower than 5% ( except the individual elements). The analytical results of standard material showed acceptable agreement with the certified values. This method was applicable to determinate the contents of multi-elements in Maca which had a high sensitivity, good specificity and good repeatability, and provide basis for the quality control of Maca.

  3. Fish resources management in Brazil and overview of artisanal fisheries in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Raposo da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight the sociocultural and environmental importance of artisanal fisheries for the city of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, providing information about the main artisanal fisheries methods applied by the fishers, a brief history of public policy for fishing in Brazil, and an overview of the economy working relations and fish marketing in that city. Once the definitions of artisanal and industrial fishing are modified according to the State or region, we are consider artisanal fishing, for the purpose of this work, as that practiced by professional fisherman directly, independently, or as family economy, with production means of their own, or through partnership contract, landed, allowing the use of small ships. Five main artisanal fishing methods were detected in Macaé: (i the line method, (ii the method of surface longline; (iii the driftnet method; (iv the drag; and (v the method of network seines, or pair. In this analysis, we focused on four major public policy processes which led to setting up a model of fishery management, in which crisis is evident, with an overcoming not yet fully delineated. Since the fishing activity is important for the region, the development of studies able to define the supply chain structuring programs, expansion of investments, creation of a framework for its own staff and, especially aimed at management concepts that can coordinate all activity from production, through processing to marketing, are significant steps to strengthen the fisheries policy in the city of Macaé.

  4. Armazenamento de maçã 'gala' em atmosfera controlada com remoção de etileno Storage of 'gala' apple in controlled atmosphere with removal of ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de etileno na câmara sobre a manutenção da qualidade da maçã cv. Gala, durante o armazenamento em AC. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e a unidade experimental composta por 50 frutos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: >10µl L-1 (sem absorção; The objective purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different ethylene levels on the quality of cv. Gala apples during CA storage. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replications of 50 fruits. The treatments were: >10µl L-1 (without absorption; < 0.4µl L-1 and < 0.04µl L-1. After 8 month storage, at the chambers opening and after 7 days shelf life at 20ºC fruits with ethylene absorption had higher firmness and titratable acidity and lower rot and senescent breakdown incidence. There was no statistic difference between treatments for TSS. After 7 days shelf life ground color was greener on the fruits stored with ethylene absorption. Mealy fruits incidence was lower with ethylene absorption, at the chambers opening.

  5. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  6. Photoprotection against the UVB-induced oxidative stress and epidermal damage in mice using leaves of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Rivera, Valery; Chirinos, Ana Lucía; Evelson, Pablo; Gonzales, Gustavo Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation leads to epidermal damage and generation of reactive oxygen species. The photoprotective effect of extracts of three varieties of leaves (red, yellow, and black) from maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, was assessed in mouse skin exposed to UVB radiation. The hydroalcoholic extracts of three varieties of maca leaves were applied topically to the dorsal skin of young-adult male mice prior to exposition to UVB radiation. The three varieties had UVA/UVB absorptive properties and presented antioxidant activity, being highest with red maca, followed by black and yellow maca. The three varieties of maca leaves prevented the development of sunburn cells, epidermal hyperplasia, leukocytic infiltration, and other alterations produced by UVB radiation. Mice treated with black maca showed the highest superoxide dismutase levels, and mice treated with black and yellow maca showed higher catalase levels in skin, whereas red maca protected the skin and liver against significant increases in the lipid peroxidation activity observed in the unprotected animals. The presence of significant antioxidant activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation suggest that the observed protection could be partly attributable to this mechanism. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.

  9. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  10. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  11. In silico profiling for secondary metabolites from Lepidium meyenii (maca) by the pharmacophore and ligand-shape-based joint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fan; Tan, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Xin; Liu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) is an herb known as a traditional nutritional supplement and widely used in Peru, North America, and Europe to enhance human fertility and treat osteoporosis. The secondary metabolites of maca, namely, maca alkaloids, macaenes, and macamides, are bioactive compounds, but their targets are undefined. The pharmacophore-based PharmaDB targets database screening joint the ligand shape similarity-based WEGA validation approach is proposed to predict the targets of these unique constituents and was performed using Discovery Studio 4.5 and PharmaDB. A compounds-targets-diseases network was established using Cytoscape 3.2. These suitable targets and their genes were calculated and analyzed using ingenuity pathway analysis and GeneMANIA. Certain targets were identified in osteoporosis (8 targets), prostate cancer (9 targets), and kidney diseases (11 targets). This was the first study to identify the targets of these bioactive compounds in maca for cardiovascular diseases (29 targets). The compound with the most targets (46) was an amide alkaloid (MA-24). In silico target fishing identified maca's traditional effects on treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, and kidney diseases, and its potential function of treating cardiovascular diseases, as the most important of this herb's possible activities.

  12. Peruvian Maca: Two Scientific Names Lepidium Meyenii Walpers and Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon – Are They Phytochemically-Synonymous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Kedzia, Bogdan; Pisulewski, Pawel; Piatkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) , profiles of the two isotypes labelled under the same common name Maca deposited in the Medicinal Plant Herbarium, in Australia and Poland, but identified under two different scientific names Lepidium meyenii Walpers (L. meyenii) and Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (L. peruvianum) are presented. The two isotypes correspond to two holotypes of Peruvian medicinal herb known under the same common name “Maca”, as originally deposited in the Herbarium of San Marcos University in Lima, Peru dated back to 1843 and 1990 respectively. The results demonstrate distinct differences in taxonomy, visual appearance, phytochemical profiles and DNA sequences of the two researched Maca isotypes, suggesting that the two Maca specimens are dissimilar and formal use of the term “synonymous” to L. meyenii and L. peruvianum may be misleading. On the basis of presented results the scientific name L. meyenii, used since 1843 up-today for cultivated Peruvian Maca by numerous reference sources worldwide, including Regulatory Bodies in the USA, EU, Australia and most lately in China, appears to be used in error and should be formally revised. It is concluded, that the isotype of cultivated Peruvian Maca labelled under its scientific name Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, provides all the characteristics peculiar to this historically-documented herb grown in Andean highlands, which may be linked to its traditional use and accepted functionality, confirmed in recent clinical study to be relevant to its present day use for expected dietary, therapeutic and health benefits.

  13. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Saldaña C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determinó que el medio que contenía maca enriquecida con sangre entre los componentes sólidos y la infusión de maca en la fase líquida, presentó un mayor crecimiento (3,41 x 105 parásitos/mL con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo al quinto día (p<0,05.

  14. Efecto de la maca roja (Lepidium meyenii sobre los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX. Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO; Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivamente. Resultados. Las ratas OVX mostraron niveles bajos de IFN-γ en comparación con las ratas PO. El estradiol y la maca roja revirtieron el efecto de la ovariectomía sobre los niveles de IFN-γ. La maca roja presenta un incremento dosis-respuesta de los niveles de IFN-γ (r=0,57, p<0,05. Conclusiones. La administración de la maca roja incrementa los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas.

  15. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-12-01

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E230 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (PMaca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  17. Efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno na conservação de maçãs 'Royal Gala' em ar refrigerado e atmosfera controlada Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on 'Royal Gala' apples stored in refrigerated air and controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Corrent

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Royal Gala', colhidas em dois estádios de maturação, foram tratadas com 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno nas concentrações de 0; 625 e 1250 nL.L-1, durante 48 horas, à temperatura de 20 ± 2 ºC. Após este tratamento, foram armazenadas em dois diferentes sistemas: em atmosfera controlada à temperatura de 0 ± 0,5 ºC, 2,1 a 2,3 kPa de CO2 , 1,8 a 2,0 kPa de O2 e umidade relativa de 95 ± 5 %, durante 9 meses. Em ar refrigerado a 0,5 ± 0,5 ºC e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, durante 8 meses. As análises realizadas demonstraram a eficiência do 1-MCP em controlar a maturação das frutas durante o armazenamento em ambas as condições e pontos de colheita. A aplicação do 1-MCP reduziu drasticamente a produção de etileno, diminuiu a perda de firmeza, além de preservar a acidez total titulável.In the present work were evaluated the effects of 1-MCP on 'Royal Gala' apples stored in refrigerated air and controlled atmosphere. 'Royal Gala' apples were harvested at two ripeness stages and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP using two concentrations 625 and 1250 nL.L-1 which were applied during 48 hours at temperature of 20 ± 2 ºC. The control fruit was only kept in air. After the treatments the apples were stored in either controlled atmosphere 2,1 to 2,3 kPa CO2, 1,8 to 2,0 kPa O2 and 95 ± 0,5 % of relative humidity for 9 months at 0 ± 0,5 ºC or in refrigerated air storage at 0,5 ± 0,5 ºC and 95 ± 0,5 % of relative humidity, for 8 months. The 1-MCP applications on apples in both storages and ripening stages reduced dramatically the ethylene production. Pulp firmness losses and titratable acidity were also significanthy higher compared to control fruit.

  18. Kaks rauast nooleotsa Jägala Jõesuu linnamäelt: arheoloogiline ja ajalooline kontekst / Mari Lõhmus, Ester Oras, Martti Veldi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Mari

    2010-01-01

    gala Jõesuu linnamäelt leitud vanemast rauaajast pärit kahest nooleotsast. Nooleotste avastamisest ja konserveerimisest ning olemasoleva info põhjal tehtud vaadetest minevikku. Nooleotsad viitavad rauaajal toimunud sõjalisele konfliktile Läänemere piirkonnas

  19. Impacto e sustentabilidade do turismo comunitário: Estudo de caso de Tinti Gala e Tsakane Ka Madjadjane Lodges em Maputo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Frederico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a contribuição do turismo no desenvolvimento comunitário na província de Maputo em Moçambique. O estudo centrou-se na avaliação econômica de projetos turisticos (lodges em Gala e Madjadjane. Os indicadores usados para avaliar o impacto do turismo na comunidade são: emprego direto e indireto, além da partilha de benefício. Para avaliar a sustentabilidade dos lodges foram usados os critérios Custo-benefício, Valor atual líquido e Taxa de retorno. Os resultados mostraram que os lodges criaram novos empregos diretos para alguns chefes de famílias (10% dos agregados familiares de Madjadjane e 17% em Gala. Houve partilha de benefício na comunidade de Gala, porque os membros da comunidade partilharam os rendimentos da atividade turistica. A avaliação econômica mostrou que no lodge de Madjadjane as despesas são maiores que as receitas o que coloca riscos na sustentabilidade do projeto. Enquanto no lodge Gala registaram-se receitas que garantem um funcionamento modesto dos serviços. Os projetos turísticos comunitários são constrangidos principalmente pela formação deficiente das comunidades em gestão dos lodges.

  20. Muusika : Chopiniئvirtuoos ERSO ees. Teo Maiste 70. Virumaa noorteorkestri sünnipäev. "Jazzkaare" festivali peaesinejad. Kuningas Arthuri Gala 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Koos ERSOga astub üles poola tipp-pianist. Teo Maiste tähistab 70ndat juubelit laval. Virumaa noorteorkestr sai viie aastaseks. "Jazzkaare" festivali peaesinejateks on USA lauljatar-pianist Diane Schuur ja norra klahvpillimängija Bugge Wessetoft. Seekordne Kuningas Arthuri Gala 2002 toimub Narva Aleksandri kirikus

  1. [Effects of the maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fa-Rong; Yang, Bo; Li, Zuo-Ping; Lian, Xiu-Zhen; Xie, Ming-Ren; Li, Deng-Lou; Zhang, Shi-Shuang

    2017-06-08

    To investigate the effects of maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance. The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including the control group (no swimming), the swimming group (free swimming), and 3 treatment groups treated with the maca extract at the doses of 4.0, 5.3 and 8.0 g/kg body weight. The animals in swimming and treatment groups were then for free swimming in the circulating water flow daily for 15 days. On the 16 th day after swimming endurance, the spinal and muscular tissues were collected from all groups. The mitochondrial ultrastructures of the neurons of the spinal cells were observed with the projection electron microscope, and the levels of the glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and Ca 2+ in muscle tissues were determined by the RIA method. When rats were treated with maca extract (at 4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight), the total swimming time and the swimming duration before sinking were increased by 19.83%, 60.28%, 77.55%, and 55.34%, 73.91%, 94.47%, respectively, compared with the simple swimming group( P maca extract (4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight) were reduced by 7.79%, 18.18%, 31.17%, 16.95%, 27.34%, 43.31% and 13.51%, 23.19%, 43.15%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of maca extract on the mitochondria of spinal cell and suggested that maca extract could improve the muscle antioxidant activity by increasing the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and muscle glycogen.

  2. Efecto de la maca roja (Lepidium meyenii) sobre los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Lozada, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Rubio, Julio; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Gonzales, Carla; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Materials and methods. Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. Results. OVX rats showed low ...

  3. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  4. Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 production in modified media for pelleting seeds of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Guerra Lopez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass of Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 was produced from modification of culture media Yeast Extract Mannitol Broth (YEMB with the aim of increasing the number of viable cells with the ability to promote the germination of maca seeds pelleted with the bacteria and reduce production costs. In the optimization process, the yeast extract and mannitol components of the LMC culture media were replaced by commercial sources of sucrose and glutamate, whose concentrations were determined in flasks by statistical design from Box-Behnken; in addition, the effect of the inoculum percentage on the time of biomass production was determined. Subsequently, it was determined at the bioreactor level that 28.57 h-1 was the adequate value of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa at 600 rpm, producing 1.28 x 10 11 CFU / mL. In the LMC M1 modified media, using 12.06 g / L-1 of sucrose, 11.50 g / L-1 of sodium glutamate and 10.9% of inoculant obtained 15x108 CFU / mL, increasing in 48% the number of viable cells with respect to the YEMB control treatment (7.8x10 8 CFU / mL. At the in vitro level, the pelleting of maca seeds with Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 produced in bioreactor and in the modified media M1 favored its germination. From commercial organic substrates, efficient bacterial inoculants can be produced in the development of maca crops, without altering their ability to promote plant growth.

  5. [Study on Application of NIR Spectral Information Screening in Identification of Maca Origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang

    2016-02-01

    Medicinal and edible plant Maca is rich in various nutrients and owns great medicinal value. Based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra, 139 Maca samples collected from Peru and Yunnan were used to identify their geographical origins. Multiplication signal correction (MSC) coupled with second derivative (SD) and Norris derivative filter (ND) was employed in spectral pretreatment. Spectrum range (7,500-4,061 cm⁻¹) was chosen by spectrum standard deviation. Combined with principal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD), the appropriate number of principal components was selected as 5. Based on the spectrum range and the number of principal components selected, two abnormal samples were eliminated by modular group iterative singular sample diagnosis method. Then, four methods were used to filter spectral variable information, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), monte carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and subwindow permutation analysis (SPA). The spectral variable information filtered was evaluated by model population analysis (MPA). The results showed that RMSECV(SPA) > RMSECV(CARS) > RMSECV(MC-UVE) > RMSECV(GA), were 2. 14, 2. 05, 2. 02, and 1. 98, and the spectral variables were 250, 240, 250 and 70, respectively. According to the spectral variable filtered, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build the model, with random selection of 97 samples as training set, and the other 40 samples as validation set. The results showed that, R²: GA > MC-UVE > CARS > SPA, RMSEC and RMSEP: GA Maca. The method was aimed to lay the foundation for traditional Chinese medicine identification and quality evaluation.

  6. Avaliação de métodos automáticos de limiarização para imagens de plantas de milho atacadas por Spodoptera frugiperda Evaluation of automatic thresholding methods for images of Spodoptera frugiperda affected corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly G. de Sena Júnior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos passos fundamentais no processamento de imagens para um sistema de visão artificial é a segmentação dos objetos de interesse na cena, e um dos métodos mais utilizados é a limiarização, em especial quando o objetivo é agrupar os pixels em duas classes. Neste método, o valor do limiar determina o número de pixels atribuídos a cada classe, além de influenciar a dimensão e a forma dos objetos nas imagens segmentadas. A utilização de métodos automáticos para definição do limiar, não só evitaria a influência de operadores mas, também, tornaria mais rápida a escolha dos limiares no campo, onde a variação da iluminação influencia os valores dos pixels. Este trabalho objetivou implementar e avaliar dois métodos automáticos de limiarização para identificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho. Foram utilizadas imagens de plantas atacadas e não-atacadas, em três épocas, correspondendo a diferentes dias após a infestação. As plantas foram reunidas em três grupos de 10, sendo as imagens de cada grupo obtidas sob uma intensidade luminosa diferente. As imagens processadas com o índice do excesso de verde normalizado foram limiarizadas, automaticamente, e comparadas com a limiarização manual das mesmas imagens. Os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos automáticos de limiarização foram satisfatórios, apresentando média acima de 99% de exatidão global, evidenciando-se, portanto, que ambos os métodos têm potencial para serem utilizados em um sistema de identificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho.A fundamental step in image processing for machine vision is the scene segmentation and one of the most used methods is the threshold, especially when one desires to cluster the pixels in two classes. The image threshold affects the number of pixels in each class and the object shape and dimension. An automatic thresholding method not only could avoid operator

  7. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Modali, Sita D.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tri-partite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation o...

  8. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Rodrigo; Rubén Valdivieso; Silvia Suárez; Rosa Oriondo; Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabete...

  9. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (PMaca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs.

  11. Isolation, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicai, Kang; Limin, Hao; Liming, Zhang; Zhiqiang, Zheng; Yongwu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Two fractions of polysaccharides (MLP-1 and MLP-2) were extracted from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii Walp.) by water, and purified using DEAE-52 ion exchange resin and sephadex G-200 clumns chromatography. An investigation was carried out for their structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results indicated that MLP-1 was mainly composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with the molar ratio of 0.12:0.32:1.50:0.32:1.03:1.00:0.93; the MLP-2 was a homopolysaccharide composed of glucose. The molecular weight (Mw) of MLP-1 was 42756Da, and the Mw of MLP-2 was 93541Da. The FT-IR spectra showed the general characteristic absorption peak of maca leaf polysaccharides (MLPs). The evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed that MLP-1 had strong scavenging effects in vitro on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and DPPH radicals, whose EC 50 (mg/mL) was 0.44, 0.21, and 0.82, respectively. Both MLP-1 and MLP-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the antioxidant-related parameters. The results suggested that the purified MLP-1 displayed better antioxidant capacities than that of MLP-1, which could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estudio de la Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., cultivo andino con propiedades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La maca es un producto originario de los Andes Centrales del Perú, resistente a granizadas, heladas y sequías prolongadas. Se cultiva desde la época incaica en altitudes comprendidas entre los 3800 a 4500 m.s.n.m. Esta planta herbácea, presenta no sólo un alto valor nutricional sino también es valorada por su papel medicinal. Entre los componentes químicos de este cultivo andino que se han relacionado con sus acciones terapéuticas como el aumento de la fertilidad, niveles de energía, acción antioxidante, mejora del deseo sexual y la tasa de crecimiento, destacan: los glucosinolatos, esteroles, ácidos grasos (macaeno y sus respectivas amidas (macamidas, alcaloides (lepidilinas A y B, macaridina y polifenoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, recopilar las diferentes investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de la maca y los compuestos responsables de las mismas.

  13. Structural Characterization and Antifatigue Effect In Vivo of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) Polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Xie, Lianghua; Huang, Juqing; Wang, Nan; Chu, Bingquan; Dai, Xulin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) polysaccharides (MP) with purity of 99.2% were obtained to investigate their structural characteristics and antifatigue effect in vivo. The physicochemical properties of MP were analyzed through high-performance gel filtration chromatography, IR, monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS, and NMR analyses. The antifatigue effect of MP was evaluated by using a mouse weight-loaded swimming model. MP is an acidic heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight (M w ) of 793.5 kDa. It is composed of D-GalA: D-Glc: L-Ara: D-Man: D-Gal: L-Rha = 35.07:29.98:16.98:13.01:4.21:0.75 (mol, %). The findings revealed that MP contained β-1,3-Galp(A), β-1,3-Glcp, and α-1, 3-Manp linked alternatingly to form a backbone (5:4:1). MP (above mid-dosage 50 mg/kg bw/d) could effectively elongate swimming durations and accelerate average swimming speeds (within the 1st 5 min) of mice (P maca. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  15. Maturação da maçã 'Gala' com a aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina e ethephon Maturation of the 'Gala' apple with preharvest sprays of aminoethoxyvynilglycine and ethephon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG e ethephon sobre a maturação da maçã 'Gala' colhidas em diferentes datas. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 e AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1 em combinação com quatro épocas de colheita (131, 138, 145 e 152 dias após o pleno florescimento. A aplicação pré-colheita de AVG, seguida ou não de ethephon, proporcionou frutos com maior firmeza de polpa, cor de fundo da epiderme mais verde e menor produção de etileno, respiração e índice iodo-amido. Entretanto, o AVG retardou a evolução da cor vermelha dos frutos, principalmente na maior dose. A aplicação de ethephon, em plantas anteriormente tratadas com AVG, proporcionou frutos com cor vermelha semelhante ao tratamento controle sem prejudicar a ação do AVG no controle da maturação dos frutos. O atraso na colheita causou amarelecimento da epiderme, índice iodo-amido mais elevado, alta produção de etileno e menor acidez titulável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of preharvest applications of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG and ethephon on the maturation of the 'Gala' apple harvested on differents dates. The treatments were: control, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 and AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1. These treatments were combined with 4 harvest date (131, 138, 145 and 152 days after full bloom. The application of AVG, combined or not with ethephon, maintained higher flesh firmness, greener peel color, lower starch index, ethylene and CO2 production. However, AVG retarded the development of the red color of the fruit. The application of ethephon in AVG-treated plants increased the red color of the fruit that was similar to control fruit without influencing effect of AVG on the control of

  16. Radiação, fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade de frutos em macieiras 'Royal Gala' cobertas com telas antigranizo Radiation, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apples under hail protection nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade e a qualidade da radiação solar disponibilizada às plantas e os seus impactos sobre a fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade dos frutos, em macieiras 'Royal Gala', cobertas ou não com telas antigranizo nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta provocou redução maior na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos acima do dossel das plantas (24,8%, em comparação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela preta recebeu menores valores de radiação ultravioleta, azul, verde, vermelho e vermelho distante, bem como da relação vermelho:vermelho distante, em relação às plantas descobertas. Estas alterações na quantidade e qualidade da luz sob tela preta aumentaram o teor de clorofila total e a área específica nas folhas, e reduziram a taxa fotossintética potencial, o peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não tiveram efeito sobre a severidade de "russeting" e sobre o número de sementes por fruto.The objective of this work was to assess the amount and quality of the light supplied to plants, and the resulting impacts on photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees uncovered or covered with white and black hail protection nets. The black net caused a higher reduction (24.8% of photosynthetic photon flux density, accumulated over the plant canopy during the day, than the white net (21.2%. The canopy internal portion of plants covered by black net received lower levels of ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far red radiation, and light with a lower red:far red ratio, in comparison to uncovered plants; these ligth changes increased chlorophyll content and specific area of the leaves, and reduced the potential photosynthesis, the weight of fruits per cm² of trunk cross section area, and the

  17. Condições de atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento de maçãs 'Royal Gala' de diferentes tamanhos Controlled atmosphere-storage conditions for 'Royal Gala' apples of different sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação da qualidade de maçãs 'Royal Gala' de tamanho pequeno (5-6cm de diâmetro e grande (8-9cm de diâmetro. Os frutos foram armazenados durante oito meses em atmosfera controlada, seguido de sete dias a 20°C. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a condição de atmosfera controlada com 1,5kPa de O2 + 3,0kPa de CO2 permitiu melhor conservação dos frutos pequenos, por permitir menor ocorrência de degenerescência interna e elevados valores de acidez titulável. Em relação aos frutos grandes, a condição de atmosfera controlada com 1,0kPa de O2 + 3,0kPa de CO2 foi a mais adequada, pois permitiu uma maior firmeza de polpa e elevados valores de acidez titulável. Os frutos pequenos mantiveram a cor de fundo da epiderme mais verde e apresentaram menores incidências de podridões em relação aos frutos grandes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Royal Gala' apples of small-size (5-6cm of diameter and large-size (8-9cm of diameter. Fruit were kept during 8 months in controlled atmosphere, followed by 7 days of shelf-life at 20°C. According to the results, controlled atmosphere with 1.5kPa O2 + 3.0kPa CO2 decreased internal breakdown and maintained the highest level of tritable acidity on small size fruit. Large size fruit stored on controlled atmosphere condition with 1.0kPa O2 + 3.0kPa CO2 had higher flesh firmness and elevated tritable acidity, showing therefore better quality than fruits stored on the other evaluated conditions. Small size fruit maintained greener skin background colour and lower rot incidence than large size fruit.

  18. Postharvest Ultrasound-Assisted Freeze-Thaw Pretreatment Improves the Drying Efficiency, Physicochemical Properties, and Macamide Biosynthesis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Gong, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Bo-Yan; Eggert, Dawn; Guo, Yuan-Heng; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Zhao, Bing

    2018-04-01

    A novel technique of ultrasound-assisted freeze-thaw pretreatment (UFP) was developed to improve the drying efficiency of maca and bioactive amide synthesis in maca. The optimal UFP conditions are ultrasonic processing 90 min at 30 °C with 6 freeze-thaw cycles. Samples with freeze-thaw pretreatment (FP), ultrasound pretreatment (UP), and UFP were prepared for further comparative study. A no pretreatment (NP) sample was included as a control. The results showed that UFP improved the drying efficiency of maca slices, showing the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1.75 × 10 -9 m 2 /s). This result was further supported by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rehydration capacity and protein content of maca slices were improved by UFP. More importantly, contents of bioactive macamides and their biosynthetic precursors were increased in 2.5- and 10-fold, respectively. In conclusion, UFP is an efficient technique to improve drying efficiency, physicochemical properties, and bioactive macamides of maca, which can be applied in the industrial manufacture of maca products. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong; Wan, Zhong-Xiao; Lu, A-Ming; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  20. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2018-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada-Requena, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4,000 m above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4,100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores.

  2. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dording, Christina M; Fisher, Lauren; Papakostas, George; Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maca, a Peruvian plant, is effective for selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, parallel group dose-finding pilot study comparing a low-dose (1.5 g/day) to a high-dose (3.0 g/day) maca regimen in 20 remitted depressed outpatients (mean age 36+/-13 years; 17 women) with SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) were used to measure sexual dysfunction. Ten subjects completed the study, and 16 subjects (9 on 3.0 g/day; 7 on 1.5 g/day) were eligible for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses on the basis of having had at least one postbaseline visit. ITT subjects on 3.0 g/day maca had a significant improvement in ASEX (from 22.8+/-3.8 to 16.9+/-6.2; z=-2.20, P=0.028) and in MGH-SFQ scores (from 24.1+/-1.9 to 17.0+/-5.7; z=-2.39, P=0.017), but subjects on 1.5 g/day maca did not. Libido improved significantly (PMaca was well tolerated. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, and there may be a dose-related effect. Maca may also have a beneficial effect on libido.

  3. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. The results suggested that Maca from Yunnan province was the potential substitute for the one from Peru. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of Maca were investigated. Three fractions and two pure compounds showed strong activities in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced zebrafish model. Among them, 80% methanol elution fraction (Fr5) showed significant neuroprotective activity, followed by 100% part (Fr6). The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective effect.

  4. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  5. Effect of gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh on lipidemia of hyperlipidemic rats Efeito da maçã gala (Malus domestica Borkh na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A healthy life style and a balanced diet, associated with a high fruit and vegetable intake, are linked to good health and the prevention of diseases. Apples contain bioactive compounds that help in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia. One of the Public Health concerns in Brazil is to reduce cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of Gala apples and to study the effect of their consumption on weight gain, food intake, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol and fecal cholesterol in male albino Wistar rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Six animals were utilized for each treatment (control, 5, 15 and 25% apple diet, during 30 and 60 days. This study showed that one apple (200 g can provide 14.5% of recommended total fiber and 55% of recommended vitamin C, besides supplying considerable quantities of phenolic compounds (0.38 g.100 g-1 and tannins (0.16 g.100 g-1. All animals showed a non-significant reduction in their weight gain and food intake with an increase in the concentration of apple in the diets. At the end of 30 days, all of the diets provided a significant reduction in the levels of triglycerides compared to the control group. The 15 and 25% apple diets showed significant reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and an increase in the level of fecal cholesterol in relation to the control group. The 25% apple diet provided a significant reduction in the hepatic cholesterol levels compared to the control group. After 60 days, the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides in rats fed with 5, 15 and 25% apple diets were similar to the control group. This probably happened due to a revertion of the process. These results show the importance of Gala apples in the control of hyperlipidemia in rats. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits, including apples, associated to a healthy life

  6. Paleomorphology of the upper part of the Macae formation, Namorado field, Campos basin; Paleomorfologia do intervalo superior da formacao Macae, Campo de Namorado, Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Eduardo Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Tomazelli, Luiz Jose; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo Norberto [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Viana, Adriano Roessler [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Edificio Sede

    2004-07-01

    The Macae Formation (Late Albian-Turonian of the Campos Basin) is represented by a thick column of carbonate sediments whose deposition began soon after the evaporitic phase that marks the beginning of the marine occupation of the basin. The top of this interval is represented by an unconformity (Type I), indicative of a variation in the base level of the basin, on which the turbidities of the basal sequence of the Namorado Field were deposited. For a better understanding of the depositional geometry of these turbidities, the paleogeomorphology analysis demonstrated to be quite efficient. The method of work used for so was a combination among the seismic 3D visualization (VoxelGeo{sup R}), from the characterization of different physical attributes of the seismic signal, and the facies analysis of wells profiles of the referred field. The developed analysis allowed the individualization and the three-dimensional visualization of a sinuous paleochannel in the top of the interval, until then not described in previous interpretations of this depositional system. With the information coming from this study, a better understanding of the genesis of this accumulation can be reached, especially in the part regarding to the units of important economic character, represented by the turbidities deposits and whose occurrences are related with stages of relative lowering of the sea level. (author)

  7. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzmann machos con diabetes inducida. Intervenciones: Se administró la harina de maca amarilla a las ratas distribuidas en 4 grupos: grupo I control (solo dieta; II, harina de maca 4 g/día; III, harina de maca 6 g/día; y IV, dieta + glibenclamida 10 mg/kg de peso; el experimento duró 46 días. Se evaluó diariamente la glicemia y el peso; al final del experimento se determinó en sangre los niveles de insulina, parámetros de daño oxidativo (vitamina C y se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS, como indicador del proceso oxidativo. Principales medidas de los resultados: Modificación de los niveles de glicemia, insulina, vitamina C y formación del complejo MDA-TBARS. Resultados: La administración de harina de maca en la dieta (4 a 6 g/día de animales diabéticos redujo la glicemia en 50%, incrementó los niveles de insulina 22% y mejoró los niveles de vitamina C respecto al grupo control. La administración de maca 4 g/día disminuyó el daño oxidativo, pues redujo la formación del complejo MDA-TBARS en 54% con respecto al grupo control. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a animales diabéticos mejoró el metabolismo de la glucosa, regulando la glicemia y

  8. Short and long-term physiological responses of male and female rats to two dietary levels of pre-gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum chacon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Kedzia, B; Mrozikiewicz, P M; Mscisz, A

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify physiological responses of male and female rats to either a short- or long-term administration of two doses of Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) and observe relationships which may exist between groups of hormones and effects mediated by them. The effect of pre-gelatinized (extruded) organic Maca powder (Maca-GO) was studied on Sprague-Dowley male and female rats (1:1 ratio) receiving two dietary levels of Maca-GO (0.75 g/kg and 7.5 g/kg body weight) and assessed against control during 28 and 90 day laboratory trials on 30 and 60 rats respectively. Blood morphology, biochemistry (hormones, lipids and minerals) and histology of internal organs were determined. Homogenates of skeletal muscles and bones of rats were also analyzed. Maca-GO has low toxicity (LD=7.5 g/kg) and appears to be safe for short-term and extended use as dietary supplement or as a component of functional dietary and therapeutic preparations. There were different responses of male and female rats to different levels of Maca-GO administered during a short- and a longer-term periodl. When administered at higher dose for extended period of time (90 days), Maca-GO acted as a toner of hormonal processes in adult female rats at increased progesterone and a steady estradiol level, without affecting levels of blood FSH, LH and TSH. Obtained results justify further clinical research on use of Maca-GO in sportsmen, physically-active people of both sexes and peri-menopausal women to clarify mechanisms underlaying physiological mode of action of Maca-GO validaet in clinical study on humans. Substantial decrease in blood cortisol levels in a short- and longer-term trial and simultaneous tendency to lower blood ACTH, may indicate antidepressive effect of Maca-GO, which together with reduction in body weight, lowering triglycerides in blood plasma and increasing calcium and phosphorus deposition in bone and muscle tissues is worthy consideration in potential application to women at

  9. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  10. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Novo volume do MACA – Magazine de Arte de Coimbra & Afins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Será lançado em final de Abril de 2010 o nono número do Magazine de Arte de Coimbra e Afins. O MACA é uma revista quadrimestral, fundada em 2008, com distribuição nacional e propriedade da Associação Cultural de Música e Teatro Arte à Parte. Tem vindo a afirmar‑se em diferentes cenas e circuitos do panorama cultural e artístico da cidade e do país, procurando impulsionar a reflexão, o ensaio e a crítica de arte e cultura – eventos, exposições, música, teatro, literatura –, nas suas expressões...

  12. Management of construction waste: a case study in the municipality of Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ramos Medeiros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has occupied a prominent place in the Brazilian economy. However it may represent serious environmental impacts in the generation and improper disposal of waste from construction and demolition (C&D. The research aimed at evaluating the initiatives of public management of C&D in the county of Macaé, RJ. It was based on the empirical-phenomenological methods, with individual descriptions and causal connections obtained from stakeholders, literature and documentary reviews, as well as qualified interviews (key informants with local managers and specialists. Preliminary results have  allowed for an assessment of the current situation of management, legal instruments, environmental licensing, and irregular disposal of C&D.

  13. Proposal of landscape management of the Environmental Protection Area in Sana, Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Luz Jeronymo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Preservation Area (EPA in Sana, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State went through a historical process of deforestation resulting from agriculture and livestock production. Recently, this area has been occupied in unplanned ways, due to its tourist attractions and real estate speculation. A major negative impact in the region is forest fragmentation. Based on the concept of landscape management, we propose a study to identify the priority fragments to conservation and recovery in the EPA. Results of this project are essential support tools to assist the manager in the environmental planning of the EPA in its process of monitoring, inspection and management.

  14. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e informales de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  15. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e infor- males de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  16. The successes and errors related to growth of a local economy with oil exploration: the Macae case; Os exitos e erros decorrentes do crescimento de uma economia local com a exploracao petrolifera: o caso de Macae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lariane Dallapicola [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais], e-mail: lariane2003@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The following essay has the purpose of showing the benefits and problems relations generated in one city that has the oil exploration as the main important task in its economy. One region can have its physical and economic structure drastically changed with the insertion of oil extraction task. An example that must be sentenced is the case of the city of Macae, situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the economy that has grown 600% in the period between 1999 and 2007, Macae is a city in constant growing and expansion process. Because of the industry and oil and gas extraction development, specially starting from the State's monopoly breaking in 1997, the city has turned very different from the little fisher's village that it was once, in the mid-1970's, having many alterations what its concerned about its population and increase of internal migrations, in terms of incomes and urbanization. These changing process's results are analyzed in this essay, aiming the positive and negative points of the situation of Macae, considering its new oil economy. (author)

  17. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Analysis of Maceaene and Macamide Contents of Petroleum Ether Extract of Black, Yellow, and Purple Lepidium Meyenii (Maca and Their Antioxidant Effect on Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyang Qiu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maceaene and macamide contents as well as antioxidant effect of petroleum ether extract of black maca (BM, yellow maca (YM, and purple maca (PM on diabetes mellitus (DM rats were investigated. The results showed that seven, six, and five analogues of macamides were identified from the petroleum ether extracts of BM, YM, and PM, respectively. BM extract exhibited the highest contents of total macamides. Comparatively, the PM extract has the lowest macamide quantity. The maceaene contents in all the extracts showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Macamide contents in maca with the same color were not statistically different. Pharmacological results showed that 60-day oral administration of the petroleum ether extract of maca (100 mg/kg.d can significantly decrease lipid oxidation as indicated by the decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and carbonylated proteins (CP concentrations on DM rat model (P<0.05. Among them, oral administration of PM extract showed the lowest TBRAS and CP concentrations. All maca extracts can enhance antioxidant enzyme (SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase activity of liver and red blood cells (RBC of DM rat. However, only oral administration of PM extract can increase SOD and CAT activity of both RBC and liver. The glutathion (GSH contents in plasma were significantly increased in DM rats treated with PM extract (p<0.05. But, oral administration of BM and YM extracts did not enhance GSH levels. Take together, the data suggested that PM extract exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity on DM rat model. And, maceaene and macamide in maca extract was not correlated with its antioxidant ability.

  19. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com inclusão de torta de macaúba na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho produtivo e econômico de ovinos confinados da raça Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas com diferentes taxas de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Os animais (24 foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, nos tratamentos com 0, 100, 200 e 300 g kg-1 de torta de macaúba na matéria seca da dieta, em seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. A adição de torta de macaúba a taxas crescentes à dieta aumentou linearmente o consumo de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e a conversão alimentar. Não houve diferença no consumo de matéria seca, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso vivo total com a adição da torta. O tratamento com inclusão de 100 g kg-1 apresentou a melhor relação custo:benefício na avaliação das receitas bruta e líquida obtidas com a venda dos animais vivos e abatidos. A adição da torta de macaúba em até 300 g kg-1 da dieta não altera o desempenho produtivo dos animais, entretanto, a inclusão de 100 g kg-1 proporciona melhor retorno econômico.

  20. Análise multivariada de atributos nutricionais associados ao "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala' Multivariate analysis of nutritional attributes associated with bitter pit in 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos nutricionais, quantificados na polpa e na casca dos frutos, que melhor discriminam quanto à severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala'. Depois de quatro meses de armazenamento em atmosfera normal (0-1°C; 90-95% UR, os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão por fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões por fruto, moderada (3-4 lesões por fruto e alta (5-13 lesões por fruto. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa em frutos individuais (doze frutos de cada lote. A análise univariada mostrou que os frutos com sintomas de "bitter pit" apresentaram menor teor de Ca na casca e na polpa, maior teor de K na casca e maiores valores das relações K/Ca, Mg/Ca, N/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca e (K+Mg+N/Ca, tanto na casca como na polpa. Todavia, quando todos os atributos nutricionais avaliados na casca e na polpa foram submetidos à análise canônica discriminante (análise multivariada, a melhor discriminação entre frutos sem "bitter pit" e frutos com severidade de incidência de "bitter pit" de baixa a alta é obtida com a relação K/Ca na casca, seguido, em menor grau, pelas relações Mg/Ca e N/Ca na polpa.The objective of this work was to identify nutritional attributes, assessed in the flesh and skin tissues, that provide a better discrimination regarding bitter pit severity in 'Gala' apples. After four months in regular cold storage (0-1°C; 90-95% RH, fruits were segregated into four lots with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit per fruit, low (1-2 pits per fruit, moderate (3-4 pits per fruit, and high (5-13 pits per fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K and N in the skin and in the flesh tissues were performed on twelve individual fruits of each severity level. The univariate analysis showed that fruits with bitter pit symptoms had lower concentration of Ca in the skin and flesh tissues, a

  1. Características analíticas dos sucos de maçã Gala, Golden Delicious e Fuji Analytical characteristics of Gala, Golden Delicious and Fuji apple juice from south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as frutas de clima temperado cultivadas no Brasil, a maçã apresentou maior expansão de produção nos últimos anos. Ela se destina principalmente ao consumo in natura, mas o suco se constitui em subproduto a ser considerado. Portanto, a elaboração de suco de maçã é uma alternativa para aproveitar as frutas consideradas como descarte. Com o objetivo de aproveitar o descarte das maçãs Gala, Golden Delicious e Fuji, foi estudada a composição de seus sucos. Nas safras de 1995 a 1997 foram analisados os sucos dessas cultivares de maçã colhidas de pomares comerciais dos municípios de Fraiburgo e São Joaquim - SC e de Vacaria e Caxias do Sul - RS. Além das análises básicas dos sucos, realizadas por métodos físico-químicos, foram determinados também os elementos minerais por absorção atômica. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 81,3% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os sucos das três cultivares de maçã. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na diferenciação do suco de maçã foram sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix, densidade (DEN, açúcares redutores (AR, relação ºBrix/acidez total (B/A, acidez total (ACT, ácido málico (ACM e os minerais Mg, Cu, Zn, Rb, P e K. Quanto à origem geográfica, os sucos de maçã de São Joaquim - SC e de Vacaria - RS mostraram maiores semelhanças em sua composição, principalmente nas cultivares Fuji e Golden Delicious.Among temperate fruits cultivated in Brazil, the production of apple increased the most in the last years. It is mainly addressed to the consumption in natura, but juice is becoming an important by-product. For this reason, it is an alternative to utilize rejected fruits to make juice. With the objective to reach this goal, the composition of Gala, Golden Delicious, and Fuji juices was studied. This experiment was conducted from 1995 to 1997

  2. Uso do 1-metilciclopropeno no controle da maturação de maçãs cv. 'Royal Gala' 1-Methylcyclopropene in the control of the ripening and in maintenance of quality of 'Royal Gala'apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Corrent

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP no controle da maturação de maçãs 'Royal Gala'. As frutas foram colhidas em dois estádios de maturação caracterizados como: estádio de maturação 1, com frutas apresentando firmeza de polpa de 82,14 N, acidez total titulável de 0,36 % de ácido málico, teor de sólidos solúveis totais de 14,10 ºBrix e produção de etileno de 2,00 nL.g-1.h-1, e estádio de maturação 2, com maçãs apresentando firmeza de polpa de 79,96 N, acidez total titulável de 0,33 % de ácido málico, teor de sólidos solúveis totais de 13,74 ºBrix e produção de etileno de 17,11 nL.g-1.h-1. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de 1-MCP: 0; 312; 625 e 1250 nL.L-1. A aplicação foi efetuada durante 48 horas, à temperatura de 20 ± 2 ºC, em câmaras com capacidade para 300 L. Após a aplicação, as frutas foram armazenadas a 20 ± 2 ºC, por 60 dias. A cada 10 dias, avaliaram-se a firmeza de polpa, a acidez total titulável, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a produção de etileno. O 1-MCP reduziu a produção de etileno nas maçãs e retardou a ocorrência do pico climatérico, independentemente do estádio de maturação e da concentração do produto. Em conseqüência, preservou maiores valores de firmeza de polpa e acidez total titulável.In the present work were evaluated the effects of 1-MCP on 'Royal Gala' apples ripening. The apples were harvested at two ripeness stages: Ripeness stage at harvest one apples were with 82, 4 N flesh firmness, 0,36 % malic acid and 14,10 ºBrix. Ethylene prodution of these apples was about 2,0 nL.g-1.h-1. Apples of ripeness stage 2 produced about 17,0 nL.g-1.h-1 ethylene and had flesh firmness values 79,96 N, 0,33 % malic acid and 13,74 ºBrix. The apples were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP using three concentrations and one control, 0, 325, 625 and 1250 nL.L-1 which were applied during 48 hours at temperature of 20 ± 2 ºC. After this time the

  3. ESTUDO DA VIABILIDADE TÉCNICA E PROJETO CONCEITUAL DE UMA MACA DE BANHO PARA USO HOSPITALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Motta Barbosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo da viabilidade técnica do projeto de uma maca de banho que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na prática do banho no leito. Para identificação das limitações desta prática foi realizado um questionário com profissionais da área apontando os principais requisitos técnicos e administrativos que devem ser sanados. Com os requisitos do usuário estabelecidos deu-se inicio ao processo de desenvolvimento do produto, a partir da fase do planejamento do produto, momento do estabelecimento da ideia da maca de banho, do projeto informacional, que teve como principal ferramenta denominada “Quality Function Deployment” (QFD para o norteamento das escolhas dos principais requisitos, e o projeto conceitual, onde foram definidos os parâmetros essenciais para o projeto atender os aspectos de ergonomia, confiabilidade, custo, fabricação e manutenção. Por fim, o trabalho apresentou um modelo de um projeto preliminar mostrando a viabilidade do projeto da maca de banho, atendendo os principais parâmetros apontados. Palavras-chave: banho no leito, dispositivos hospitalares; cuidados de enfermagem; desenvolvimento de projeto; QFD.

  4. Qualidade de maçãs cv. gala armazenadas em diferentes pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 Quality of 'gala' apples stored at different partial pressures of O2 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos da temperatura e pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 sobre a qualidade da maçã cv. Gala armazenada em atmosfera controlada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três repetições de 30 frutos. Os tratamentos foram: 1,0 kPa de O2 e 2,0 kPa de CO2; 1,0 kPa de O2 e 3,0 kPa de CO2; 1,0 kPa de O2 e 4,0 kPa de CO2; 0,75 kPa de O2 e 2,0 kPa de CO2; 0,75 kPa de O2 e 3,0 kPa de CO2 e, 21,0 kPa de O2 e 0,0 kPa de CO2 na temperatura de 0 e 1ºC. A UR permaneceu em torno de 97%. O período de armazenamento foi de oito meses, sendo que as análises foram realizadas no momento da retirada dos frutos das câmaras e após sete dias de exposição dos mesmos à temperatura ambiente (24ºC. Avaliou-se firmeza de polpa, acidez titulável, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, cor de fundo da epiderme, degenerescência senescente, rachaduras e podridões. Melhor conservação da firmeza de polpa, acidez titulável e teores de sólidos solúveis totais foram encontrados com 0,75 a 1 kPa de O2, combinado com 3,0 kPa de CO2 na temperatura de 1ºC. A maçã apresentou degenerescência senescente em 4,0 kPa de CO2 e também quando utilizou-se a temperatura de 0ºC. A temperatura de 1ºC, em relação a 0ºC, manteve melhor qualidade dos frutos após oito meses de armazenamento.To evaluate the effects of the temperature and partial pressures of O2 and CO2 on the quality of `Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere an experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with three replicates, each of 30 fruits. The treatments were: 1.0 kPa of O2 and 2.0 kPa of CO2; 1.0 kPa of O2 and 3.0 kPa of CO2; 1.0 kPa of O2 and 4.0 kPa of CO2; 0.75 kPa of O2 and 2.0 kPa of CO2; 0.75 kPa of O2 and 3.0 kPa of CO2; 21.0 kPa of O2 and 0.0 kPa of CO2 at the temperatures of 0 and 1ºC. RH was mantained around 97%. After 8 months, fruit quality was assessed at the opening of the CA chambers, and

  5. Functional Implications of an Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between TolC and MacA in the Action of Macrolide-specific Efflux Pump MacAB-TolC*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel. PMID:21325274

  6. Functional implications of an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction between TolC and MacA in the action of macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-04-15

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

  7. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.

  8. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  9. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. GALA: Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy, a novel approach for solving the inverse problem in exploratory analysis of group MEG recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eKozunov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although MEG/EEG signals are highly variable between subjects, they allow characterizing systematic changes of cortical activity in both space and time. Traditionally a two-step procedure is used. The first step is a transition from sensor to source space by the means of solving an ill-posed inverse problem for each subject individually. The second is mapping of cortical regions consistently active across subjects. In practice the first step often leads to a set of active cortical regions whose location and timecourses display a great amount of interindividual variability hindering the subsequent group analysis.We propose Group Analysis Leads to Accuracy (GALA - a solution that combines the two steps into one. GALA takes advantage of individual variations of cortical geometry and sensor locations. It exploits the ensuing variability in electromagnetic forward model as a source of additional information. We assume that for different subjects functionally identical cortical regions are located in close proximity and partially overlap and their timecourses are correlated. This relaxed similarity constraint on the inverse solution can be expressed within a probabilistic framework, allowing for an iterative algorithm solving the inverse problem jointly for all subjects.A systematic simulation study showed that GALA, as compared with the standard min-norm approach, improves accuracy of true activity recovery, when accuracy is assessed both in terms of spatial proximity of the estimated and true activations and correct specification of spatial extent of the activated regions. This improvement obtained without using any noise normalization techniques for both solutions, preserved for a wide range of between-subject variations in both spatial and temporal features of regional activation. The corresponding activation timecourses exhibit significantly higher similarity across subjects. Similar results were obtained for a real MEG dataset of face

  11. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov. y su Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA, las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la MACA realizado en 1960-1962, su hábitat y aclimatación a niveles de la costa. Esta especie cuyo nombre es MACA es oriunda de los Andes Centrales del Perú y se la conoce tanto por su valor alimenticio como farmacológico desde antes de la época del incanato. Crece en los Departamentos de Pasco y Junín en altitudes de 4100 y 4300 m sobre el nivel del mar. El clima en esta región es frío y seco durante el año caracterizándose el verano (enero, febrero y marzo como lluvioso con un promedio de 250,8 mm y con una temperatura ambiental promedio de 4.8 °C. En invierno (junio, julio y agosto las lluvias son escasas llegando a 34.4 mm y el promedio de la temperatura ambiental es alrededor de 3.5 °C. Los análisis químicos de la raíz realizados en 1960 y 1961 han demostrado la presencia de glúcidos y cuatro tipos de alcaloides, presentadas en cromatografía de papel Whatman. Estos alcaloides que he denominado "Extracto alcaloideo/marzo 1961", son los principios activos que intervienen en la frecuencia de procreación y dela clara y marcada estimulación de la maduración de los folículos de Graaf realizados en experimentos con ratas y en los machos, un aumento en la cantidad de espermatozoides en los tubos seminíferos y aumento de mitosis y espermatogonia. Estos ensayos los he realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina Humana [de la UNMSM] durante los años 1961 y 1962. Las observaciones histológicas e histoqu

  12. Extracto acuoso de Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca y su papel como adaptógeno, en un modelo animal de resistencia física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca es una raíz andina del Perú, utilizada como alimento por su valor nutricional y propiedades etnomedicinales; es parte de la medicina tradicional. Objetivos: Evaluar el papel de adaptógeno del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla sobre las enzimas del tejido muscular en un modelo animal de resistencia física y estrés oxidativo. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla y ratas macho recién destetados. Intervenciones: Administración del extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla en ratas macho recién destetados, distribuidos en cuatro grupos: (I, de control, (II 0,4 mg de maca/g de peso (III 0,8 mg de maca/g de peso y (IV, 1,2 mg de maca/g de peso. El extracto acuoso fue administrado por cánula orogástrica. Se realizó un control de los pesos. Se aplicó la prueba de nado forzado después de 30 días de tratamiento. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se preparó homogenizado de músculo al 10%. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, catalasa (CAT y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH; y, como indicador de proceso oxidativo, se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS. Resultados: El rendimiento en la prueba de resistencia fue la siguiente: (I 7,09 min; (II 11,25 min; (III 11,27 min; (IV 12,71 min, respectivamente. Las actividades enzimáticas de los grupos I, II, III y IV fueron: SOD (U/mL 36,6, 18,2, 17,2 y 18,2; CAT (U/L 18,6, 16,5, 13,4 y 10,3; y LDH (U/mL 11,6, 6,5, 6,0 y 5,8. TBARS (umol/g tejido: 5,82, 7,15, 4,11 y 4,06. Conclusiones: La administración del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla favorece la respuesta del organismo a una situación estresante y físicamente extenuante, lo que correspondería al papel de un adaptógeno.

  13. La maca roja (Lepidium Meyenii) y su acción en el tratamiento de la hiperplasia prostática benigna

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Alvarado, Jesenia Ludy; Alvarado Alvarado, Jesenia Ludy

    2015-01-01

    La Maca (Lepidium Meyenii) es una valiosa raíz de reserva, llamada hipocólito, utilizada como alimento y sobre todo como remedio natural desde los tiempos de los incas. Nativa del Perú, la Maca se ha extendido por todo el mundo como planta medicinal, y aparece citada en la medicina Herbal Peruana para estimular el sistema inmunitario, tratar la anemia, la tuberculosis, los desórdenes menstruales, los síntomas de la menopausia, aumentar la fertilidad, como afrodisiaco, para tratar la disfun...

  14. PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: The GALA II Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherenian, M G; Cho, S H; Levin, A; Min, J-Y; Oh, S S; Hu, D; Galanter, J; Sen, S; Huntsman, S; Eng, C; Rodriguez-Santana, J R; Serebrisky, D; Avila, P C; Kalhan, R; Smith, L J; Borrell, L N; Seibold, M A; Keoki Williams, L; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R

    2017-09-01

    PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. We estimated the relationship of the PAI-1 risk allele with FEV1/FVC by multivariate linear regression, stratified by asthma status. We examined the association of the polymorphism with asthma and airway obstruction within asthmatics via multivariate logistic regression. We replicated associations in the SAPPHIRE cohort of African Americans (n=1056). Secondary analysis included the effect of the at-risk polymorphism on postbronchodilator lung function. There was an interaction between asthma status and the PAI-1 polymorphism on FEV 1 /FVC (P=.03). The gain-of-function variants, genotypes (AA/AG), were associated with lower FEV 1 /FVC in subjects with asthma (β=-1.25, CI: -2.14,-0.35, P=.006), but not in controls. Subjects with asthma and the AA/AG genotypes had a 5% decrease in FEV 1 /FVC (P<.001). In asthmatics, the risk genotype (AA/AG) was associated with a 39% increase in risk of clinically relevant airway obstruction (OR=1.39, CI: 1.01, 1.92, P=.04). These associations persisted after exclusion of factors that increase PAI-1 including tobacco exposure and obesity. The decrease in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio associated with the risk genotype was modified by asthma status. The genotype increased the odds of airway obstruction by 75% within asthmatics only. As exposures known to increase PAI-1 levels did not mitigate this association, PAI-1 may contribute to airway obstruction in the context of chronic asthmatic airway inflammation. © 2017

  15. Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz dos Santos Furtado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted, Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in vitro conditions, indicating that terminal organic carbon mineralisation via methanogenesis was negligible for the top 6 cm of sediment at the sampling time.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a atividade metanogênica no sedimento das lagoas Imboacica, Cabiúnas e Comprida (Macaé, Rio de Janeiro. As amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas em duas estações em cada lagoa. A atividade metanogênica nas três lagoas foi abaixo do limite de detecção do método utilizado (cromatografia gasosa. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a atividade metanogênica não foi limitada pela concentração de nutrientes na água intersticial. Sob condições experimentais, a atividade metanogênica foi nula, indicando que a mineralização do carbono orgânico via metanogênese foi desprezível nas três lagoas durante o período amostrado.

  16. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharide fractions from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qingrui; Meng, Qingran; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Wentao; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-02-01

    The two fractions of polysaccharide MPS-1 and MPS-2 were extracted from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) by water, and purified using a DEAE-52 and a Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular weight (M W ) of MPS-1 was 7.6kDa, and the M W of MPS-2 was 6.7kDa. The MPS-1 was composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.7:3.3:30.5; the MPS-2 was composed of arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.3:36.8. The IR spectrum implied that only α-pyranose existed in MPS-1, and both α-pyranose and β-pyranose existed in MPS-2. The anti-fatigue activities of MPS-1 and MPS-2 were measured by the forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactate (BLA), urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and liver glycogen (LG). The results indicated that both MPS-1 and MPS-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the fatigue related parameters. Additionally, MPS-2 has a better anti-fatigue effect than MPS-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trabalho, reestruturação do capital e mercado de trabalho em Macaé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins Sirelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a reestruturação do capital e seus impactos na cidade de Macaé. A mesma se destaca por abrigar a Petróleo Brasileiro S/A (PETROBRAS desde 1978, abarcando mudanças econômicas e sociais substanciais para a cidade e a região. O textoenfoca o desenvolvimento desigual e combinado, resultado das opçõespolíticas e econômicas. Focaliza o mercado de trabalho formal, apartir de dados da RAIS, numa pesquisa bianual de 1990 a 2010. Concluímos que apesar de um estrondoso aumento de vínculos formais nos últimos 20 anos, os mesmos não vêm sendo acompanhados por uma qualidade destes vínculos, fortalecendo a tese de uma renovada precarização das relações formais de trabalho, sobre sólidas bases de exploração, alienação e aumento da extração do mais valor, ancorada em práticas como a flexibilização dos vínculos,intensificação do trabalho e terceirização da força de trabalho.

  18. Germinação de embriões e crescimento inicial in vitro de macaúba Germination and early growth of embryos of macaúba seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A macaúba é uma palmeira oleaginosa altamente produtiva e seu óleo pode ser usado na produção de biocombustíveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência de concentrações dos sais do meio de cultura MS e de água de coco na germinação in vitro de embriões zigóticos de macaúba e no crescimento inicial de plântulas. Os embriões foram excisados e em seguida inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15mL de meio de cultura MS nas concentrações de 50 e 100% de sais minerais, acrescidos de água de coco (0, 50, 100 e 150mL L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 42W m-2, temperatura de 25±2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Maior porcentagem de germinação de embriões de macaúba foi obtida aos 60 dias, em meio MS, na concentração original dos sais. O crescimento e a conversão de plântulas viáveis ou normais, passíveis de serem aclimatizadas, requerem metade da concentração de sais do meio MS suplementado com 50mL L-1 de água de coco.The macaw is a palm oleaginous that it is highly productive and in which their oil can be used to produce biofuels.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of minerals of the culture medium MS and coconut water germination in vitro of zygotic embryos of macaw and initial growth of seedlings. The embryos were inoculated in test tubes containing 15mL of culture medium MS in concentrations of 50 and 100% of minerals, plus coconut water (0, 50, 100 and 150mL L-1. The cultures were kept in room for growth with irradiance around 42W m-2, at 25±2°C and photoperiod of 16 hours. Higher percentage of germination of embryos of 'macaúba' was obtained at 60 days in MS medium in the original concentration of salts. The growth and conversion to viable seedlings or normal, which can be acclimatized, require half the concentration of salts of MS medium supplemented with 50mL L-1 coconut water.

  19. Citizenship and participation in the Macaé e das Ostras Rivers Hydrographic Basin’s Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Villas Boas Sá Rego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the implementation process of the Macaé e das Ostras River Basin Committee as an instrument of the Rio de Janeiro State Water Resources Policy. It was found that the performance of the committee presents obstacles arising from the centralization of power by the state government, the uncertainty of legal and,institutional frameworks, and the predominance of more powerful interests in decision making. However, the Committee also presents great potential to constitute a forum for strengthening democracy and the autonomy of citizens.

  20. Logistic platform: an alternative to the logistic activities development in Macae (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Plataforma logistica: uma alternativa ao desenvolvimento das atividades logisticas em Macae (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Francisco A.M. [C. Foster Servicos e Equipamentos de Petroleo Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Esteves, Luis Sergio N; Jesus, Jonas David [Universidade Estacio de Sa, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, Luiz Lucio A [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Santana, Winston [Sistema FIRJAN, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, David B. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental - PGCA

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the system of supplying in attendance to the necessities demanded in the petroliferous sector inside of the norms and regulations established for the competent agencies in the country, the present work if considers to present a project of creation of a Logistic Platform as an alternative for the development of the logistic activities in Macae, creating a port infrastructure, aiming at the Also available optimization of the modal ones of transport in the region, with installation of one customs politics that makes possible the load, discharge and storage of parts, equipment and feedstocks, creating partnerships in the development and implantation of software that they speed the logistic system of the sector offshore, thus promoting, an improvement in the offered services the customer, reducing costs and increasing the productivity and globalization of the market, led for the agreement that Macae makes use of the main necessary requirements to its development for possessing the main modal axles of transport as alternative of circulation of merchandises and equipment favorable to the implantation of a Logistic Platform. (author)

  1. Preliminary approach to detect amylolytic and pectinolytic activities from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Ensaios preliminares de detecção de atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica em maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerby Giovanna Rondan-Sanabria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylase (AM, pectinesterase (PE and polygalacturonase (PG were extracted from maca roots (Lepidium meyenii Walp. The response surface model was used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and temperature activity of each enzyme on the crude extract. The highest values of AM activity occurred at pH 6.1 and 33.6 °C, very close to the experimental central point. The PE activity had a maximum activity at pH 6.6 and 49.4 and PG activity showed optimum activity at pH 5.4 and 46 °C.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores ideais de pH e temperatura para avaliar as atividades amilolítica (AM, pectinesterásica (PE e poligalacturonásica (PG em raízes de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.. Foi utilizado o modelo de superfície de resposta para atingir valores confiáveis de atividades enzimáticas em extratos brutos. Os valores máximos de atividade AM ocorreram em pH 6,1 a 33,6 °C, muito próximos do ponto central dos experimentos. Para as atividades de PE e PG, o valores ótimos foram atingidos em pHs 6,6 e 5,4, a 49,4 e 46 °C, respectivamente.

  2. Dinâmica temporal da mancha foliar da 'Gala' em macieiras conduzidas sob os sistemas de produção convencional e orgânico Temporal dynamic of 'Gala' leaf spot in apples under conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a dinâmica temporal da Mancha Foliar da 'Gala' em macieira nos sistemas convencional e orgânico de produção, em condições edafo-climáticas do Planalto Catarinense. A incidência e severidade foram quantificadas quinzenalmente, em 100 folhas, distribuídas em quatro ramos da cultivar 'Royal Gala' com 12 repetições, gerando 16 mapas em cada sistema de produção. A severidade foi avaliada de acordo com escala diagramática específica. Com os dados obtidos, foram plotadas curvas de progresso da doença, e as epidemias foram comparadas em relação à a início do aparecimento dos sintomas (IAS; b tempo para atingir a máxima incidência e severidade da doença (TAMID e TAMSD; c valor máximo de incidência e severidade da doença (Imax e Smax; e d área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência e severidade da doença (AACPID e AACPSD. Os dados de incidência e severidade foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão linear simples, sendo ajustados para três modelos empíricos, Logístico, Monomolecular e Gompertz. A cultivar 'Royal Gala' foi suscetível ao Colletotrichum sp., e as maiores intensidades de doença foram registradas no sistema de produção orgânico. O modelo mais apropriado para descrever o progresso da doença foi o Logístico e, por meio do uso da incidência, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os sistemas de produção, porém a taxa de progresso da severidade da doença foi significativamente maior no sistema de produção orgânico do que no convencional.This study aimed to evaluate the temporal dynamic of 'Gala' leaf spot under conventional and organic systems of production in edafoclimatic conditions of Santa Catarina plateau. The incidence and severity were quantified biweekly in 100 leaves distributed in four branches of the "Royal Gala" cultivar with 12 replications, generating 16 maps for each system of production. The disease severity was evaluated

  3. Coloração do fruto, distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças em maçãs 'Gala' e 'Fuji' pulverizadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Fruit color, physiological disorders and diseases of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apples sprayed with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita de macieiras 'Gala' e 'Fuji' com aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG sobre a qualidade dos frutos e a ocorrência de distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças. O experimento foi conduzido nos anos de 2005 e 2006, com pulverização de AVG (30 dias antes do início da colheita comercial dos frutos nas doses de 0; 125 e 250 mg L-1, sendo que, na segunda safra, também foi utilizada a dose de 62,5 mg L-1. Em maçãs 'Gala', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha e a permeância à perda de água na casca. Nesta mesma cultivar, em frutos avaliados após armazenamento refrigerado (três meses a 0±0,5ºC/90-95% UR, seguido de uma semana de vida de prateleira (20±4ºC/60-70% UR, o tratamento pré-colheita com AVG aumentou a incidência de "bitter pit", porém reduziu a incidência de escaldadura, rachadura peduncular e podridões. Em maçãs 'Fuji', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu a incidência e a severidade de pingo-de-mel em frutos colhidos tardiamente. A pulverização com AVG aumentou a severidade de mancha foliar de 'Gala' (Glomerella cingulata.The objective of this work was to study the effects of preharvest spraying of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and diseases. The experiments were carried out in 2005 and 2006, with AVG sprayed (30 days before anticipated fruit harvest at the doses of 0, 125 and 250 mg L-1, and also at the dose of 62.5 mg L-1 in 2006. In 'Gala' apples, the increase of AVG dose delayed red color development and reduced the water loss permanence of the skin. For this cultivar, the preharvest treatment with AVG increased the incidence of bitter pit, and reduced the incidence of scald, stem-end splitting and decay on fruits assessed after cold storage (three months at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH, followed by one week of shelf life (20±4ºC/60

  4. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xiao Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM, the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g, the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W. Based on the optimal extraction method of UAE, the total contents of ten main macamides and two main macaenes of Maca cultivated in twenty different areas of Tibet were analyzed by HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. This study indicated that UAE was able to effectively extract macamides alkaloids from Maca hypocotyls. Quantitative analysis showed that geographical origins, not ecotypes, played a more important role on the accumulation of active macamides in Maca.

  5. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Xiao; Li, Ke-Ke; Pubu, Duoji; Jiang, Si-Ping; Chen, Bin; Chen, Li-Rong; Yang, Zhen; Ma, Chao; Gong, Xiao-Jie

    2017-12-10

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g), the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W. Based on the optimal extraction method of UAE, the total contents of ten main macamides and two main macaenes of Maca cultivated in twenty different areas of Tibet were analyzed by HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. This study indicated that UAE was able to effectively extract macamides alkaloids from Maca hypocotyls. Quantitative analysis showed that geographical origins, not ecotypes, played a more important role on the accumulation of active macamides in Maca.

  7. Relación de glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas tratadas con maca (Lepidium meyenii walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cisneros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones representan un problema de salud pública. La hiperglucemia desencadena efectos bioquímicos dañinos para el organismo, como el estrés oxidativo y el proceso inflamatorio crónico, por lo que el uso de plantas medicinales con elevada capacidad antioxidante, como Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca, es una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar si la ingestión de harina de maca mejora la relación glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzman machos adultas. Intervenciones: Se utilizó 24 ratas, a los cuales se les indujo la diabetes con estreptozotocina (STZ 40 mg/kg de masa corporal y que fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos, de seis animales cada uno: control (CO, glibenclamida (GL 10 mg/kg de masa corporal, maca 4 g/día (M4 y maca 6 g/día (M6; el experimento duró 40 días. Se evaluó la glicemia, masa corporal y, al final del experimento, se determinó los niveles de GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Principales medidas de resultados: Masa corporal, glicemia, GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Resultados: A nivel plasmático, el glutatión circulante estuvo favorecido para la forma reducida. Los valores de la relación GSH/GSSG en los grupos tratados con maca estuvieron alrededor de 190, significativamente mayor al grupo CO. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a ratas diabéticas incrementó la relación GSH/GSSG a nivel plasmático, contribuyendo a mejorar su estado redox.

  8. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Industrial waste - destination and valuation techniques of floating hoses: case study in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon de Almeida Clemente Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oil extracted in Brazil today, is drained to the coast, or even transported to larger vessels through Floating Hoses. This oil unloading operation is called Offloading, it is of fundamental importance for the performance of offshore operations. These operating units use storage systems and oil relief, which can be FSO (Floating Storage Unit and Transfer or FPSO (Floating Production Unit, Stockpiling and Transfer. In this oil transshipment scenario, floating hoses have primary role therefore they are responsible for this operation. The Floating Hoses after useful life are discarded. How do the environmentally correct disposal of this waste? The destination most used for this waste are the landfills Class 2, for non-hazardous waste. In this study, we attempted to develop appropriate allocation techniques for Floating Hose, in order to obtain a greater appreciation potential of the materials that compose it, as well as presenting the risk of these being put up in a landfill, even if it is a controlled landfill. This technique is based on a so-called Reverse Manufacturing, all components are reused and recovered, with a more environmentally sound and economically viable destination. The research methodology was based on empirical studies of phenomenological framework, involving operational staff of a medium-sized company with a rising share of Treatment and Waste Disposal Market, in the city of Macaé. It was evidenced in the survey that there is a possibility of potential gains from the application of reverse manufacturing techniques of hoses, both in terms of environmental liability reductions and the financial return through the recovery of materials that compose them.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B

    2006-06-01

    Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. IN THIS, FOUR MONTHS, DOUBLE BLIND, CROSSOVER, RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL, MONTHLY MEASUREMENTS OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD SERUM CONSTITUENTS WERE TAKEN: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman's was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman's Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone

  11. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  12. Desempenho de vacas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de macaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Azevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes quantidades de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Oito animais foram distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4x4, sendo quatro tratamentos, 0, 100, 200 e 300g kg-1 de TM na matéria seca da dieta, e quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias, 14 de adaptação e sete de avaliações. A adição de quantidades crescentes de torta de macaúba à dieta alterou o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos, produção e os teores de lactose, extrato seco desengordurado e sólidos totais do leite, bem como a eficiência alimentar e a digestibilidade da matéria seca. Por outro lado, não foi verificada diferença nos teores de gordura do leite. A adição da TM em até 300g kg-1 da dieta comprometeu o consumo e o desempenho produtivo dos animais.

  13. Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R 2 adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.37 kg yacon kg -1 total flour , 0.14 kg maca kg -1 total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.65 kg yacon kg -1 total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kg maca kg -1 total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Analiza, structura şi direcţii de dezvoltare ale pieţei imobiliare. Studiu de caz Municipiul Galaţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean Mihalcea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed to analyze the main elements underlying the evaluation of a municipality-related real estate development pole passing through a slowdown. Its purpose is to provide those interested, public administration, companies and citizens, not least that municipality, relevant information on the structure of the housing market and its trends, closely related to the potential economic and social development of the municipality concerned. Based on the analysis performed, it can complete development strategies related to the city studied, encompassing social and urban studies marketing. In the case study were processed and valued elements of economic documentation made by the author for PUG Galati. The main chapters of the paper analyzes the structure of the real estate market, forecasting its economic-development binomial real estate development. The two planes are the main complex housing the city of Galaţi.

  15. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE (25 mg/0.1 mL intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  17. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Diego; Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Guajardo-Correa, Emanuel; Orihuela, Pedro A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ER β , but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ER α . In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ER β without affecting androgen receptors and ER α . This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  18. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca. PMID:29375645

  19. Assessment of the environmental degradation susceptibility of the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin with support of geoprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Rocha Werneck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a thematic exploration of the environmental degradation in the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin. The objective was to provide a cartographic base on relevant issues regarding the Basin, by doing environmental assessment with support of geoprocessing. This aims at providing assistance for public actions in environmental decisions, and suggest applications of data in local and/or regional plannings that may support the development of the Basin Plan. The AHP method – Hierarchic Analytical Process – was used. The resulting map shows the areas of potential environmental degradation, in which those with greater susceptibility are located at the top and middle sections of the river, and the less likely are found on its lower course.

  20. The Oil Industry in Macaé: characteristics and socioeconomic impacts under the perspective of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz de Mello Loureiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and discuss the main socioeconomic aspects of the evolutionary process of local development, after the arrival of the oil industry in Macaé. The methodology consisted of an exploratory and documentary research to base the study on the concepts of sustainability and local development. Results show the existing social externalities, the exploratory and centralized model of the undertaking, its impacts on local enterprises and society, and the absence of a better planning and management shared among the social, business and political actors involved. These findings are supported by experiences reported worldwide, and are associated with distributive environmental conflicts. Therefore, one can consider as indicative, the need for a more useful discussion about the spatial, cultural, political and social problems of the regions as a tool able to provide planned actions towards sustainability.

  1. Diet and foraging of the endemic lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis (Squamata, Teiidae) in the restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Amaral, V C; Sluys, M V; Rocha, C F D

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the diet and foraging of the endemic teiid lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis in a restinga habitat in Jurubatiba, Macaé - RJ. The stomach contents were removed, analyzed and identified to the Order level. There was no relationship between C. littoralis morphological variables and number, length or volume of preys. Termites (48.7%) and larvae (35.5%) were the most important prey items which occurred in the examined lizards' stomachs. The diet did not differ between males and females. Cnemidophorus littoralis is an active forager and predominantly consumes relatively sedentary prey or prey that is aggregated in the environment. We also found an intact and undigested hatchling of the crepuscular/nocturnal gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia in the stomach of an adult male of C. littoralis, which indicates that C. littoralis is a potential source of mortality for individuals of H. mabouia in the restinga de Jurubatiba.

  2. Evaluation of water resources monitoring networks: study applied to surface waters in the Macaé River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cloris Lopes Benassuly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrological phenomena is required in water resources monitoring, in order to structure the water management, focusing on ensuring its multiple uses while allowing that resource´s control and conservation. The effectiveness of monitoring depends on adequate information systems design and proper operation conditions. Data acquisition, treatment and analysis are vital for establishing management strategies, thus monitoring systems and networks shall be conceived according to their main objectives, and be optimized in terms of location of data stations. The generated data shall also model hydrological behavior of the studied basin, so that data interpolation can be applied to the whole basin. The present work aimed to join concepts and methods that guide the structuring of hydrologic monitoring networks of surface waters. For evaluating historical series characteristics as well as work stations redundancy, the entropy method was used. The Macaé River Basin’s importance is related to the public and industrial uses of water in the region that is responsible for more than 80% of Brazilian oil and gas production, what justifies the relevance of the research made. This study concluded that despite of its relatively short extension, the Macaé River Basin should have higher monitoring network density, in order to provide more reliable management data. It also depicted the high relevancy of stations located in its upper course.

  3. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.

    2003-08-01

    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used to explain the peculiar geochemical features (e.g. the mild alkalinity and relatively low ratios between large ion lithophile and high field strength elements) of the Hudson volcano, which is located even closer to the slab window than the Cay and Maca volcanoes are.

  5. Eficacia de la maca fresca (Lepidium meyenii walp en el incremento del rendimiento físico de deportistas en altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ronceros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la maca fresca sobre el rendimiento físico de deportistas en la altura. Diseño: Estudio experimental, prospectivo y comparativo. Materiales y Métodos: La muestra estuvo constituida por 10 deportistas de altura, quienes fueron sometidos a actividad física para medir el consumo máximo de oxígeno (VMO2 basal; luego, se les administró durante 60 días 1500 mg/día de maca fresca en presentación micropulverizado y se determinó el consumo máximo de oxígeno. En cada evaluación se realizó dosaje de transaminasa glutámico oxalacética (TGO, transaminasa glutámico pirúvica (TGP y creatinina sérica. Resultados: En la evaluación basal, se encontró que VMO2 2 mL/kg/min. Al realizar la evaluación luego de 60 días del consumo de la maca fresca, se encontró que la media del VMO2 fue 57,75 mL/kg/min (p=0,001. Se demostró un incremento del rendimiento físico de los deportistas en promedio de 10,3%. En todos los casos, los valores de TGO, TGP y creatinina sérica se mantuvieron en el rango de normalidad y no se presentaron reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: La maca fresca es un producto con actividad energética, que permite el incremento del rendimiento físico de deportistas en la altura a una dosis de 1500 mg/día, durante un período de administración de 60 días.

  6. Qualidade de maçãs 'Royal gala' submetidas ao dano mecânico por impacto e aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno em dois sistemas comerciais de armazenamento Quality of 'Royal gala' apples submitted to impact injury and application with 1-methylcyclopropene in two commercial storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Hendges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do dano mecânico por impacto e da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP sobre a qualidade de maçãs 'Royal Gala' mantidas em armazenamento refrigerado (AR e em atmosfera controlada (AC. Os tratamentos avaliados foram dano mecânico (sem e com dano por impacto combinado com a aplicação de 1-MCP (0 e 625 nL L-1. Os frutos foram armazenados durante quatro meses em armazenamento refrigerado (AR; 0 ºC ± 1 ºC e 92 ± 2 % de UR (experimento 1 e durante oito meses em atmosfera controlada (AC; 1,2 kPa de O2 + 2,0 kPa de CO2; 0 ºC ± 0,1 ºC e 96 ± 2 % de UR (experimento 2. Em AR, os frutos tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram maior firmeza de polpa, além de maior área escurecida no local danificado, na saída da câmara. Nesta condição de armazenamento, após sete dias em condição ambiente, os frutos tratados com 1-MCP apresentaram acidez titulável mais elevada, maior escurecimento da epiderme e menor profundidade de escurecimento da polpa no local danificado. Em AC, a aplicação do 1-MCP proporcionou, após a saída da câmara, frutos com menor teor de sólidos solúveis e maior escurecimento da epiderme no local danificado, sendo que, após sete dias em condição ambiente, os frutos apresentaram maior profundidade de escurecimento do tecido da polpa no local danificado. O dano por impacto ocasionou escurecimento da polpa de maçãs 'Royal Gala'. O 1-MCP não inibiu os efeitos do dano, mas preservou a qualidade dos frutos, especialmente em AR.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of impact injury and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the quality of 'Royal Gala' apples in cold storage (CS and controlled atmosphere condition (CA. The treatments were impact injury (with and without impact injury combined with 1-MCP (0 and 625nL L-1. The fruits were stored for four months in CS (0°C ± 1ºC and 92 ± 2% RH (experiment 1 and for eight months in CA (1.2 kPa O2 + 2

  7. Consultarea publicului în documentaţiile de amenajarea teritoriului şi urbanism. Studiu de caz: Zonele Construite Protejate ale Municipiului Galaţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Chifelea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use statistical databases in urban and spatial planning is a necessity and a handicap of such documentation, large scale plans requires a large number of indicators, but their structure does not correspond fully in spatial planning. One of these methods of obtaining data to produce the most appropriate indicators is the participatory approach, based on engaging communities and groups in planning and decision making. The “Methodology for informing and consulting the public in the development or revision of spatial and urban plans" issued by order of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism, bring an improvement in the completion of these plans. In the substantiation studies conducted for Zone Urban Plan of the protected built area of Galaţi, a consultative method was chosen, based on a sociological survey questionnaire. It was found that the most serious problems are the renovation of heritage buildings, traffic congestion and water quality. The largest gaps identified in the study area are: lack of affordable housing, roads and air quality, public transportation, cultural life and shopping areas. Thus, the Galatians have prioritized the investment potential of the CBA; as a priority resulting into the rehabilitation of urban areas (streets, buildings, squares and modernization of infrastructure.

  8. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sree Pokkuluri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000. The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata and MCC (modified clonal classifier to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992 datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006 dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000 and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002 datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.

  9. Respiração, produção de etileno e qualidade de maçãs "Gala" em função do dano mecânico por impacto e da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno Respiration, ethylene production and quality of 'Gala' apples in function to impact injury and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dano mecânico por impacto e da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno sobre a atividade respiratória e a taxa de produção de etileno e a qualidade físico-química de maçãs "Gala", após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada. Os tratamentos avaliados foram T1: controle; T2: dano mecânico; T3: 1-metilciclopropeno; T4: dano mecânico + 1-metilciclopropeno; e T5: 1-metilciclopropeno + dano mecânico. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados sob condição ambiente (20±2°C/65±5% UR. Os frutos submetidos ao dano mecânico e não tratados com 1-metilciclopropeno apresentaram um maior incremento na produção de etileno. O tratamento dano mecânico não aumentou a atividade respiratória e pouco influenciou o amadurecimento dos frutos, comparado ao controle, porém, aumentou a ocorrência de podridões. O 1-metilciclopropeno reduziu o metabolismo e a perda de qualidade dos frutos. Nos frutos submetidos ao dano mecânico, a aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno reduziu a incidência de podridões.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the impact injury and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene on respiration and ethylene production rates and on quality of 'Gala' apples after the storage in controlled atmosphere. The treatments evaluated were: T1: control, T2: mechanical injury; T3: 1-methylcyclopropene; T4: mechanical injury + 1-methylcyclopropene; and T5: 1-methylcyclopropene + mechanical injury. Fruits were then left at ambient conditions (20±2°C/65±5% RH. Fruits submitted to mechanical injury, without the treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, showed the highest increment of ethylene production. The mechanical injury did not increase the respiratory rate and had small effect on fruit ripening, compared to the control treatment, but increased rot incidence. The 1-methylcyclopropene reduced the metabolism and the loss of fruit quality. In fruits

  10. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

  11. Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Huamán, Ángel; Casimiro-Gonzales, Sandra; Chávez-Pérez, Jorge Antonio; Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Cisneros-Fernández, Richard; Aguilar-Mendoza, Luis Ángel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced during cell metabolism, there is strong evidence to suggest that ROS produced in excess impair the cell and may be etiologically related to various neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) methanol leaf extract on neurotoxicity in PC12 cell exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Fresh samples of "maca" leaves were processed in order to obtain foliar extracts and to evaluate the neurobiological activity on PC12 cells, subjected to the cytotoxic effect of 6-OHDA through the determination of the capacity antioxidant, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays on PC12 cells. The results of the tests of antioxidant activity, showed maximum values of 2262.37 and 1305.36 expressed in Trolox equivalents (TEAC), for the methanolic and aqueous fractions respectively. Cell viability assays at a dose of 10 μg extract showed an increase of 31% and 60% at 6 and 12 h of pretreatment, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays at the same dose and exposure time showed a 31.4% and 47.8% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results allow us to affirm that the methanolic foliar extract of "maca" presents in vitro neurobiological activity of antioxidant protection, increase in cell viability and reduction of cytotoxicity against oxidative stress generated by 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study shows a protective role for Lepidium meyenii leaf extract on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by an antioxidant effect.

  12. Use of Geographic Information Systems to sole the inadequacy of cartographic boundaries of the Environmental Preservation Area of Sana – Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Luz Jeronymo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Preservation Area (EPA of Sana is a Municipal Conservation Unit with private and public lands in the rural area of Macaé. This region has been densely occupied, due to the increase of tourism and urban rowth. This EPA has a Management Plan and Environmental Zoning to regulate nature conservation with sustainable use of local natural resources. As the Environmental Zoning is the most important tool to support decisions made by EPA, an evaluation of the cartographic adequacy of its limits was conducted in this study

  13. A Orientação Profissional no CEFET-Campos/UNED-Macaé: reflexos das mudanças no mundo do trabalho

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza de Oliveira Abrunhosa

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste em uma reflexão sobre o papel da disciplina Relações Interpessoais na formação dos alunos do ensino médio do CEFET-Campos/UnED-Macaé, buscando contribuir para a análise da materialização das recentes reformas educacionais no âmbito das Instituições Federais de Ensino Tecnológico. Partindo do pressuposto de que a disciplina Relações Interpessoais seria um gênero de orientação profissional, procuramos argumentar que as mudanças nos objetivos desta atividade seriam uma ...

  14. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos Natural and anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen, phosphorous and metals into the Macaé river basin (Macaé, RJ, Brazil Influenced by oil and gas exploration in Campos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  15. Predição de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' Por meio da infiltração dos frutos com magnésio Prediction of bitter pit in 'gala'apples by means of fruit infiltration with magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é considerado um dos principais distúrbios fisiológicos pós-colheita que ocorrem em maçãs. A análise nutricional dos frutos (concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N, normalmente utilizada na avaliação do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit", apresenta custo elevado e tem-se mostrado pouco eficiente para este fim. Isto tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de métodos alternativos para a predição em pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência pós-colheita de "bitter pit". Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade de utilização do método de infiltração de maçãs 'Gala'com magnésio (Mg, na predição do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Em adição a isto, os valores de Ca na casca e na polpa (mg kg-1 de peso fresco, relacionados aos diferentes níveis de severidade e incidência de "bitter pit", em frutos infiltrados com Mg ou armazenados em câmara fria, foram representados graficamente, com o objetivo de predizer o risco de "bitter pit" com base nas concentrações de Ca. Os frutos foram colhidos em pomar com histórico de elevada incidência de "bitter pit", em Lages (SC, na safra 2003/2004, de 20 plantas previamente marcadas aleatoriamente. Os frutos utilizados para a infiltração (30 frutos por planta foram colhidos 20 dias antes da maturação comercial, enquanto os frutos armazenados em câmaras frigoríficas (100 frutos por planta foram colhidos na maturação comercial. Os valores de Ca nos frutos, acima dos quais houve baixo risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit", foram similares entre frutos infiltrados e não infiltrados com Mg, correspondendo a 55 e 192 mg kg-1, na polpa e na casca, respectivamente. A concentração de Ca quantificada no tecido da casca mostrou-se melhor indicador do risco de "bitter pit" em relação ao tecido da polpa. Os dados obtidos demonstram que o método de infiltração com Mg representa uma alternativa viável visando a avaliar

  16. Qualidade da maçã "Gala" armazenada em atmosfera controlada associada à absorção e ao controle da síntese e da ação do etileno Quality of 'Gala' apples stored in controlled atmosphere associated with ethylene absorption and control of its syntheses and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da inibição da biossíntese de etileno no período pré-colheita e o efeito da inibição da ação ou da absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC; 1,2kPa de O2 + 2,5kPa de CO2 a 0°C sobre a qualidade de maçãs cv. "Gala". Além disso, avaliou-se também o efeito combinado desses tratamentos. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: (1 armazenamento em AC (controle; (2 aplicação pré-colheita de AVG; (3 AVG + aplicação pós-colheita de 1-MCP; (4 aplicação de 1-MCP; (5 AVG + absorção do etileno durante todo o período de armazenamento; e (6 absorção de etileno. Após oito meses de armazenamento mais sete dias a 20°C, os frutos tratados com AVG apresentaram menor atividade da ACC oxidase. A combinação de AVG + 1-MCP ou AVG + absorção de etileno mantiveram menor produção de etileno até cinco dias de vida de prateleira a 20°C. Além disso, a firmeza da polpa dos frutos submetidos a esses tratamentos combinados manteve-se mais elevada. A cor de fundo da epiderme manteve-se mais verde nos frutos tratados com AVG, independente do tratamento em pós-colheita, demonstrando que a modificação da coloração da epiderme é mais afetada pelo etileno produzido ainda na pré-colheita. Portanto, conclui-se que a aplicação em pré-colheita de AVG associada com a absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento é mais eficiente no controle da maturação de maçãs "Gala", no entanto, a aplicação pré-colheita de AVG combinada com a aplicação pós-colheita de 1-MCP também é eficiente.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of inhibition the ethylene biosynthesis at the pre-harvest stage, the ethylene action and the absorption from the controlled atmosphere storage room on the quality of 'Gala' apples. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four replicates and the experimental unit composed by 25 fruits. The treatments were: (1 CA storage only

  17. O tratamento pré-colheita com AVG, aliado à absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado, preserva a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' Preharvest treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine, in association with ethylene absorption during cold storage preserves fruit quality of 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo do estádio de maturação na colheita e a remoção do etileno no ambiente de armazenamento são estratégias importantes na preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ação combinada do manejo da maturação na colheita, através da pulverização pré-colheita com aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG, com a utilização de sachê contendo absorvedor de etileno à base de permanganato de potássio (KMnO4, na preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs 'Gala'. Frutos dos tratamentos envolvendo combinações de doses de AVG (0; 62,5; 125 e 250 mg L-1 e datas de colheita (0; 5; 10 e 14 dias após o início da colheita comercial foram acondicionados em caixas, envoltos em filme de polietileno de alta densidade (30µm, sem (controle ou com a inclusão de um sachê de KMnO4, e armazenados por dois meses em câmara fria convencional (0±0,5ºC/90-95% de UR e mais sete dias em condição ambiente (20±4ºC/70-80% de UR. A pulverização pré-colheita com AVG retardou substancialmente a maturação dos frutos na colheita, bem como o amadurecimento durante o armazenamento refrigerado em mais de uma semana em condição ambiente. O armazenamento refrigerado com a utilização de sachê de KMnO4 retardou o amadurecimento, avaliado imediatamente após a remoção da câmara fria, expressa em maiores valores de firmeza de polpa e de ângulo 'hue' (hº no lado verde (menos exposto à luz, em frutos tratados com AVG nas doses de 125 e 250 mg L-1 e colhidos antecipadamente. Todavia, após uma semana de armazenamento em condição ambiente, o emprego de sachê de KMnO4 retardou o amadurecimento de frutos colhidos tardiamente e tratados com AVG nas doses >62,5 mg L-1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o tratamento pré-colheita com AVG permite retardar a data de colheita e preservar a qualidade durante o armazenamento pós-colheita de maçãs 'Gala', com a utilização de sachê de KMnO4.The

  18. Quantificação de clorofilas em folhas de macieiras 'Royal Gala' e 'Fuji' com métodos ópticos não-destrutivos Quantification of chlorophylls in leaves of 'Royal Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees with non-destructive optical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O método-padrão para a quantificação de clorofilas em folhas é destrutivo e relativamente demorado. Com o advento dos medidores portáteis, a quantificação de clorofilas tornou-se fácil e rápida, podendo ser realizada de forma não-destrutiva a campo. Colorímetros também podem ser utilizados para a avaliação não-destrutiva da coloração de tecidos vegetais, e, portanto, para a quantificação de clorofilas em folhas. Este trabalho foi conduzido visando a avaliar a viabilidade de utilização de um colorímetro, como alternativa à utilização do medidor portátil de clorofila, para a quantificação não-destrutiva de clorofilas em folhas de macieiras 'Royal Gala' e 'Fuji'. Folhas de ambas as cultivares, com tonalidades variando de verde- amarelada (folha clorótica a verde-escura, foram avaliadas individualmente, com um medidor de clorofila (Minolta SPAD-502 e um colorímetro (Minolta CR-400, no espaço de cores L, C e hº, seguido de quantificações destrutivas de clorofilas a, b e totais. Os valores das leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro aumentaram com o incremento nos teores de clorofilas nas folhas em macieiras 'Royal Gala' e 'Fuji'. Os modelos ajustados entre os teores de clorofilas e as leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro apresentaram valores similares de R², em ambas as cultivares. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o colorímetro é uma alternativa viável na avaliação não-destrutiva do teor de clorofilas (µg.cm-2 de folha em macieiras, especialmente de clorofilas a e totais. Para tanto, os valores da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro devem ser previamente calibrados com a extração de clorofilas das folhas da cultivar de interesse.The standard method for chlorophylls quantification in leaves is destructive and time consuming. With the development of portable equipments, chlorophylls quantification became easy, quick, and affordable for

  19. Preharvest calcium sprays were not always needed to improve quality of 'gala' apples in Brazil Pulverizações com cálcio em pré-colheita nem sempre melhoram a qualidade de maçãs 'gala' no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium sprays have normally improved both the quality and the storage life of apples throughout the world because Ca helps to prevent many fruit disorders and that taken up from the soil does not often reach the fruit in adequate amounts. Since the efficacy of Ca sprays varies according to soil, apple cultivar, and weather conditions, this study was carried out from 1998 to 2004, in the Southern of Brazil, in order to assess the effect of Ca sprays on the quality and storability of 'Gala' fruits. The experiment was set up in an orchard planted in 1988, on a density of 1234 trees/ha. Treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, and 12 annual sprays of 0.5% CaCl2 regularly distributed 30 days after petal fall until one week before harvest. Fruits of the same size and maturity level were annually analyzed at harvest and after five months of conventional cold storage (-1ºC and 90-95% of RH. In five out of six seasons, fruits from all treatments were free of any physiological disorder, and Ca sprays had no effect on leaf composition and on any fruit attribute (soluble solids, titratable acidity, starch pattern index, flesh firmness, and concentrations of N, K, Ca and Mg. In the season of 2000/2001, however, when yield was 18 t ha-1 and fruits had an average weight of 175 g, the incidence of bitter pit plus lenticel blotch pit on stored fruits was 24% in the treatment with no calcium sprays and it decreased up to 2% in that with 12 sprays. Two seasons later, yield was also low (25 t ha-1 and fruits were large (168 g each, but they did not show any physiological disorder regardless of the number of Ca sprays. It seems that the incidence of Ca related disorders in 'Gala' apples grown on limed soils in Brazil with no excess of any nutrient only occurs on seasons with low crop yield, as a result of large fruits and a high leaf/fruit ratio, associated with some unknown environmental conditions.Pulverizações com cálcio normalmente melhoram a qualidade e a

  20. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (pmaca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis.

  1. Evaluation of plant growth promoting activity and heavy metal tolerance of psychrotrophic bacteria associated with maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ortiz-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high Andean plateau of Peru is known to suffer harsh environmental conditions. Acidic soils containing high amount of heavy metals due to mining activities and withstanding very low temperatures affect agricultural activities by diminishing crop quality and yield. In this context, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR adapted to low temperatures and tolerant to heavy metals can be considered as an environment-friendly biological alternative for andean crop management. The aim of this work was to select and characterize psychrotrophic PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. a traditional andean food crop. A total of 44 psychrotrophic strains isolated from 3 areas located in the Bombon plateu of Junin-Peru were tested for their PGPR characteristics like indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization and for their ability to improve seed germination. In addition, their capacity to grow in the presence of heavy metals like cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, cobalt (Co and mercury (Hg was tested. Of the total number of strains tested, 12 were positive for IAA production at 22 °C, 8 at 12 °C and 16 at 6 °C. Phosphate solubilization activities were higher at 12 °C and 6 °C than at 22 °C. Red clover plant assays showed that 16 strains were capable to improve seed germination at 22 °C and 4 at 12 °C. Moreover, 11 strains showed tolerance to Cd and Pb at varying concentrations. This study highlight the importance of obtaining PGPRs to be used in high andean plateu crops that are exposed to low temperatures and presence of heavy metals on soil.

  2. Microbiological quality of goat milk on rural properties in the region of Macaíba/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Bruna Paiva Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk is an excellent food that can guarantee beneficial effects to human health, but its characteristics are easily altered by the action of microorganisms and by manipulation. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of goat milk in 11 farms in the region of Macaíba/RN. Samples of milk and swabs from the hands of milkers, utensils and goat teats were collected and transported in a thermal box (10 ºC – 12 ºC to the Laboratory of Food Engineering of UFRN. The microorganisms studied were the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic, coagulase positive and negative staphylococci, coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC. Regarding the hands of milkers, 56% presented contamination by aerobic mesophilic bacteria. In the analyzed utensils were found, in 18.2%, coliforms at 45 ºC and coagulase positive staphylococci, as well as coagulase negative staphylococci (63.6% and coliforms at 35 ºC in 27.3% of the samples. For cold raw goat milk, 10% of the samples presented contamination with psychrotrophic and 17% with coliforms at 45 ºC. Regarding goat teats, 52% of the samples had aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts above 103 CFU/ceiling, 61% presented coagulase negative staphylococci and 10% coagulase positive staphylococci, this one of the main agents causing mastitis. Thus, these values indicate that hygienic procedures need to be adopted appropriately in the milking of raw goat milk, requiring guidelines that enable producers to obtain higher quality milk.

  3. Protective effect of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Hep-G2 cells and alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Mingxia; Zhao, Bing

    2017-06-01

    To study the characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii), the main polysaccharide from maca (MP-1) was obtained by DEAE-52 cellulose column. The average molecular weight of MP-1 was 1067.3kDa and the polysaccharide purity was 91.63%. In order to assess the antioxidant activities of MP-1, four kinds of methods were used, including scavenging hydroxyl radical, DPPH, superoxide anion radical, and FRAP, and the results indicated high antioxidant activities. Furthermore, hepatoprotective activity of MP-1 was studied both in vitro and vivo. In vitro, the alcohol induced Hep-G2 cells model was established to evaluate the protective effect of MP-1, which demonstrated MP-1 can alleviate alcohol damage in Hep-G2 cells. In vivo, the Institute of Cancer Researcch (ICR) mice were used to evaluate hepatoprotecive effects of MP-1 on alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Supplement with MP-1 supressed the triglyceride level both in serum and in hepatic tissue. In addition, MP-1 ameliorated serous transaminases increase induced by alcohol, including aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Moreover, MP-1 also dramatically increased the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione s-transferase levels in alcoholic mice. Meantime, histopathologic results MP-1 lighten inflammation induced by alcohol. These results indicate that MP-1 possesses hepatoprotective activity against hepatic injury induced by alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalencia de hongos en harina de Lepidium peruvianum «Maca» en mercados de Andahuaylas, Ica y Cañete - Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Orellana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia de hongos en la harina de Lepidium peruvianum «maca» en un total de 60 muestras procedentes de los mercados de Andahuaylas (20, Ica (20 y Cañete (20. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante el método de diluciones sucesivas y sembradas en superficie en Agar Papa Dextrosa (APD. El 96,7% del total de muestras estaban contaminadas; identificándose 9 géneros y un total de 14 especies de mohos filamentosos, incluyendo uno clasificado como Mycelia sterilia. El recuento general de colonias va desde 33x104 a 61x104 UFC/g., no existiendo diferencia significativa entre los centros de expendio. Los géneros con mayor incidencia fueron Penicillium y Fusarium. La alta prevalencia de hongos contaminantes en la harina de maca sugieren continuar estudios destinados a evaluar el efecto y riesgo sanitario que representa su consumo para la salud humana.

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and their targets in high-altitude stress-adaptive plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, short (~21-nucleotide), non-coding RNA molecules that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development, and stress response signaling. In this study using recently published draft genome sequence of a high-altitude plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) and applying genome-wide computational-based approaches, a total of 62 potentially conserved miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified and four (lme-miR160a, lme-miR164c, lme-miR 166a, and lme-miR 319a) of them further validated by RT-PCR. Deploying psRNATarget tool a total of 99 potential miRNA target transcripts were also identified in maca. Targets include a number of transcription factors like Squamosa promoter-binding, NAC, MYB, auxin response factor, APETALA, WRKY, and F-box protein. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first genome-based miRNA profiling of a high-altitude plant.

  6. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  7. Manejo do etileno e sua relação com a maturação de maçãs 'Gala' armazenadas em atmosfera controlada Ethylene management and its relationship with ripening of 'Gala' apples stored on controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da maçã 'Gala' submetida a diferentes formas de manejo do etileno, por meio da inibição da síntese, inibição da ação e ainda pela sua absorção na câmara de armazenamento, associado a duas temperaturas. Os tratamentos utilizados originaram-se da combinação de duas temperaturas (0,5 °C e -0,5 °C e da aplicação de aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG e de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP além da absorção do etileno, sendo todos os tratamentos armazenados em atmosfera controlada (AC com 1,2 kPa O2 e 2,5 kPa CO2. As avaliações da maturação e qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas após oito meses de armazenamento e após este tempo mais sete dias de exposição a 20 °C. A aplicação de AVG manteve a epiderme dos frutos mais verde na saída da câmara. Após sete dias a 20 °C, o tratamento com AVG proporcionou frutos com cor de fundo mais verde, com menor incidência de podridão, maior firmeza de polpa e menor incidência de degenerescência senescente. A menor produção de etileno dos frutos tratados com AVG propiciou baixa respiração, mantendo mais altos os níveis de acidez. A temperatura de 0,5°C promoveu significativa manutenção da acidez titulável total e menor incidência de degenerescência senescente, quando comparada com a temperatura de -0,5 ºC. A absorção de etileno e a aplicação de 1-MCP foram eficientes no controle da degenerescência senescente e da perda de firmeza, porém foram menos eficientes que o tratamento com AVG.This research aimed to evaluate the quality of Gala apples submitted to different ways of ethylene handling, through inhibition of synthesis, inhibition of action and ethylene absorption in storage room, associated with two temperatures. The treatments originated from the combination between two temperatures (0.5 °C e -0.5 °C and application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 1- methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and ethylene absorption. All treatments

  8. Avaliação de diferentes métodos de sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. Gala por Princesa = Evaluation of different over-grafting techniques to replace 'Gala' for 'Princesa' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Simões

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados quatro métodos de enxertia: garfagem em inglês complicado (GIC; borbulhia lenhosa (BL; garfagem de topo (GT e garfagem meia-fenda esvaziada (GMFE, com o objetivo de avaliar o melhor método para execução da sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira Gala por Princesa. O experimento foi conduzido em São José dos Pinhais – PR, em seis macieiras localizadas em pomar com três anos de idade. As características avaliadas foram: porcentagem de pegamento dos enxertos, porcentagem de enxertos brotados, porcentagem de enxertos dormentes e porcentagem de enxertos mortos. O experimento foi finalizado após 62 dias da instalação. Após esse período conclui-se que a GIC apresentou maiores porcentagens de pegamento e brotação. Esta não se diferenciou da GT em relação à variável pegamento. A BL não é recomendada para a sobre-enxertia em macieiras.Four grafting methods were compared: whip graft, budding graft, cleft graft and the side graft, aiming at evaluating the best techniqueto replace ‘Gala’ for ‘Princesa’ apple trees. The experiment was held in São José dos Pinhais – PR in a 3-year old apple tree yard fruit. Six apple trees were selected for the experiment. The assessed characteristics were carried out by the percentage of grafting success (sprouted, sleeping grafts (no sprouts and dead ones. The experiment was concluded after 62 days of grafting. Results indicated that the budding graft showed to be more effective with a higher index of sprouting. This technique showed no difference concerning the sprouting percentage compared to the whip graft. The budding graft is not recommended to over–graft apple trees.

  9. ARMAZENAMENTO DE MAÇÃS 'ROYAL GALA' SOB DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E PRESSÕES PARCIAIS DE OXIGÊNIO E GÁS CARBÔNICO STORAGE OF 'ROYAL GALA' APPLE UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURI BRACKMANN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a manutenção da qualidade da maçã cv. Royal Gala. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial, com 4 repetições e a amostra composta por 25 frutos. Os oito tratamentos originaram-se da combinação de dois níveis do fator temperatura (-0.5ºC e 0ºC com quatro níveis do fator condição de atmosfera controlada (1kPa O2/2kPa CO2, 1,2kPa O2/2kPa CO2, 1kPa de O2/3kPa CO2 e 1,2kPa O2/3kPa CO2. As avaliações foram realizadas após nove meses de armazenamento, na abertura das câmaras, e após sete dias de exposição dos frutos à temperatura de 20ºC. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, as temperaturas testadas não diferiram estatisticamente com relação à acidez titulável na saída da câmara, sendo que a melhor combinação de gases foi 1,2 kPa de O2 e 2 kPa de CO2. Já após sete dias de armazenamento a 0ºC, não houve diferença estatística com relação à concentração de gases. A temperatura de 0ºC apresentou maior firmeza de polpa, menor incidência de frutos com polpa farinhenta e degenerescência da polpa após sete dias a 20ºC. A combinação de gases 1,0kPa de O2 e 2 e 3 kPa de CO2 apresentou melhor manutenção da acidez titulável e menores valores de ocorrência de podridões e distúrbios fisiológicos. Concluiu-se que a melhor temperatura de armazenamento para a cv. Royal Gala é de 0(0C e a melhor combinação de gases é de 1kPa de O2 e 2 e 3 kPa de CO2.This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and CA storage conditions on the quality of 'Royal Gala' apples. The experiemtal desig was completely randomized with 4 replications of 25 fruits. Evaluated temperatures were --0,5ºC and 0ºC combined with following O2 and CO2 partial pressures: 1kPa O2/ 2kPa CO2, 1,2kPa O2/ 2kPa CO2, 1kPa O2/ 3 kPa CO2

  10. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  11. El tema de los escondidos de la posguerra española en la producción teatral de Antonio Gala y Juan José Alonso Millán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe Ferrer, María Isabel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The theatre which expresses reality and human miseries deals with the issue of «people who have had to go into hiding», to mark the occasion of Spanish Civil War of 1936, with two plays written by two very different authors: Antonio Gala's Noviembre y un poco de yerba, whose main character, Diego, when the play begins, has been living in clandestinity for twenty-seven years, and Juan José Alonso Millán's Se vuelve a llevar la guerra larga, whose main character, Benito, has also spent thirty-five years by the same way. But in inspite of belonging to opposing sides, both of them are victims of the war in the same measure, since after escaping from fighting at the front, they become prisoners of the two women who give them shelter. Both plays share a common character: fear.El teatro, expresión de realidades y miserias humanas, aborda el tema de los escondidos, con motivo de la guerra civil española de 1936, en dos obras pertenecientes a dos autores españoles de muy diferente perfil: Noviembre y un poco de yerba, de Antonio Gala, cuyo protagonista, Diego, en el momento de subirse el telón, lleva viviendo en la clandestinidad veintisiete años, y Se vuelve a llevar la guerra larga, de Juan José Alonso Millán, cuyo protagonista, Benito, ha consumido, de la misma forma, treinta y cinco. Ambos, aunque de bandos bélicos contrarios, son víctimas de la guerra en idéntica medida, ya que, tras escapar de la lucha en el frente y lograr esconderse, caen prisioneros de las dos mujeres que les dan cobijo. En una y otra obra, hay un protagonista común: el miedo.

  12. Efeitos da inclusão de torta de macaúba sobre a população de protozoários ruminais de caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rufino,L.M.A.; Barreto,S.M.P.; Duarte,E.R.; Geraseev,L.C.; Santos,A.C.R.; Jaruche,Y.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de inclusão da torta de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) sobre a população de protozoários do rúmen de caprinos. Foram utilizados oito cabritos machos castrados, sem raça definida, portadores de fístulas ruminais, dispostos em dois quadrados latinos e alimentados com quatro dietas com diferentes níveis da torta. Para quantificação dos protozoários, amostras de 1 mL do líquido ruminal de cada animal foram diluídas em 9 mL de solução de fo...

  13. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com inclusão de torta de macaúba na dieta Performance of lambs fed with macauba pie inclusion in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho produtivo e econômico de ovinos confinados da raça Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas com diferentes taxas de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Os animais (24 foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, nos tratamentos com 0, 100, 200 e 300 g kg-1 de torta de macaúba na matéria seca da dieta, em seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. A adição de torta de macaúba a taxas crescentes à dieta aumentou linearmente o consumo de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e a conversão alimentar. Não houve diferença no consumo de matéria seca, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso vivo total com a adição da torta. O tratamento com inclusão de 100 g kg-1 apresentou a melhor relação custo:benefício na avaliação das receitas bruta e líquida obtidas com a venda dos animais vivos e abatidos. A adição da torta de macaúba em até 300 g kg-1 da dieta não altera o desempenho produtivo dos animais, entretanto, a inclusão de 100 g kg-1 proporciona melhor retorno econômico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nutrient uptake and the productive and economic performance of confined Santa Inês lambs fed diets with different levels of macauba pie inclusion . The animals (24 were distributed in a randomized block design, in treatments with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 macauba pie in the diet dry matter, with six replicates during 60 days of confinement. The addition of macauba pie at increasing rates to the diet linearly increased the intake of crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion. There was no difference in dry matter intake, average daily gain and total live weight gain with the macauba pie addition. Diet with 100 g kg-1 macauba pie inclusion showed the best cost:benefit ratio in the evaluation of gross and net revenues from the sale of live and slaughtered animals. The addition

  14. Repetibilidade em características biométricas do fruto de macaúba Repeatability in biometric characteristics of macaw palm fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Elisa Manfio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas do coeficiente de repetibilidade têm sido utilizadas no estudo de caracteres de várias espécies de palmeiras, auxiliando na definição do número e período adequado de avaliações dos genótipos para maior eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. Para macaúba, não há relatos de estudos dessa natureza. Nesse contexto, faz-se importante a determinação do coeficiente de repetibilidade das seguintes características biométricas dos frutos: peso do fruto, volume do fruto, diâmetro equatorial do fruto, peso da amêndoa, volume da amêndoa, diâmetro da amêndoa e espessura do endocarpo; e a determinação do número mínimo de avaliações para um eficiente processo de seleção e avaliação de subamostras de macaúba. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, analisando-se 145 subamostras de macaúba, provenientes de coletas realizadas nos estados de Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Maranhão e Pernambuco. Houve diferença significativa para todas as características analisadas e observou-se concordância nas magnitudes dos coeficientes de repetibilidade de cada característica, obtidos pelos diferentes métodos. No entanto, os coeficientes de repetibilidade variam entre as oito características, de 0,68 a 0,99, observados para a característica espessura do endocarpo e volume da amêndoa, respectivamente. As estimativas dos coeficientes de determinação obtidas a partir das 10 repetições para as oito características e pelos quatro métodos foram superiores a 95%. A avaliação de quatro frutos é suficiente para compreensão das características estudadas das subamostras de macaúba com 90% de acurácia.Estimates of repeatability coefficient have been used in character study of several species of palms, helping to define the number and appropriate period of assessment of genotypes to increase the efficiency of breeding programs. For macaw palm

  15. Odiseo a través de la parodia. Desmitificación e ironía de una Ítaca nostálgica en Prometeo de Pérez de Ayala y ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? de Gala. – Odysseus through parody. Demythologization and irony of a nostalgic Ithaca in Prometeo by Pérez de Ayala and ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? by Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López López, Carmen María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose a critical and comparative study beginning from the epic model variations on the Spanish Literature from the twentieth century: Prometeo by Ramón Pérez de Ayala and ¿Por qué corres, Ulises? by Antonio Gala. To this purpose, a historic perspective will be designed, according to some Homeric episodes inside of the Odisea: the stay of the hero with Nausicaa in the phaeacians’ land, with the nymph Calypso in Ogygia, with the magician Circe in the Eea’s island, in the Lotofagi’s land, the Nekuia and the re-encounter with Penelope. To conclude, this article pretends to analyze the sense of the laugh from the tradition, to deal with the reinterpretation of the myth as a parody and an irony regarding the Homeric narration.

  16. A impossível governança da saúde em prisão? Reflexões a partir da MACA (Costa do Marfim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Marcis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Quem governa a saúde nas prisões? Propomos responder a esta questão a partir de um inquérito etnográfico de longaduração realizado na MACA, a Maison d´Arrêtet de Correction d´Abidjan (Costa do Marfim. A análise da governança da saúde, na prática, não pode ser feita sem uma contextualização histórica da prisão na sociedade da Costa do Marfim, nem de uma análise da legitimidade atual da prisão e dos presos como objetos de políticas específicas nesse país. É à luz desse duplo contexto que deve ser analisada a dupla governança da prisão que rege a vida na MACA e sustenta os valores atribuídos à saúde nesse espaço. Um estudo de caso sobre a substituição de um detento que exercia a função de chefe do prédio da enfermaria (chef de bâtiment de l’infirmerie permitirá ilustrar como o reconhecimento desta forma de vida singular é uma condição necessária para uma intervenção eficaz no campo da saúde na prisão.

  17. Descontaminación microbiana de la maca (Lepidium meyenii aplicando el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS para preservar sus propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Guevara Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo aplicar el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS en maca, determinando los parámetros del proceso: tiempo y temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado que reduzcan el recuento de microorganismos aerobios, mohos, levaduras, E. Coli, salmonella y coliformes totales, y evaluando la influencia del proceso en el contenido total de glucosinolatos. La máxima descontaminación microbiana de la maca se logró aplicando una carga de 5 kg/saquillo, por 6 min. Con una temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado de 100 °C. Bajo estas condiciones, la reducción de la carga microbiana fue de 99,9% (< 10 UFC/g, 50% (< 10 UFC/g y 93,3% (< 10 UFC/g para aerobios, mohos, y levaduras, respectivamente; el comportamiento de patógenos fue muy similar al de la materia prima: E. coli < 3 UFC/g, ausencia de salmonella (25 g y < 3 UFC/g para coliformes totales. El contenido de glucosinolatos se mantuvo durante el proceso en 1,5 μmol/g, lo que evidenció que al aplicar la tecnología OSS se logra conservar la calidad nutricional, sensorial y funcional de la maca.

  18. Bakü İçeri Şeher’de Selçuklular Döneminden Kalma İki Mescit: Sınıg Gala (Muhammed (1078 Ve Aşur (1169 Mescitleri (Two Masjid Around Baku İçeri Şeher Remaining From Seljuks: Sinig Gala (Muhammed (1078 And Ashur (1169 Masjids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan UYKUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are a great many of small scaled masjıds in oldBaku, which is called today İçeri Şeher (The Inland City. In this paper,the earliest two cultural material samples of Seljuks in Azerbajcan aswell as Anatolia are depicted. In the study, the main aim is theinvestigation of these two works, which are little known in Turkishworld, in some points of view such as their history, contractors,designs, architectures and ornament. For this reason, in a number ofbuildings in Bakuand around it, some procedures were performed suchas required measures, technical drawings, and photographing. Afterthat, the study was completed with source inquiries in the Archives ofBaku Berpa, Ahundov Library along with a number of Turkish libaries.Consequently, in their new homelands too, Turks tended to apply theaesthetical values, architectural approach and artistic motives whichthey brought in their mind togetheras well as remarkable politicalachievements which they obtained by housing Anatolia. Therefore, it ishighly probable to come accross such samples of pre-Anatolian culturalheritage in the cities they built or on the routes they passed throughduring this mobility.Both of the buildings are considered remarkable in that they arethe earliest samples from Seljuks which have remained until today,making it available us to track down the developments in Turkisharchitecture. Sınıg Gala Masjid, the first small built after Turks' arrivingin Baku, is still found remarkable since it has statical problems as wellas its slipshod appearance and its huge minarets that is independentlybuilt from the main building. As for the Ashur Masjids, with its twostorey facade and embellished supporting arch seperating the inside, itis undoubtedly a work of a less-developed architectural styleestablishment of the period. However, the most considerable drawbackin both of the vaulted buildings is the practise of gloomy, dim andfailedlocations. As a result, even though they are

  19. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenting; Li, Hongxiang; Xiang, Jiamei; Yi, Fan; Xu, Lijia; Jiang, Baoping; Xiao, Peigen

    2018-01-01

    Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM) on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1) a standard diet, (2) HFD, (3) HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4) HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg). After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo . Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm . Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2 , Fh , and Mdh2 . In addition, the lipid

  20. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1 a standard diet, (2 HFD, (3 HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4 HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg. After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo. Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm. Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2, Fh, and Mdh2. In addition, the lipid

  1. Relação entre características morfológicas de frutos e incidência de podridão carpelar em clones de macieira 'Gala' e 'Fuji' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Nunes Silveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão carpelar tem-se tornado uma importante doença no Brasil, deixando de ser considerada uma doença secundária dentro do grupo das doenças de verão. O desenvolvimento e o formato dos frutos podem ser influenciados por eventos climáticos que ocorrem durante o período de polinização e frutificação da macieira. Além de outros fatores como nutrição das plantas, manejo da condução, tipo de porta-enxerto e cultivar copa. As alterações no formato dos frutos advindas destes fatores podem influenciar no aumento da intensidade da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar características morfológicas de frutos com a incidência de podridão carpelar, em clones de macieira, utilizando diferentes porta-enxertos, durante os ciclos de produção de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, no município de Vacaria, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 9 x 2, com nove clones das cultivares Gala e Fuji e dois porta-enxertos EM-9 e Marubakaido com interenxerto de EM-9. As características morfológicas dos frutos avaliados foram: relação entre comprimento e diâmetro de frutos (C/D, distância entre lóbulos, abertura calicinar, comprimento do tubo calicinar, número de sementes e classe de sintomas da doença nos carpelos. A doença não foi identificada nos clones da cultivar Gala, em ambos os ciclos de produção. Houve interação entre os fatores clones e porta-enxertos para as características morfológicas avaliadas, em ambos os ciclos de produção. A maior incidência da doença nos clones de 'Fuji' apresentou uma relação positiva com as características morfológicas dos frutos com maior abertura calicinar, menor relação C/D e maior distância entre lóbulos dos frutos, quando comparados aos clones de 'Gala'. O clone 'Fuji Suprema', enxertado sobre porta-enxerto EM-9, apresentou 19,33 % de incidência de podridão carpelar, sendo significativamente superior

  2. Dinâmica da dormência de gemas de dois anos de macieira 'Imperial Gala' em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Dormancy dynamics of two year old buds of 'Imperial Gala' apple tree in a region of low chill occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dinâmica da dormência de gemas em ramos de dois anos de macieira 'Imperial Gala' com ou sem frio suplementar durante o outono e inverno, cultivadas em Porto Amazonas - PR, região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19-04, 10-05, 31-05, 21-06, 12-07, 02-08 e 23-08 e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas, à temperatura de 4 a 7° C. A avaliação da dormência foi realizada pelo teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados (temperatura de 25° C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas por meio dos parâmetros: tempo médio para brotação (TMB, velocidade de brotação (VB, taxa final de brotação (TF, taxa de brotações vigorosas (TBV e tempo médio para aparecimento de folhas abertas (TMFA. A dormência mais intensa de gemas de dois anos ocorre no final de maio, com oscilações até o início de agosto. A aplicação de 1.440 horas de frio suplementar de 4 a 7° C altera a dinâmica da dormência das gemas de dois anos, reduzindo o seu tempo médio de brotação. Uma vez propiciada a brotação de gemas não-dormentes de dois anos, as mesmas possuem boa capacidade para se desenvolver.This work aims to evaluate the dormancy dynamics of two year old apple tree buds with or without supplementary chill during autumn and winter, in a region of low chill occurence. The stems were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were either treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The evaluation of dormancy was observed through the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions (25° C and long days of 16 hours by the following parameters: average time for budburst (TMB, velocity of budburst (VB, final rate of budburst (TF, rate of vigorous budburst (TBV and

  3. Identificação pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' por meio de infiltração com magnésio e análise dos teores de cálcio e nitrogênio nos frutos Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico pós-colheita em maçãs, ocasionado pela deficiência de Ca e agravado pela presença de elevados níveis de Mg, N e K nos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade prática da infiltração de maçãs 'Gala' com Mg, visando a avaliar, em pré-colheita, o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado, bem como a identificar os atributos minerais do fruto associados à ocorrência do distúrbio. Em 50 talhões de pomares localizados no município de Fraiburgo-SC, foram coletadas amostras de 25 frutos / talhão, cerca de 20 dias antes do início da colheita comercial, sendo os mesmos infiltrados a vácuo com Mg e avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Nos mesmos talhões, na maturação comercial, foram coletadas amostras de 120 frutos / talhão, sendo que 100 frutos foram armazenados em câmara fria convencional durante quatro meses (0 ± 0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, e 20 frutos foram utilizados para a análise mineral (teores de Ca, Mg, K e N. Cinco dias após a remoção da câmara fria, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Houve correlação linear altamente significativa (r² = 0,69; pBitter pit is a postharvest physiological disorder in apples, related to Ca deficiency, and aggravated by high levels of Mg, N, and K in the fruits. This work was carried out to assess the practical viability of 'Gala' apples infiltration with Mg, for preharvest identification of bitter pit risk during cold storage, as well as, to identify the mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of the disorder. Fruits were sampled in 50 plots of apple orchards located in Fraiburgo, SC (Southern Brazil. Samples of 25 fruits / plot were harvested about 20 days before commercial harvesting, and then vacuum infiltrated with Mg and assessed for incidence (% and severity (pits / fruit of

  4. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa, Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Babaçu (A. speciosa, Buriti (M. flexuosa, and Macaúba (A. aculeata are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic acid, lauric (dodecanoic acid, myristic (tetradecanoic acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid, stearic (octadecanoic acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6, linolenic (octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3, and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Sexual Enhancement Products for Sale Online: Raising Awareness of the Psychoactive Effects of Yohimbine, Maca, Horny Goat Weed, and Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Corazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. Methods. A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN. Once the active constitutes of the products were identified, a comprehensive literature search was carried out using PsycInfo and PubMed. Results. The most common sexual enhancement products available on the Internet were identified. Their active ingredients included yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed and Ginkgo biloba. These four substances were reported with the occurrence of adverse events and the induction of psychological symptoms, such as mood changes, anxiety, and hallucinations as well as addictive behaviours. Conclusions. Uncontrolled availability of sexual enhancement products that contain potentially harmful substances is a major public health concern. The possible impact on population health, particularly among subjects with psychiatric disorders, usually at risk for sexual dysfunction, may be significant. This new trend needs to be extensively studied and monitored.

  7. Structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of a series of N-benzylamides derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) combining spectroscopic studies with ONION calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Ladetto, María Florencia; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the structural, topological and vibrational properties of four members of the N-benzylamides series derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) whose names are, N-benzylpentadecanamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide, N-benzylheptadecanamide and N-benzyloctadecanamide, were studied combining the FTIR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies with density functional theory (DFT) and ONION calculations. Furthermore, the N-benzylacetamide, N-benzylpropilamide and N-benzyl hexanamide derivatives were also studied in order to compare their properties with those computed for the four macamides. These seven N-benzylamides series have a common structure, C8H8NO-R, being R the side chain [-(CH2)n-CH3] with a variable n number of CH2 groups. Here, the atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies, topological properties of those macamides were analyzed as a function of the number of C atoms of the side chain while the frontier orbitals were used to compute the gap energies and some descriptors in order to predict their reactivities and behaviors in function of the longitude of the side chain. Here, the force fields, the complete vibrational assignments and the corresponding force constants were only reported for N-benzylacetamide, N-benzyl hexanamide and N-benzylpentadecanamide due to the high number of vibration normal modes that present the remains macamides.

  8. Structural Characterization of a Novel Polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and Analysis of Its Regulatory Function in Macrophage Polarization in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wu, Wenjia; Ren, Yao; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Min, Tian; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2017-02-15

    In our previous study, three novel polysaccharides, named MC-1, MC-2, and MC-3, were separated from the roots of maca (Lepidium meyenii), which is a food source from the Andes region. The structural information and immunomodulatory activity of MC-1 were then investigated. The structure and activity of MC-2 are still unknown. In this study, structural characterization revealed that MC-2 has an average molecular weight of 9.83 kDa and is composed of arabinose (20.9%), mannose (4.5%), glucose (71.9%), and galactose (2.7%). The main linkage types of MC-2 were proven to be (1→5)-α-l-Ara, (1→3)-α-l-Man, (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-β-d-Gal by methylation and NMR analyses. Congo red assay showed that MC-2 possesses a triple-helix conformation. Immunostimulating assays indicated that MC-2 could induce M1 polarization of original macrophages and convert M2 macrophages into M1 phenotype. Although MC-2 could not shift M1 macrophages into M2, it could still inhibit inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 2, tTll-like receptor 4, complement receptor 3, and mannose receptor were confirmed as the membrane receptors for MC-2 on macrophages. These results indicate that MC-2 could potentially be used toward hypoimmunity and tumor therapies.

  9. Avaliação nutricional de plantas de erva-mate atacadas e não atacadas pelo Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed at evaluating and comparing the nutritional levels of erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., plants which were attacked by Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Col.: Cerambycidae, and plants of the same specie, which were not attacked by this insect. This objective was established in order to identify possible nutritional instabilities in the soil and in the leaves of these erva mate plants. The area where the investigation was conducted is localized in Catanduvas (SC. The plantation of erva mate, which had density of 2100 plants/ha, was eight years old and it was homogeneous. The samples of the plants and the soil were collected between February and April in 1999. They also were submitted to chemical analysis on Soil Analysis Laboratory. In this place, it was interpreted the levels of each chemical element and it was applied the tests of comparisons means “t” and “f” and test of homogeneity of variances, of erva mate plants. Soil showed levels adequate of N and P, low levels of K, Ca and Mg and right to S, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, Al, Al+H, ph and SMP. In the tissue analysis, plants presented levels adequate of K, Ca, B, Zn and Na low levels of P, Mn and S and right to N, Mg, Fe and Cu. The test “t” demonstrated expressive difference for the P of the soil and leaves. The test “f” demonstrated Fe of soil as chemical variables with significant differences. P and Fe of the soil and K, S and Mn of the leaves were the chemical elements that showed expressive heterogeneity of variances. Comparing the two varieties of erva mate plants, the ones, which were attacked by the insect, revealed more variation beween the means.

  10. Effects of dietary inclusion of macaúba seed cake meal on performance, caecotrophy traits and in vitro evaluations for growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Walter Motta; Ferreira, Felipe Norberto Alves; Inácio, Diogo Felipe da Silva; Mota, Katiuscia Cristina das Neves; Costa Júnior, Martolino Barbosa da; Silva Neta, Clarice Speridião; Rocha, Leonardo Francisco da; Miranda, Estêvão Ribeiro de

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the inclusion of macaúba seed cake (MSC) meal in diets for growing rabbits by assessing their growth and slaughtering performance, haematological traits, nutritional contribution of caecotrophs, in vitro digestibility, degradability and fermentation parameters. A total of 88 rabbits were distributed to four groups with 22 animals each and fed diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg of MSC, respectively. The in vitro assays were conducted employing cecum inoculum on the same dietary treatments. The inclusion of MSC yielded a quadratic effect on in vitro dry matter digestibility (p protein (p = 0.014), live weight at 51 d (p = 0.024), body weight gain (p = 0.039), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.001) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p = 0.007) in the first period evaluated (30-50 d); furthermore the ADFI and FCR the second (51-72 d) and whole period (30-72 d) (p < 0.001). MSC addition caused a quadratic effect on white blood cells count (p = 0.026) and a linear decrease of eosinophils (p = 0.045). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 150 g/kg of MSC improves the in vitro digestibility and fermentation potential of the diets, reflecting on the ADFI and FCR of the animals, although adverse effects are observed on the weight of the commercial carcass and nutritive contribution of the caecotrophs.

  11. “caracterización de bacterias metalofijadoras de mercurío, a través de la subunidad 16srna, mediante la técnica de pcr-dgge del rio gala (aguas abajo en el recinto San Rafael) en la parroquia tenguel”

    OpenAIRE

    Llivisaca, Susana Alexandra; Burgos, Felix Adolfo; Vargas, Jeffrey David

    2011-01-01

    El proyecto sobre el cual tratamos, se refiere el uso de la técnica molecular PCR-DGGE, para la caracterización de bacterias, y su potencial existencia en las aguas del río Gala de la parroquia Tenguel. La selección del sitio se basó al alto grado de contaminación con metales pesados en la que este se encuentra este rio. La probabilidad sobre la presencia de microorganismos con capacidad metalofijadora, es alta dada sus características biológicas y bioquímicas con las que cuenta esta bacteria...

  12. Methane concentration in water column and in pore water of a coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas lagoon, Macaé, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz dos Santos Fonseca

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate methane concentration in water column and pore water at limnetic and littoral regions of a coastal lagoon. At the littoral region samples were taken from three monospecific macrophytes stands (Typha domingensis, Eleocharis interstincta and Potamogeton stenostachys. The methane concentration in the pore water at the littoral region was higher than the concentration found at the limnetic region in each fraction of the sediment. The higher methane concentration in the superficial fraction of the sediment (0-2 cm was shown at the P. stenostachys stand (3.7 mM. It was the only significantly different (p0.05. It could be concluded that there was a high influence of aquatic macrophytes on the pore water methane concentration.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi determinar a concentração de metano na coluna d'água e na água intersticial do sedimento nas regiões limnética e litorânea de uma lagoa costeira (Lagoa Cabiúnas, Macaé, RJ. Na região litorânea as amostras foram coletadas em três estandes de macrófitas (Typha domingensis, Eleocharis interstincta e Potamogeton stenostachys. A concentração de metano na água intersticial na região litorânea foi maior do que aquela encontrada na região limnética em cada fração do sedimento. A maior concentração de metano na fração superficial do sedimento (0-2 cm foi observada no estande de P. stenostachys (3.7 mM. Este resultado foi o único significativamente diferente (p0.05. Os resultados sugerem que há uma considerável influência das macrófitas aquáticas estudadas na concentração de metano na água intersticial do sedimento.

  13. Caracterización de las proteínas totales de tres ecotipos de maca (Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monteghirfo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar las proteínas solubles que se encuentran en la raíz del Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, maca, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y electroforesis bidimensional. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional y transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Materiales: Raíces de Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón ‘maca’ de los ecotipos blanco, amarillo y morado, procedentes de Junín que fueron obtenidas a través de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú. Métodos: La extracción de las proteínas totales solubles se realizó con una solución antioxidante, seguida de electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional para su caracterización. Principales medidas de resultados: Número de proteínas solubles, peso molecular de las proteínas y puntos isoelectricos de las proteínas más abundantes. Resultados: El análisis electroforético unidimensional mostró predominio de 2 proteínas (72% de las proteínas solubles totales. Una de 22,5 kDa, denominada en el presente trabajo ‘macatina’ (51% de la proteína total; la otra de 17,0 kDa (21% de la proteína soluble total. El mapa electroforético bidimensional mostró que tanto la ‘macatina’ como la proteína de 17,0 kDa son básicas y presentan 3 isómeros de carga que se distribuyen en un rango de punto isoeléctrico (pI de 7,1 a 8,2. Conclusiones: Las proteínas solubles mostraron un patrón electroforético complejo, siendo la macatina la proteína más abundante.

  14. Respostas fisiológicas de plantas jovens de macaúba a condições de seca cíclica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os impactos de três ciclos de seca/ reirrigação sobre os rendimentos quânticos da fluorescência da clorofila a, acúmulo de prolina e ajustamento osmótico. Dez plantas cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 150 L de solo foram submetidas a três ciclos sucessivos de seca/reirrigação (S/R e outras dez foram mantidas irrigadas em capacidade de campo. Os ciclos S/R não promoveram ajustamento osmótico nas plantas mantidas com suspensão da irrigação (CSI, apesar do acúmulo de prolina. A fluorescência mínima adaptada ao escuro aumentou e a eficiência quântica máxima do PSII teve redução nas plantas CSI. O rendimento quântico de conversão de energia fotoquímica do fotossistema II (PSII e a taxa aparente de transporte de elétrons apresentaram redução, enquanto o rendimento quântico de dissipação regulada de energia não fotoquímica no PSII apresentou aumento nas plantas do grupo CSI em relação às plantas sem suspensão da irrigação (SSI. O rendimento quântico de dissipação não regulada de energia não fotoquímica do PSII e os teores de clorofilas e carotenoides não apresentaram alterações entre as plantas CSI e SSI ao longo dos ciclos S/R. Observa-se, assim, que a macaúba apresenta um eficiente mecanismo de dissipação de energia não fotoquímica.

  15. Restabelecimento ("recovery" em plantas de fumo atacadas pelo virus de "vira-cabeça"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Forster

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made with tobacco plants which, after being naturally infected in the field by the virus of "vira-cabeça", a disease identical to spotted wilt (3, not only resisted to it, but exhibited complete recovery. Several trials were carried out in order to ascertain the following points : 1 whether the recovery means a greater degree of individual constitutional resistance ; 2 whether it represents an acquired immunity or ; 3 whether it is just of pure accidental nature. Plants showing recovery were selfed and seeds collected from them sown in separate rows. The same procedure was always applied with the new recovered plants. Thus, strains of plants were obtained representing several succeeding generations of recovered plants. In 1940-41 recovery progenies were planted at two different transplanting periods. During the next season 1941-42 these progenies, which represented already one more generation in comparison with those of 1940-41, were planted in two districts where the average occurrence of "vira-cabeça" was different. The percentages of "vira-cabeça", observed in all trials, were submitted to statistical analysis, comparing the errors obtained for difference of districts, transplanting time, varieties and progenies representing several generations of recovered plants. Comparing the calculated errors it was found that the greatest effect in the occurrence of ' Vira-cabeça" observed should be attributed to different transplanting times or different districts. The selection of recovered plants showed no influence in lowering the incidence of * vira-cabeça" : hence the impossibility of getting types of tobacco resistant to "vira-cabeça" through selection of recovered plants. Plants were observed in the field that after the first recovery exhibited symptoms of the disease, and then completely recovered from it again. This is in accordance with the results of Smith (11 in the reinoculation of tobacco plants after recovery from spotted wilt and of Costa (4 who reinoculated "vira-cabeça" - recovered tobacco plants with it. Therefore, as far as our knowledge is concerned districts should be selected where the disease does not appear very frequently; transplanting periods should be chosen, tc guarantee the lowest possible incidence of the disease.

  16. Efeito da inclusão da torta de macaúba na população de protozoários do rúmen de vacas leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,A.C.R. dos; Magalhães,D.Q.; Azevedo,R.A.; Vieira,I.L.N.L.; França,D.E.G.; Geraseev,L.C.; Duarte,E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da inclusão da torta de macaúba (TM) na dieta sobre a concentração e o perfil da população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen. Foram utilizadas oito vacas Holandesas, dispostas em dois quadrados latinos 4x4 e alimentadas com diferentes níveis de inclusão da TM (0, 100, 200 e 300g kg-1 de matéria seca na dieta total). Para quantificação e identificação dos protozoários, amostras de 1mL do líquido ruminal de cada animal foram diluídas em 9mL de solução de formaldeído a 10...

  17. Influencia del tamaño de partícula, humedad y temperatura en el grado de gelatinización durante el proceso de extrusión de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Túpac, Luz M.; Guevara Pérez, Américo; Encina Zelada, Christian R.

    2012-01-01

    Se trabajó con maca procedente de la meseta del Bombón - Junín, que al ser evaluada reportó el siguiente contenido químico-proximal (porcentaje en base seca): proteína 14,61, grasa 0,90, fibra 5,85, ceniza 4,97 y carbohidratos 79,53. Fueron 20 los tratamientos sometidos a extrusión, obteniendo mejores resultados al trabajar con un tamaño de partícula comprendido entre 0,17 a 0,20 cm, 12% de humedad, temperatura de inicio de extrusión 100°C, rotación del tornillo 254 r.p.m. (velocidad baja) y ...

  18. Efeitos da inclusão de torta de macaúba sobre a população de protozoários ruminais de caprinos Effects of inclusion of macaúba cake on ruminal protozoa population of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.A. Rufino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de inclusão da torta de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata sobre a população de protozoários do rúmen de caprinos. Foram utilizados oito cabritos machos castrados, sem raça definida, portadores de fístulas ruminais, dispostos em dois quadrados latinos e alimentados com quatro dietas com diferentes níveis da torta. Para quantificação dos protozoários, amostras de 1 mL do líquido ruminal de cada animal foram diluídas em 9 mL de solução de formaldeído a 10%. Após diluições decimais sucessivas em solução salina, os protozoários foram quantificados em câmara de Sedgewick. A inclusão de torta de macaúba no nível de 5% da dieta não alterou a concentração média dos protozoários no líquido ruminal em comparação ao grupo controle (0% de inclusão. As dietas com 10 e 15% de torta promoveram aumento significativo da concentração média de protozoários e não reduziram a concentração de protozoários dos outros grupos. O perfil das populações de protozoários foi alterado somente em três dos dezessete gêneros detectados, comprovando diversidade no ecossistema ruminal e sugerindo que esse subproduto pode ser uma alternativa segura para esses microrganismos ruminais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different levels of inclusion of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata cake on the protozoa population in the rumen of goats. It was used eight castrated undefinied breed goats with rumen cannula arranged in two Latin squares and fed four diets with different levels of macauba cake. For quantification of protozoa, 1-mL samples of the rumen fluid of each animal were diluted in 9 ml of formaldehyde solution at 10%. After successive decimal dilutions in saline solution, protozoa were quantified in Sedgewick chambers. The inclusion of macauba cake at the level of 5% of the diet did not change the average protozoa concentration in the rumen fluid, compared

  19. Fotomeenutus USBF-i galaõhtult

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Juuresoleval fotol president T. H. Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves koos samuti autasu pälvinud riskikapitalist Steve Jürvetsoniga Ameerika-Balti Fondi pidulikul vastuvõtul. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  20. Instituições e desenvolvimento territorial: um estudo a partir do caso do arranjo produtivo de petróleo e gás natural localizado em Macaé-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a abordagem institucional vem ganhando espaço nos estudos urbanos e regionais defendendo que, as normas, regras e convenções culturais devam ser levadas em conta nas pesquisas e políticas sobre o desenvolvimento territorial. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar, empíricamente, algumas implicações geradas pelas instituições na economia do arranjo produtivo de petróleo e gás natural de Macaé-Rio de Janeiro-Brasil. Durante a pesquisa verificouse que as instituições operam em diversas escalas, que na área de estudo podese segmentar em duas: normas de origem externa, que são impostas à escala local por agentes de grande poder de uso do espaço (o Estado e as grandes empresas e as instituições de origem local, formadas a partir de reações dos agentes locais às pressões externas. A principal articulação ocorrida foi a Rede Petro-BC (Bacia de Campos, cuja análise é bastante sugestiva para a compreensão do ambiente institucional local.In recent years the institutional approach has been gaining ground in urban and regional studies, defending that the norms, rules and cultural conventions should be taken into account in research andpolicies on territorial development. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to empirically examine some implications generated by the institutions in the economy of the productive arrangement of oil and natural gas in Macaé, Brazil. During the research it was found that the institutions operate at different scales, which in the study area can be segmented into two: external norms, which are imposed to the local level by agents with great power of usage of the space (the State and large companies and institutions of local origin, formed from the reactions of local agents to external pressures. The main articulation was held by Rede Petro-B C, and its analysis is very suggestive to the understanding of the local institutional environment.

  1. Instrumentos econômicos aplicados à gestão participativa dos recursos hídricos: modelos para pagamento por serviços ambientais do Brasil aplicados à região da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes Cristo Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma breve análise da evolução no Brasil do Pagamento por Serviços e sua utilização no processo de Gestão nos Comitês de Bacias Hidrográficas e também uma análise comparativa com outros países e seus processos de implantação do PSA. O objetivo do artigo é apontar a importância da participação da população no processo de construção do CBH Macaé e Ostras na gestão de dos recursos hídricos e na possibilidade do recebimento de pagamentos pela produção de recursos hídricos como ocorre na bacia hidrográfica do rio Atibaia em Extrema. Outra questão que o artigo aponta é a relação dos CBH do Macaé e das Ostras e a importância da relação com o Conselho Gestor da APA do Macaé de Cima como reforço das Políticas de Participação da Comunidade local e focando nas Políticas de Enquadramento das sub-bacias da Região Serrana em questão. Existe um processo de ampliação do processo de participação nos Comitês de Bacia Hidrográfica.

  2. Estudio de factibilidad para la importación desde el Perú y comercialización de capsulas de Maca (producto natural que mejora el rendimiento físico y optimiza la capacidad intelectual) en la ciudad de Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Moran Mena, Adriana Estefania

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo fue elaborado con el fin de plantea un Plan de Negocios para la creación de una empresa que se dedique a la Importación y Comercialización de la Maca en Quito - Ecuador. Inicialmente, realizamos un análisis de la industria de productos naturales el cual mostró que las condiciones del sector son favorables para la apertura de un negocio de este tipo, siempre y cuando se lo realice de una manera competitiva que mitigue las posibles dificultades que se pueden presentar. ...

  3. Efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra) en ratas crías frente al daño cerebral inducido por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C durante la gestación de las ratas madre

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Guija, Emilio; Palomino, Felio; Soberón, Mercedes; Oliveira, Gisela; Núñez, Marco; Flores, Juana; Acuña, Sheresnarda; Terrazas, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro en ratas crías por ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C (SFC) durante la gestación de ratas madre. Diseño: Experimental, analítico. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Material biológico: Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra: MN), ratas. Intervenciones: Se distribuyeron 30 ratas albinas de dos meses de edad, en tres grupos. Tratamiento en los últimos 7 días de gestación: grupo ...

  4. ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL E AUDIÊNCIA PÚBLICA: instrumentos para participação popular na decisão ambiental? O caso de um gasoduto em Macaé, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lerner

    2016-08-01

    En Brasil, los proyectos de ductos hacen control de sus riesgos y peligros principalmente a través de estudios de impacto ambiental, audiencias públicas y condiciones de la licencia. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la participación y la percepción del riesgo de una comunidad afectada por un proyecto de expansión de uno gasoducto, en la ciudad de Macaé. El estudio trató de relacionar el caso com la literatura consultada a respecto de la percepción de las comunidades circundantes sobre los riesgo de los gasodutos. La investigación se basa en la revisión de la literatura. También se hizo una lectura crítica del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental y de la transcripción de la audiência pública. Nos resultados se observó que los estudios de impacto ambiental y las audiencias públicas, por lo general, se basan en el conocimiento técnico-científico y político, con poca énfasis en la percepción y el conocimiento de las comunidades afectadas, incluyendo tambien este estudio de caso. Todavia, la audiencia pública del caso tuvo una baja representación, por ló, que, no fue posible analizar la percepción de los riesgos de la comunidad envolvida. Palabras clave: Riesgo Ambiental; Gasoducto; Estudio de Impacto Ambiental; Audiencia Pública.

  5. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  6. Critérios para o teste de tetrazólio na estimativa do potencial germinativo em macaúba Criteria for tetrazolium tests in the estimation of the germination potential of macaw palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer critérios para a aplicação do teste de tetrazólio em embriões de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata. Para a elaboração do esquema de avaliação, foram realizadas avaliações anatômicas, identificação de padrões de coloração por solução de 2,3,5-trifenil cloreto de tetrazólio a 0,5% por quatro horas e cultivo in vitro de embriões. Em um experimento, foram avaliados três períodos de pré-condicionamento das sementes por imersão em água, por 12 e 24 horas, associados a duas temperaturas de coloração, 35 e 40ºC, em dois lotes de sementes além do controle sem pré-condicionamento. Em outro experimento, foram testadas em três lotes de sementes, três concentrações da solução de tetrazólio (0,5, 0,75 e 1%, associadas a dois tempos de coloração (duas e quatro horas. Utilizou-se o cultivo in vitro de embriões para comparação dos resultados. Um esquema de avaliação com dez padrões de coloração, associados a três classes de vigor, foi definido com base na anatomia dos embriões e no desenvolvimento de plântulas in vitro. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento em água não é necessário, e se deve aplicar o tempo de coloração de quatro horas, em solução de sal de tetrazólio, a 0,5% e 35ºC.The objective of this study was to establish criteria for the tetrazolium test in embryos of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata. To develop the evaluation scheme, anatomical analyses were performed, and staining patterns were identified using a 0.5% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride solution for four hours, and embryo was cultured in vitro. In one experiment, three prior seed-soaking times in water (for 12 and 24 hours, besides a control without seed pre-conditioning, associated with two color temperatures (35 and 40ºC in two seed lots were evaluated. In another experiment, three concentrations of tetrazolium solution (0.5, 0.75 and 1%, associated with two staining times (two and four

  7. Maria Teatri gala pakkus tasemel meelelahutust / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    14. veebr. andsid Maria Teatri balletisolistid Tallinna Linnahallis galakontserdi. Esinesid teatri solistid Natalja Sologub, Darja Pavlenkova, Igor Kolb, Anton Korsakov ja tõmbenumbrina reklaamitud Farukh Ruzimatov

  8. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 18. septembril 2008. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  9. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 14. septembril 2011. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  10. 49. Grammy gala tõi auhinna ka Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta septembris ilmunud plaadifirma Harmonia Mundi heliplaadi Arvo Pärt "Da Pacem", esitab Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, dirigent Paul Hillier Grammy võidust. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoori koostööst USA plaadirmaga Harmonia Mundi. Grammy võitnud heliplaadist. EFK solisti Iris Oja kommentaar

  11. Chemical constituents from maca (lepidium meyenii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Z.; Li, M.J.; Ma, L.; Li, L.

    2016-01-01

    Two new natural products, tetrahydro-2-benzyl-1H-pyrrolo-(1,2-C) imidazole-1,3(2H) -dione (1) and (1S,4R,4aR,9aS)-4a-methyl-1,4,4a,9a- tetrahydro-1,4-methano-anthracene-9,10-dione (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13) were isolated from the petroleum ether fraction of the 95% ethanol extract from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, compounds 3, 4, 7-11, and 13 were isolated from L. meyenii for the first time. In addition, the spectroscopic data of compound 1 were firstly reported. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis along with comparison with literature reports. (author)

  12. Avaliação de progênies de macaúba na fase juvenil e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e diversidade genética Evaluation of macaw palm progenies in juvenile phase and estimates of genetic parameters and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Elisa Manfio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata é uma palmeira oleaginosa e o extrativismo de seus frutos é de grande importância socioeconômica para os pequenos produtores rurais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética e obter informações sobre o controle genético de características morfológicas relacionadas ao crescimento e vigor da macaúba. Foram coletadas 51 progênies em Minas Gerais e São Paulo, as quais são integrantes do banco ativo de germoplasma da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Doze meses após o plantio, essas progênies foram avaliadas quanto ao crescimento da planta (cm e número de folhas emitidas. Estas características apresentaram grande variabilidade entre as progênies. As estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade foram de 87% e 48%, para crescimento de planta e número de folhas, respectivamente, revelando controle genético e boas perspectivas para o melhoramento. O método de Tocher mostrou-se eficiente em alocar as progênies do Estado de São Paulo em um mesmo grupo. O método de seleção pelo Índice de rank médio permitiu selecionar indivíduos e progênies mais equilibrados em termos dos dois caracteres.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.63

    The macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeate is an extraction oil palm and its fruit is of great socioeconomic importance for small farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to obtain information about the genetic control of morphological traits related to growth and vigor of macaw palm. Fifty-one open pollinated progenies were collected in Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, which are active members of the germplasm bank of Viçosa Federal University. These 51 progenies, twelve months after planting, were evaluated for plant growth and number of leaves emitted. The characteristics evaluated presented great variability among the progenies. Heritability coefficient of 87% and 48% were

  13. Situação da alimentação complementar de crianças entre 6 e 24 meses assistidas na Rede de Atenção Básica de Saúde de Macaé, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Maia Forte Marinho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo objetivou analisar a situação da alimentação complementar de crianças entre 6-24 meses assistidas na Atenção Básica de Saúde de Macaé/RJ. Realizou-se um estudo seccional e os dados foram obtidos do SisvanWEB, sendo incluídos e analisados todos os registros (n = 218 de crianças entre 6-24 meses, no ano de 2013. Em lactentes entre 6-12 meses detectou-se o consumo de 72,3% de verduras/legumes, 75,3% de frutas e 63,4% de carnes, sendo considerados indicadores de alimentação complementar saudável. Em contrapartida, 23,8% já consumiam alimentos fontes de açúcar (mel, melado, açúcar simples e rapadura, 34,7% suco industrializado e 17,8% refrigerantes. O consumo de suco industrializado foi significativamente maior em meninos (p valor < 0,001. Em crianças entre 12-18 meses detectou-se que 77,6% consumiam verduras/legumes, 77,4% frutas e 86,3% carnes. O consumo de alimentos fontes de açúcar era de 31%, 58,6% de suco industrializado e 50% de refrigerantes. Entre 18-24 meses, observou-se 89,9% das crianças consumindo verduras/legumes, 83,1% frutas e 96,7% carnes. O consumo de alimentos fontes de açúcar foi de 33,9%, 69,5% de suco industrializado e 55,5% de refrigerantes. Conclui-se que os indicadores de alimentação complementar saudável se aproximam da meta do Ministério da Saúde (80%.

  14. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  15. Eternal stretchers, eternal wretches Eternas macas, eternas marcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Arimathéia Cordeiro Custódio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses photographs of reports published by two daily newspapers of Londrina-Paraná. It shows the building of certain meanings around the concept of public health, especially on the phenomenon of hospital overcapacity in that town. The focus is on reports published in the year of 2004, all of them about the same theme. It begins with a description of subjective issues exposed in the newspapers, not corresponding to reality, but able to influence the imaginary of the readers. On a second moment, the essay analyses some photographs deeper and exposes the repetition of the images as an argumentative scheme for persuading and fixing a certain idea in the reader’s mind. Este artigo analisa fotografias de matérias publicadas em dois jornais diários da cidade de Londrina-PR. Demonstra a construção de determinados sentidos em torno do conceito de saúde pública, especificamente no que se refere ao fenômeno da superlotação hospitalar na referida cidade. Enfoca fotografias de matérias publicadas no ano de 2004, todas sobre o mesmo tema. Inicia com uma descrição do tema e da sua exposição pelos jornais, nem sempre correspondentes à realidade, mas que podem influenciar no imaginário do leitor. Num segundo momento, analisa algumas fotografias mais profundamente, e expõe a própria repetição de imagens como artifício argumentativo de convencimento e fixação de uma idéia determinada na mente do leitor.

  16. ATRF Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony Coincides with Chamber of Commerce Centennial Gala | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer U.S. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, NCI Deputy Director for Management John Czajkowski, and SAIC Corporate Chief Executive Officer (CEO) John Jumper were joined by representatives of the Frederick County Chamber of Commerce in cutting the ribbon for the National Cancer Institute’s Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF).

  17. Noored tähed Puccinile pühendatud galaõhtul Endlas / Toomas Kuter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuter, Toomas, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Puccini galakontserdist Pärnu rahvusvahelise ooperimuusika festivali PromFest raames 15. mail Endla teatris ja 16. mail Tallinnas Vene teatris (laval rahvusvahelise Klaudia Taevi konkursi võitjad läbi aegade)

  18. COMPORTAMENTO ESPECTRAL DE FOLHAS DE Eucalyptus globulus (Labill. ATACADAS POR Mycosphaerella spp. NAS REGIÕES DO VISÍVEL E DO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO DO ESPECTRO ELETROMAGNÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Belmonte Lippert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the spectral behavior of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus attacked in four different severity levels by Mycosphaerella spp. in different positions in the canopy of the tree in the four seasons, considering two regions of the electromagnetic spectrum: visible and near infrared. The plant material was collected in all seasons, in different positions in the tree (base, middle and top of the canopy extract. In the laboratory, leaves were classified into four levels of severity (healthy, little, medium and heavy fire and then made measurements of spectral reflectance measured with a spectroradiometer. The spectral behavior of Eucalyptus globules leaves is characteristic according to the severity degree of the disease, differing primarily in the other high levels of infection by Mycosphaerella spp. and differ mainly of healthy leaves and leaves which are little attacked, in both regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, this behavior occurs for different treetop positions and climate seasons, varying the amount of reflected energy. It is concluded that the reflectance of the Eucalyptus globules leaves attacked by Mycosphaerella spp. differs according to the position in the tree crown and the weather station when they were collected and to the advanced levels of disease severity.

  19. Analysis of Latino populations from GALA and MEC studies reveals genomic loci with biased local ancestry estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Sankararaman, Sriram; Torgerson, Dara G.; Gignoux, Christopher; Zaitlen, Noah; Eng, Celeste; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Avila, Pedro C.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Chen, Gary K.; Le Marchand, Loic; Henderson, Brian; Reich, David; Haiman, Christopher A.; Gonzàlez Burchard, Esteban; Halperin, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Local ancestry analysis of genotype data from recently admixed populations (e.g. Latinos, African Americans) provides key insights into population history and disease genetics. Although methods for local ancestry inference have been extensively validated in simulations (under many unrealistic assumptions), no empirical study of local ancestry accuracy in Latinos exists to date. Hence, interpreting findings that rely on local ancestry in Latinos is challenging. Results: Here, we use 489 nuclear families from the mainland USA, Puerto Rico and Mexico in conjunction with 3204 unrelated Latinos from the Multiethnic Cohort study to provide the first empirical characterization of local ancestry inference accuracy in Latinos. Our approach for identifying errors does not rely on simulations but on the observation that local ancestry in families follows Mendelian inheritance. We measure the rate of local ancestry assignments that lead to Mendelian inconsistencies in local ancestry in trios (MILANC), which provides a lower bound on errors in the local ancestry estimates. We show that MILANC rates observed in simulations underestimate the rate observed in real data, and that MILANC varies substantially across the genome. Second, across a wide range of methods, we observe that loci with large deviations in local ancestry also show enrichment in MILANC rates. Therefore, local ancestry estimates at such loci should be interpreted with caution. Finally, we reconstruct ancestral haplotype panels to be used as reference panels in local ancestry inference and show that ancestry inference is significantly improved by incoroprating these reference panels. Availability and implementation: We provide the reconstructed reference panels together with the maps of MILANC rates as a public resource for researchers analyzing local ancestry in Latinos at http://bogdanlab.pathology.ucla.edu. Contact: bpasaniuc@mednet.ucla.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23572411

  20. 78 FR 34577 - Safety Zone; Ad Club's 100th Anniversary Gala Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision... Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast Guard in complying with the...

  1. Infiltration Losses Calculated for the Flash Flood in the Upper Catchment of Geru River, Galaţi County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MIKE software created by Danish Institute of Hydraulics can be used to perform mathematical modelling of rainfall-runoff process on the hillslopes, resulting in a runoff hydrograph in the closing section of a catchment. The software includes a unitary hydrograph method - UHM in the hydrological module Rainfall - Runoff. Excess rainfall is routed to the river and transited through unit hydrograph method. The model divides the flood generating precipitation in excess rainfall (net rainfall and losses (infiltration.

  2. Event planning the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This bestselling all–in–one guide to the event planning business is back and better than ever, fully updated and revised to reflect the very latest trends and best practices in the industry. This handy, comprehensive guide includes forms, checklists, and tips for managing events, as well as examples and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful events. Judy Allen (Toronto, ON, Canada) is founder and President of Judy Allen Productions, a full–service event planning production company.

  3. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara.

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60 0 C/20 min and 80 0 C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 3 0 C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in 'Gala' apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gabrielle Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is a food preservation method aimed to extend the life of the product, inactivate microorganisms, and stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ‘Gala’ apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses.The fruits were harvested, sanitized, selected and inserted into a UV-C radiation chamber, and different radiation doses were applied as follows:0 KJ m-2 (0 min., 0.68 KJ m-2 (2 minutes,2.73 KJ m-2 (4 minutes, and 4.10 KJ m-2 (6 minutes. The apples were stored for 120 days at 5 ± 1°C and analyzed after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. Radiation doses had no influence on parameters, such as weight loss, firmness and Hue angle, and physicochemical aspects, such as pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. The 4.10 KJ m-2 dose was effective and increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activity for up to 90 days while maintaining the content of vitamin C during storage.

  5. Automated Acoustic Identification of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Maca California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus Myca California myotis, M. californicus Myci western...californicus ( Maca ) Nyctinomops femorosaccus (Nyfe) Leptonycteris yerbabuenae (Leye) N. macrotis (Nyma) Lasiurus blossevillii (Labl) / L. borealis (Labo...Myve Myar Chme Maca Maca Maca Leye Leye Pahe Pahe Pahe Pahe Labl Labl Labl Labl Laxa Laxa Laxa Myev Myev Anpa

  6. Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, André Luiz dos Santos; Casper, Peter; Esteves, Francisco de Assis

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted), Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in vitro conditions, indicating that terminal organic carbon mineralisation via met...

  7. Absorción de hierro en "Maca" lepidum meyenii walp. (Brasicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery L. Suni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii Walp (Brasicaceae “maca” es una planta andina apreciada por sus hipocótilos de alto valor medicinal y nutritivo, entre estos, su elevado contenido de hierro. Para determinar la posibilidad de incrementarlo se llevó a cabo un experimento en invernadero, en Lima, durante el periodo de mayo a noviembre de 1999, en el cual se proporcionó tres niveles de hierro natural (5, 15 y 25 ppm en soluciones nutritivas. Se utilizaron semillas, entrada ARB5441 (CIP. Se determinó el contenido de hierro a los 50 y 179 días después del tratamiento (ddt por el método de fenantrolina. Se encontró diferencias significativas en el contenido de hierro en hojas e hipocótilo a los 50 ddt, incrementado este en relación a la cantidad de hierro suministrada, mientras que a los 179 ddt esta misma respuesta se observa sólo a nivel de hojas. La concentración de hierro obtenida en el hipocótilo para cada tratamiento no incrementó en el tiempo mientras que en la hoja sí. En general los valores de concentración de hierro obtenidos son mayores a los reportados en la literatura. El peso de la planta tendió a disminuir en relación al nivel de hierro a los 50 ddt, pero a los 179 ddt tendió a incrementar. En función al tiempo, el peso de los hipocótilos en cada tratamiento incrementó notablemente; mientras que las hojas, ligeramente. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten señalar que un nivel de 5 ppm de hierro resulta adecuado y suficiente para obtener concentraciones altas de hierro en los hipocótilos de “maca”.

  8. Spatial distribution of bromeliads at "restinga" of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, André F. N.; Cogliatti-Carvalho, Luciana; Van Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2000-01-01

    Nas restingas, devido aos microhábitats favoráveis, como as moitas, não ocorrerem de forma homogênea, mas em manchas, e devido à elevada taxa de reprodução vegetativa em bromélias, testa-se a hipótese de que o padrão de distribuição espacial das bromélias em uma restinga seria agregado. Utiliza-se como área para o teste de hipótese a restinga do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba. Analisa-se o padrão de distribuição espacial de cada espécie encontrada através do índice de dispersão de ...

  9. Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... and Planned Giving Ophthalmic Business Council Orbital Gala Orbital Gala Overview Why Attend ...

  10. Estonian Golf Countri Club'i Jägala golfiklubi sisekujundus. Jõelähtme, Mannila küla / Juta Lember, Andres Siim, Tarmo Luisk...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    3 korruste plaani, värv. välisvaade, 22 sisevaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar; Juta Lember projekteeris ka tammepuust mööbli; arhitekt Andres Siim; nõupidamisruumi toolide ja nagide autor: Toivo Raidmets; metallvalgustite autor: Tarmo Luisk

  11. Traffic-Adaptive, Flow-Specific Medium Access for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    51 b. Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA).................................52 c. MACA and MACAW...Figure 17. Comparison of collision avoidance techniques proposed in MACA , MACAW, and MACA -BI (From [132...low power listening lrd ......................long range dependent MAC .................medium access control MACA

  12. 167th Airlift Wing > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    flight-related information.(Call 911 for emergencies) MID AIR COLLISION AVOIDANCE (MACA) INFO Note: The page on a full 8.5" x 11" sheet. 167 AW MACA Pamphlet - April 2017 167AW MACA Document - April 2017 167AW MACA Poster - Coming Soon featured Links mission Posted 02/09/2017 Freedom of

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    Force requires that installations associated with MOAs prepare Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) programs and encourages the installations to brief...civilian pilots on this information. MHAFB participates in MACA briefings at local area airports within 100 NM of the Mountain Home Range Complex...MHAFB has developed Wing MACA Plan 9601-05, updated every 18 months, a 23-page MACA pamphlet, and a two-page MACA handout. The March 2006 issue of

  14. The use of aquatic environments for Scientific Education purposes: the case of the Imboassica Lagoon, Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laísa Maria Freire dos Santos

    Full Text Available AIM: The present work aims to discuss the potential use of aquatic environments for teaching purposes, taking the Imboassica Lagoon and its environmental problems as an example. METHODS: A case study method including a literature review focused on Limnology and Science Education fields (SE. The case study was developed by describing and evaluating activities performed in the Imboassica Lagoon, considering contemporary SE approaches. MAJOR RESULTS: We featured environmental problems in the Imboassica Lagoon and discussed questions related to facing the problems and the construction of educational processes that generate concepts able to change reality. The activities performed in the Imboassica Lagoon provided the opportunity to set a discussion among teachers and students about different themes related to coastal lagoons' ecology based on a politicized SE viewpoint. Among some of the key aspects related to the practices performed, we could identify: the partnership between universities and schools; the contribution to develop individuals aware of citizen senses, integrating aspects of science, technology and society in field activities. The following limits were identified: the need to develop an integrated action with the school curriculum and the need to develop a plan of action with the active participation of elementary school teachers. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presented challenges for the limnologists, in order to reflect upon the social implications of their research practice seeking interaction with other sectors of society and other knowledge fields, to enhance the horizons of scientific education.

  15. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Zink,Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado,André L. S.; Casper,Peter; Schwark,Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extract...

  16. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado, André L S; Casper, Peter; Schwark, Lorenz

    2004-03-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols) were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm) per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36), which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.

  17. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Zink

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36, which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.As lagoas costeiras são importantes ecossistemas costeiros no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, localizadas entre áreas urbanizadas da costa e o oceano aberto. Vários estudos enfocando o sedimento, a água, a comunidade zooplanctônica e comunidades bacterianas demonstraram a extensão da influência antrópica sobre estes ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo foi investigada a composição da matéria orgânica presente no sedimento, assim como, alguns parâmetros microbiológicos, com o intuito de caracterizar três lagoas costeiras. Matéria orgânica e lipídeos (hidrocarbonetos alifáticos, álcoois e ácidos graxos, esteróis foram analisados em dois pontos de amostragem em cada lagoa (região continental e região marinha, em dois intervalos da profundidade (0-3 e 3-6 cm. A lagoa Imboacica apresentou maior influência antrópica nos últimos anos, representada na fração superficial do sedimento (0-3 cm, visto que na camada mais profunda (3-6 cm observou-se reduzida influência humana. A eutrofização da lagoa ou disponibilidade de nutrientes favoreceram o crescimento acentuado de algas e cianobactérias. Nas lagoas Cabiúnas e Comprida, afastadas do perímetro urbano, as características naturais mostraram-se preservadas. A matéria orgânica oriunda de plantas vasculares é dominante, apresentando-se excepcionalmente bem preservada em função das características ácidas da água. A discreta diferenciação entre a região continental e a marinha, nestas duas lagoas, está diretamente relacionada à reduzida razão superfície/volume destes ecossistemas aquáticos. Nenhuma influência antropogênica foi observada no sedimento das lagoas Cabiúnas e Comprida.

  18. Aspects of the uptake of dissolved oxygen in Cabiúnas and Imboassica Lagoons (Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Brum

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cycling of detritus of aquatic macrophytes and carbohydrates in two coastal lagoons of the northeastern part of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Samples of water of the Imboassica and Cabiúnas lagoons were enriched with sucrose. Samples of water of the Cabiúnas lagoon were also utilized to arrange mineralization chambers with fragments of three species of aquatic macrophytes found in these lagoons (Typha domingensis, Potamogeton stenostachys and Nymphaea ampla. Following that, the bottles were aerated and incubated (in the laboratory for a period of 8 days. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen, the pH, the electrical conductivity and the temperature were daily measured. The anaerobic processes were inhibited by periodical aeration of the bottles. The results suggested that the mineralization process in Imboassica lagoon was more efficient; in Cabiúnas lagoon the process of immobilization of the organic matter was dominant. In the short term, maximum oxygen uptake occurred in the mineralization of N. ampla, followed by the mineralization of P. stenostachys and of T. domingensis. However, it was estimated that in long term the mineralization of P. stenostachys showed a greater oxygen uptake.Nesta pesquisa, descrevemos aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos da ciclagem de detritos de macrófitas aquáticas e carboidratos em duas lagoas costeiras do nordeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Amostras de água das lagoas Imboassica e Cabiúnas foram enriquecidas com sacarose. Amostras de água da lagoa Cabiúnas foram também utilizadas para a montagem de câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de três espécies de macrófitas aquáticas encontradas nestas lagoas (Typha domingensis, Potamogeton stenostachys e Nymphaea ampla. Em seguida, as garrafas foram aeradas e incubadas (no laboratório por um período de 8 dias. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, o pH, a condutividade elétrica e a temperatura foram medidos diariamente. Os processos anaeróbicos foram inibidos pela aeração periódica das garrafas. Os resultados sugerem que o processo de mineralização na lagoa Imboassica foi mais eficiente; na lagoa Cabiúnas o processo de imobilização da matéria orgânica foi dominante. No curto prazo, o maior consumo de oxigênio ocorreu na mineralização de N. ampla, seguida pela mineralização de P. stenostachys e de T. domingensis. Entretanto, foi estimado que no longo prazo a mineralização de P. stenostachys consumiria uma quantidade maior de oxigênio.

  19. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: In vivo safety assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008

  20. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  1. Naine, kes ei vaadanud tagasi / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Raamatututvuistus: Bona, Dominique. Gala : [Dalí võimukas muusa] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Margot Endjärv. [Tallinn] : Kunst, 2008. Venelanna Jelena Djakonova (Gala) suhetest prantsuse luuletaja Paul Eluard'iga ja hispaania maalikunstniku Salvador Daliga

  2. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  3. Department of Defense Dictionary Of Military and Associated Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-31

    authorities, military support to civilian law enforcement agencies, and military assistance for civil disturbances. Also called MACA . (DODD 3025.1...Center MACA military assistance to civil authorities MACB multinational acquisition and contracting board MACCS Marine air command and control

  4. How to Prepare the National Guard’s Leadership for Successful Venture in Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Posse Comitatus Act and other support approved by the Sec Def. (DoD JP 3-26, 2005, p. vi) Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ) (as per...mission of MACA . MACA mission consist of three mission subsets. These mission subsets consist of: military support to civil authorities (MSCA...Terms) explanation a. Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ) include Consequence management, DODD 3025.15 b. Military Support for Civil

  5. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    International Airport LATN Low Altitude Tactical Navigation MACA Military Airspace Collision Avoidance µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter MSL mean...Environmental Assessment and Baseline Survey 3-3 To Establish New Drop Zone in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW has a Military Airspace Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) plan...in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW flight safety would revise their existing MACA plan to include activities at the new drop zone. The MACA includes placing a

  6. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio, Pittsburgh Air Reserve Station, Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    International Airport LATN Low Altitude Tactical Navigation MACA Military Airspace Collision Avoidance µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter MSL mean sea...Drop Zone in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW has a Military Airspace Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) plan that includes procedures for clearing local airspace prior...existing MACA plan to include activities at the new drop zone. The MACA includes placing a radio call into the local airport to clear local traffic

  7. The ß-1,4-endogalactanase A gene from Aspergillus niger is specifically induced on arabinose and galacturonic acid and plays an important role in the degradation of pectic hairy regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.; Parenicova, L.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Kester, H.C.M.; Beldman, G.; Benen, J.A.E.; Visser, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Aspergillus nigerß-1,4-endogalactanase encoding gene (galA) was cloned and characterized. The expression of galA in A. niger was only detected in the presence of sugar beet pectin, d-galacturonic acid and l-arabinose, suggesting that galA is coregulated with both the pectinolytic genes as well

  8. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Joint Task Force – National Capitol Region MACA Military Assistance to Civil Authorities MSCA Military Support to Civil Authorities NCR National...Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ). MSCA was defined as civil support consisting of support for natural or manmade disasters, chemical, biological...consequence management, and other support as required.16 MACA was defined as

  9. How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    cautioned about DOD documents still needing update that use the term Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ) as an overarching construct with...three subordinate mission sets: MACA ; Military Assistance to Civil Disturbances (MACDIS); and Military Assistance to Civil Law Enforcement Agencies...Affairs MACA Military Assistance to Civil Authorities MACDIS Military Assistance for Civil Disturbance MACOM Major Army Command MAIS Major

  10. Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-24

    percent of a study period (e.g., L90) (U) MACA Mid-Air Collision Avoidance (U) MAJCOM major command (U) MARSOC Marine Corps Forces Special Operations...increase the likelihood for a safety mishap. However, the base has a Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) program in place, and hosts an annual MACA

  11. ITS-rDNA phylogeny of Colletotrichum spp. causal agent of apple Glomerella leaf spot Filogenia por ITS-rDNA de Colletotrichum spp., agente causal da mancha foliar da Gala em macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diorvania Ribeiro Giaretta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several diseases have affected apple production, among them there is Glomerella leaf spot (GLS caused by Colletotrichum spp. The first report of this disease in apple was in plants nearby citrus orchards in São Paulo State, Brazil. The origin of this disease is still not clear, and studies based on the molecular phylogeny could relate the organisms evolutionarily and characterize possible mechanisms of divergent evolution. The amplification of 5.8S-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA of 51 pathogenic Colletotrichum spp. isolates from apples, pineapple guava and citrus produced one fragment of approximately 600 bases pairs (bp for all the isolates analyzed. The amplified fragments were cleaved with restriction enzymes, and fragments from 90 to 500bp were obtained. The sequencing of this region allowed the generation of a phylogenetic tree, regardless of their hosts, and 5 isolated groups were obtained. From the "in silico" comparison, it was possible to verify a variation from 93 to 100% of similarity between the sequences studied and the Genbank data base. The causal agent of GLS is nearly related (clustered to isolates of pineapple guava and to the citrus isolates used as control.A produção de maçã vem sendo comprometida pela ocorrência de muitas doenças, entre as quais se destaca a Mancha Foliar de Glomerella (MFG, causada por Colletotrichum spp. O primeiro relato dessa doença em maçã foi registrado em plantas próximas a pomares de citrus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A origem da MFG ainda não está bem clara, e estudos baseados na filogenia permitirão relacionar o organismo evolutivamente, possibilitando caracterizar possíveis mecanismos divergentes de evolução. A amplificação da região 5.8S-ITS (espaçador interno transcrito do rDNA de 51 isolados de Colletotrichum patogênicos em de maçã, goiabeira serrana e citrus produziu um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de bases (pb para todos os isolados analisados. Os fragmentos amplificados foram digeridos por enzimas de restrição, sendo obtidos fragmentos de 90 a 500pb. O sequenciamento dessa região permitiu a construção de uma árvore filogenética com a distribuição dos isolados em cinco grupos, independentemente de seus hospedeiros. A partir da comparação in silico, foi possível verificar uma variação de 93 a 100% de similaridade entre as sequências estudadas e o banco de dados do GenBank. O agente causal da MFG está relacionado (agrupado a isolados de goiabeira serrana e aos isolados padrões de citrus.

  12. Evaluation of the structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) using different spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando; Iramain, Maximiliano Alberto; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2017-01-01

    N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide (DMH) was characterized by using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (FT-Raman), Ultraviolet- Visible (UV-Visible) and Hydrogen and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopies. The structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties were evaluated in gas phase and in n-hexane employing ONIOM and self-consistent force field (SCRF) calculations. The atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies and topological properties of DMH were analyzed and compared with those calculated for N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-acetamide (DMA) in order to evaluate the effect of the side chain on the properties of DMH. The reactivity and behavior of this alkamide were predicted by using the gap energies and some descriptors. Force fields and the corresponding force constants were reported for DMA only in gas phase and n-hexane due to the high number of vibration normal modes showed by DMH, while the complete vibrational assignments are presented for DMA and both forms of DMH. The comparisons between the experimental FTIR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and 1H and 13C NMR spectra with the corresponding theoretical ones showed a reasonable concordance.

  13. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara I.; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticized with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  14. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticised with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  15. El arte MACA. Movimiento que denuncia la mala praxis de la publicidad respecto al tratamiento de las “imperfecciones” de la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Solorzano, Almudena; Camberos Castaño, Beatriz; Adjei Hernández, Patrici

    2017-01-01

    La evolución de la imagen de la mujer en publicidad, ha ido cambiando de manera progresiva con el surgimiento de los movimientos feministas y los cambios sociales. Cada movimiento que se ha producido en la sociedad, ha significado un cambio reflejado también en los anuncios y en la imagen proyectada de la mujer en publicidad; sin embargo, dichos cambios, no se encuentran siempre en la manera en la que se retrata físicamente a la mujer. La publicidad ha seguido retratando a una mujer perfecta,...

  16. Variação temporal de características morfológicas de folhas em dez espécies do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ, Brasil Temporal variation of morphological leaf traits in ten species from Restinga of Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Pimentel Rosado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ordenar espécies em relação a um contínuo de variação de características foliares pode ser útil para inferir sobre a suscetibilidade de uma comunidade a alterações na disponibilidade de recursos e/ou condições ambientais ao longo do tempo. Dez espécies lenhosas de restinga foram acompanhadas quanto à variação temporal de atributos morfológicos foliares. Folhas de dez espécies de restinga foram coletadas nos meses de fevereiro, abril e agosto ao longo de três anos para caracterização da variação temporal da massa de folha por unidade de área (MFA, suculência (SUC, espessura (ESP e densidade (DEN. As espécies apresentaram uma tendência de valores mais elevados para as características estudadas nos meses mais secos. A partir da comparação sazonal e interanual da MFA, SUC, ESP e DEN sugerimos que a natureza das respostas das plantas à heterogeneidade temporal na disponibilidade de água foi convergente, independentemente do padrão fenológico de produção foliar e filogenia. Portanto, a similaridade observada entre as espécies na dinâmica temporal dos atributos foliares indica a disponibilidade hídrica como um fator determinante para o sucesso na ocupação das planícies arenosas costeiras do norte fluminense.Ranking species in relation to a continuum of leaf-trait variation can be useful to infer community susceptibility to changes in resource availability and/or environmental conditions over time. Leaves of ten woody restinga species were sampled in February, April and August over a period of 3 years to characterize temporal variability of leaf mass per area (LMA, succulence (SUC, thickness (THI and density (DEN. The species showed a trend toward higher leaf-trait values in dry months during the three-year study. Based on seasonal and interannual comparison of LMA, SUC, THI and DEN we suggest that plant responses to temporal heterogeneity in water availability were convergent, independent of leaf phenological patterns and phylogeny. Thus, the similarity observed among species in temporal dynamics of leaf traits points to water availability as a limiting factor for the success of sandy-coastal-plain occupation in northeastern Rio de Janeiro.

  17. General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    feet LBP lead-based paint Leq Equivalent Sound Level Lmax Maximum Sound Level MACA Mid-Air Collision Avoidance MFH Military Family Housing MGD...engages in a program of public outreach to aviators, publishing Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) guides at its bases, including Tyndall AFB. These...Consequences Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida September 2009 4-3 airports, are primarily intended for pilots operating under VFR. The MACA contains

  18. How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    should soon be replaced by National Guard DSCA. The reader should be cautioned about DOD documents still needing update that use the term MACA as an...overarching construct with three subordinate mission sets: Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ), Military Assistance to Civil Disturbances...military personnel review 13–12 MA Mission assurance 22–4d MACA military assistance to civil authorities 22–6a MACDIS military assistance for civil

  19. General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment, Altus Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Level Lmax Maximum Sound Level LOP Letter of Procedure LTM Long-term monitoring MACA Mid-Air Collision Avoidance MFH Military Family Housing mgd...users. Additionally, the Air Force proactively engages in a program of public outreach to aviators, publishing Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ...operating under VFR. The MACA contains information on preferred flight tracks, operational characteristics of high-performance military aircraft, and

  20. How The Army Runs. A Senior Leader Reference Handbook 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    field are obsolete. Many pre-dating September 2001. Defense Support of Civil Authority (DCSA) has replaced Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ...documents that still use the term MACA as an overarching construct that included three subordinate mission sets: Military Assistance to Civil Authorities... MACA ), Military Assistance to Civil Disturbances (MACDIS), and Military Assistance to Civil Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA). b. The DSCA environment is

  1. The Military’s Role in Counterterrorism: Examples and Implications for Liberal Democracies (The Letort Papers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    stabiliza- tion doctrine, or in a domestic context within what the British armed forces refer to as Military Aid to the Civil Authority ( MACA ). 30 Before... MACA ), discussed in 26 more detail later. Aside from the small size of the Red Army Faction and affiliated groups, one of the prin- cipal reasons...inspiring further offensive action that may lead to an all-out attack on the Jewish state by its inter- nal and external enemies.80 As far as MACA is

  2. Education in Action: Educating USNORTHCOM’s Critical Stakeholders at the Away Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management are significant in their findings. (During the initial study, DSCA was known as “ MACA : Military...retained the name MACA during the survey process. The authors alternated between the two terms in both papers; the current term of “DSCA” is used for...Defense Support to Civil Authorities ( MACA /DSCA),” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 3, no. 1 (2006, 2004), http://www.bepress.com

  3. Sticky water surfaces: Helix-​coil transitions suppressed in a cell-​penetrating peptide at the air-​water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schach, D.; Globisch, C.; Roeters, S.J.; Woutersen, S.; Fuchs, A.; Weiss, C.K.; Backus, E.H.G.; Landfester, K.; Bonn, M.; Peter, C.; Weidner, T.

    2014-01-01

    GALA is a 30 amino acid synthetic peptide consisting of a Glu-​Ala-​Leu-​Ala repeat and is known to undergo a reversible structural transition from a disordered to an α-​helical structure when changing the pH from basic to acidic values. In its helical state GALA can insert into and disintegrate

  4. The beta-1,4-endogalactanase A gene from Aspergillus niger is specifically induced on arabinose and galacturonic acid and plays an important role in the degradation of pectic hairy regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Ronald P; Parenicová, Lucie; Hinz, Sandra W A; Kester, Harry C M; Beldman, Gerrit; Benen, Jacques A E; Visser, Jaap

    2002-10-01

    The Aspergillus nigerbeta-1,4-endogalactanase encoding gene (galA) was cloned and characterized. The expression of galA in A. niger was only detected in the presence of sugar beet pectin, d-galacturonic acid and l-arabinose, suggesting that galA is coregulated with both the pectinolytic genes as well as the arabinanolytic genes. The corresponding enzyme, endogalactanase A (GALA), contains both active site residues identified previously for the Pseudomonas fluorescensbeta-1,4-endogalactanase. The galA gene was overexpressed to facilitate purification of GALA. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 48.5 kDa and a pH optimum between 4 and 4.5. Incubations of arabinogalactans of potato, onion and soy with GALA resulted initially in the release of d-galactotriose and d-galactotetraose, whereas prolonged incubation resulted in d-galactose and d-galactobiose, predominantly. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the release of l-arabinose substituted d-galacto-oligosaccharides from soy arabinogalactan. This is the first report of the ability of a beta-1,4-endogalactanase to release substituted d-galacto-oligosaccharides. GALA was not active towards d-galacto-oligosaccharides that were substituted with d-glucose at the reducing end.

  5. Valitsus tõmbab PPP-skeemidele pidurit? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Nii rahandusministeerium kui ka Reformierakond kahtlevad, kas Kose-Mäo teelõigu neljarealiseks ehitamisel ja Jägala sõjaväelinnaku ehitamisel oleks mõistlik kasutada PPP-skeemi. Kaitseminister Mart Laar on Jägala sõjaväelinnaku rajamise ettepaneku tagasi võtnud

  6. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  7. What DoD Homeland Security Roles Should the National Guard Fulfill during This Time of Persistent Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    JFHQ Joint Forces Headquarters JFHQ-State Joint Forces Headquarters-State JTF Joint Task Force MACA Military Assistance for Civil Authorities...continuously uses defense support for civil authorities (DSCA) and military assistance for civil authorities ( MACA ) interchangeably with the term

  8. Undersea Communication Network Self-Localization during the Unet󈧌 Seatrial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Multiple Access Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) suitable for underwater networks [6]. Control frames are short 9-byte utility packets which are...Proceedings of the MILCOM’08 Conference, San Diego, CA, USA, November 2008. [6] P. Karn, MACA --a new channel access method for packet radio, in ARRL/CRRL

  9. A Software Tool for the Rapid Analysis of the Sintering Behavior of Particulate Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    for a given thermal history (Pouchly and Maca 2010). Since Su and Johnson’s MSC paper, further development of the MSC theory has occurred (Kiani et...2006;37(11):3337. Pouchly V, Maca K. Master sintering curve: a practical approach to its construction. Science of Sintering. 2010;42(1):25–32. Su H

  10. Are the U.S. Navy’s Current Procedures for Responding to Homeland Defense and Security Tasking Adequately Designed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Amphibious Transport Dock LSD Landing Ship Dock MACA Military Assistance to Civil Authorities MAD Magnetic Anomaly Detector MARFORNORTH Marine...as Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ), is DoD support for domestic emergencies.38 DoD support includes anything from providing experts

  11. Training Community Modeling and Simulation Business Plan, 2007 Edition. Volume 2: Data Call Responses and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    services; and • Other reconstruction assistance. D-14 17. Train Forces on Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ) Develop environments...for training in the planning and execution of MACA in support of disaster relief (natural and man-made), military assistance for civil disturbances

  12. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  13. Progressively Communicating Rich Telemetry from Autonomous Underwater Vehicles via Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    significant research on higher networking layers[19]. NumerousMe- dia Access Control (MAC) protocols, including MACA [57], MACAW[11] FAMA derivatives...306820. [57] Phil (KA9Q) Karn. MACA - a new channel access method for packet radio. In 9th ARRL Computer Networking Conference, London, Ontario, Canada

  14. Whole of Government Approach to Countering Domestic IEDs: Leveraging Military Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    MACA )” Army Law, (July 2007), 4-5. 6 Ibid., 5-7. 7 U.S. Department of Defense, Directive 3025.18 Defense Support of Civil Authorities...Oklahoma City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA )” Army Law., (July 2007): 4-8

  15. The Department of Defense's Preparation to Support Domestic Emergencies as a U.S. Vital Interest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crook, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    ... a significantly increased emphasis on the military's role to support MACA. Despite recent changes to improve DoD structure and control of MACA, DoD remains unprepared to respond to domestic disasters and the emerging threats to our homeland...

  16. Caracterização morfológica de microenxertia em macieira Morphologic characterization in apple micrografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César de Oliveira Nunes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A microenxertia pode ser uma alternativa eficiente para a propagação de plantas de elevada qualidade genética e fitossanitária, em um reduzido período de tempo e sob condições controladas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a microenxertia em plantas micropropagadas sob efeito dos fitorreguladores AIB e BAP, nas combinações de Gala/M9 e Gala/Marubakaido. Para a combinação Gala/Marubakaido, foi constatado o menor número de folhas para o tratamento com 2,2 µM de AIB, e para os demais tratamentos não houve diferença significativa. Após a aclimatização, a sobrevivência dos microenxertos foi de 92,5% para combinação Gala/Marubakaido e 88,5% para Gala/M9. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Morfogênese Vegetal (CCA - UFSC.The micrografting technique can provide an efficient production of high quality genetic plants, in a short time period and under controlled and aseptic conditions. The aim of this work was the study of micrografting technique by using in vitro plants and verifying the influence of application of growth regulators IBA and BAP, in Gala/M9 and Gala/Marubakaido scion-rootstock combinations. The combination Gala/Marubakaido had the lowest number of leaves when treated with 2,2 µM of IBA. However none of the other treatments had significant statistical differences. After acclimatization, the survivor rates from the micrografts were 92,5% to Gala/Marubakaido combination and 88,5% to Gala/M9. This study was developed in the Biochemistry and Vegetal Morphogeneses Laboratory (CCA - UFSC.

  17. Study of the structural phase transitions of (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 (MACA) and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 (MACB) by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bator, G.; Jakubas, R.; Malarski, Z.

    1991-06-01

    Infrared spectra of polycrystalline (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 have been studied in the temperature range 90-300 K. A systematic temperature dependence study of the internal modes has been carried out. We discuss the effects of the dynamic state of methylammonium (MA) cations on their vibrational spectra. The results show that the dynamics of MA cations in both compounds is similar in higher (about 300 K) and lower temperature (in the vicinity of 100 K) regions. Substantial differences are revealed in the intermediate temperature interval. The results are in good agreement with earlier dielectric, calorimetric and 1H NMR studies.

  18. Ciliate protists from Cabiúnas Lagoon (Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro with emphasis on water quality indicator species and description of Oxytricha marcili sp. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Paiva

    Full Text Available We found 34 species of ciliate protists in the samples collected by the margins of Cabiúnas Lagoon during 2001. The ciliates were cultivated in the laboratory, where they were examined in vivo and identified through silver impregnation techniques. A new species, Oxytricha marcili (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae, was found and characterized as follows: in vivo length about 60-80 mum x 30-40 mum wide; on average 22 adoral membranelles; 18 left marginal cirri; 18 right marginal cirri; and 3 small caudal cirri. All specimens analyzed presented 7 frontal cirri (3 anterior + 4 posterior, 1 buccal cirrus, 4 ventral cirri (3 postoral + 1 pre-transverse, and 5 transverse cirri. Among the species found, some are considered as water quality indicators ranging from alpha-mesosaprobity to polysaprobity and isosaprobity.

  19. Antecedentes y función literaria del sueño de Eneas y Andrómaca: Verg., Aen . II 268-295 y Sen., Troad . 438-488

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago López Moreda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it is said that the source of Seneca's tragedies is Euripides. The coincidence with the subjects corroborates it. However, the nearness between tragedy and epic, the Trojan cycle that the first Latin writers of tragedy take for themselves, and, above all, the poetics of artistic effect based on the narrative structure and the lexical and syntactic patterns show that, at least in this passage, Seneca's source is Vergil, who is also the receiver and transmitter of ancient epic and the Greek and Roman tragedy.

  20. Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples; Agua aquecida e radiacao UV-C no controle pos-colheita de Cryptosporiopsis perennans em macas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do, E-mail: vinibart@hotmail.co, E-mail: amarante@cav.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Valdebenito-Sanhueza, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosamaria@m2net.com.b [Proterra Engenharia Agronomica, Vacaria, RS (Brazil); Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de, E-mail: suita@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de, E-mail: marar@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Fisica. Grupo de Fisica das Radiacoes

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)

  1. Avaliação nutricional e o uso da levodopa com refeições proteicas em pacientes com doença de Parkinson do município de Macaé, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Thaís Pereira de Souza do; Ferreira, Célia Cristina Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A doença de Parkinson (DP) é caracterizada pela redução da dopamina no sistema nervoso central. Apresenta progressão gradativa e é conhecida, principalmente, por tremores e dificuldade em realizar movimentos. Estudos demonstram que há significativa alteração do estado nutricional nos pacientes com DP. O principal medicamento utilizado no tratamento dos pacientes é a levodopa e a sua administração, sem respeitar o intervalo de no mínimo 30 minutos antes ou uma hora após as refeições, po...

  2. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  3. Ciliate protists from Cabiúnas Lagoon (Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro) with emphasis on water quality indicator Species and description of Oxytricha marcili sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, T S; Silva-Neto, I D

    2004-08-01

    We found 34 species of ciliate protists in the samples collected by the margins of Cabiúnas Lagoon during 2001. The ciliates were cultivated in the laboratory, where they were examined in vivo and identified through silver impregnation techniques. A new species, Oxytricha marcili (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae), was found and characterized as follows: in vivo length about 60-80 microm x 30-40 microm wide; on average 22 adoral membranelles; 18 left marginal cirri; 18 right marginal cirri; and 3 small caudal cirri. All specimens analyzed presented 7 frontal cirri (3 anterior + 4 posterior), 1 buccal cirrus, 4 ventral cirri (3 postoral + 1 pre-transverse), and 5 transverse cirri. Among the species found, some are considered as water quality indicators ranging from alpha-mesosaprobity to polysaprobity and isosaprobity.

  4. Andrómaca de Eurípides: el prólogo y la noción de unidad en la Poética de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Werner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle’s notion of unity as developed in the Poetics is used to discuss how Euripides builds the prologue of Andromache in a way that enhances the perception of the audience that the dramatic action is built into a cohesive whole, and not into a group of singular actions

  5. Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues.

  6. Diseño y construcción de una turbina Pelton para generación eléctrica, capacidad 2 kW

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Cabrera, Edwin José; Arias Reyes, Cristian Paúl

    2008-01-01

    Las turbinas Pelton, se conocen como turbinas de presión por ser ésta constante en la zona del rodete, de chorro libre, de impulsión, o de admisión parcial por ser atacada por el agua sólo una parte de la periferia del rodete. Así mismo entran en la clasificación de turbinas tangenciales y turbinas de acción.

  7. Democratization in Albania: The OSCE, NATO and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). 263 Manuel Montobbio de Balanzo, Spanish Ambassador to Albania, http://www.dw- world.de/dw...article/0,,5259561,00.html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). 264 Reinhard Priebe, The Western Balkan European Perspective, http...world.de/dw/article/0,,5259561,00.html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). European Commission Enlargement, Albania – Questions

  8. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    MACA ) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank’s Balanced Salr Solution {H BSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were sacrificed alTer I, 3, G. 12. I R and 24h...isolated from lung tissue for microarmy analysis and RT-PCR. MACA .tdmini>tratiun induced a rapid increase in HALF ncutrophils, lymphocytes...produc- tion, signaling. infl:unmarory cell recruitment, adh..-.ion and activation in 3h and 12h MACA -tre:lted samples as compared to BSA or HBSS

  9. Increased frequency of severe major anomalies in children conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Albisua, I; Borell-Kost, S; Mau-Holzmann, U A

    2007-01-01

    anomalies (MaCAs). Four children born after ICSI versus no control children had severe MaCAs (p=0.04). These were defined as having a significant impact on development or causing chronic disease: Angelman syndrome (n=1), lissencephaly (n=1), Hanhart syndrome (n=1), and persistent hyperinsulinemic...... for imprinting defects cannot be excluded. If we exclude children with severe MaCAs, the incidence of an abnormal somatic or neurodevelopmental outcome in the fourth year of life in children born after ICSI is similar to that of spontaneously conceived children....

  10. Our Man in Tallinn / Martin Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anderson, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Muljeid kontserdist "Warner Classics Gala" "Estonia" kontserdisaalis, kus E. Mägi, E.-S. Tüüri, V. Tormise, U. Sisaski jt. loomingut esitasid "Camerata Tallinn", NYYD Ensemble, RAM, pianist Lauri Väinmaa

  11. Pärnus on nädalavahetus täis ooperit / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    V. Bellini ooperist "Norma" Moskva Novaja Opera solistide, sümfooniaorkestri ja ooperikoori esituses ning galaõhtust "Bravissimo" Pärnu IV ooperipäevade raames 14.-15. juulil Pärnu Kontserdimajas

  12. Prescription Pain Relievers (Opiods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Attend an Event Winter Wish Gala All-Star Tasting Help Fund Our Work Donate Now Start ... struggling with addiction. Donate Follow Us Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Privacy Policy Terms of Use Newsroom © 2018 ...

  13. OxyContin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Attend an Event Winter Wish Gala All-Star Tasting Help Fund Our Work Donate Now Start ... struggling with addiction. Donate Follow Us Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Privacy Policy Terms of Use Newsroom © 2018 ...

  14. Partnership at Drugfree.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Give Attend an Event Winter Wish Gala All-Star Tasting Read the Parent Blog About Us What ... struggling with addiction. Donate Follow Us Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Privacy Policy Terms of Use Newsroom © 2017 ...

  15. Akustika! Akustika! Akustika! / Tiiu Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Tiiu, 1940-

    2009-01-01

    Kahest kontserdist: 1. oktoobril rahvusooperis Estonia toimunud pidulikust galaõhtust, mis oli pühendatud Miliza Korjusele. 2. oktoobril Estonia kontserdisaalis Berliozi "Fausti needmine" ERSO, segakoor Latvia ja solistide ettekandes, dirigent Olari Elts

  16. Beginner teacher professional development: An action research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanya

    beginner teacher taking part in an 'education sink or swim gala' be empowered to help transform society? Society in the .... greatest challenges that were perceived then and are still present ..... mentees 1, 4 and 5 have a triple dominant profile,.

  17. Kirev moepillerkaar / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad ja Kuldnõela gala Viru keskuses. Eesti parima moekunstniku tiitli pälvis Riina Põldroos. Kommentaarid Riina Põldroosilt, Aldo Järvsoolt, Urmas Väljaotsalt, Kirill Safonovilt. 17 ill

  18. Stalo izvestno imja lutshshego dizainera Estonii za proshlõi god

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kuldnõela nominentide gala toimus 7. märtsil FIBIT moepäevadel Viru Keskuses. Kuldnõela auhinna sai Riina Põldroos. Riina Põldroosi, Jaanika Sootna, Oksana Tanditi ja Tiia Orgna kollektsioonidest sõnas ja pildis

  19. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  20. Oskar-2005 : snova bez Rossii / Maria Tsheskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsheskis, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Intriigidest Venemaa kinoladvikus, mille tulemusena saadetakse Venemaalt Oscarit "püüdma" erapoolikult valitud sugugi mitte parim film. Ka selle aastasest Oscari-gala juhi Chris Rock'i solvavast käitumisest ürituse eel

  1. Plagas Frutales: Manzana

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Marion; Alston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    El fuego bacteriano es causado por una bacteria llamada Erwinia amylovora. Algunas variedades de manzanas son muy susceptibles a esta enfermedad, como Jonathan, Jonagold y Gala. Flores, ramitas terminales, y a veces ramas enteras o árboles mueren.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of N-3- methoxybenzyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methoxybenzyl-palmitamide (MPM) derived from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Methods: MPM and N-benzylpalmitamide (BPM, as the internal standard, IS) were prepared by one-pot synthesis method and characterized. For the analysis of MPM in rat ...

  3. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2Department of Agriculture, Animal health and Human Ecology, University of South ... ten used as aphrodisiac cross the blood brain barrier and ..... Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats.

  4. methoxybenzyl-palmitamide in rat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Macamide, Maca tuber, Lepidium meyenii, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, UPLC- .... evaluate the matrix effect (ME) of blank plasma ... dosing and brain, lung, heart, stomach, kidney, ..... Health and Human Services 2013.

  5. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  6. The effect of polyploidization on tree hydraulic functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, Niels J F; Hias, Niek; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Keulemans, Wannes; Steppe, Kathy

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of living tissue in wood. Polyploidization can impact amounts and arrangements of living cells in wood, potentially leading to increased drought tolerance. Tetraploid variants were created from the apple cultivar Malus ×domestica 'Gala' (Gala-4x), and their vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and their hydraulic capacitance were compared to those of their diploid predecessors (Gala-2x). Assuming a positive correlation between polyploidy and drought tolerance, we hypothesized lower vulnerability and higher capacitance for the tetraploid. Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and the hydraulic capacitance were quantified through acoustic emission and continuous weighing of shoots during a bench-top dehydration experiment. To underpin the hydraulic trait results, anatomical variables such as vessel area, conduit diameter, cell wall reinforcement, and ray and vessel-associated parenchyma were measured. Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation was intrinsically equal for both ploidy variants, but Gala-4x proved to be more vulnerable than Gala-2x during the early phase of desiccation as was indicated by its significantly lower air entry value. Higher change in water content of the leafy shoot, higher amount of parenchyma, and larger vessel area and size resulted in a significantly higher hydraulic capacitance and efficiency for Gala-4x compared to Gala-2x. Both ploidy variants were typified as highly sensitive to drought-induced cavitation, with no significant difference in their overall drought vulnerability. But, when water deficit is short and moderate, Gala-4x may delay a drought-induced decrease in performance by trading hydraulic safety for increased release of capacitively stored water from living tissue. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  8. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    clinically healthy adult male rhesus maca - ques (M. mulatta), 7–13 kg and 5–14 years of age, were obtained from the non-naı̈ve pool of NHPs of the US...11/9/2009. 15 Reinhardt V: Space utilization by captive rhesus maca - ques. Anim Technol 1992; 43:11–7. 16 Rosoff CB: Role of intestinal bacteria in the

  9. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  10. Effect of aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG on preharvest fruit drop and maturity of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante Cassandro Vidal Talamini do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees cultivars Gala and Fuji were sprayed four weeks before commercial harvest with aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG, at doses of 0, 125, or 250 mg L-1, and assessed for preharvest fruit drop, fruit growth, and maturation on tree. In 'Gala', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control treatment was 85%, and AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 reduced it to 10%. In 'Fuji', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control was 6%, while treatments with AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 increased fruit drop to 10%. AVG was a powerful retardant of fruit maturation for 'Gala' but not for 'Fuji'. In 'Gala', the most affected attribute was the skin background color, followed, in decreasing order, by soluble solids content, the starch index, skin red color, the flesh firmness, and titratable acidity. In 'Gala', only flesh firmness retention was improved by increasing AVG dose from 125 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The AVG at 250 mg L-1 inhibited "Gala" late fruit growth but not 'Fuji'.

  11. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Melnikovova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  12. Intensidade de pigmentação vermelha em maçãs e sua relação com os teores de compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidativa Intensity of red pigmentation in apples and its influence onphenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danianni Marinho Zardo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos fenólicos influenciam a qualidade de maçãs e seus produtos tanto em termos de aparência e sabor quanto em propriedades nutricionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas, flavonóis e atividade antioxidante em maçãs da cultivar Gala e de duas mutações somáticas, Royal Gala e Galaxy Gala, com diferentes intensidades de pigmentação vermelha. Os teores de fenóis totais foram semelhantes nas frutas inteiras. A atividade antioxidante apresentou diferença significativa na fruta inteira, sendo que a cultivar Gala foi a que obteve maior valor (17559 µm.g-1 e a cv. Galaxy Gala, com pouca pigmentação, o menor (6160 µg.g-1. A cultivar Royal Gala apresentou valores intermediários de atividade antioxidante de 12050 µm.g-1, para as frutas com muita pigmentação vermelha, e 13546 µm.g-1 para as com pouca pigmentação. O teor de antocianinas na fruta inteira variou de 5,79 a 13,73 mg.100 g-1 e o teor de flavonóis oscilou entre 23,37 e 382,83 mg.100 g-1 nas cvs. Royal Gala e Galaxy Gala, respectivamente. Analisado nas diferentes partes das maçãs, o epicarpo apresentou a maior concentração de fenóis com aproximadamente 57% do conteúdo total e 42% da atividade antioxidante. Os compostos fenólicos e a atividade antioxidante nos sucos oxidados foram significativamente reduzidos com o escurecimento enzimático, com perdas de 69% e 83%, respectivamente. As frutas de mesma cultivar com maior e menor intensidade de cor apresentaram teores de compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante semelhantes, porém as cultivares variaram significativamente.Phenolic compounds influence the quality of apples and their products in appearance, flavor, and nutritional properties. The aim of this work was to quantify the phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, flavonols, and antioxidant activity in Gala apples and of two somatic mutations, Royal Gala and Galaxy Gala, with different

  13. Impact of a gall midge Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the Amazonian plant Parkia pendula (Fabaceae Impacto do galhador Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae sobre a planta da Amazônia Parkia pendula Benth. ex Walp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wilson Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the occurrence of large numbers of galls induced by Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the leaflets of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae in northern Para, Brazil. We addressed two questions in this study: i what is the proportion of attacked plants in the field, and nursery conditions?; and ii what is the impact of galls on the host plant? An average of 86% of the plants were galled in the field. Galled P. pendula were distinct from healthy individuals due to their prostrated architecture and death of terminal shoots. Approximately 50% of the total available leaves and 35% leaflets were attacked by P. paraensis on saplings under nursery conditions. Each one-year old plant supported an average of 1,300 galls, and an average of 60g allocated to galled tissue. Otherwise, attacked individuals were taller and heavier than healthy plants. Attacked plants weighed five times more than healthy plants. When the weight of the galls was removed, the total weight (aerial part without galls of attacked plants was drastically reduced, indicating that most of the biomass of attacked plants was due to the attack by P. paraensis galls. Although the data indicate a paradox, as young plants attacked by the galling herbivore appear to develop more vigorously than unattacked plants, we suggest that P. paraensis negatively affect P. pendula development.Observou-se a ocorrência de um grande número de galhas induzidas por Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae nos folíolos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae no norte do Pará, Brasil. Este estudo foi direcionado para responder duas perguntas: i qual é a proporção de plantas atacadas no campo e em condições de estufa? e ii qual é o impacto das galhas na planta hospedeira? Uma média de 86% das plantas apresentaram galhas no campo. Indivíduos com galhas de P. pendula eram distintos dos indivíduos saudáveis devido à arquitetura curvada e pela morte dos ramos terminais. Aproximadamente 50% do

  14. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  15. Estudio del rol paterno en la familia e implicancia en el desarrollo de los hijos desde el personalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Saldarriaga, Edgard Abraham

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad la familia es atacada por ideologías muy poderosas, que van originando un debilitamiento en su estructura interna, generando una crisis en el rol e imagen paterna, por falta de conocimiento de su realidad y su influjo en los hijos. Por tal motivo, en el presente trabajo de investigación se pretendió analizar y comprender el rol paterno al interior de la familia y su implicancia en el desarrollo de los hijos desde una visión personalista. Esta investigación es de tipo teórico ...

  16. Estudio prospectivo de la ciberdefensa en las Fuerzas Armadas del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Peralvo, Edwin Javier

    2015-01-01

    Las guerras en la actualidad toman otra dimensión, ya no se trata de las clásicas operaciones que se desarrollan en el campo de batalla con las tradicionales armas de las Fuerzas Armadas y sus soldados enfrentándose por ocupar un territorio, actualmente se desarrolla otro tipo de guerra en otro escenario que es el ciberespacio. Existen ejemplos reales que se han desarrollado ciberguerras entre algunos países como el de Rusia y Estonia en el año 2007, Estonia fue atacada su infraestructura crí...

  17. Sexismo nos videojogos

    OpenAIRE

    Zagalo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    O último número da revista EDGE dá conta de mais um episódio de sexismo, ou melhor machismo, no mundo dos videojogos. Zoe Quinn co-criadora de "Depression Quest" (2013), um pequeno jogo independente de ficção interativa sobre os dramas da depressão, tem sido atacada e humilhada desde Dezembro [1], altura em que em o jogo foi colocado no Steam Greenlight. Nada faria antever estes ataques, uma vez que o jogo já anda aí há algum tempo, e como ela própria diz "sobreviveu" sem grandes problemas...

  18. Diseño preliminar de una honeynet para estudiar patrones de ataques en las redes de datos de la ESPOL

    OpenAIRE

    Pazmiño, Mayra; Aviles, Jorge; Abad Robalino, Cristina Lucia

    2009-01-01

    En la actualidad las redes de datos se ven frecuentemente atacadas y vulneradas. Por lo tanto, es muy importante la elaboración de una estrategia correcta que nos permita tener un grado adecuado de protección hacia las mismas. Formando parte de dicha estrategia encontramos dispositivos de detección y bloqueos de ataques. Dentro del “arsenal de defensa” de las redes en el Campus Politécnico, podemos encontrar una gran gama de mecanismos como firewalls, sistemas de detección de intrusos (IDS), ...

  19. Evaluación del potencial de promoción del crecimiento vegetal de microorganismos aislados a partir de residuos de higerilla (Recinus communis) en zanahoria (daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Villota, Claudia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Microbiología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales, 2013 Las hortalizas representan el 85% del área sembrada en Colombia, entre ellas están la arveja, tomate, cebolla de bulbo, cebolla junca, arracacha, zanahoria, cilantro, habichuela, zapallo y repollo . Al ser atacadas por plagas y enfermedades, el agricultor realiza control químico alterando de esta manera la economía, la salud y el medio ambiente. El indiscriminado uso de fertilizantes y agroquímicos en...

  20. Puccinia kuehnii (KRÜGER) BUTLER Y Puccinia melanocephala H. SYDOW Y P. SYDOW. EN EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Danay; Martínez, B; González, E; González, Noyma

    2009-01-01

    La caña de azúcar es atacada por dos especies de Puccinia: la roya carmelita causada por P. melanocephala y la anaranjada por P. kuehnii. La primera ha prevalecido en el continente Americano, mientras que la segunda en Asia y Oceanía. Estas royas se diferencian respecto a las condiciones ambientales, la forma de presentarse el síntoma y el lugar de desarrollo del mismo. La mayor severidad causada por la roya carmelita se manifiesta durante los periodos fríos, en plantaciones de tres a seis me...

  1. Primeiro Registro de Afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) em Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Suzan Beatriz Zambon da; Sousa e Silva, Carlos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) árvore de origem Asiática foi introduzida no Brasil em 1817, desde então vem aumentando sua área de cultivo no país. A planta é atacada por poucos insetos como as moscas e percevejos. Este trabalho relata a presença de Aphis gossypii Glover em A. carambola pela primeira vez no Brasil. First Record of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) in Brazil Abstract. The starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) has origin Asiatic an...

  2. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  3. Conflictos por acceso biotecnológico de los recursos genéticos y conocimientos tradicionales en la región andino-amazónica : los casos de patentes de la maca, el yacón y la sangre de drago

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlenz de Tavira, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio indaga acerca de si la intervención de las actividades biotecnológicas, que aprovecha el conocimiento tradicional, deviene en conflictos socioambientales. De ahí que se revise el por qué ocurren confrontaciones entre las empresas biotecnológicas y las comunidades indígenas. Específicamente, se investigaron tres casos de etnobioprospección en la región andino-amazónica, mediante los cuales se puede entender los modos de operar de la industria biotecnológica, además del sistema de ...

  4. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with {sup 32} P on an apple orchard; Estudo do raio de acao e densidade ideal de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) marcadas com {sup 32} P em pomar de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhoa, B A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee`s activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 {mu}Ci {sup 32} P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author).

  5. In vitro mutants identification of banana (Musa sp.) with tolerance to toxin from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, treating buds with several gamma radiation doses; Identificacao in vitro de mutantes de banana maca (Musa sp.) tolerantes a toxina do Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, a partir de gemas tratadas com diferentes doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Muniz Mendes de; Houllou-Kido, Laureen Michelle; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Recife, PE (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Mutants of banana, obtained through treatment with different level of gamma-radiation (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 Gy), were initially cultivated in vitro in medium for rapid clonal propagation during 30 days. These treatment affected the shoot tips development ratio. Some plants developed necrosis and died, but some of the shoot tips emitted new gems. These material were cultivated in medium 20% of the toxin of Fusarium oxysporum cubense. During the selection period, the necrosis occurrence and death of susceptible shoot tips were observed. Whereas the tolerant shoot tips kept themselves green during the entire selection process. At the end of the selection process, eight shoot tips were obtained. (author) 7 refs.

  6. ART AND ENGINEERING IN METAL SCULPTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTIN Georgiana Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how engineering and art are combined in making metal sculptures, referring to artistic creations exhibited in the “Dunărea de Jos” University campus in Galați, in the tradition existing between the Faculty of Engineering and the Visual Art Museum of Galați, with a significant contribution of prestigious artists of Galaţi and beyond. In this context, in order to develop the conception and design of some artistic products, many 2D and 3D graphical representation systems of information have appeared in a virtual environment, in which shaping using dedicated software applications, required that these artworks can be described by a series of shaping operation sequences, package design tools Autodesk Inventor CAD being such a solution.

  7. Producción de IFN−γ en cultivos de linfocitos humanos por efecto de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunoduladora sobre cultivos de linfocitos T humanos de sangre periférica. Se evaluó la producción de IFN−γ inducida por los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, negro, rojo y morado de Lepidium peruvianum (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. maca. Luego de cultivar los linfocitos con los respectivos EM de maca durante 14 horas sólo el EM del ecotipo morado indujo la producción significativa de IFN−γ cuantificada mediante Elispot. El extracto metanólico del ecotipo morado de maca posee propiedades inmunoestimuladoras importantes, desencadenando la activación de linfocitos T humanos.

  8. Efecto del extracto metanólico y las fracciones acuosa y butanólica de Lepidium meyenii variedad roja sobre la función renal en ratas Sprague-Dawley macho tratadas durante 90 días

    OpenAIRE

    Bernuy Hurtado, Jeanette Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: La fracción n-butanólica del extracto metanólico de maca contiene alcaloides que se ha sugerido pueden ser tóxicos. Objetivo: conocer el efecto de la administración del extracto metanólico y la fracción acuosa y butanólica de maca roja por vía orogástrica sobre la función renal de ratas Sprague-Dawley macho durante 90 días. Métodos: Se distribuyeron en: Grupo 1: control (agua destilada), Grupo 2: (1g de extracto metanólico de maca roja/k/día), Grupo 3: (0.89gr de fracción acuosa...

  9. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Inasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferymon Mahulette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inasua is a traditionally product of wet salt fish fermentation produced by Teon, Nila and Serua (TNS Communities in Central Maluku, Indonesia. The community made this fermented fish to anticipate the lean time when fisherman could not go to sea.  The  fish that used as inasua raw material is demersal fishes that live around coral reefs, such as Samandar fish (Siganatus guttatus, Gala-gala fish (Lutjanus sp. and Sikuda fish (Lethrinus ornatus. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of bacterial indigenous in  Inasua from three producers in Seram Island. The measurement of pH from inasua samples were 5.9, 5.0 and 5.8, respectively. The highest number of lactic acid bacteria was found from  Galagala inasua was 2,5x107 cfu/g sample. Isolation of all isolates bacteria from inasua showed that a total of 7 isolates of bacteria was obtained  from Samadar inasua, 9 isolates from  Gala-gala inasua, and 7 isolates from  Sikuda inasua.  From a total of 23 isolates, only 6 isolates had characteristic as lactic acid bacteria that were Gram  positive, negative catalase, and cocci shape. The microscopic characteristics  of the isolates are coccid in pairs or uniforms which combine to form tetrads. Carbohydrate utilization test  of selected isolate by using API 50 CHB kit indicated that 13 carbohydrates are fermented by these isolates  after incubation for 48 hours. The research  was concluded that the dominant bacteria in inasua sample  is  cocci-lactic acid bacteria. Keywords : fermented fish, inasua, lactic acid bacteria, MRSA medium

  11. Síntese de trans-resveratrol e controle de podridão em maçãs com uso de elicitores em pós-colheita Synthesis of trans-resveratrol and rotting control in apples with use of elicitors in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Kaehler Sautter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de elicitores abióticos na biossíntese de resveratrol e na indução de resistência à podridão póscolheita de maçãs 'Gala' e 'Fuji'. Foram realizados os tratamentos: radiação ultravioleta, fosfito e acibenzolar-Smetil - aplicados antes do armazenamento - e ozônio - aplicado intermitente durante o armazenamento. As condições de armazenamento foram: 'Gala', 1,5 kPa de O2 e 2,5 kPa de CO2, a 0,5±0,1ºC, por oito meses, e 'Fuji', 1,0 kPa de O2 e fosfito> irradiação UV-C> ozônio. Na maçã 'Gala', o fosfito reduz a ocorrência de podridão, porém, em ambas as cultivares, não há correlação entre síntese de trans-resveratrol e controle de podridão.The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of the application of abiotic elicitors of resveratrol in 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apples, and rotting control. The treatment was with ultraviolet irradiation, phosphite and acibenzolar-Smethyl, applied before controlled atmosphere storage and ozone, applied so intermittently during storage. The storage conditions were: 'Gala' (1.5 kPa O2 and 2.5 kPa CO2, at 0.5±0.1°C by eight months and 'Fuji' (1.0 kPa O2 and phosphite>UV-C irradiation>ozone. There isn't correlation between synthesis of trans-resveratrol and rotting control, but the phosphite controlled rot in 'Gala'.

  12. Solid-supported enzymatic synthesis of pectic oligogalacturonides and their analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Sterling, J.D.; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-phase biosynthetic reactions, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF), was used to gain insight into the biosynthesis of pectin oligomers. Sepharose supports bearing long pectic oligogalacturonides (OGAs) anchored through...... into the liquid phases by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In time course studies conducted with an immobilized (alpha-D-GalA)(14) and limiting amounts of the glycosyl donor, the predominant product was an OGA extended by one GalA residue at the non-reducing end (i.e., (GalA)(15)). When UDP-GalA was added...

  13. Moeuudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Kodukollektsioonid on valminud moedisaineritel : Dolce & Gabbanal, Versacel, Armanil, Ralph Laurenil, Guccil, Christian Lacroix'il, kodutekstiilide tootmist alustas Tocca. Kirjastuse 'Conde Nast' poolt venekeelse 'Vogue'i' väljaandmise algust tähistava galaürituse ärajäämisest 10. septembril Moskvas. Loetletud neid, kellel jäi Venemaale sõitmata.. Luksmantel koerale Burberrylt.

  14. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  15. Beginner teacher professional development: An action research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanya

    Department of Humanities Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South ... her mentorship practice, thereby enacting the role of transformative leader ... Keywords: Action research; learning styles; mentoring practice; professional ... in an 'education sink or swim gala' be empowered to help transform society?

  16. The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-09-29

    Sep 29, 1994 ... gala (12° 27'S, 2T51'E) in the Copperbelt of northern Zam- hia. ... mole-rat, a pair of animals and a group comprising one male and three females .... Figure 1 Changes In bouy mass of a captive female Cr.vptom.vs mechowi ... The sex distribution was .... 'Ine social Cryptomys species are chmacteril,ed hy.

  17. Metalanguaging matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Møller Daugaard, Line; Ladegaard, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    , 1988) and drawing on newer social perspectives on metalanguage (Jaworski, Coupland and Galasínki, 2004), we focus on a researcher-generated activity designed to invite the children to reflect on language and literacy. In two particular interactions, we explore how the children ”engage with the meta...

  18. Tallinlased kostitavad Euroopa filmitähti / Andreas Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Eesti-poolne korraldaja Ave Ungro projektist "Kino kiikab kööki", mille raames kostitavad Tallinna kodud Euroopa Filmiakadeemia gala külalisi. EFA külalist võõrustavast kunstnik Andres Lõost ja kino "Sõprus" loovjuhist Tiina Savist

  19. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  20. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  1. 33 CFR 100.801 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Ohio River miles 182.5-183.5. 26. St. Mary Medical Center Foundation Gala Sponsor: St. Mary Medical... River from mile marker 230-231. 129. Donaldsonville Fireworks Display Sponsor: Donaldsonville Tourism..., Reserve, LA. 133. Donaldsonville Fireworks Display Sponsor: Donaldsonville Tourism Commission. Date: July...

  2. Võlgades nõunik küsib ministriga õhtustamise eest 4000 krooni / Merike Ojasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasson, Merike

    2002-01-01

    Maksuvõlgades osaühing Prime Time, mille omanik on rahandusministri nõunik Rain Rosimannus ja tegevjuht Tõnis Kons Res Publicast, kutsuvad ettevõtjaid pidulikule galaõhtusöögile, mille eest peab iga osavõtja tasuma 4012 krooni

  3. 175-169):1(13) 2016 (. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    GP III: Rats were orally pretreated with Lyco (15 mg/kg b.w). GP IV: rats were pretreated ... via ATP depletion, which finally produce necrosis of hepatocytes. It provokes a state of .... Results obtained in table (4) showed that rats injected with Gala (GP III) caused a significant elevation in the phase I enzymes activities CYP1A1 ...

  4. 2016-2017 Expense report for Joanne Charette | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-03

    Meet with representatives from Québec Science and L'actualité November 3, 2016 CA$333.92. Attend ACFAS Award Gala. October 18, 2016 to October 19, 2016. CA$884.99. Orientation on research impact for new Governors. August 13, 2016 to August 23, 2016. CA$10,839.99. International Economic Forum of the ...

  5. 2015-2016 Expense report for Sylvain Dufour | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-22

    $8,381.54. To attend the 71st edition of the ACFAS gala. October 22, 2015 to October 23, 2015. CA$672.52. To participate in the Gartner Symposium and ITxpo 2015. October 3, 2015 to October 8, 2015. CA$2,382.93. Quarter 1 summary. April 1, 2015 ...

  6. A 3D digitizing tool to determine fruit quality distribution within the canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallabetta, N.; Costa, F.; Giordan, M.; Guerra, C.A.; Pasqualini, J.; Wehrens, R.; Costa, G.

    2017-01-01

    The "Slender Spindle", one of the most used training systems for apple, was compared with the "Bi-axis", an innovative training system, to determine their effect on fruit quality and fruit distribution within the canopy on 'Gala' cultivar. Two levels of crop loads were also introduced to observe

  7. The Use of Poly-4-Hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) Scaffold in the Ptotic Breast: A Multicenter Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William P; Baxter, Richard; Glicksman, Caroline; Mast, Bruce A; Tantillo, Michael; Van Natta, Bruce W

    2018-04-06

    Mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty are often limited by the patient's poor native soft tissue quality, resulting in ptosis recurrence and loss of rejuvenated surgical results. Surgical scaffolds and acellular dermal matrices are used in these procedures to provide physical and mechanical stabilization of weakened or compromised tissue. GalaFLEX scaffold, made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB), is a next-generation product for soft tissue reinforcement that resorbs gradually while aiding tissue regeneration to achieve excellent outcomes. To assess the clinical performance of GalaFLEX scaffold in soft tissue reinforcement during elective mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty. This multicenter, single-arm, observational study assessed product performance and outcomes of GalaFLEX scaffold when used in breast surgery. Outcomes included ptosis correction and maintenance, associated adverse events, patient and surgeon satisfaction, and mammographic and ultrasound imaging evaluation. At 6 centers in the US, 62 of 69 enrolled patients were treated. Of this population, 89.7% had successful ptosis correction and maintenance at 1 year, with high patient and surgeon satisfaction for breast shape, droop/sag of the breast, and maintenance of results at 1 year. There were 5 adverse events deemed related to the device (8.0%), including nerve pain, breast swelling, ptosis, and 2 instances of asymmetry. GalaFLEX scaffold safely and successfully supports and elevates breast tissue in mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty, with maintained support at 1 year. Surgeon and patient satisfaction were high. No mammogram or ultrasound interference was detected.

  8. Производители мяса: ставка на качество / Ольга Кудрявцева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кудрявцева, Ольга

    2011-01-01

    Maailma toiduaineteturu trendiks on toorainete kallinemisest tingitud hinnatõus. Eesti lihatööstused investeerivad praegu oma toodete kvaliteedi parandamisse. AS Rakvere Lihakombinaat on omandanud 98,84% Jelgavas Galas Kombinats aktsiatest. AS-i Rakvere Lihakombinaat ja Uvic AS-i juhtide kommentaare

  9. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  10. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of Phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HP2000

    R. solanacearum finds its way into the plant through wounds in the roots and .... 10% (c) Acidic residues should be absent within the first twelve amino acids. .... PilA has been used to study the genetic diversity in soil bacterium ..... the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different.

  11. Maailma jalgpallis valitseb nooruslik uljus / Aet Süvari, Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süvari, Aet, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Täna õhtul selgub Zürichis rahvusvahelise jalgpalliliidu FIFA galaõhtul, kes on 2007. aasta parim jalgpallur. Sõelale on jäänud kolm meest - Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, Lionel Andres Messi ja Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite

  12. Pärnumaa "Kultuuripärl" on Bruno Sõmeri / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    28. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas toimunud Pärnumaa kultuuri- ja sporditegijate aastalõpu galaõhtul "Tähesära 2006" pälvisid teisete seas preemiad ka lauluõpetaja Anne Uusna, laulukonkursi "Sügisulg" korraldaja Helen Erastus, koorijuht Toomas Voll, rahvatantsurühma Kajakas juht Rita Mändla ja kunstnik Toomas Kuusing

  13. Muusikamaailm : Hooaja algus Kuninglikus Ooperis. Gian Carlo Menotti Helsingis. Messiaeni ooper heliplaadil. Salzburgi festivali ette Ruzicka / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Londoni Royal Opera House avati 1. dets. galaõhtuga pärast 2 aastat kestnud ümberehitusi. Seoses oma ooperi "Konsul" uuslavastusega Soome Rahvusooperis viibis Helsingis C. G. Menotti. O. Messiaeni ainus ooper "Püha Franciscus Assisist" jõudis heliplaadile. Salzburgi festivali kunstiliseks juhiks aastast 2001 valiti P. Ruzicka

  14. "Ruumi" elutubade top

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Andekamaid leiutisi ja ilusaimaid asju maailma arhitektidelt ja disaineritelt - Barbara Dujardini ja Michael Hofmani sissetõmmatav rõdu, disainiklassiku Finn Juhli romantiline sohva "Poet", John Braueri läbipaistev laudlina imiteeriv lauake, Gala Writhi õhus hõljuv lamamistool, Kalle-Priit Pruudeni diivanid ja lillemustriline tool "Luisa" disainistuudiolt GAMplusFRATESI ning kell disainirühmituselt Thwart Design

  15. Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.; Castro-Urgal, R.

    2012-01-01

    We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as wel...

  16. Effect of location in the canopy on the colour development of three apple cultivars during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unuk, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Germsek, B.; Zadravec, P.; Vogrin, A.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homogeneity in appearance is one of the quality aspects asked for in the supply chain. Decreasing the biological variation in batches of harvested apples (cultivars Braeburn, Fuji and Gala) becomes increasingly important. Skin colour is one of the aspects that determine both optimal

  17. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  18. Taste and appearance in the supply chain, where to start? spatial distribution of colour, sugars and acids in growing apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadar, N.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Urbanek Krajnc, A.; Tojnko, S.; Unuk, T.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were taken from apple flesh while at the tree ('Gala' and 'Pinova') using a biopsy sampling system. After sampling the wound was closed with vaseline, which prevented wound responses. Samples were taken at different times over the circumference of the apples (at about 70 above the

  19. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  20. SOME ANTICIPATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN THROUGH THE WORK IN THE SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOL-VELES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja POPOVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the quantitative analysis of the distribution of the children in Special Primary School "Maca Ovcarova"-Veles, in the period from 1973 to 1996. Also here given some important factors for reduction of the children in this school, as well as the suggestions for bigger range of the mentally retarded children in special education.

  1. Reconnaissance Study of the Archaeological and Related Resources of the Lower Puerco and Salado Drainages, Central New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    brings areas of both the Puerco and Salado with the up a myriad of sociocultural implications. 9 :...t.’" - ./ KUI.UA LAVZ , 11 U: s,/ MACA ... Cocina , Sandoval County, New Mexico. School of American Research, Santa Fe. Wilson, John P. 1971 An archaeological survey of the Reserve Oil and Mineral

  2. A review of the palm genus Acrocomia: Neotropical green gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...

  3. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Buckiová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Pěknicová, Jana; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2006), s. 91-99 ISSN 0742-2091 R&D Projects: GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Lepidium meyenii * Maca * DPPH Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2006

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    22 sept. 2015 ... trial. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(8):1364-72. PubMed | Google Scholar. 2. Weingessel B, Hintermayer G, Maca SM, Rauch R, Vecsei-. Marlovits PV. The signifi cance of early treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration: 12 months? results. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 2012. Nov;124(21-22):750-. 5.

  5. Thidiazuron effects on shoot growth, return bloom, fruit set and nutrition of apples Efeito do thidiazuron no crescimento, no florescimento, na frutificação e na nutrição em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g ha-1 of a.i. in order to evaluate its effects on plant growth and development, return bloom, fruit set, nutrition, and fruit yield. Fruit set increased with TDZ dose in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ did not affect fruit yield in any cultivar. In 'Gala', the return bloom was reduced in about 50% at TDZ doses of 10 or 20 g ha-1. TDZ increased shoot growth in both cultivars. In leaves, TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and Mg in 'Gala' and of Mg in 'Fuji', but did not affect the chlorophyll content, leaf area, length, width, and dry mass per cm² regardless of cultivar. In fruits, the effect of TDZ varied according to the portion evaluated. Highest doses of TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and K in 'Gala' and of K in 'Fuji' in the entire fruits (flesh + skin; in the skin, highest doses of TDZ reduced the levels of N, Ca, and Mg in both cultivars, in addition to the level of K in 'Fuji'.Macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh., cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas na plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ nas doses de 0, 5, 10 e 20 g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo com o objetivo de serem avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, florescimento, nutrição, frutificação e rendimento de frutos. A frutificação efetiva aumentou com a dose de TDZ na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de frutos em nenhuma cultivar. Na cultivar Gala o florescimento no ano posterior ao da aplicação de TDZ foi reduzido em cerca de 50% nas doses de 10 e 20 g ha-1. O TDZ promoveu aumento no crescimento dos ramos do ano em ambas as cultivares. Nas folhas, o aumento nas doses de TDZ reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na cultivar Gala, e de Mg na cultivar Fuji mas não afetou o conteúdo de clorofila, área, comprimento, diâmetro e massa seca cm-2 da folha, em ambas as cultivares. Em frutos inteiros

  6. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  7. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  8. Elaboración de una guía de técnicas grafo-plásticas para el desarrollo de la motricidad fina de los niños/as de tres a cinco años de edad para los centros de educación inicial de la comunidad indígena de maca grande, parroquia Poaló, cantón Latacunga, provincia de Cotopaxi, periodo lectivo de 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Choloquinga Iguacunchi, María Martina; Choloquinga Castro, Luz María

    2014-01-01

    This research work describes the steps for the realization of technical grafo-plásticas which will help development in the area of motor skills of children 3 to 5 years. Taking into account the foregoing, has carried out this research, which focuses on the development of an educational guide which is structured in the following way: In the first chapter, I described the pedagogical foundations, where is concentrated information and theoretical contributions which are in detailed techniques...

  9. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  10. Identificação de Fungos Emboloradores em Madeira de Pinus spp. em Laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Lazarotto

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, em nível de espécie, fungos emboloradores em madeira não tratada de Pinus spp. estocada em ambiente de laboratório, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, 10 amostras de madeira de pinus atacadas por fungos de bolor foram selecionadas para identificação das estruturas fúngicas por meio de identificação morfológica de esporos e, posteriormente, esses foram isolados e enviados para sequenciamento do fator de elongação 1-alpha (EF-1α, para sua identificação molecular. Foram obtidos cinco isolados do gênero Trichoderma e um isolado do gênero Fusarium. Esses foram identificados por meio de análise molecular como pertencentes às espécies T. atroviride e F. solani, respectivamente.

  11. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  12. Effect of preharvest spraying with thidiazuron on fruit quality and maturity of apples Efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita com thidiazuron sobre a qualidade e a maturação de frutos em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at the doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g (a.i. ha-1 and fruit were assessed for quality and maturity. In both cultivars, the increase of TDZ dose had detrimental effects on fruit quality, causing a reduction of fruit red surface and an increase of percentage of fruit that was asymmetrical and with calyx-end rot. TDZ caused an increment of calyx-end aperture that might have increased calyx-end rot. TDZ increased density and the length : diameter (L : D ratio of the fruit. The number of viable seeds was not affected by TDZ. TDZ resulted in a substantial delay of fruit maturity in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ also reduced soluble solids content (SSC in 'Gala' and reduced titratable acidity in both cultivars.Macieiras, cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas em plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ, nas doses de 0; 5; 10 e 20 g (i.a. ha-1, e os frutos avaliados em termos de qualidade e maturação. Em ambas as cultivares, o TDZ apresentou efeitos negativos na qualidade dos frutos, com redução na percentagem de cor vermelha na casca e aumento na percentagem de frutos assimétricos e com podridão carpelar. O TDZ causou aumento na abertura carpelar, o que pode ter ocasionado aumento de incidência de podridão carpelar. O TDZ aumentou a densidade e a relação comprimento : diâmetro (C : D dos frutos. O número de sementes viáveis não foi afetado pelo TDZ. O TDZ retardou substancialmente a maturação dos frutos na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. O TDZ reduziu os teores de sólidos solúveis totais na cultivar Gala e reduziu a acidez titulável em ambas as cultivares.

  13. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DA AMÊNDOA DE MACAÚBA E SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA ELABORAÇÃO DE BARRAS DE CEREAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nísia Andrade Villela DESSIMONI-PINTO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A amêndoa de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. tem despertado grande interesse socio-econômico para a população do Cerrado e possui propriedades nutricionais pouco estudadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar físico-quimicamente a amêndoa de macaúba e verifi car o valor nutricional e a aceitabilidade de uma barra de cereais elaborada a partir deste material. Os frutos coletados foram lavados, sanitizados, secos e suas amêndoas foram retiradas. As características físico-químicas das amêndoas avaliadas foram massa, diâmetro, pH, SST, ATT e composição centesimal. Elaborou-se uma barra de cereais teste com adição de 15% do fruto e uma controle e determinou-se suas composições centesimais. A avaliação sensorial das formulações foi realizada com 45 participantes em três etapas: teste de aceitação (escala de 5 pontos, teste de preferência e análise descritiva quantitativa (aparência, cor, aroma, sabor, textura e doçura dos produtos. As amêndoas de macaúba estudadas possuem quantidades expressivas de lipídios (29,73%, proteínas (12,28% e energia (524,19kcal/100g. A barra de cereais com macaúba obteve maiores teores de lipídios (7,84% e energia (396,28kcal/100g. O índice de aceitação da barra de cereais formulada com macaúba foi de 88,90% e o teste de preferência evidenciou 71,11% de aprovação pelos participantes da pesquisa. A barra teste obteve atributos mais bem aceitos em relação à controle (p<0,05, na qual o atributo “sabor” alcançou a maior pontuação média (4,62. Dessa forma, conclui-se que as características físico-químicas da amêndoa de macaúba contribuem de forma positiva para a elaboração de barras de cereais, conferindo ao produto final um perfil sensorial de boa aceitabilidade.

  14. Effect ofthydiazuron and choline chloride bioregulators on yield and fruit quality ofthree apple (Malus domestica Borkh. varieties Efecto de Thidiazuron y cloruro de colina como biorreguladores sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto en tres variedades de manzano (Malus domestica borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincore Mauricio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve yield and quality of Colombian apple fruits, Thydiazuron (TDZ and Choline Chloride (CC biorregulators were evaluated as supposed stimulants of growth and development of 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' varieties in the «La Calera» zone (2650 masl. 50, lOOand 150 mg-L:' of TDZ were sprayed between 30 and 45 days after blooming (dab and 500, 1000 and 1500 mg-L-' of CC 118 dab, using a completely randomized design for 'Princesa' and 'Golden Delicious' and a completely randomized
    block design for 'Gala'. TDZ showed chemical thinning and
    cytokinine activity, decreasing the number and acidity of harvested fruits, but increased mean fruit weight, In 'Gala', TDZ increased the harvested fruit number per tree; with 150 mg-L:' fruit color increased while soluble solids (SS concentration declined. On the other side, in 'Gala' apples, CC applications decreased fruit number per tree and showed higher mean weights, volume and SS content of fruits, especially with 500 mg-L:'. In 'Golden Delicious' CC produced oblong fruits with higher SS content and lower flesh firrnness.
    Con el fin de mejorar rendimiento y calidad del fruto de la manzana nacional, se evaluaron los biorreguladores Thidiazuron (TDZ y Cloruro de Colina (CC como supuestos estimuladores del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto en las variedades 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' en la zona de «La Calera» (2650 msnm. Para tal fin, se aplicaron 50, 100 y 150 mg-L" de TDZ entre los 30 y 45 días después de floración (ddt y 500, 1000 y 1500 mg-L-' de CC 118 ddf,
    bajo diseño completamente aleatorizado para 'Princesa' y 'Golden Delicious' y bloque completos al azar para 'Gala'. Thidiazuron actuó como agente químico raleante y como citoquinina, disminuyendo en 'Golden Delicious' el número de frutos cosechados y la acidez, pero aumentando el peso promedio del fruto. En 'Gala', TDZ aumentó el número de frutos por árbol, a 150 mg-L-' aumentó la

  15. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  16. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  17. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  18. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  19. Character Education Based On Local Wisdom For the Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Sukemi Buchory

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at revealing the existence of character education based on the local wisdom for the prisoners. The subject of this research is the prisoner inhabitant in Wirogunan Prison and Narcotics pakem in Sleman Yogyakarta. The data were gained by interviewing, documenting and demonstrating. The data were analyzed qualitative and quantitative descriptively. The results of this research are: (1 The training of Tembang Maca Pat and Javanese MC are equivalently adapted, (2 The character values being shaped: believe in God, responsibility, respect, fairness, confidence, faithfulness, discipline, careness, spirituality, manners, intelligence, emotion control, character building, the increase of social participants; (3 The competence on Tembang Maca Pat and MC of Javanese can be used as professional earning in society and also can be used as educational model for the prisoners.

  20. In vitro mutation induction for resistance to Fusarium wilt in the banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Mendes, B M.J.; Latado, R [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cesar Santos, P dos; Boliani, A [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia

    1995-11-01

    In Brazil, which is one of the world`s principal banana production regions, almost all production is consumed within the country. Consumers show high preference for the cultivar Maca (AAB group). However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce bananas of this type because of their high susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Sexual breeding, which consists of recombination and selection, is limited in the banana because of polyploidy and sterility. Spontaneous somatic mutations are an important source of new cultirvars, and mutation breeding might be particularly important to generate genetic variation. Because of this, the mutation breeding approach has been used in Brazil. The objective of this research was to induce gamma ray mutations for resistance or to increase the level of tolerance to Fusarium wilt in the banana cultivar Maca on the basis of screening under field conditions. 4 refs.

  1. Agronomie Africaine - Vol 19, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... De L\\'utilisation Des Engrais Mineraux Dans Les Zones De Production Du Riz : Cas Du Centre-Ouest De La Côte D\\'ivoire · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JTB Gala, M Camara, A Assa, JZ Keli, 173-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aga.v19i2.1711 ...

  2. Dietary pectic glycans are degraded by coordinated enzyme pathways in human colonic Bacteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis, Ana S.; Briggs, Jonathon; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2018-01-01

    The major nutrients available to human colonic Bacteroides species are glycans, exemplified by pectins, a network of covalently linked plant cell wall polysaccharides containing galacturonic acid (GalA). Metabolism of complex carbohydrates by the Bacteroides genus is orchestrated by polysaccharid...... PULs ensuring a continuous supply of inducing molecules throughout growth. The contribution of Bacteroides spp. to metabolism of the pectic network is illustrated by cross-feeding between organisms....

  3. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  4. 2010 Special Operations Forces Industry Conference Held in Tampa, Florida on June 15-17, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    conference as it must be worn at all conference functions. “A la carte” tickets for the Tuesday Reception, Wednesday Gala Dinner, and Wednesday...USAF O6 Deputy Director of Procurement, YC-1102-3 Administration SOJA Supports Headquarters and Components Services KH Division KP Division...Organization Director of Procurement, USAF O6 Deputy Director of Procurement, YC-03 Administration SOJA Deputy Director of Procurement Mid-Atlantic

  5. Birgitta festivali elav tuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Birgitta festivalil Pirita kloostri müüride vahel 10.-19. aug. mängukavas: Moskva ooperiteatri Novaya Opera trupp esitamas ooperit, Maria Callase gala, klassikalist ja dzhässballetti, Vene Keiserlik Ballett kava "Tshaikovski in Swing", Anton Rubinshteini ooper "Deemon" (lavastaja Mihhail Jefremov), Arthur Honeggeri oratoorium "Jeanne d'Arc tuleriidal" (lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe, peaosas Mirtel Pohla)

  6. NCI Releases Video: Proteogenomics Research - On the Frontier of Precision Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of an educational video titled “Proteogenomics Research: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine."  Launched at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala Dinner, catalyzed in part by the Cancer Moonshot initiative and featuring as keynote speaker the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R.

  7. Gene and protein patterns of potential prion-related markers in the central nervous system of clinical and preclinical infected sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pathogenic mechanisms of prion diseases are far from clear. Genomic analyses have revealed genetic biomarkers potentially involved in prion neuropathology in naturally scrapie-infected sheep, a good animal model of infectious prionopathies. However, these biomarkers must be validated in independent studies at different stages of the disease. The gene and protein expression profiles and protein distribution of six potential genetic biomarkers (i.e., CAPN6, COL1A2, COL3A1, GALA1, MT2A and MTNR1B) are presented here for both the early and terminal stages of scrapie in five different brain regions. Gene transcription changes were confirmed in the medulla oblongata, and the expression profiles were generally similar in other central nervous system regions. The changes were more substantial in clinical animals compared to preclinical animals. The expression of the CAPN6 protein increased in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the clinical and preclinical brains. The distribution of the GALA1 was identified in glial cells from the cerebellum of scrapie-infected animals, GALA1 protein expression was increased in clinical animals in the majority of regions, and the increase of MT2A was in agreement with previous reports. The downregulation of MTNR1B was especially marked in the Purkinje cells. Finally, although collagen genes were downregulated the protein immunostaining did not reveal significant changes between the scrapie-infected and control animals. In conclusion, this study of gene transcription and protein expression and distribution confirm CAPN6, GALA1, MTNR1B and MT2A as potential targets for further prion disease research. PMID:23497022

  8. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  9. Ajaloo ja kaasaja süntees Rebala muinasmaastikul / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Arhitekt Andres Siimu projekteeritud Estonian Golf Countri Club'i Jägala golfiklubi (Mannila küla, Jõelähtme) sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember, kes projekteeris ka tammepuust mööbli. Ehitus: AS Restor. Nõupidamisruumi toolide ja nagide autor on Toivo Raidmets, metallvalgustite autor Tarmo Luisk. A. Siimu ja J. Lemberi tööd on hinnatud Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemiaga. Ill.: 3 korruste plaani, värv. välisvaade, 22 sisevaadet

  10. Zakrõtije bumazhnoi fabriki v Kehra utjanet na dno vsju volost / Kristi Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Kehra paberivabrikus seiskus ajutiselt tootmine, kuna ettevõte Eesti Gaas lõpetas võlgade tõttu vabriku varustamise maagaasiga. Skeem: Kehra vabriku sulgemine ohustab Jägala jõge. Vt. samas: Eestis on kärbitud enam kui 700 inimese tööd. Paberi tootmine Eestis hääbub. Kommenteerivad Jüri Lillsoo ja Jaan Pikka

  11. The Inventory of Phytoseiid Mite on Apple Orchards in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AURELA SUPARAKU; ARIS HUQI; NATASHA HAKA (DURAJ)

    2014-01-01

    A survey to determine the presence and abundance of phytoseiid mite on apple orchards has been conducted in Durres (Shena-Vlash), Albania. Leaf samples were taken from five apple varieties: Pink Lady, Golden, Starking, Fuji, Gala and the phytoseiid were then extracted. As the result of the survey, two species belonging to the Phytoseiidae family were identified: Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten). Amblyseius andersoni was found in all apple varieties analyzed in thi...

  12. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    1980). 120 Mexican Government Press Release, “Crecimiento con Calidad: El Presidente Vicente Fox encabezará la cena de gala de la XI Cumbre Anual...and Roads at Various Project Areas Located in California, Arizona, New Mexico , and Texas...Diego Border Primary Fence The USBP’s San Diego sector extends along the first 66 miles from the Pacific Ocean of the international border with Mexico

  13. Environmental Consequences of the Failure of the New Orleans Levee System During Hurricane Katrina; Microbiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    composi- tion in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons – District of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Annals of the Brazilian Academy of... Coastal Ecology Branch, Ecosystem Evaluation and Engi- neering Division, EL, was the ERDC point of contact for the environmental consequences work of...1986 recommendations. The amendment to the Clean Water Act known as the Beaches Environ- ment Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act required

  14. Las Relaciones Públicas como estrategia de comunicación en los eventos cinematográficos: los Premios Goya.- Public relations and communication strategy in the film events: Goya Awards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Amorós Pons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La gala de los Premios Goya se convierte en un modelo de organización y conjunción de los elementos personales, espaciales y temporales propios de eventos internacionales, así como una interesante herramienta de comunicación de Relaciones Públicas. Analizar cómo se planifica este tipo de gala y los resultados comunicacionales que se obtienen a partir de ella, sirve para advertir la importancia que adquieren como generadora de tendencias para otros acontecimientos especiales que buscan imitarla. La escenografía, la decoración, el atrezzo, la moda y complementos (masculinos y femeninos se cuidan con exquisito detalle para alcanzar estándar de calidad y distinción que los espectadores exigen de este acontecimiento. Esta cita anual con el cine producido en España se convierte en una puesta en escena mediática que no deja lugar a improvisaciones, a pesar de que en ocasiones se producen situaciones inesperadas y disfuncionales. Estudiar todos los elementos de esta gala sirve para diseñar otros eventos similares, poniéndolos en valor como un soporte para desarrollar comunicación persuasiva indirecta y/o encubierta.

  15. Combined HILIC-ELSD/ESI-MS(n) enables the separation, identification and quantification of sugar beet pectin derived oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Cord-Landwehr, S; Leijdekkers, A G M; Moerschbacher, B M; Schols, H A; Gruppen, H

    2012-09-01

    The combined action of endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PGII), pectin lyase (PL), pectin methyl esterase (fungal PME) and RG-I degrading enzymes enabled the extended degradation of methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectins (SBPs). The released oligomers were separated, identified and quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with online electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(n)) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). By MS(n), the structures of galacturonic acid (GalA) oligomers having an acetyl group in the O-2 and/or O-3 positions eluting from the HILIC column were elucidated. The presence of methylesterified and/or acetylated galacturonic acid units within an oligomer reduced the interaction with the HILIC column significantly compared to the unsubstituted GalA oligomers. The HILIC column enables a good separation of most oligomers present in the digest. The use of ELSD to quantify oligogalacturonides was validated using pure GalA standards and the signal was found to be independent of the chemical structure of the oligomer being detected. The combination of chromatographic and enzymatic strategies enables to distinguish SBPs having different methylesters and acetyl group distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yield efficiency for nine apple cultivars grafted on two rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caetano Fioravanço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Currently, using smaller trees is one of the most important trends in apple cultivation. It is expected that reduced size plants produce lower amount of fruit, but with high yield and yield efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield efficiency (YE of nine apple tree cultivars, grafted on two rootstocks, from the second to the seventh year after planting. The YE indexes oscillated from one to the other year, regardless of rootstock. Correlations between YE and yield per tree and between YE and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA confirmed that efficiency can be increased by the production increment or by the plant's vigor reduction. The usefulness of cumulative YE (ƩYE is highlighted to compare apple tree cultivars after the third year of production. The highest ƩYE indexes were observed for 'Royal Gala' and 'Baigent', on M-9 rootstock, and for 'Gala Real' and 'Maxi-Gala', on Marubakaido/M-9 rootstock.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  18. Mode of action of xylogalacturonan hydrolase towards xylogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    XGH (xylogalacturonan hydrolase; GH 28) is an enzyme that is capable of degrading XGA (xylogalacturonan), which is a polymer of α-D-galacturonic acid, highly substituted with β-D-xylose. XGA is present in cell walls of various plants and exudates, such as gum tragacanth. XGA oligosaccharides were derived from an XGH digestion of gum tragacanth, then fractionated, and analysed for their sugar composition and structure by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight MS and nanospray MS. Several oligosaccharides from XGA were identified with different galacturonic acid/xylose ratios including five oligosaccharide isomers. Although XGH can act as an endo-enzyme, product-progression profiling showed that the disaccharide GalAXyl was predominantly produced from XGA by XGH, which indicated also an exolytic action. The latter was further supported by degradation studies of purified oligosaccharide GalA4Xyl3. It was shown that XGH acted from the non-reducing end towards the reducing end of this oligosaccharide, and showed the processive character of XGH. The results from this study further show that although XGH prefers to act between two xylosidated GalA units, it tolerates unsubstituted GalA units in its −1 and +1 subsites. PMID:15560751

  19. Cascading Multi-Hop Reservation and Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT. In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT. The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay.

  20. Fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira em resposta à aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production by hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de indutores de brotação é uma das principais estratégias de manejo utilizadas para minimizar os problemas da falta de frio em frutíferas de clima temperado. Em razão da influência dos indutores de brotação sobre a resposta produtiva das plantas, a mensuração de seus efeitos ao longo do ciclo produtivo torna-se importante. Assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no ciclo 2007/2008, em Caçador/SC, objetivando avaliar diferentes combinações de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral sobre a fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos em macieiras. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições compostas de uma planta, seguindo arranjo fatorial (5x2, com cinco níveis de indutor de brotação (1. testemunha; 2. óleo mineral 3,2%; 3. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,20%; 4. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,39%; 5. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,59% e duas cultivares (Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. A aplicação dos indutores de brotação antecipou e reduziu o período de florescimento, aumentando a coincidência de florescimento das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. Os indutores de brotação uniformizaram e aumentaram a brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, obtendo-se máxima brotação na cultivar Imperial Gala com 0,44% de cianamida hidrogenada e 3,2% de óleo mineral. O aumento da concentração de cianamida hidrogenada revelou a tendência de diminuir a frutificação efetiva. Observaram-se respostas diferenciadas entre tratamentos quanto à produção e à massa média dos frutos, podendo ser atribuídas ao predomínio da produção de frutos em distintas estruturas de frutificação.The budbreak promoters application is one of main management strategies used to decrease the problems of insufficient winter chilling on temperate fruit trees. Because the influence of budbreak promoters on productive behaviour of plants

  1. Avaliação sensorial e determinação de vida-de-prateleira de maçãs desidratadas Sensorial evaluation and determination of dehydrated apple shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Regina Vasques

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a preferência sensorial e vida-de-prateleira de fatias de maçãs das cultivares Fuji e Gala desidratadas. A secagem foi feita à temperatura de 60 °C, com velocidade do ar no interior do secador de bandejas de 0,121 m/s. Para a realização do teste de preferência sensorial e aceitabilidade, mediante uso de uma escala de avaliação, foram utilizadas as maçãs com e sem pré-tratamento, obtendo-se um total de 4 amostras para análise. A maçã com maior índice de aceitação foi a maçã da cultivar Fuji sem tratamento, e a maçã com índice elevado de rejeição foi a maçã Gala sem tratamento, com 25%. De acordo com o resultado da análise sensorial, a vida-de-prateleira experimental das maçãs desidratadas foi determinada para as maçãs Fuji sem pré-tratamento e para as maçãs Gala com tratamento em diferentes tipos e tamanhos de embalagens. Em 360 dias de armazenamento, à temperatura ambiente, observou-se principalmente o significativo aumento do ganho de umidade nas maçãs de ambas as cultivares em embalagens de Polietileno Tereftalato e Copolímero de Cloreto de Vinil e Vinilideno/ Polietileno (Pet Saran/Pe e não se observou diferenças significativas entre as embalagens de Polietileno Tereftalato/Alumínio/Polietileno (Pet/Al/Pe e Polipropileno/Alumínio/Polietileno (PP/Al/Pe.The objective of this work was to determine the sensorial preference and the shelf live of dehydrated Fuji and Gala culture apple slices. Drying was done at a temperature of 60 °C and at an air speed of 0.121 m/s inside the tray dryer. In order to carry out the sensorial preference and acceptability test with the use of an evaluation scale, apples with and without pretreatment were used, resulting in a total of 4 samples for analysis. The apple with the greatest acceptance was the Fuji and the culture apple with a high rejection rate was the Gala without pretreatment, represented by 25% of the 100 people who

  2. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  3. Amides are novel protein modifications formed by physiological sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, M A; Pfahler, C

    2001-11-09

    The Maillard reaction, or nonenzymatic browning, proceeds in vivo, and the resulting protein modifications (advanced glycation end products) have been associated with various pathologies. Despite intensive research only very few structures have been established in vivo. We report here for the first time N(6)-[2-[(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl]lysine (GOLA) and N(6)-glycoloyllysine (GALA) as prototypes for novel amide protein modifications produced by reducing sugars. Their identity was confirmed by independent synthesis and coupled liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Model reactions with N(alpha)-t-butoxycarbonyl-lysine showed that glyoxal and glycolaldehyde are immediate precursors, and reaction pathways are directly linked to N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine via glyoxal-imine structures. GOLA, the amide cross-link, and 1,3-bis(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)imidazolium salt (GOLD), the imidazolium cross-link, share a common intermediate. The ratio of GOLA to GOLD is greater when glyoxal levels are low at constant lysine concentrations. GOLA and GALA formation from the Amadori product of glucose and lysine depends directly upon oxidation. With the advanced glycation end product inhibitors aminoguanidine and pyridoxamine we were able to dissect oxidative fragmentation of the Amadori product as a second mechanism of GOLA formation exactly coinciding with N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine synthesis. In contrast, the formation of GALA appears to depend solely upon glyoxal-imines. After enzymatic hydrolysis GOLA was found at 66 pmol/mg of brunescent lens protein. This suggests amide protein modifications as important markers of pathophysiological processes.

  4. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of Runoff as Influenced by Morphometric Characteristics in a Rural Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses the critical scientific question of assessing the relationship between morphometric features and the hydrological factors that increase the risk of flooding in Kelantan River basin, Malaysia. Two hypotheses were developed to achieve this aim, namely: the alternate hypothesis (runoff, is influenced by morphometric characteristics in the study watershed) and the null hypothesis (runoff is not influenced by morphometric characteristics). First, the watershed was delineated into four major catchments, namely: Galas, Pergau, Lebir, and Nenggiri. Next, quantitative morphometric characters such as linear aspects, areal aspects, and relief aspects were determined on each of these catchments. Furthermore, HEC-HMS and flood response analyses were employed to simulate the hydrological response of the catchments. From the results of morphometric analysis, profound spatial changes were observed between runoff features of Kelantan River and the morphometric characteristics. The length of overflow that was related to drainage density and constant channel maintenance was found to be 0.12 in Pergau, 0.04 in both Nenggiri and Lebir, and 0.03 in Galas. Drainage density as influenced by geology and vegetation density was found to be low in all the catchments (0.07-0.24). Results of hydrological response indicated that Lebir, Nenggiri, Galas, and Pergau recorded a flood response factor of 0.75, 0.63, 0.40, and 0.05, respectively. Therefore, Lebir and Nenggiri are more likely to be flooded during a rainstorm. There was no clear indication with regard to the catchment that emerged as the most prevailing in all the morphological features. Hence, the alternate hypothesis was affirmed. This study can be replicated in other catchments with different hydrologic setup.

  6. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of ∼ 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  7. [A socio-economic profile of exposed populations to petroleum exploration residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Gyselle Guimarães; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2011-09-01

    Environmental Macro-Area Five (EMA-5) is located in Rio de Janeiro. Their municipalities are suffering the consequences of rapid urbanization, especially after the discovery of large reserves of petroleum and natural gas (PNG) in the Campos Basin. To describe the socio-economic profile of the region and compare their indicators in space and time. This is an ecological study, which made comparisons between the 11 municipalities of EMA-5. It is based on the behavior of the indicators before and after the increase in royalties and special participatioms (RPE) and the division of the production areas of PNG (main production area - MPA - and the border zone of MPA, BZMPA). The period of analysis of the indicators ranged from 1991 to 2005. Higher values of gross domestic product per capita were found in the municipalities of MPA, especially Macaé. The same occurred in the RPE per capita, especially Rio das Ostras (higher value) and Nova Friburgo (lower value). In 2004, more than 50% of total revenues of municipalities were dependent on the funds derived from royalties. In 2000, Nova Friburgo had the best Human Development Index. The highest value of the Quality Index of Municipalities Potential for Development was found in Macaé. The major indexes of Social Exclusion was found in Macaé, Nova Friburgo and Rio das Ostras. It was found, in the municipalities of MPA, economic growth with great exclusive reliance on royalties. It should invest in alternative economic activities for which there is no damage to the population with the completion of these resources.

  8. Retrospective of fossil dinoflagellate studies in Brazil: their relationship with the evolution of petroleum exploration in the Cretaceous of continental margin basins; Historico do estudo de dinoflagelados fosseis no Brasil: sua relacao com a evolucao da exploracao petrolifera no Cretaceo das bacias da margem continental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Mitsuru; Lana, Cecilia Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: arai@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2004-05-01

    Palynostratigraphy of the Brazilian Cretaceous was mainly based on terrestrial palynomorphs (mostly spores and pollen grains) until the end of the nineteen eighties. This was so because, for several decades, petroleum exploration in Brazil was focused on the essentially non marine sediments of the Reconcavo Basin. During the nineteen sixties, PETROBRAS extended oil exploration to the Brazilian continental shelf (offshore areas). Nevertheless, at that time the company did not invest immediately in marine palynostratigraphy, because it was believed that bio stratigraphic schemes based on foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossils would be more efficient than palynology in marine sequences. This belief changed only in the seventies, when commercial oil reservoirs were discovered in the Campos Basin, within the Macae Formation, a rock unit deposited in a carbonate shelf environment. Its environmental conditions were certainly hostile to the development and post-mortem preservation of foraminifera and calcareous nanno fossil-producing algae. As a result, no more than two or three bio zones could be identified in the Macae carbonate section on the basis of such organisms. Besides, carbonate shelf sediments, subject to only minor terrigenous input, are usually poor in terrestrial palynomorphs. On the other hand, the palynological content of some Macae strata consists mainly (up to 100%) of such marine palynomorphs as dino flagellates, acritarchs e palynoforaminifera. Consequently, PETROBRAS recognized the importance of developing a zonal framework based on these organisms. The first Cretaceous dinoflagellate zonation in Brazil was erected in 1976, and since the nineteen eighties, marine Cretaceous palynostratigraphy has made significant advances mainly due to the use of dino flagellates. Hundreds of Cretaceous dinoflagellate index species have been introduced into PETROBRAS databanks, becoming widely applicable to the bio stratigraphy of all Brazilian continental margin

  9. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alessandra Lopes de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.

  10. Effect of applying different edible coatings on conservation of minimally processed ‘Royal Gala’ apples
    Efeito da aplicação de diferentes revestimentos comestíveis na conservação de maçãs ‘Royal Gala’ minimamente processadas

    OpenAIRE

    Sandriane Pizato; William Renzo Cortez-Vega; Carlos Prentice-Hernández; Caroline Dellinghausen Borges

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying different gums (tara, xanthan and sodium alginate) associated with citric acid, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride, in relation to chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics in the conservation of minimally processed Royal Gala apples when stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The apples were washed, peeled, diced and stored in a PET packaging for a period of 15 days at 4 ± 1 °C. Analyses of weight loss, firmness, color (L* e h*), ...

  11. Efeito da aplicação de diferentes revestimentos comestíveis na conservação de maçãs ‘Royal Gala’ minimamente processadas

    OpenAIRE

    Pizato, Sandriane; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande; Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying different gums (tara, xanthan and sodium alginate) associated with citric acid, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride, in relation to chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics in the conservation of minimally processed Royal Gala apples when stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The apples were washed, peeled, diced and stored in a PET packaging for a period of 15 days at 4 ± 1 °C. Analyses of weight loss, firmness, color (L* e h*), ...

  12. Amapolas

    OpenAIRE

    Coppoletta, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Su trabajo contemporáneo se caracteriza por la armonía del color y de la forma, como también por la conjunción de distintas texturas que le dan fuerza a la obra. Desde los suaves matices hasta los extremos contrastes hacen gala de fuerte carácter de la muestra. Sus arcos y curvas cortan el espacio en ángulos mientras surgen volúmenes texturados y coloridos campos. Su geometría es amplia y plena de gestos en su separación de planos, estableciendo una pro...

  13. La Gigantomaquia, símbolo socio-político en la concepción de la polis griega

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Delgado Linacero

    1999-01-01

    Este estudio propone una interpretación del mito de la Gigantomaquia como símbolo político y sociológico de la evolución de la ciudad griega. Está basado en fuentes literarias y visuales que aparecieron entre los siglos viii y ii a.C. El desafío final a la autoridad de los Olímpicos viene de los Gigantes, hijos de Gala, nacidos de las gotas de sangre brotada de los miembros emasculados de Urano. Fue el tema del friso norte del Tesoro de los Sifnios en Deifi y tuvo una importancia particular e...

  14. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.

    1996-01-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  15. Lithological and petrophysical properties and prospects of oil and gas presence of Kalinsky series in Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheirov, M.B; Dilbazi, Z.H; Askerov, F.H; Imanov, A.D

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The presentation is dedicated to summarizing the results of studying lithological and petrographic peculiarities and petrophysical properties of relatively scarcely studied rocks of lower Pliocene Kalinsky Series in Absheron, particularly its lower horizons, as well as to determining the regularities of these properties change about the area, as well as along the geological section.These generalizations cover the areas of Gala, Turkany,Gala-Dubendy,Govsany,Garachukhur, Bina, Zykh, Peschany island, Chilov, Khali, Gryazevaya sopka, Pirallakhy, and they are necessary for determining the direction of exploration and increasing the efficiently of productive horizons development.Kalinsky series (KaS) is represented mostly by the alternation of siltstones,sandstones and shale and subjected to lithofacial changes along the section and about the area.Within the area under analysis the Kalinsky series thickness is changeable and decreases towards north-west (the crest), besides it pinches out, thus promoting lithostratigraphical traps occurrence. In this direction the arenosity of reservoir rocks increases.The The exposure of the 4-th and 5-th horizons of Kalinsky series in Peschany Island, Zyrya and Gryazevaya sopka gives us an opportunity to expect the occurrence of the corresponding formations in other areas as well. In the reservoir sections studied Kalinsky series is mostly of polymictic composition and is represented by badly sorted rocks.the sorting coefficient is within the range 2,5-4,7.Sands and sandstones occur relatively seldom.Silt fraction mostly prevails in their granulometric composition.The sand fraction content is close to the content of silt fraction in Surakhany, Garachukhur, Gum adasy, Zykh and Govsany (Fig.1).The reservoir rocks clayiness ranges within 12%-35%.Pelite fraction is the smallest in Surakhany, Peschany Island and Bina, while in Turkany, Gala, Gala-dubendy, Turkany-deniz and Gryazevaya sopka this fraction increases, attaining 28

  16. Time travels in archaeology. Between Hollywood films and historical re-enactment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Kobialka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the recently most popular ways of experiencing the past is time travelling. It is ‘an experience and social practice in the present that evokes a past (or future reality’ (Holtorf 2009: 33. In this article, I mainly discuss the political aspect of time travelling. I focus on cinema as a medium which closely links archaeology with the time travel phenomenon. Two Oscars galas, of 2010 and 2012, are scrutinised as case studies. The text is a political intervention to start dreaming dangerously, to contribute as an archaeologist to the critique of the utopia of capitalism (see also Hernando 2005: 75.

  17. El principio de El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio González Montes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Estas líneas introductorias tratan de justificar la osadía nuestra depretender analizar una breve porción de la obra (los cinco primeros capítulos de la primera parte. Empero, las observaciones están hechas más desde la óptica del simple lector que la del especialista que hace gala, con todo derecho, de erudición y de seguridad en el manejo del texto en su totalidad.

  18. El tratamiento de las contraprestaciones variables en la normativa contable

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Tomás, Juan María

    2016-01-01

    La legitimidad técnica de las normas contables se encuentra en el marco conceptual. El marco conceptual, emitido por el International Accounting Standards Committee en 1989, ha cumplido una misión notable, al ser el fundamento de un cuerpo completo de normas de contabilidad, cuya calidad técnica, unida a la voluntad política de las jurisdicciones adoptantes, lo ha erigido en la normativa contable internacional de referencia. Es más, en un cuerpo normativo que tiene a gala ser un cuerpo basado...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16465-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FG288615 ) 1108793273066 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-22 4 ( FG...291868 ) 1108800219977 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-22 4 ( AK248126 ) Dugesia japonica mRNA ... artichoke H... 98 1e-20 3 ( FG282965 ) 1108383361014 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 2e-20 4 ( DY...BCA) Royal Gala fruit stored... 78 2e-18 2 ( FG286014 ) 1108770710800 New World S...crewworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-18 3 ( FG291726 ) 1108793360180 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70

  20. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system Distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e na pós-colheita de maçãs em função do sistema de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos, tanto em nível de campo como em pós-colheita, de maçãs 'Gala', 'Fuji' e 'Catarina', produzidas em pomares conduzidos em quatro sistemas de produção: convencional, transição convencional-orgânico, integrado e orgânico. As maçãs foram avaliadas quanto à presença de danos ocasionados por distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e em pós-colheita. Os maiores danos foram atribuídos às pragas, principalmente à Anastrepha fraterculus em sistema orgânico e à Grapholita molesta em sistema de transição convencional-orgânico. As maçãs produzidas em sistema orgânico tiveram maiores danos em pós-colheita ocasionados por distúrbios fisiológicos do que as dos demais sistemas de produção. Nas frutas produzidas em sistema orgânico, os danos, em sua maioria foram com degenerescência e depressão lenticelar para a cv. Gala, e bitter pit para as cvs. Fuji e Catarina. A incidência de podridões pós-colheita não foi influenciada pelo sistema de