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Sample records for macaque genital microbiota

  1. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

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    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus...

  2. Microbiota of male genital tract: impact on the health of man and his partner.

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    Mändar, Reet

    2013-03-01

    This manuscript describes the male genital tract microbiota and the significance of it on the host's and his partner's health. Microbiota exists in male lower genital tract, mostly in urethra and coronal sulcus while high inter-subject variability exists. Differences appear between sexually transmitted disease positive and negative men as well as circumcised and uncircumcised men. Upper genital tract is generally germ-free, except in case of infections. Prostatitis patients have frequently abundant polymicrobial communities in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine. Coryneform bacteria have ambivalent role in male urogenital tract being frequently commensals but sometimes associated with prostatitis and urethritis. Interactions between male and female genital tract microbiota are highly likely yet there are very scarce studies on the couples' genital tract microbiota. Increase of bacterial vaginosis-type microbiota and coliforms are the most typical findings in men while the adverse effect of male genital tract bacteria on in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome has also been indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  4. Distinct Effects of the Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infection on Female Genital Tract Immunology.

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    Shannon, B; Gajer, P; Yi, T J; Ma, B; Humphrys, M S; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Kaul, R

    2017-05-01

    Genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and may increase HIV-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. Several genital conditions that increase HIV risk are more prevalent in African, Caribbean, and other black (ACB) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in ACB women and microbiome-HSV-2 interactions. Cervicovaginal secretions and endocervical cells were collected by cytobrush and Instead Softcup, respectively. T cells and dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the microbiota by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The cervicovaginal microbiota of 51 participants were composed of community state types (CSTs) showing diversity (20/51; 39%) or predominated by Lactobacillus iners (22/51; 42%), L. crispatus (7/51; 14%), or L. gasseri (2/51; 4%). High-diversity CSTs and specific bacterial phyla (Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia) were strongly associated with cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines, but not with altered endocervical immune cells. However, cervical CD4+ T-cell number was associated with HSV-2 infection and a distinct cytokine profile. This suggests that the genital microbiota and HSV-2 infection may influence HIV susceptibility through independent biological mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

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    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  6. Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.

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    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters.

  7. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

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    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  8. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, littl...

  9. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  10. Gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum and the commensal microbiota in the ileum of healthy and early SIV-infected rhesus macaques

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    Golomb, Benjamin L.; Hirao, Lauren A.; Dandekar, Satya; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic HIV infection results in impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue leading to systemic immune activation. We previously showed that in early SIV-infected rhesus macaques intestinal dysfunction is initiated with the induction of the IL-1β pathway in the small intestine and reversed by treatment with an exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum strain. Here, we provide evidence that the transcriptomes of L. plantarum and ileal microbiota are not altered shortly after SIV infection. L. plantarum adapts to the small intestine by expressing genes required for tolerating oxidative stress, modifying cell surface composition, and consumption of host glycans. The ileal microbiota of L. plantarum-containing healthy and SIV+ rhesus macaques also transcribed genes for host glycan metabolism as well as for cobalamin biosynthesis. Expression of these pathways by bacteria were proposed but not previously demonstrated in the mammalian small intestine. PMID:27102350

  11. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

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    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  12. Combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy for male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis: Acceptability, tolerability and impact on the genital microbiota of couples - A pilot study.

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    Plummer, Erica L; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Murray, Gerald L; Fairley, Christopher K; Garland, Suzanne M; Hocking, Jane S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2018-01-01

    Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria) and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated) for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76%) completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]). We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile microbiota (median

  13. Combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy for male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis: Acceptability, tolerability and impact on the genital microbiota of couples - A pilot study.

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    Erica L Plummer

    Full Text Available Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota.Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index.Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76% completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]. We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile

  14. Alterations in the Genital Microbiota in Women With Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Pires, Cristhiane V G; Linhares, Iara M; Serzedello, Felipe; Fukazawa, Eiko I; Baracat, Edmund C; Witkin, Steven S

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the vaginal and cervical microbiota in women with spinal cord injury compared with mobile women. Fifty-two women with spinal cord injury (study group) and 57 mobile women (control group) were evaluated in a case-control study. All answered a structured questionnaire and were submitted to the following microbiological tests: microscopic examination of vaginal secretions for Trichomonas vaginalis and yeasts, Nugent score by Gram stain, bacterial culture, yeast culture, and endocervical sampling for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma species. Candida species detected by direct microscopic examination of vaginal fluid was more common in women with spinal cord injuries than in control women: 17.3% (9/52) compared with 3.5% (2/57), respectively (P=.017). However, the frequency of yeast-positive cultures was similar in both groups (21.2% [10/52] compared with 15.8% [14/57]). Women with spinal cord injury were more likely to have positive vaginal cultures for Escherichia coli (15.4% [8/52] compared with 0% [0/57], P=.002) and Corynebacterium species (25.0% [13/52] compared with 8.8% [5/57], P=.037) and less likely for Lactobacillus species (63.5% [33/52] compared with 94.7% [54/57], Pvaginal microbiota away from a Lactobacillus species-dominated flora and a higher concentration of vaginal Candida species than do mobile women.

  15. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

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    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  16. Genital warts

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    ... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...

  17. The lower genital tract microbiota in relation to cytokine-, SLPI- and endotoxin levels: application of checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization (CDH).

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    Nikolaitchouk, Natalia; Andersch, Björn; Falsen, Enevold; Strömbeck, Louise; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2008-04-01

    In the present study the lower genital tract microbiota in asymptomatic fertile women (n=34) was identified and quantified by culturing vaginal secretions. Also, vaginal and cervical samples were analyzed by a semiquantitative checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique (CDH) based on genomic probes prepared from 13 bacterial species (Bacteroides ureolyticus, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii ss curtisii, Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Prevotella melaninogenica, Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus iners, Staphylococcus aureus ss aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus agalactiae). The bacterial species found by either culture or CDH were correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and endotoxin in the cervicovaginal samples. Grading the women into healthy, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis (BV) as based on Gram staining of vaginal smears, the viable counts of lactobacilli (L. gasseri) and of streptococci-staphylococci combined were highest in the intermediate group. In BV, particularly the high concentrations of Actinomyces urogenitalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Peptoniphilus harei were noted (>or=10(11) per ml). The total viable counts correlated with both cervical IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. A strong negative correlation was observed between L. iners and total viable counts, G. vaginalis, or cervical IL-1 alpha, while it correlated positively with SLPI. Analysis of vaginal and cervical samples from 26 out of the 34 women by CDH showed that anaerobic bacteria were more frequently detected by CDH compared to culture. By this method, A. vaginae correlated with G. vaginalis, and L. iners with S. aureus. With regard to cytokines, B. ureolyticus correlated with both cervical and vaginal IL-1 alpha as well as with cervical IL-8, while F. nucleatum, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, or S. aureus correlated with vaginal IL-1 alpha

  18. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Selected Genital Tract Immunological Markers and Molecular Vaginal Microbiota in Sub-Saharan African Women, with Relevance to HIV Risk and Prevention.

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    Kyongo, Jordan K; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Cools, Piet; Michiels, Johan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Joseph, Sarah; Fichorova, Raina; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K; Jespers, Vicky

    2015-05-01

    Data on immune mediators in the genital tract and the factors that modulate them in sub-Saharan women are limited. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples from 430 sexually active women from Kenya, South Africa, and Rwanda were analyzed for 12 soluble immune mediators using Bio-Plex and Meso Scale Discovery multiplex platforms, as well as single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ten bacterial species were quantified in vaginal swab samples. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined by Nugent scoring. CVL samples from HIV-infected women showed a clear-cut proinflammatory profile. Pregnant women, adolescents, and women engaging in traditional vaginal practices differed in specific soluble markers compared to reference groups of adult HIV-negative women. Cervical mucus, cervical ectopy, abnormal vaginal discharge, and having multiple sex partners were each associated with an increase in inflammatory mediators. The levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and IL-8 were elevated, whereas the IL-1RA/IL-1(α+β) ratio decreased in women with BV. The level of gamma interferon-induced protein 10 was lower in BV-positive than in BV-negative women, suggesting its suppression as a potential immune evasion mechanism by BV-associated bacteria. Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus vaginalis were associated with decreased proinflammatory cytokines and each BV-associated species with increased proinflammatory cytokines. Remarkably, the in vitro anti-HIV activity of CVL samples from BV-positive women was stronger than that of BV-negative women. In conclusion, we found significant associations of factors, including vaginal microbiota, which can influence immune mediators in the vaginal environment in sexually active women. These factors need to be considered when establishing normative levels or pathogenic cutoffs of biomarkers of inflammation and associated risks in African women. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome.

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    Gregory Spear

    Full Text Available Vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques (RM with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV has been used to study the biology of HIV transmission. Although the results of vaginal SIV transmission experiments could be affected by vaginal inflammation, studies to date have been conducted without regard to levels of pre-existing genital inflammation present in RM. We collected cevicovaginal secretions (CVS from 33-36 RM during the mid menstrual cycle (day 10-20 at 2 time points approximately 8 months apart and characterized the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes. There was extreme variability in the levels of inflammatory mediators (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF, IL-1b, IP-10, MIG, IL-12 and IL-17. In most animals, the mRNA levels of the inflammatory mediators were similar in the 2 CVS samples collected 8 months apart, suggesting that genital inflammation is stable in a subset of captive female RM. At both time points the cervicovaginal microbiota had low levels of Lactobacillus and was relatively diverse with an average of 13 genera in the samples from the first time point (median 13, range 7-21 and an average of 11.5 genera in the samples from the second time point (median 11, range 5-20. Many of the macaques had similar microbiota in the samples collected 8 months apart. However, we found no correlation between specific bacterial genera and the mRNA or protein levels of the inflammatory mediators in the genital tract of RM in this study. It seems likely that results of published vaginal SIV transmission experiments in RM have been influenced by pre-existing inflammation in the animals used for the experiments.

  20. Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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    Sharma, Harsha; Tal, Reshef; Clark, Natalie A.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tract microbiota play a crucial role in maintaining health. Disequilibrium of the microbiota has been associated with increased risk of pelvic infections. In recent years, culture-independent molecular techniques have expanded understanding of the composition of genital microbiota and the dynamic nature of the microbiota. There is evidence that upper genital tract may not be sterile and may harbor microflora in the physiologic state. The isolation of bacterial vaginosis-associated organisms in women with genital infections establishes a link between pelvic infections and abnormal vaginal flora. With the understanding of the composition of the microbiota in healthy and diseased states, the next logical step is to identify the function of the newly identified microbes. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of the causation of pelvic infections, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24390920

  1. Genital Herpes

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    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ...

  2. Genital Herpes

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    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  3. Genital sores - male

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    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  4. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract.

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    Anahtar, Melis N; Byrne, Elizabeth H; Doherty, Kathleen E; Bowman, Brittany A; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L; Walker, Bruce D; Fichorova, Raina N; Kwon, Douglas S

    2015-05-19

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High-diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen-presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby might affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital warts? ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  6. Genital herpes.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment.

  7. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  8. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  9. Genital herpes simplex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and canc...

  10. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Genital herpes cannot be cured. Antiviral medicine (acyclovir and related drugs) may relieve pain and discomfort and help ...

  11. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  12. Genital herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon, I S; Dudley, D K; Walters, J H

    1981-07-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history.

  13. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  14. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  15. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  16. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  17. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against STDs. Using douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora (healthy bacteria) of the vagina and may flush STD pathogens higher into the genital tract. A teen who is being treated for herpes ...

  18. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  19. Genital ulcers in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes

  20. Female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role

  1. Vaginal microbiota in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Martinus Tarina; Larisa Paramitha; Evita Halim Effendi; Shannaz Nadia Yusharyahya; Hanny Nilasari; Wresti Indriatmi

    2016-01-01

    The human vagina together with its resident, microbiota, comprise a dynamic ecosystem. Normal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species, and pathogen microbiota such as Gardnerella species and Bacteroides species can occur due to decrease in Lactobacillus domination. Lactobacillus plays an essential role in keeping normal vaginal microbiota in balance. Vaginal microbiota adapts to pH change and hormonal value. Changes in the vaginal microbiota over a woman’s lifespan will influence the...

  2. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  4. Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.

  5. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  6. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  7. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  8. Cleavage/alteration of interleukin-8 by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the female lower genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffard, M Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract.

  9. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  10. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  11. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  12. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  13. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  14. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Maria C.; Ortega-Rocha, Elizabeth M.; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Boudin, Helene; Neunlist, Michel; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Riedel, Claudia A.

    2018-01-01

    The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:29593681

  16. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  17. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  18. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  19. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  20. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  1. Neuropeptides, Microbiota, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, P

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota and the brain interact with each other through multiple bidirectional signaling pathways in which neuropeptides and neuroactive peptide messengers play potentially important mediator roles. Currently, six particular modes of a neuropeptide link are emerging. (i) Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters contribute to the mutual microbiota-host interaction. (ii) The synthesis of neuroactive peptides is influenced by microbial control of the availability of amino acids. (iii) The activity of neuropeptides is tempered by microbiota-dependent autoantibodies. (iv) Peptide signaling between periphery and brain is modified by a regulatory action of the gut microbiota on the blood-brain barrier. (v) Within the brain, gut hormones released under the influence of the gut microbiota turn into neuropeptides that regulate multiple aspects of brain activity. (vi) Cerebral neuropeptides participate in the molecular, behavioral, and autonomic alterations which the brain undergoes in response to signals from the gut microbiota. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  3. The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verwijs, Marijn C.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Verhelst, Rita; Schuren, Frank H.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The observed association between Depo-Provera injectable use and increased HIV acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or

  4. Monkey business : the illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization, modus operandi and trade route of the illegal trade in Barbary macaques. The Barbary macaque is the most seized CITES mammal in the EU, accounting for almost 25% of live mammalrelated seizures. It is estimated that as few as 5,000-6,000 Barbary macaques

  5. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  6. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  7. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  9. Vaginal microbiota in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus Tarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vagina together with its resident, microbiota, comprise a dynamic ecosystem. Normal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species, and pathogen microbiota such as Gardnerella species and Bacteroides species can occur due to decrease in Lactobacillus domination. Lactobacillus plays an essential role in keeping normal vaginal microbiota in balance. Vaginal microbiota adapts to pH change and hormonal value. Changes in the vaginal microbiota over a woman’s lifespan will influence the colonization of pathogenic microbes. They include changes in child, puberty, reproductive state, menopause, and postmenopause. Estrogen levels change will affect the colonization of pathogenic microbium, leading to genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Vulvovaginal atrophy is often found in postmenopausal women, and dominated by L. iners, Anaerococcus sp, Peptoniphilus sp, Prevotella sp, and Streptococcus sp. The normal vaginal microbiota’s imbalance in menopause will cause diseases such as bacterial vaginosis, and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis due to hormonal therapies. Changes in the vaginal microbiota due to bacterial vaginosis are characterized by decrease in H2O2-producing Lactobacillus. They are also caused by the increase in numbers and concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and other anaerob species such as Peptostreptococci, Prevotella spp, and Mobiluncus spp.

  10. Rhesus macaques form preferences for brand logos through sex and social status based advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikalin, M Yavuz; Watson, Karli K; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Platt, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals and high status monkeys. Moreover, monkeys sustain preferences for these brand logos even though choosing them provided no tangible rewards, a finding that cannot be explained by a decision mechanism operating solely on material outcomes. Together, our results endorse the hypothesis that the power of sex and status in advertising emerges from the spontaneous engagement of shared, ancestral neural circuits that prioritize information useful for navigating the social environment. Finally, our results show that simple associative conditioning is sufficient to explain the formation of preferences for brand logos paired with sexual or status-based images.

  11. Vaginal microbiota and its role in HIV transmission and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; van den Broek, Marianne; Balzarini, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The urogenital tract appears to be the only niche of the human body that shows clear differences in microbiota between men and women. The female reproductive tract has special features in terms of immunological organization, an epithelial barrier, microbiota, and influence by sex hormones such as estrogen. While the upper genital tract is regarded as free of microorganisms, the vagina is colonized by bacteria dominated by Lactobacillus species, although their numbers vary considerably during life. Bacterial vaginosis is a common pathology characterized by dysbiosis, which increases the susceptibility for HIV infection and transmission. On the other hand, HIV infections are often characterized by a disturbed vaginal microbiota. The endogenous vaginal microbiota may protect against HIV by direct production of antiviral compounds, through blocking of adhesion and transmission by ligands such as lectins, and/or by stimulation of immune responses. The potential role of probiotics in the prevention of HIV infections and associated symptoms, by introducing them to the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is also discussed. Of note, the GIT is a site of considerable HIV replication and CD4(+) T-cell destruction, resulting in both local and systemic inflammation. Finally, genetically engineered lactobacilli show promise as new microbicidal agents against HIV. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  13. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  14. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  15. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  16. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  17. Female genital schistosomiasis : pathological features and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  18. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  19. Yeasts of the genital region of patients attending the dermatology service at Hospital São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Mantovani, Ariane; Yamashita, Jane Tomimori; Gambale, Walderez; Fischman, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the diversity of yeasts that make up the skin microbiota of human beings is essential for the efficient monitoring of infections to which a person may be predisposed. This study identified yeasts comprising the genital skin microbiota of patients attending the Dermatology Service at the Hospital São Paulo-UNIFESP, Brazil. Samples were collected from the genital region of each patient and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Individual colonies were carefully transferred to tubes daily. Yeasts were identified based on classical methodologies and confirmed using a commercial kit. Eighty-three patients were included in the study. Approximately 80% were women and 20% were men. The average age was 55 years. Hypertension, diabetes, kidney transplant and AIDS were the main underlying diseases reported by the patients. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida parapsilosis (36.1%), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (9.2%), Rhodotorula glutinis (8.3%), Candida tropicalis (5.5%) and Trichosporon inkin (1.8%). Approximately 78% of the isolates were obtained in pure cultures. Trichosporon inkin was isolated only from women, in contrast to literature describing a high prevalence in males. Our results suggest that Candida albicans is not the main yeast found on genital skin as previously thought, and opportunistic pathogens such as C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula spp. and T. inkin make up the genital skin microbiota, representing a risk for infection in immunocompromised subjects. These results also indicate that women are carriers of T. inkin, the etiological agent of white piedra and trichosporonosis. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  1. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  2. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Project Lifescape - The Macaques of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Project Lifescape - The Macaques of India. Anindya Sinha. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 94-105. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0094-0105 ...

  4. Comparison of the vaginal microbiota diversity of women with and without human papillomavirus infection: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weijiao; Weng, Jinlong; Gao, Yunong; Chen, Xiaochi

    2013-06-10

    The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the association between bacterial vaginosis and HPV infection. Little is known about the composition of vaginal microbial communities involved in HPV acquisition. The present study was performed to investigate whether HPV infection was associated with the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota. A total of 70 healthy women (32 HPV-negative and 38 HPV-positive) with normal cervical cytology were enrolled in this study. Culture-independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to measure the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of all subjects. We found significantly greater biological diversity in the vaginal microbiota of HPV-positive women (p vaginal microbiota from the two groups had different profiles. Our study is the first systematic evaluation of an association between vaginal microbiota and HPV infection, and we have demonstrated that compared with HPV-negative women, the bacterial diversity of HPV-positive women is more complex and the composition of vaginal microbiota is different.

  5. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, F

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2...

  6. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  7. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  8. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  9. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, H S

    2004-04-01

    A descriptive study of 140 patients with severe genital prolapse managed by colposacrosuspension with mesh interposition and a modified Burch colposuspension. A laparotomy was performed with mobilization of the rectum and exploration of the rectovaginal septum. Vaginally, a longitudinal incision was made in the posterior vaginal wall which was completely separated from the rectum. A perineal repair was done, whereafter a strip of Vypro (Johnson & Johnson, Brussels, Belgium) mesh was inserted from the perineum to the sacrum at S1. It was fixated to the perineum and vagina while the rectum was elevated and attached to the mesh. Where a perineal repair was deemed not necessary, the mesh extended from the mid-vagina to the sacrum. A second mesh strip was placed anteriorly of the vagina, covering the upper third of the vagina and extending to the sacrum. After closure of the pelvic peritoneum, covering the mesh, a modified Burch colposuspension was performed. Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 6 months and yearly thereafter. The median age was 61 years with a median parity of 3. All patients presented with grade 2 (extending to the vaginal introitus) or 3 (outside the vaginal introitus) prolapse. Approximately one-third had urinary incontinence and a similar proportion complained of difficulty in defecation. All the patients underwent colposacrosuspension with the mesh extending to the perineum in 67% of the patients. A Burch colposuspension was performed in 79% of the women. Postoperatively, 97% of the patients were followed for 1-29 months with a median of 8.5 months (mean 10.2 months). Recurrent prolapse, grade 2 or 3, developed in 11 patients (8%) and 17 patients (12%) developed urinary incontinence, needing a transvaginal tape procedure. Removal of the mesh was necessary in one patient (0.7%). Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse delivered satisfactory short-term results. It is, however, a major surgical procedure and elderly or compromised patients may

  10. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  11. Direct Questioning of Genital Symptoms: Increasing Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    prompted and pelvic examination findings of genital symptoms. Against the ... Correspondence to: ABM Kharsany CAPRISA 2nd Floor Doris Duke Medical Research Institute Nelson R Mandela ..... training efforts should focus on health care.

  12. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  13. Diagnostic Challenges of Female Genital Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Vigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for one fifth of the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB annually. Genital tract TB is one of the extra pulmonary presentations of TB leading to infertility among Indian women. Genital TB is a chronic disease and often asymptomatic with very few specific complaints. Infertility is the most common clinical presentation of genital TB. Herein, we report a case of 32-year-old female patient suffering from abdominal pain and infertility for the last 8 months. Methods: Hysterosalpingography (HSG and ultrasonography (USG did not reveal characteristic radiological appearances of TB although USG detected the presence of a large fibroid in the right uterine wall. Histology, microscopy for acid fast bacilli, liquid culture and nucleic acid amplification assay targeting 64kDa protein encoding gene, the IS6110 element of endometrium biopsy were negative for tubercle bacilli. Results: Since the diagnosis of genital TB is elusive, antitubercular treatment (ATT using isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol was prescribed for two months followed by maintenance therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin for four months without any pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: However, the patient conceived spontaneously after surgical removal of fibroid. Relating infertility to female genital tuberculosis due to high prevalence of TB in the country and ignoring the presence of uterine fibroid might not have been the right decision taken by the gynaecologist. This suggests the urgent need for an accurate method intended for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis.

  14. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  15. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  16. A Macaque Model for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum and Non-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis: Impact on Rectal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Aubert, Rachael D; Morris, Monica R; Zhao, Chunxia; Philips, Christi; Khalil, George M; Deyounks, Frank; Kelley, Kristen; Ritter, Jana M; Chen, C Y; Kersh, Ellen N; McNicholl, Janet M

    2017-09-01

    Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3). SHIV viremia was determined by real-time PCR and Chlamydia infection by APTIMA Combo 2 testing. The rectal cytokine-chemokine levels were evaluated by multiplex bead assays. Rectal Chlamydia infection was maintained throughout the study. We did not observe significant differences (P = 1.0) in frequency of SHIV acquisition between the STI and control arms. It took fewer SHIV challenges to infect the STI animals although the difference was not significant (P = 0.59). There were no significant differences in peak plasma viremia between STI and control arms (P = 0.63). The association of plasma viremia with rectal shedding was significantly different by arm (P = 0.038). In the first such study in a macaque model, we did not observe an increased risk of SHIV acquisition due to rectal Chlamydia coinfection. This macaque model can be further developed and expanded to better investigate the impact of different rectal STIs on HIV acquisition.

  17. Development of sexual behavior in free-ranging female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-09-01

    We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  19. Relationship of Estimated SHIV Acquisition Time Points During the Menstrual Cycle and Thinning of Vaginal Epithelial Layers in Pigtail Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Ritter, Jana; Butler, Katherine; Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Hanson, Debra; Ellis, Shanon; Zaki, Sherif; McNicholl, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    HIV acquisition in the female genital tract remains incompletely understood. Quantitative data on biological HIV risk factors, the influence of reproductive hormones, and infection risk are lacking. We evaluated vaginal epithelial thickness during the menstrual cycle in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). This model previously revealed increased susceptibility to vaginal infection during and after progesterone-dominated periods in the menstrual cycle. Nucleated and nonnucleated (superficial) epithelial layers were quantitated throughout the menstrual cycle of 16 macaques. We examined the relationship with previously estimated vaginal SHIVSF162P3 acquisition time points in the cycle of 43 different animals repeatedly exposed to low virus doses. In the luteal phase (days 17 to cycle end), the mean vaginal epithelium thinned to 66% of mean follicular thickness (days 1-16; P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney test). Analyzing 4-day segments, the epithelium was thickest on days 9 to 12 and thinned to 31% thereof on days 29 to 32, with reductions of nucleated and nonnucleated layers to 36% and 15% of their previous thickness, respectively. The proportion of animals with estimated SHIV acquisition in each cycle segment correlated with nonnucleated layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.7, P layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.6, P = 0.15). These data provide a detailed picture of dynamic cycle-related changes in the vaginal epithelium of pigtail macaques. Substantial thinning occurred in the superficial, nonnucleated layer, which maintains the vaginal microbiome. The findings support vaginal tissue architecture as susceptibility factor for infection and contribute to our understanding of innate resistance to SHIV infection.

  20. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  1. The Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Macaques and the Associated Pathological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengtao; Cai, Hongzhi; Xu, Xingli; Feng, Min; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; He, Zhanlong; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jumin; Li, Qihan

    2017-01-30

    As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1.Interestingly, vesicular lesions recurred in oral skin or in mucosa associated with virus shedding in macaques within four to five months post-infection,and viral latency-associated transcript (LAT) mRNA was found in the trigeminal ganglia (TG)on day 365 post-infection. Neutralization testing and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) detection of specific T cell responses confirmed the specific immunity induced by HSV1 infection. Thus, rhesus macaques could serve as an infectious model for HSV1 due to their typical clinical symptoms and the pathological recurrence associated with viral latency in nervous tissues.

  2. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  3. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  4. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  5. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  6. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  8. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  9. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  10. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  11. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  13. Gut microbiota and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Diallo, Aldiouma; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five, and is the focus of the first World Health Organization (WHO) Millennium Development Goal. Breastfeeding, food and water security are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM. Besides refeeding and antibiotics, future trials including non-toxic missing microbes and nutrients necessary to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM, including prebiotics and antioxidants, are warranted in children with severe or refractory disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  15. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  16. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  17. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  18. [Primary genital herpes with sacral meningoradiculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, P-N; Anguenot, J-L; Dubuisson, J-B

    2004-02-01

    Herpetic genital infection is a common sexually transmitted disease, caused in most cases by type 2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV2). This virus is characterized by its neurotropic properties and its ability to establish latency in sacral sensory ganglions. Some cases of genital primo-infection are complicated by viral replication dissemination to neigbhoring nerve structures like meninges and radicular terminations. In such cases muco-cutaneous manifestations are associated with peripheral neurological impairment in the form of meningo-radiculitis. Physicians should be familiar with these neurological symptoms knowing that they always regress completely. The present report illustrates these complications and reviews the potential neurological implications described in the literature.

  19. The Epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria - A Twelve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence. The practice has several negative health and economic consequences. Culture and tradition are important factors fuelling its persistence. Conclusion: Female genital ... Female genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting or female ... without medical indication. This contrasts with male.

  20. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Progression to External Genital Lesions: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiota, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécily Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the potential links between the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer, with a focus on the pro-carcinogenic properties of bacterial microbiota such as induction of inflammation, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation and the production of toxic metabolites. Finally, we will describe the potential therapeutic strategies based on intestinal microbiota manipulation for colorectal cancer treatment.

  3. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  4. Rectal Lipoma Associated with Genital Prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female genital prolapse. In the present case, as the patient is post‑menopausal and with co‑existing partial rectal prolapse, vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. Diagnostic approaches usually include endoscopy, contrast‑enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, and barium enema. Endoscopic biopsies usually fail to diagnose ...

  5. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.I. Serour

    Globally 100–140 million women and girls have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting ... In some Muslim countries where FGM/C is prevalent it is often wrongly quoted that the basis for ..... ditional health care, community leaders, educators, social scientists, ... lators, mass media, religious leaders, and NGOs.

  6. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  7. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  8. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  9. Hyperaesthesia following genital herpes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  10. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  11. Female genital mutilation - from tradition to femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose

  12. Guidelines for the Standardization of Genital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumblat, Natalie R; Chim, Jimmy; Sanchez Aguirre, Priscila Gisselle; Bedolla, Edgar; Salgado, Christopher J

    2018-02-06

    Plastic surgery relies on photography for both clinical practice and research. The Photographic Standards in Plastic Surgery laid the foundation for standardized photography in plastic surgery. Despite these advancements, the current literature lacks guidelines for genital photography, thus resulting in a discordance of documentation. The authors propose photographic standards for the male and female genitalia to establish homogeneity in which information can be accurately exchanged. All medical photographs include a sky-blue background, proper lighting, removal of distractors, consistent camera framing, and standard camera angles. We propose the following guidelines to standardize genital photography. In the anterior upright position, feet are shoulder-width apart and arms are placed posteriorly. The frame is bounded superiorly by the xiphoid-umbilicus midpoint and inferiorly by the patella. For circumferential documentation, frontal 180 degree capture via 45 degree intervals is often sufficient. Images in standard lithotomy position should be captured at both parallel and 45 degrees above the horizontal. Images of the phallus should include both the flaccid and erect states. Despite the increasing incidence of genital procedures, there lacks a standardized methodology in which to document the genitalia, resulting in a substantial heterogeneity in the current literature. Our standardized techniques for genital photography set forth to establish a uniform language that promotes more effective communication with both the patient as well as with colleagues. The proposed photography guidelines provide optimal visualization and standard documentation of the genitalia, allowing for accurate education, meaningful collaborations, and advancement in genital surgery. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Genetic characterization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyes, Randall C; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chalise, Mukesh K; Engel, Gregory; Heidrich, John; Grant, Richard; Bajimaya, Shyam S; McDonough, John; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy

    2006-05-01

    Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of a third rhesus population, the rhesus macaques of Nepal. Twenty-one rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, were compared with more than 300 Indian- and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, from the HVS I and 12 S rRNA regions, showed that the Nepali animals were more similar to Indian-origin than to Chinese-origin animals. The distribution of alleles at 24 short tandem repeat (STR) loci distributed across 17 chromosomes also showed greater similarity between the Nepali and Indian-origin animals. Finally, an analysis of seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles showed that the Nepali animals expressed Class I alleles that are common to Indian-origin animals, including Mamu-A*01. All of these analyses also revealed a low level of genetic diversity within this Nepali rhesus sample. We conclude that the rhesus macaques of Nepal more closely resemble rhesus macaques of Indian origin than those of Chinese origin. As such, the Nepali rhesus may offer an additional resource option for researchers who wish to maintain research protocols with animals that possess key genetic features characteristic of Indian-origin rhesus macaques. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  16. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  17. The Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  18. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  19. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  20. Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, M; Lagier, J-C; Yahav, D; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    Although probiotics and antibiotics have been used for decades as growth promoters in animals, attention has only recently been drawn to the association between the gut microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. Studies in mice have associated the phylum Firmicutes with obesity and the phylum Bacteroidetes with weight loss. Proposed mechanisms linking the microbiota to fat content and weight include differential effects of bacteria on the efficiency of energy extraction from the diet, and changes in host metabolism of absorbed calories. The independent effect of the microbiota on fat accumulation has been demonstrated in mice, where transplantation of microbiota from obese mice or mice fed western diets to lean or germ-free mice produced fat accumulation among recipients. The microbiota can be manipulated by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics. Probiotics affect the microbiota directly by modulating its bacterial content, and indirectly through bacteriocins produced by the probiotic bacteria. Interestingly, certain probiotics are associated with weight gain both in animals and in humans. The effects are dependent on the probiotic strain, the host, and specific host characteristics, such as age and baseline nutritional status. Attention has recently been drawn to the association between antibiotic use and weight gain in children and adults. We herein review the studies describing the associations between the microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Ooi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  5. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  7. Genital elephantiasis due to donovanosis: forgotten but not gone yet ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, T; Kanwar, A J

    2012-11-01

    Genital elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by massive enlargement of the genitalia. Early aetiological diagnosis is of paramount importance so that development of genital elephantiasis can be prevented; otherwise it is not completely reversible with medical therapy and often requires surgical intervention. Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual. Over time, the infectious causes of genital elephantiasis have evolved, from syphilis in the pre-penicillin era to donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and recently filariasis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, HIV and chromoblastomycosis. With a declining prevalence globally, donovanosis is at risk of being forgotten as a cause of genital swelling; however, it is known to persist for years without treatment and can lead to complications such as lymphoedema and genital mutilation. We herein present a case of genital elephantiasis that was eventually diagnosed as being due to donovanosis.

  8. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  9. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonanc...

  11. Qualitative analysis of the vaginal microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle with genital-tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N F; Kästle, J; Coutinho, T J D; Amorim, A T; Campos, G B; Santos, V M; Marques, L M; Timenetsky, J; de Farias, S T

    2015-06-12

    The microbial community of the reproductive appara-tus, when known, can provide information about the health of the host. Metagenomics has been used to characterize and obtain genetic infor-mation about microbial communities in various environments and can relate certain diseases with changes in this community composition. In this study, samples of vaginal surface mucosal secretions were col-lected from five healthy cows and five cows that showed symptoms of reproductive disorders. Following high-throughput sequencing of the isolated microbial DNA, data were processed using the Mothur soft-ware to remove low-quality sequences and chimeras, and released to the Ribosomal Database Project for classification of operational taxo-nomic units (OTUs). Local BLASTn was performed and results were loaded into the MEGAN program for viewing profiles and taxonomic microbial attributes. The control profile comprised a total of 15 taxa, with Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Victivallis comprising the highest representation of OTUs; the reproductive disorder-positive profile comprised 68 taxa, with Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, His-tophilus, Victivallis, Alistipes, and Coriobacteriaceae being the taxa with the most OTU representation. A change was observed in both the community composition as well as in the microbial attributes of the profiles, suggesting that a relationship might exist between the patho-gen and representative taxa, reflecting the production of metabolites to disease progression.

  12. [Microbiota of lower urine tract and genital organs of healthy men and in infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Iu L; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Ibishev, Kh S; Pasechnik, D G; Logvinov, A K; Ilmdarov, Sh B

    2015-01-01

    Study microflora of urine, ejaculate, urethra scrape in normal state and infertility. 2 groups of men were examined: I (28)--control, conditionally healthy men (20 - 25 years of age), II (26)--infertile patients (25 - 35 years of age). Middle portion of morning urine, ejaculate, urethra scrape were studied in group I, in II--ejaculate. Bacteriologic study of urine and ejaculate was carried out in an extended kit of nutrient media (HiMedia) for facultative- anaerobic (FAB) and non-clostridia anaerobic bacteria (NAB). Urethra scrape and ejaculate were studied by PCR in group I. In urethra scrape and ejaculate a wide spectrum of FAB and NAB was detected in group I. Corynebacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci (67.9% each) were the dominant cluster of FAB. Eubacterium spp.--in NAB. Bacteriologic study of ejaculate corresponded in PCR with similar results of dominating bacteria. Among FAB the same clusters dominated during bacteriologic study of ejaculate from group II patients, among NAB--Propionibacterium spp., Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. Quantitative characteristics of ejaculate of group I and II differed insignificantly. The frequency of detection of certain genera of FAB and NAB was significantly higher in patients with infertility than in conditionally healthy men, however quantitative parameters of the isolated microorganisms practically did not differ between groups.

  13. Heterologous prime-boost regimens with a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector and adjuvanted F4 protein elicit polyfunctional HIV-1-specific T-Cell responses in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Clarisse; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick; Baudart, Sébastien; Ska, Michaël; Bayat, Babak; Brauers, Geoffroy; Clarinval, Géraldine; Donner, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Martine; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Mettens, Pascal; Cohen, Joe; Voss, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important for HIV-1 replication control. F4/AS01 consists of F4 recombinant fusion protein (containing clade B Gag/p24, Pol/RT, Nef and Gag/p17) formulated in AS01 Adjuvant System, and was shown to induce F4-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses in humans. While replication-incompetent recombinant HIV-1/SIV antigen-expressing human adenoviral vectors can elicit high-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, their use is hampered by widespread pre-existing immunity to human serotypes. Non-human adenovirus serotypes associated with lower prevalence may offer an alternative strategy. We evaluated the immunogenicity of AdC7-GRN ('A'), a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 vector expressing clade B Gag, RT and Nef, and F4/AS01 ('P'), when delivered intramuscularly in homologous (PP or AA) and heterologous (AAPP or PPAA) prime-boost regimens, in macaques and mice. Vaccine-induced HIV-1-antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood (macaques), liver, spleen, and intestinal and genital mucosa (mice) were characterized by intracellular cytokine staining. Vaccine-specific IgG antibodies (macaques) were detected using ELISA. In macaques, only the heterologous prime-boost regimens induced polyfunctional, persistent and balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific to each HIV-1 vaccine antigen. AdC7-GRN priming increased the polyfunctionality of F4/AS01-induced CD4+ T cells. Approximately 50% of AdC7-GRN-induced memory CD8+ T cells exhibited an effector-memory phenotype. HIV-1-specific antibodies were detected with each regimen. In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in the mucosal and systemic anatomical compartments assessed. When administered in heterologous prime-boost regimens, AdC7-GRN and F4/AS01 candidate vaccines acted complementarily in inducing potent and persistent peripheral blood HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and antibodies in macaques. Besides

  14. Genital piercings: what is known and what people with genital piercings tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E

    2006-06-01

    General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.

  15. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

  16. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  17. Analysis of carboxylesterase 2 transcript variants in cynomolgus macaque liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Maori; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-04-27

    Carboxylesterase (CES) is important for the detoxification of a wide range of drugs and xenobiotics. In this study, the hepatic level of CES2 mRNA was examined in cynomolgus macaques used widely in preclinical studies for drug metabolism. Three CES2 mRNAs were present in cynomolgus macaque liver. The mRNA level was highest for cynomolgus CES2A (formerly CES2v3), much lower for cynomolgus CES2B (formerly CES2v1) and extremely low for cynomolgus CES2C (formerly CES2v2). Most various transcript variants produced from cynomolgus CES2B gene did not contain a complete coding region. Thus, CES2A is the major CES2 enzyme in cynomolgus liver. A new transcript variant of CES2A, CES2Av2, was identified. CES2Av2 contained exon 3 region different from wild-type (CES2Av1). In cynomolgus macaques expressing only CES2Av2 transcript, CES2A contained the sequence of CES2B in exon 3 and vicinity, probably due to gene conversion. On genotyping, this CES2Av2 allele was prevalent in Indochinese cynomolgus macaques, but not in Indonesian cynomolgus or rhesus macaques. CES2Av2 recombinant protein showed similar activity to CES2Av1 protein for several substrates. It is concluded that CES2A is the major cynomolgus hepatic CES2, and new transcript variant, CES2Av2, has similar functions to CES2Av1.

  18. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  19. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  20. Viral RNA levels and env variants in semen and tissues of mature male rhesus macaques infected with SIV by penile inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Fieni

    Full Text Available HIV is shed in semen but the anatomic site of virus entry into the genital secretions is unknown. We determined viral RNA (vRNA levels and the envelope gene sequence in the SIVmac 251 viral populations in the genital tract and semen of 5 adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta that were infected after experimental penile SIV infection. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 1-9 weeks after infection and the monkeys were necropsied eleven weeks after infection. The axillary lymph nodes, testes, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles were collected and vRNA levels and single-genome analysis of the SIVmac251 env variants was performed. At the time of semen collection, blood vRNA levels were between 3.09 and 7.85 log10 vRNA copies/ml plasma. SIV RNA was found in the axillary lymph nodes of all five monkeys and in 3 of 5 monkeys, all tissues examined were vRNA positive. In these 3 monkeys, vRNA levels (log10 SIVgag copies/ug of total tissue RNA in the axillary lymph node (6.48 ± 0.50 were significantly higher than in the genital tract tissues: testis (3.67 ± 2.16; p<0.05, epididymis (3.08 ± 1.19; p<0.0001, prostate (3.36 ± 1.30; p<0.01, and seminal vesicle (2.67 ± 1.50; p<0.0001. Comparison of the SIVmac251 env viral populations in blood plasma, systemic lymph node, and genital tract tissues was performed in two of the macaques. Visual inspection of the Neighbor-Joining phylograms revealed that in both animals, all the sequences were generally distributed evenly among all tissue compartments. Importantly, viral populations in the genital tissues were not distinct from those in the systemic tissues. Our findings demonstrate striking similarity in the viral populations in the blood and male genital tract tissues within 3 months of penile SIV transmission.

  1. Semen CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages Are Productively Infected at All Stages of SIV infection in Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Stoecklin, Sibylle; Gommet, Céline; Corneau, Aurélien B.; Guenounou, Sabrina; Torres, Claire; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Cosma, Antonio; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal events of HIV transmission have been extensively studied, but the role of infected cells present in the genital and rectal secretions, and in the semen, in particular, remains a matter of debate. As a prerequisite to a thorough in vivo investigation of the early transmission events through infected cells, we characterized in detail by multi-parameter flow cytometry the changes in macaque seminal leukocytes during SIVmac251 infection, focusing on T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Using immunocytofluorescence targeting SIV proteins and real-time quantitative PCR targeting SIV DNA, we investigated the nature of the infected cells on sorted semen leukocytes from macaques at different stages of infection. Finally, we cocultured semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages with a cell line permissive to SIV infection to assess their infectivity in vitro. We found that primary infection induced strong local inflammation, which was associated with an increase in the number of leukocytes in semen, both factors having the potential to favor cell-associated virus transmission. Semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages were productively infected at all stages of infection and were infectious in vitro. Lymphocytes had a mucosal phenotype and expressed activation (CD69 & HLA-DR) and migration (CCR5, CXCR4, LFA-1) markers. CD69 expression was increased in semen T cells by SIV infection, at all stages of infection. Macrophages predominated at all stages and expressed CD4, CCR5, MAC-1 and LFA-1. Altogether, we demonstrated that semen contains the two major SIV-target cells (CD4+ T cells and macrophages). Both cell types can be productively infected at all stages of SIV infection and are endowed with markers that may facilitate transmission of infection during sexual exposure. PMID:24348253

  2. Heterologous Protection against Asian Zika Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. Recently, in vitro studies demonstrated that ZIKV likely circulates as a single serotype. Here, we demonstrate that immunity elicited by African lineage ZIKV protects rhesus macaques against subsequent infection with Asian lineage ZIKV.Using our recently developed rhesus macaque model of ZIKV infection, we report that the prototypical ZIKV strain MR766 productively infects macaques, and that immunity elicited by MR766 protects macaques against heterologous Asian ZIKV. Furthermore, using next generation deep sequencing, we found in vivo restoration of a putative N-linked glycosylation site upon replication in macaques that is absent in numerous MR766 strains that are widely being used by the research community. This reversion highlights the importance of carefully examining the sequence composition of all viral stocks as well as understanding how passage history may alter a virus from its original form.An effective ZIKV vaccine is needed to prevent infection-associated fetal abnormalities. Macaques whose immune responses were primed by infection with East African ZIKV were completely protected from detectable viremia when subsequently rechallenged with heterologous Asian ZIKV. Therefore, these data suggest that immunogen selection is unlikely to adversely affect the breadth of

  3. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  5. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  6. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of male reproductive disorders, such as testicular cancer and impaired semen quality, is increasing in many, albeit not all, countries. These disorders are aetiologically linked with congenital cryptorchidism and hypospadias by common factors leading to perinatal disruption of normal...... testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...... identified as potential risk factors for cryptorchidism. It may be the cocktail effect of many simultaneous exposures that result in adverse effects, especially during foetal life and infancy....

  7. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  8. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means ...

  9. factors associated with perceived continuation of females' genital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It has a long-term physiological, sexual and psychological effect on women. Females' genital ... Muslim religion were predictors of continuation of females' genital mutilation. Key words: Female ... deeply entrenched in social, economic and cultural structures. FGM is .... have more access and exposure to media and advo-.

  10. Genital elephantiasis as a complication of chromoblastomycosis: A diagnosis overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Marfatia, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the decades, causes of genital elephantiasis have changed only to become elusive to etiological diagnosis. This is a case of 20 year old male who presented with genital elephantiasis occurring due to lymphatic obstruction caused by chromoblastomycosis and super added erysipelas. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was clenched by biopsy. We describe this case for the rarity of its occurrence. PMID:21938115

  11. Knowledge of genital herpes infection among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...

  12. Preliminary observation of genital secretions, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...

  13. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  14. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  16. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  18. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  19. Cholinergic control of visual categorisation in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos C. Aggelopoulos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behaviour needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorisation, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorisation has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorisation in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorisation performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorised had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorising a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorised successfully in previous sessions. Categorisation performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorisation judgements at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorisation of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory or executive control within the context of our categorisation task.

  20. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. [Emergencies of the external genital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2016-04-01

    In addition to epididymitis and testicular torsion, emergencies of the external genital are rare. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are essential so that immediate therapy can be provided, which is important for survival (Fournier gangrene) of the patient or for the preservation of erectile function (priapism and penile fracture). A detailed patient history and clinical examination are generally sufficient for correct diagnosis. Under certain circumstances, it might be useful to perform ultrasound, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging or retrograde urethrography. A urine analysis is obligatory. In case of penetrating injuries and genital trauma in females, additional imaging should be performed because these are often associated with concomitant injuries of the rectum, vagina, or bladder. Special cases are gunshot wounds, in which caliber and type of weapon play an important role for the degree of damage, and animal or human bites. For animal bites, the risk for rabies infection and in case of a human bite the risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis should be taken into consideration and post-exposure prophylaxis should possibly be offered.

  2. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  3. Laparoscopic findings in female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Roy, Kallol K; Pushparaj, M; Kumar, S; Malhotra, N; Mittal, S

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the laparoscopic findings in genital tuberculosis (TB). A total of 85 women of genital TB, who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for infertility or chronic pelvic pain were enrolled in this retrospective study conducted in our unit at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India from September 2004 to 2007. The mean age was 28.2 years and the mean parity was 0.24. Most women were from poor socioeconomic status (68.1%). Past history of TB was seen in 29 (34.1%) women with pulmonary TB in 19 (22.35%) women and extrapulmonary in 10 (11.7%) women. Most women presented with infertility (90.6% primary 72.9%; secondary 17.6%) while the rest had chronic pelvic pain (9.4%). The mean duration of infertility was 6.2 years. A total of 49 (57.6%) women had normal menses, while hypomenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea and menorrhagia were seen in 25 (30.1%), 3 (3.5%), 5 (5.9%), and 2 (2.4%) women respectively. Diagnosis of genital TB was made by histopathological evidence of TB granuloma in 16 (18.8%) (Endometrial biopsy in 12.9%, laparoscopy biopsy in 5.9%) women, demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) on microscopy in 2(2.3%), positive AFB culture in 2 (2.3%), positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 55 (64.7%) and laparoscopic findings of genital TB in 40 (47.1%). The various findings on laparoscopy were tubercles on peritoneum (12.9%) or ovary (1.2%), tubovarian masses (7.1%), caseous nodules (5.8%), encysted ascitis in 7.1% women. Various grades of pelvic adhesions were seen in 56(65.8%) women. The various findings on fallopian tubes were normal looking tubes in (7.1%), inability to visualize in 12(14.1%), presence of tubercles on tubes in 3 (3.52%), caseous granuloma in 3 (3.52%), hydrosalpinx in 15 (17.6%) (Right tube 11.7%, left tube 5.9%), pyosalphinx in 3 (3.5%) on right tube and 2 (2.35%) in left tube, beaded tube in 3 (3.5%) on right tube, 4 (4.7%) in left tube with tobacco pouch appearance in 2 (2.35%) women. The right tube

  4. Stepping toward a Macaque Model of HIV-1 Induced AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Kimata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 exhibits a narrow host range, hindering the development of a robust animal model of pathogenesis. Past studies have demonstrated that the restricted host range of HIV-1 may be largely due to the inability of the virus to antagonize and evade effector molecules of the interferon response in other species. They have also guided the engineering of HIV-1 clones that can replicate in CD4 T-cells of Asian macaque species. However, while replication of these viruses in macaque hosts is persistent, it has been limited and without progression to AIDS. In a new study, Hatziioannou et al., demonstrate for the first time that adapted macaque-tropic HIV-1 can persistently replicate at high levels in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, but only if CD8 T-cells are depleted at the time of inoculation. The infection causes rapid disease and recapitulates several aspects of AIDS in humans. Additionally, the virus undergoes genetic changes to further escape innate immunity in association with disease progression. Here, the importance of these findings is discussed, as they relate to pathogenesis and model development.

  5. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied...

  6. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  7. Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Mahadhi, Hassan M D; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-06-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants. In cynomolgus and human BChE, phylogenetically closely related, amino acid residues important for enzyme function were conserved, and gene and genomic structure were similar. Cynomolgus BChE mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver among the 10 tissue types analyzed. Re-sequencing found 26 non-synonymous genetic variants in 121 cynomolgus and 23 rhesus macaques, indicating that macaque BChE is polymorphic, although none of these variants corresponded to the null or defective alleles of human BChE. These results suggest molecular similarities of cynomolgus and human BChE. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Expression of cytochrome P450 regulators in cynomolgus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-11

    1. Cytochrome P450 (P450) regulators including nuclear receptors and transcription factors have not been fully investigated in cynomolgus macaques, an important species used in drug metabolism studies. In this study, we analyzed 17 P450 regulators by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, and tissue expression. 2. Gene and genome structures of 17 P450 regulators were similar to the human orthologs, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high sequence identities (92-95%) and more closely clustered in a phylogenetic tree, with the human orthologs. 3. Many of the P450 regulator mRNAs were preferentially expressed in the liver, kidney, and/or jejunum. Among the P450 regulator mRNAs, PXR was most abundant in the liver and jejunum, and HNF4α in the kidney. In the liver, the expression of most P450 regulator mRNAs did not show significant differential expression (>2.5-fold) between cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia, or rhesus macaques. 4. By correlation analysis, most of the P450 regulators were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to other P450 regulators, and many of them were also significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with P450s. 5. These results suggest that 17 P450 regulators of cynomolgus macaques had similar molecular characteristics to the human orthologs.

  9. Occipital White Matter Tracts in Human and Macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Pestilli, Franco; Weiner, Kevin S; Keliris, Georgios A; Landi, Sofia M; Sliwa, Julia; Ye, Frank Q; Barnett, Michael A; Leopold, David A; Freiwald, Winrich A; Logothetis, Nikos K; Wandell, Brian A

    2017-06-01

    We compare several major white-matter tracts in human and macaque occipital lobe using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The comparison suggests similarities but also significant differences in the tracts. There are several apparently homologous tracts in the 2 species, including the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), optic radiation, forceps major, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). There is one large human tract, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, with no corresponding fasciculus in macaque. We could identify the macaque VOF (mVOF), which has been little studied. Its position is consistent with classical invasive anatomical studies by Wernicke. VOF homology is supported by similarity of the endpoints in V3A and ventral V4 across species. The mVOF fibers intertwine with the dorsal segment of the ILF, but the human VOF appears to be lateral to the ILF. These similarities and differences between the occipital lobe tracts will be useful in establishing which circuitry in the macaque can serve as an accurate model for human visual cortex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of the gut microbiota has intensified within the past decade with the introduction of cultivation-independent methods. By investigation of the gut bacterial genes, our understanding of the compositional and functional capability of the gut microbiome has increased. It is now widely...... recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response......, and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several factors have been identified that might affect the healthy microbiota, potentially inducing a dysbiotic microbiota associated with a disease state. This increased understanding of the gut microbiota might potentially contribute to targeted intervention...

  11. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  12. The nucleus pararaphales in the human, chimpanzee, and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Weinstock, Nadav; Witelson, Sandra F; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex and cerebellum are greatly expanded compared to those of other mammals, including the great apes. This expansion is reflected in differences in the size and organization of precerebellar brainstem structures, such as the inferior olive. In addition, there are cell groups unique to the human brainstem. One such group may be the nucleus pararaphales (PRa); however, there is disagreement among authors about the size and location of this nucleus in the human brainstem. The name "pararaphales" has also been used for neurons in the medulla shown to project to the flocculus in the macaque monkey. We have re-examined the existence and status of the PRa in eight humans, three chimpanzees, and four macaque monkeys using Nissl-stained sections as well as immunohistochemistry. In the human we found a cell group along the midline of the medulla in all cases; it had the form of interrupted cell columns and was variable among cases in rostrocaudal and dorsoventral extent. Cells and processes were highly immunoreactive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP); somata were immunoreactive to the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and for calretinin. In macaque monkey, there was a much smaller oval cell group with NPNFP immunoreactivity. In the chimpanzee, we found a region of NPNFP-immunoreactive cells and fibers similar to what was observed in macaques. These results suggest that the "PRa" in the human may not be the same structure as the flocculus-projecting cell group described in the macaque. The PRa, like the arcuate nucleus, therefore may be unique to humans.

  13. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota: Facts and Fiction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, 1-2 (2017), s. 139-147 ISSN 0257-2753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : dysbiosis * gnotobiotic animals * gut microbiota Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2016

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  16. [Ritualistic female genital mutilation. The sentiment of the women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, F; Abboud, P; Mansour, G; Zanardi, M; Quéreux, C

    2001-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practiced and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture.

  17. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  18. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  19. Characterization of 47 MHC class I sequences in Filipino cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin J.; Detmer, Ann M.; Karl, Julie A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Blasky, Alex J.; Hughes, Austin L.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) provide increasingly common models for infectious disease research. Several geographically distinct populations of these macaques from Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius are available for pathogenesis studies. Though host genetics may profoundly impact results of such studies, similarities and differences between populations are often overlooked. In this study we identified 47 full-length MHC class I nucleotide sequences in 16 cynomolgus macaques of Filipino origin. The majority of MHC class I sequences characterized (39 of 47) were unique to this regional population. However, we discovered eight sequences with perfect identity and six sequences with close similarity to previously defined MHC class I sequences from other macaque populations. We identified two ancestral MHC haplotypes that appear to be shared between Filipino and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, notably a Mafa-B haplotype that has previously been shown to protect Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against challenge with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV89.6P. We also identified a Filipino cynomolgus macaque MHC class I sequence for which the predicted protein sequence differs from Mamu-B*17 by a single amino acid. This is important because Mamu-B*17 is strongly associated with protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in Indian rhesus macaques. These findings have implications for the evolutionary history of Filipino cynomolgus macaques as well as for the use of this model in SIV/SHIV research protocols. PMID:19107381

  20. Identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the Tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, San-Xu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Peng, Chang-Jun; Yue, Bi-Song; Fan, Zhen-Xin; Li, Jing

    2018-07-18

    The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples. A total of 1 077 790 perfect STRs were mined from our assembly, with an N50 of 4 966 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by tetra- and di-nucleotide repeats. Analysis of GC content and repeats showed consistent results with other macaques. Furthermore, using STR analysis software (lobSTR), we found that the proportion of base pair deletions in the STRs was greater than that of insertions in the five Tibetan macaque individuals (Pgenome showed good amplification efficiency and could be used to study population genetics in Tibetan macaques. The neighbor-joining tree classified the five macaques into two different branches according to their geographical origin, indicating high genetic differentiation between the Huangshan and Sichuan populations. We elucidated the distribution characteristics of STRs in the Tibetan macaque genome and provided an effective method for screening polymorphic STRs. Our results also lay a foundation for future genetic variation studies of macaques.

  1. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  2. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  3. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  4. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yulan; Wang, Baohong; Wu, Junfang

    2017-01-01

    The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact...... on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic...... fatty liver disease (NAFLD); obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more...

  5. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  6. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  7. The ultrasound research's results of the peri menopausal women's genitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodkhoeva, M.F.; Djonova, B.Yu.; Barieva, L.S.; Djonbekova, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of ultrasound research of the peri menopausal women's genitals revealed that the sizes of the ovaries of women with the climacteric syndrome are smaller that the size of ovaries of the women with the physiologic menopause

  8. Rectal and genital prolapse in Nigerian newborns: Case reports and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-16

    2] ... management includes manual reduction and use of Foleys catheter.[12] These ... discharged her against medical advice on the 7th day of admission .... Thus, digital reduction of prolapse was achieved in this case. Genital ...

  9. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Book cover Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of ... of an innovative research and action project carried out by ENDA Tiers ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  10. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with ... of Women Journalists (NAWOJ) and Women ... There has also been .... profession and current civilization as injurious to.

  11. Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in Pikine Hospital, Senegal. Abdoul A Diouf, Moussa Diallo, Aissatou Mbodj, Omar Gassama, Mamour Guèye, Jean C Moreau, Alassane Diouf ...

  12. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  13. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  14. [Genital piercings: epidemiology, sociocultural aspects, sexuality and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sri, K. Navya; Chowdary, A. Swetha; Reddy, B. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  16. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  17. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  18. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  19. Molecular and functional aspects of menstruation in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Robert M; Slayden, Ov D

    2012-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the molecular control of menstruation arises from laboratory models that experimentally recapitulate some, but not all, aspects of uterine bleeding observed in women. These models include: in vitro culture of endometrial explants or isolated endometrial cells, transplantation of human endometrial tissue into immunodeficient mice and the induction of endometrial breakdown in appropriately pretreated mice. Each of these models has contributed to our understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of menstruation, but nonhuman primates, especially macaques, are the animal model of choice for evaluating therapies for menstrual disorders. In this chapter we review some basic aspects of menstruation, with special emphasis on the macaque model and its relevance to the clinical issues of irregular and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

  20. Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Eisele, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous vitamin C deficiency, or scurvy, was recognized in juvenile rhesus monkeys maintained in a research center as a result of being fed a commercial diet for 2 to 3 months with low levels of vitamin C. Most severely affected animals (13) were radiographed repeatedly up to day 300 following detection of the disease. Early radiographic changes consisted of widened, lucent metaphyses with lateral flaring and radiopaque metaphyseal lines at the junction of the metaphyses and physes. Physeal slippage was noted commonly. Following institution of vitamin C therapy, calcification of subperiosteal hemorrhage occurred in the metaphyseal regions. Metaphyses and physes returned to normal radiographic appearance within 15 to 30 days. Initially, the subperiosteal hemorrhage progressed and a longer time was required for solution of the calcified hematomas. The macaques improved clinically and were released from the hospital when fractures were stable at 4-5 weeks after admission. Of the 13 macaques studied, all but one returned as normal members of the colony

  1. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Sansing, Hope A; Inglis, Fiona M; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  2. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  3. Intestinal Microbiota: Facts and Fiction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, 1-2 (2017), s. 139-147 ISSN 0257-2753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06326S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-28064A; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29336A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Dysbiosis * Gnotobiotic animals * Gut microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2016

  4. Spontaneous extracutaneous systemic mastocytosis in a cynomolgus macaque ()

    OpenAIRE

    Martina , Z. Zöller; Joachim , Kaspareit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A uniform cell population of proliferating mast cells with poor cytoplasmic granularity and few eosinophilic infiltrates was observed in hepatic portal tracts and the cecal submucosa of an adult male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) that was part of a drug safety assessment toxicity study. The proliferating mast cells were positive for Giemsa and toluidine blue staining and had strong immunoreactivity for mast cell tryptase and CD68. Considering size, morphology, i...

  5. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  6. Lactobacillus proteins are associated with the bactericidal activity against E. coli of female genital tract secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Kalyoussef

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E. coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined.The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL collected from 99 healthy women were determined.CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [-26, 100] (median [range]. CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p90% inhibitory activity (active and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli.Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection.

  7. Activity of Genital Tract Secretions and Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides against Group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nidhi; Buckley, Niall; Nakra, Natasha; Gialanella, Philip; Yuan, Weirong; Ghartey, Jeny P

    2015-12-01

    Genital tract secretions inhibit Escherichia coli (E. coli) through antimicrobial peptides (AMP) secreted by the host and vaginal microbiota. However, there are limited data against group B Streptococcus (GBS). Group B Streptococcus were incubated with cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) samples from healthy non-pregnant women (n = 12) or synthetic AMP and monitored for bacterial growth using a turbidimetric approach. E. coli inhibitory activity was determined by a colony-forming unit assay. None of the CVL samples inhibited GBS. The human neutrophil peptide-1 and human defensin 5 inhibited GBS growth by ≥80% at concentrations ≥20 μg/mL and ≥50 μg/mL, respectively, while human beta-defensin 2 and LL-37 did not inhibit at highest concentration tested (100 μg/mL). In contrast, all AMP inhibited E. coli. Antimicrobial peptides may protect against E. coli colonization but have more limited activity against GBS. Future studies will focus on augmenting host defense with specific AMP to prevent genitourinary infection with these pathogenic organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  9. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  10. Distributed acoustic cues for caller identity in macaque vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Doyle, Alex M; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Individual primates can be identified by the sound of their voice. Macaques have demonstrated an ability to discern conspecific identity from a harmonically structured 'coo' call. Voice recognition presumably requires the integrated perception of multiple acoustic features. However, it is unclear how this is achieved, given considerable variability across utterances. Specifically, the extent to which information about caller identity is distributed across multiple features remains elusive. We examined these issues by recording and analysing a large sample of calls from eight macaques. Single acoustic features, including fundamental frequency, duration and Weiner entropy, were informative but unreliable for the statistical classification of caller identity. A combination of multiple features, however, allowed for highly accurate caller identification. A regularized classifier that learned to identify callers from the modulation power spectrum of calls found that specific regions of spectral-temporal modulation were informative for caller identification. These ranges are related to acoustic features such as the call's fundamental frequency and FM sweep direction. We further found that the low-frequency spectrotemporal modulation component contained an indexical cue of the caller body size. Thus, cues for caller identity are distributed across identifiable spectrotemporal components corresponding to laryngeal and supralaryngeal components of vocalizations, and the integration of those cues can enable highly reliable caller identification. Our results demonstrate a clear acoustic basis by which individual macaque vocalizations can be recognized.

  11. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  12. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-08-14

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson's disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors, and

  13. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes: a prospective study in IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, T; Jensen, J S; Thomsen, L; Duus, L; Rygaard, K; Humaidan, P

    2016-04-01

    What is the diagnostic performance of qPCR assays compared with Nugent scoring for abnormal vaginal microbiota and for predicting the success rate of IVF treatment? The vaginal microbiota of IVF patients can be characterized with qPCR tests which may be promising tools for diagnosing abnormal vaginal microbiota and for prediction of clinical pregnancy in IVF treatment. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common genital disorder with a prevalence of approximately 19% in the infertile population. BV is often sub-clinical with a change of the vaginal microbiota from being Lactobacillus spp. dominated to a more heterogeneous environment with anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. Few studies have been conducted in infertile women, and some have suggested a negative impact on fecundity in the presence of BV. A cohort of 130 infertile patients, 90% Caucasians, attending two Danish fertility clinics for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment from April 2014-December 2014 were prospectively enrolled in the trial. Vaginal swabs from IVF patients were obtained from the posterior fornix. Gram stained slides were assessed according to Nugent's criteria. PCR primers were specific for four common Lactobacillus spp., G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Threshold levels were established using ROC curve analysis. The prevalence of BV defined by Nugent score was 21% (27/130), whereas the prevalence of an abnormal vaginal microbiota was 28% (36/130) defined by qPCR with high concentrations of Gardnerella vaginalis and/or Atopobium vaginae. The qPCR diagnostic approach had a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 93% and 93% for Nugent-defined BV. Furthermore, qPCR enabled the stratification of Nugent intermediate flora. Eighty-four patients completed IVF treatment. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (29/84). Interestingly, only 9% (2/22) with qPCR defined abnormal vaginal microbiota obtained a clinical pregnancy (P = 0.004). Although a total of 130

  14. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Stanhope, Todd J; Occhino, John A

    2014-07-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violation of human rights; yet, more than 100 million females are estimated to have undergone the procedure worldwide. There is an increased need for physician education in treating FGM. Female pelvic surgeons have a unique opportunity to treat this population of patients. Here, we depict the classification of FGM and a general approach to FGM reversal. We specifically address the procedure of type III FGM reversal, or defibulation. In this video, we first highlight the importance of the problem of FGM. Next, we present the classification of FGM using an original, simple, schematic diagram highlighting they key anatomic structures involved in the four types of FGM. We then present a simple case of reversal of type III FGM, a procedure also known as defibulation. After depicting the surgical procedure, we discuss clinical results and summarize key principles of the defibulation procedure. Our patient was a 25-year-old woman who had undergone type III FGM as a child in Somalia. She desired restoration of vaginal function. We performed a reversal, and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. By 6 weeks postoperatively, she was able to engage in sexual intercourse without dyspareunia. FGM is a problem at the doorsteps of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Our video demonstrates a basic surgical approach that can be applied to simple cases of type III FGM presenting to the female pelvic surgeon.

  15. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  16. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

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    Gomez, F. M., E-mail: gomez_fermun@gva.es; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain); Santos, E. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology (United States); Forner, I. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Medicina Fisica y Rehabilitacion (Spain); Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  18. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, F. M.; Martínez-Rodrigo, J.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Pérez-Enguix, D.; García-Marcos, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4–8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  19. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Dodge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont

  1. Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Loretta; Roberts, Stephen A; Gies, Sabine; Nelson, Andrew; Diallo, Salou; Stewart, Christopher J; Kazienga, Adama; Birtles, Julia; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Claeys, Yves; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2017-11-23

    Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months. Women conceiving during this period entered the pregnancy cohort. End assessment (FIN) for women remaining non-pregnant was at 18 months. For the pregnancy cohort, end assessment was at the first scheduled antenatal visit (ANC1). Infection markers included Nugent scores for abnormal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV), T. vaginalis PCR, vaginal microbiota, reported signs and symptoms, and antibiotic and anti-fungal prescriptions. Iron biomarkers were assessed at baseline, FIN and ANC1. Analysis compared outcomes by intention to treat and in iron replete/deficient categories. A total of 1954 women (mean 16.8 years) were followed and 478 (24.5%) became pregnant. Median supplement adherence was 79% (IQR 59-90%). Baseline BV prevalence was 12.3%. At FIN and ANC1 prevalence was 12.8% and 7.0%, respectively (P Iron-supplemented non-pregnant women received more antibiotic treatments for non-genital infections (P = 0.014; mainly gastrointestinal infections (P = 0.005), anti-fungal treatments for genital infections (P = 0.014) and analgesics (P = 0.008). Weekly iron did not significantly reduce iron deficiency prevalence. At baseline, iron-deficient women were more likely to have normal vaginal flora (P = 0.016). Periconceptional weekly iron supplementation of young women did not increase the risk of lower genital tract infections but did increase

  2. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the…

  3. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  4. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  5. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  6. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  7. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can

  8. Effects of synbiotics on ileal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichiro Komatsu

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis of a substantial number of samples from surgically resected intestines showed an abundance of obligate anaerobes as a characteristic feature of the ileal mucus microbiota. Our results also indicated that the synbiotics intervention induced a prominent reduction in Enterobacteriaceae in the ileal microbiota.

  9. The microbiota revolution: Excitement and caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescigno, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Scientific progress is characterized by important technological advances. Next-generation DNA sequencing has, in the past few years, led to a major scientific revolution: the microbiome revolution. It has become possible to generate a fingerprint of the whole microbiota of any given environment. As it becomes clear that the microbiota affects several aspects of our lives, each new scientific finding should ideally be analyzed in light of these communities. For instance, animal experimentation should consider animal sources and husbandry; human experimentation should include analysis of microenvironmental cues that might affect the microbiota, including diet, antibiotic, and drug use, genetics. When analyzing the activity of a drug, we should remember that, according to the microbiota of the host, different drug activities might be observed, either due to modification or degradation by the microbiota, or because the microbiota changes the immune system of the host in a way that makes that drug more or less effective. This minireview will not be a comprehensive review on the interaction between the host and microbiota, but it will aim at creating awareness on why we should not forget the contribution of the microbiota in any single aspect of biology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Role of Microbiota in Sexually Dimorphic Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elderman, Marlies; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many immunological diseases. As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a consequence of sex-specific microbiota.

  11. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  12. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...... and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota...... and probiotics on chemotherapy. In the future, targeting the microbiota will probably be a powerful weapon in the battle against CRC as gut microbiology, genomics and metabolomics promise to uncover important linkages between microbiota and intestinal health....

  13. Let the Core Microbiota Be Functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanceau, Philippe; Blouin, Manuel; Muller, Daniel; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2017-07-01

    The microbial community that is systematically associated with a given host plant is called the core microbiota. The definition of the core microbiota was so far based on its taxonomic composition, but we argue that it should also be based on its functions. This so-called functional core microbiota encompasses microbial vehicles carrying replicators (genes) with essential functions for holobiont (i.e., plant plus microbiota) fitness. It builds up from enhanced horizontal transfers of replicators as well as from ecological enrichment of their vehicles. The transmission pathways of this functional core microbiota vary over plant generations according to environmental constraints and its added value for holobiont fitness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D.; Miller, Lynn J.; Wiley, Michael R.; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C.; Norris, Sarah L.; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Kimmel, Adrienne E.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Valdez, Stephanie M.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Principe, Lucia M.; Bellanca, Stephanie A.; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H.; Pratt, William D.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M. Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present. PMID:28548637

  15. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D; Miller, Lynn J; Wiley, Michael R; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C; Norris, Sarah L; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Kimmel, Adrienne E; Bloomfield, Holly A; Valdez, Stephanie M; Sprague, Thomas R; Principe, Lucia M; Bellanca, Stephanie A; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H; Pratt, William D; Palacios, Gustavo F; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

  16. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  17. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  18. Chlamydial variants differ in ability to ascend the genital tract in the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2015-08-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even "silent" infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroni Moreira, A P; Fiche Salles Teixeira, T; do C Gouveia Peluzio, M; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in future studies and in clinical practice.

  20. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  1. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  2. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  3. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  4. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  5. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  6. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  7. Fraccionando la microbiota gastrointestinal humana

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Bondia, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La microbiota gastrointestinal humana es una de las comunidades microbianas más diversa y compleja que se puede encontrar en la naturaleza. Las nuevas tecnologías de secuenciación permiten obtener una amplia visión de la diversidad microbiana, lo que ha revelado una gran cantidad de bacterias no cultivables. A pesar del potencial de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento la metagenómica no muestra la imagen completa. La citometría de flujo es una metodología que permite describir y/o separa...

  8. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...

  9. Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with genital anomalies and menstrual disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; Koppe, J. G.; Poll, N. E.; Boer, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrated that early exposure to phenobarbital decreases reproductive function. This study investigates whether prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants affects human genital tract development. METHODS: Genital anomalies at birth were studied retrospectively in 90

  10. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... Statistics page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  11. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women's Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2010-09-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction.

  12. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  13. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  14. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  15. A critical period of progesterone withdrawal precedes menstruation in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12–24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked. PMID:17118170

  16. Rapid Expansion of Phenylthiocarbamide Non-Tasters among Japanese Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Suzuki-Hashido

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R proteins allow mammals to detect and avoid ingestion of toxins in food. Thus, TAS2Rs play an important role in food choice and are subject to complex natural selection pressures. In our previous study, we examined nucleotide variation in TAS2R38, a gene expressing bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, in 333 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata from 9 local populations in Japan. We identified a PTC "non-taster" TAS2R38 allele in Japanese macaques that was caused by a loss of the start codon. This PTC non-taster allele was only found in a limited local population (the Kii area, at a frequency of 29%. In this study, we confirmed that this allele was present in only the Kii population by analyzing an additional 264 individuals from eight new populations. Using cellular and behavioral experiments, we found that this allele lost its receptor function for perceiving PTC. The nucleotide sequences of the allele including flanking regions (of about 10 kb from 23 chromosomes were identical, suggesting that a non-taster allele arose and expanded in the Kii population during the last 13,000 years. Genetic analyses of non-coding regions in Kii individuals and neighboring populations indicated that the high allele frequency in the Kii population could not be explained by demographic history, suggesting that positive selection resulted in a rapid increase in PTC non-tasters in the Kii population. The loss-of-function that occurred at the TAS2R38 locus presumably provided a fitness advantage to Japanese macaques in the Kii population. Because TAS2R38 ligands are often found in plants, this functional change in fitness is perhaps related to feeding habit specificity. These findings should provide valuable insights for elucidating adaptive evolutionary changes with respect to various environments in wild mammals.

  17. Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E; Heath, Laura M; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L; Kraft, Kelli M; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E; Cohn, Susan E; Tapia, Kenneth A; Holte, Sarah E; Dragavon, Joan A; Coombs, Robert W; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-04-15

    Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood.

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

  19. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  20. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  1. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rearing room affects the non-dominant chicken caecum microbiota, while diet affects the dominant microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane eLudvigsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of environment and diet in shaping the gut microbiota remain largely unknown. This knowledge, however, is important for animal welfare and safe food production. For these reasons we determined the effect of experimental units on the chicken caecum microbiota for a full factorial experiment where we tested the combined effect of room, diet and antimicrobial treatment. By Illumina Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that diet mainly affected the dominant microbiota, while the room as a proxy for environment had major effects on the non-dominant microbiota (p=0.006, Kruskal Wallis test. We therefore propose that the dominant and non-dominant microbiotas are shaped by different experimental units. These findings have implications both for our general understanding of the host-associated microbiota, and for setting up experiments related to specific targeting of pathogens.

  3. Seroconversion to HCoV-NL63 in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia van der Hoek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available HCoV-NL63 is a recently identified respiratory virus. Its pathogenesis has not been fully unraveled because an animal model is currently lacking. Here we examined whether rhesus macaques encounter HCoV-NL63 infections during life, by examining the levels of antibodies to HCoV-NL63 in time. The animals were followed for 7 up till 19 years, and in three animals we observed a steep rise in antibodies during follow up, indicative of a natural infection with HCoV-NL63.

  4. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  5. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy P

    2017-11-01

    After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  7. X-ray diagnostics of female genitals in child age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Koeln Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of special X-ray diagnostics of female genitals are described, that were made in 41 children within a period of 12 years. The superiority of the X-ray-technique arises from the impossibility of the manual examination in newborn and infants and the avoidance of diagnostic techniques like laparoscopy or laparotomy. All the examination techniques are described. In intersexualmarked patients the discrimination into six types after Shopfner is preferred. Malformations and tumours are dealt with briefly. The relations between skeleton and female genitals are pointed out at the example of the gonadal dysgenesis. (orig.) [de

  8. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  9. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  10. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  11. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more accurately, we need to elucidate the relationships between the gut microbiota and several human pathologies more precisely, as understanding the impact that the microbiota plays in various diseases is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections. The concept of altering the gut community by microbial intervention in an effort to improve health is currently in its infancy. However, the therapeutic implications appear to be very great. Thus, the removal of harmful organisms and the enrichment of beneficial microbes may protect our health, and such efforts will pave the way for the development of more rational treatment options in the future.

  12. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-01-01

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through a number of pathways, including the trimethylamine (TMA)/ trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these “metabolism dependent” pathways, metabolism independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to CVD pathogenesis. For example, heart failure associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are believed to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:28360349

  13. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  14. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  15. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  16. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  17. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. PMID:28140325

  18. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C; Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-11-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. ABO blood group phenotype frequency estimation using molecular phenotyping in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Oldt, R F; Valdivia, L; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2017-11-01

    A much larger sample (N = 2369) was used to evaluate a previously reported distribution of the A, AB and B blood group phenotypes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from six different regional populations. These samples, acquired from 15 different breeding and research facilities in the United States, were analyzed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that targets single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for the macaque A, B and AB phenotypes. The frequency distributions of blood group phenotypes of the two species differ significantly from each other and significant regional differentiation within the geographic ranges of each species was also observed. The B blood group phenotype was prevalent in rhesus macaques, especially those from India, while the frequencies of the A, B and AB phenotypes varied significantly among cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions. The Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, despite having originated in Indonesia, showed significant (P ≪ .01) divergence from the Indonesian animals at the ABO blood group locus. Most Mauritian animals belonged to the B blood group while the Indonesian animals were mostly A. The close similarity in blood group frequency distributions between the Chinese rhesus and Indochinese cynomolgus macaques demonstrates that the introgression between these two species extends beyond the zone of intergradation in Indochina. This study underscores the importance of ABO blood group phenotyping of the domestic supply of macaques and their biospecimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Association between the vaginal microbiota, menopause status, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Rebecca M; Shardell, Michelle D; Gajer, Pawel; Fadrosh, Doug; Chang, Kathryn; Silver, Michelle I; Viscidi, Raphael P; Burke, Anne E; Ravel, Jacques; Gravitt, Patti E

    2014-05-01

    The vaginal microbiota helps protect the female genital tract from disease. We sought to describe the composition of the vaginal microbiota in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women and to explore the association between the microbiota and vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). Eighty-seven women (aged 35-60 y) were classified as premenopausal (n = 30), perimenopausal (n = 29), or postmenopausal (n = 28) according to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop guidelines. Midvaginal bacterial community composition was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. Bacterial communities clustered into six community state types (CSTs), of which four were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners, or Lactobacillus jensenii, and two (CST IV-A and CST IV-B) had low relative abundance of Lactobacillus. CST IV-A was characterized by Streptococcus and Prevotella, whereas CST IV-B was characterized by Atopobium. There were significant associations between menopause stage and CST (P = 0.004) and between VVA and CST (P = 0.002). Perimenopausal women were more likely to be classified as CST IV-A or L. gasseri CST, whereas postmenopausal women were often classified as CST IV-A. CSTs dominated by L. crispatus and L. iners were more prevalent in premenopausal women. Nineteen participants had signs of mild or moderate VVA. Compared with women with no VVA, the vaginal microbiota of women with mild or moderate atrophy had 25-fold greater odds of being classified as CST IV-A versus L. crispatus CST (adjusted odds ratio, 25.89; 95% credible interval, 2.98-406.79). A distinct bacterial community state (CST IV-A) with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus is associated with VVA. Future studies recruiting a larger number of women are needed to replicate the findings. This study provides an impetus for future longitudinal studies designed to manage, modulate, and restore vaginal microbiota homeostasis, which would provide stronger evidence for

  1. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  2. Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Ye; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Gang; Peng, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models. PMID:25356041

  3. Estimation of Shear Wave Speed in the Rhesus Macaques Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Drehfal, Lindsey C.; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Simmons, Heather A.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical softness is a critical parameter in pregnancy. Clinically, preterm birth is associated with premature cervical softening and post-dates birth is associated with delayed cervical softening. In practice, the assessment of softness is subjective, based on digital examination. Fortunately, objective, quantitative techniques to assess softness and other parameters associated with microstructural cervical change are emerging. One of these is shear wave speed (SWS) estimation. In principle, this allows objective characterization of stiffness because waves travel more slowly in softer tissue. We are studying SWS in humans and rhesus macaques, the latter in order to accelerate translation from bench to bedside. For the current study, we estimated SWS in ex vivo cervices of rhesus macaques, n=24 nulliparous (never given birth) and n=9 multiparous (delivered at least 1 baby). Misoprostol (a prostaglandin used to soften human cervices prior to gynecological procedures) was administered to 13 macaques prior to necropsy (nulliparous: 7, multiparous: 6). SWS measurements were made at predetermined locations from the distal to proximal end of the cervix on both the anterior and posterior cervix, with 5 repeat measures at each location. The intent was to explore macaque cervical microstructure, including biological and spatial variability, to elucidate the similarities and differences between the macaque and the human cervix in order to facilitate future in vivo studies. We found that SWS is dependent on location in the normal nonpregnant macaque cervix, as in the human cervix. Unlike the human cervix, we detected no difference between ripened and unripened rhesus macaque cervix samples, nor nulliparous versus multiparous samples, although we observed a trend toward stiffer tissue in nulliparous samples. We found rhesus macaque cervix to be much stiffer than human, which is important for technique refinement. These findings are useful for guiding study of cervical

  4. Genetic Divergence of the Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza-Vamenta, Riza; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Guthrie, Brandon; Geraghty, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque. PMID:15289473

  5. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  6. Caffeine Augments Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Fetal Macaque Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kevin K; Johnson, Stephen A; Manzella, Francesca M; Masuoka, Kobe L; Williams, Sasha L; Martin, Lauren D; Dissen, Gregory A; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Schenning, Katie J; Olney, John W; Brambrink, Ansgar M

    2018-03-28

    Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in premature infants. It is the respiratory stimulant of choice for apnea associated with prematurity and has been called the silver bullet in neonatology because of many proven benefits and few known risks. Research has revealed that sedative/anesthetic drugs trigger apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in developing mammalian brains. Here we evaluated the influence of caffeine on the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in developing nonhuman primate brains. Fetal macaques (n = 7-8/group), at a neurodevelopmental age comparable to premature human infants, were exposed in utero for 5 hours to no drug (control), isoflurane, or isoflurane + caffeine and examined for evidence of apoptosis. Isoflurane exposure increased apoptosis 3.3 fold for neurons and 3.4 fold for oligodendrocytes compared to control brains. Isoflurane + caffeine caused neuronal apoptosis to increase 8.0 fold compared to control levels but did not augment oligoapoptosis. Neuronal death was particularly pronounced in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Higher blood levels of caffeine within the range considered therapeutic and safe for human infants correlated with increased neuroapoptosis. Caffeine markedly augments neurotoxicity of isoflurane in the fetal macaque brain and challenges the assumption that caffeine is safe for premature infants.

  7. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behavior (SIB is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. METHODS: We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. RESULTS: There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  8. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Macaques can predict social outcomes from facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Whitehouse, Jamie; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread acceptance that facial expressions are useful in social interactions, but empirical demonstration of their adaptive function has remained elusive. Here, we investigated whether macaques can use the facial expressions of others to predict the future outcomes of social interaction. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra) were shown an approach between two unknown individuals on a touchscreen and were required to choose between one of two potential social outcomes. The facial expressions of the actors were manipulated in the last frame of the video. One subject reached the experimental stage and accurately predicted different social outcomes depending on which facial expressions the actors displayed. The bared-teeth display (homologue of the human smile) was most strongly associated with predicted friendly outcomes. Contrary to our predictions, screams and threat faces were not associated more with conflict outcomes. Overall, therefore, the presence of any facial expression (compared to neutral) caused the subject to choose friendly outcomes more than negative outcomes. Facial expression in general, therefore, indicated a reduced likelihood of social conflict. The findings dispute traditional theories that view expressions only as indicators of present emotion and instead suggest that expressions form part of complex social interactions where individuals think beyond the present.

  10. Does the maternal vaginal microbiota play a role in seeding the microbiota of neonatal gut and nose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwinska, O; Foata, F; Berger, B; Brüssow, H; Combremont, S; Mercenier, A; Dogra, S; Soh, S-E; Yen, J C K; Heong, G Y S; Lee, Y S; Yap, F; Meaney, M J; Chong, Y-S; Godfrey, K M; Holbrook, J D

    2017-10-13

    The acquisition and early maturation of infant microbiota is not well understood despite its likely influence on later health. We investigated the contribution of the maternal microbiota to the microbiota of infant gut and nose in the context of mode of delivery and feeding. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and specific qPCR, we profiled microbiota of 42 mother-infant pairs from the GUSTO birth cohort, at body sites including maternal vagina, rectum and skin; and infant stool and nose. In our study, overlap between maternal vaginal microbiota and infant faecal microbiota was minimal, while the similarity between maternal rectal microbiota and infant microbiota was more pronounced. However, an infant's nasal and gut microbiota were no more similar to that of its own mother, than to that of unrelated mothers. These findings were independent of delivery mode. We conclude that the transfer of maternal vaginal microbes play a minor role in seeding infant stool microbiota. Transfer of maternal rectal microbiota could play a larger role in seeding infant stool microbiota, but approaches other than the generally used analyses of community similarity measures are likely to be needed to quantify bacterial transmission. We confirmed the clear difference between microbiota of infants born by Caesarean section compared to vaginally delivered infants and the impact of feeding mode on infant gut microbiota. Only vaginally delivered, fully breastfed infants had gut microbiota dominated by Bifidobacteria. Our data suggest that reduced transfer of maternal vaginal microbial is not the main mechanism underlying the differential infant microbiota composition associated with Caesarean delivery. The sources of a large proportion of infant microbiota could not be identified in maternal microbiota, and the sources of seeding of infant gut and nasal microbiota remain to be elucidated.

  11. El pene voluntarioso: parcialidad de la pulsión genital. // The self-willed penis: partiality of the genital drive.

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chia.

    2008-01-01

    This work, besides presenting the characteristics of the so-called genital stage regarding the alterations each one of the components of the drive suffer, examines the idea that the genital stage constitutes the integration —either biological or psychic— of the partial drives. In this sense, it aims to show, based on descriptions done by several thinkers not necessarily psychoanalysts, that the genitality, at least in its male version, turns out to be problematic since it introduces a relatio...

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viru...

  13. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

  14. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  15. The Gut Microbiota of Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Sian; Culloty, Sarah; Whooley, Jason; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2018-01-01

    The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research. PMID:29780377

  16. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been...... associated with atherosclerosis, which is supported by increasing mechanistic evidence, several questions remain to be answered to understand fully how the microbiota contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Such knowledge might pave the way for novel diagnostics and therapeutics based...

  17. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  18. Fecal microbiota transplantation: facts and controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Speelman, Peter; Nieuwdorp, Max; Keller, Josbert

    2014-01-01

    To review the current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a randomized trial confirmed the efficacy of this treatment strategy in patients with recurrent CDI. For

  19. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of donor feces infusion, also called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), are investigated. Historically, FMTs are given mainly for antibiotic associated diarrhea, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are

  20. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  1. An institutional survey of female genital mutilation in Lagos, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) as a procedure can have serious physical and psychological health consequences in girls and women. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of FGM and the socio-demographic factors which influence the practice among women in Lagos State. Methods: This was a ...

  2. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  3. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle. East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a.

  4. Genital ulcers as diagnostic clue for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sina D; Krause, Stefan W; Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia

    2018-04-23

    Acute myeloid leukaemia is a myeloid neoplasm with an extremely varying clinical appearance. Skin lesions are common for specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemia but are often misinterpreted. Here, we present a case of acute myeloid leukaemia in a young woman exhibiting genital ulcerations and gingival erosions. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in Al Thawra General Hospital (from March 2012 to February 2014). Of a total 151 women who had tubal factor infertility, 61 cases were investigated for genital tuberculosis. Women who were found to have the disease were treated by antitubercular therapy and the ...

  6. INFANT-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (IFGM) IN CITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLESSING

    Empirical data was collected through focused group discussion and in-depth ... FGM has been one of the central concern/focus of scholars, local and ... seem to be preference for „infant girl/female‟ child genital mutilation than for adult or teenage ... goodies like wrappers, cloths, food items like fish and bags of rice for her ...

  7. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...

  8. Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle. ... Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.

  9. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  10. Automated detection and categorization of genital injuries using digital colposcopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Kelwin; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    handcrafted features and deep learning techniques in the automated processing of colposcopic images for genital injury detection. Positive results where achieved by both paradigms in segmentation and classification subtasks, being traditional and deep models the best strategy for each subtask type...

  11. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Volume 2 Issue 1 January – April 2013 www.ijmbr.com ... female genital organs for non-medical reasons.[1] The various terms emerged in an attempt to balance varying .... cannot be said to be a done deal in Bayelsa state. Of greater concern is the fact that health.

  13. Uterine arteriovenous malformation as a rare cause of genital bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Escartin, I.; Riazuelo, G.; Zaragozano, R.

    2002-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rarely described entity, the presenting sign of which is usually genital bleeding. We report a case of this malformation in a woman of child-bearing age with a history of traumatic delivery and repeated subsequent curettage, describing the ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings, as well as the results of arteriography. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  15. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  16. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  17. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome has considerably altered the pattern of female genital cancers.[1]. In developed countries, the introduction of routine screening and treatment for premalignant lesions of the cervix has lead to a dramatic fall in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the past five decades.

  18. Lymphomas of the female genital tract in Ibadan | Odukogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study Design: Records of subjects were analysed for their sociodemographic and clinicopathological characteristics, recruiting only those who satisfy the criteria for diagnosing genital tract lymphomas according to Kosari et al1. Retrievable archival paraffin blocks of subjects were also analysed using immunophenotyping.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude ...

  20. Gurya cutting and female genital fistulas in Niger: ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.

  1. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  2. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, L; Adams, H G; Brown, Z A; Holmes, K K

    1983-06-01

    The clinical course and complications of 268 patients with first episodes and 362 with recurrent episodes of genital herpes infection were reviewed. Symptoms of genital herpes were more severe in women than in men. Primary first-episode genital herpes was accompanied by systemic symptoms (67%), local pain and itching (98%), dysuria (63%), and tender adenopathy (80%). Patients presented with several bilaterally distributed postular ulcerative lesions that lasted a mean of 19.0 days. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from the urethra, cervix, and pharynx of 82%, 88%, and 13% of women with first-episode primary genital herpes, and the urethra and pharynx of 28% and 7% of men. Complications included aseptic meningitis (8%), sacral autonomic nervous system dysfunction (2%), development of extragenital lesions (20%), and secondary yeast infections (11%). Recurrent episodes were characterized by small vesicular or ulcerative unilaterally distributed lesions that lasted a mean of 10.1 days. Systemic symptoms were uncommon and 25% of recurrent episodes were asymptomatic. The major concerns of patients were the frequency of recurrences and fear of transmitting infection to partners or infants.

  3. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  4. Weight gain after fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Kelly, Colleen R

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We report a case of a woman successfully treated with FMT who developed new-onset obesity after receiving stool from a healthy but overweight donor. This case may stimulate further studies on the mechanisms of the nutritional-neural-microbiota axis and reports of outcomes in patients who have used nonideal donors for FMT.

  5. [Gut microbiota in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza-Chávez, M E

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  8. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  10. Distribution of female genital tract anomalies in two classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Pentti K

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the distribution of Müllerian duct anomalies in two verified classifications of female genital tract malformations, and the presence of associated renal defects. 621 women with confirmed female genital tract anomalies were retrospectively grouped under the European (ESHRE/ESGE) and the American (AFS) classification. The diagnosis of uterine malformation was based on findings in hysterosalpingography, two-dimensional ultrasonography, endoscopies, laparotomy, cesarean section and magnetic resonance imaging in 97.3% of cases. Renal status was determined in 378 patients, including 5 with normal uterus and vagina. The European classification covered all 621 women studied. Uterine anomalies without cervical or vaginal anomaly were found in 302 (48.6%) patients. Uterine anomaly was associated with vaginal anomaly in 45.2%, and vaginal anomaly alone was found in 26 (4.2%) cases. Septate uterus was the most common (49.1%) of all genital tract anomalies, followed by bicorporeal uteri (18.2%). The American classification covered 590 (95%) out of the 621 women with genital tract anomalies. The American system did not take into account vaginal anomalies in 170 (34.7%) and cervical anomalies in 174 (35.5%) out of 490 cases with uterine malformations. Renal abnormalities were found in 71 (18.8%) out of 378 women, unilateral renal agenesis being the most common defect (12.2%), also found in 4 women without Müllerian duct anomaly. The European classification sufficiently covered uterine and vaginal abnormalities. The distribution of the main uterine anomalies was equal in both classifications. The American system missed cervical and vaginal anomalies associated with uterine anomalies. Evaluation of renal system is recommended for all patients with genital tract anomalies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  12. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  13. Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Bethell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work on non-human primates indicates that the allocation of social attention is mediated by characteristics of the attending animal, such as social status and genotype, as well as by the value of the target to which attention is directed. Studies of humans indicate that an individual's emotion state also plays a crucial role in mediating their social attention; for example, individuals look for longer towards aggressive faces when they are feeling more anxious, and this bias leads to increased negative arousal and distraction from other ongoing tasks. To our knowledge, no studies have tested for an effect of emotion state on allocation of social attention in any non-human species. METHODOLOGY: We presented captive adult male rhesus macaques with pairs of adult male conspecific face images - one with an aggressive expression, one with a neutral expression - and recorded gaze towards these images. Each animal was tested twice, once during a putatively stressful condition (i.e. following a veterinary health check, and once during a neutral (or potentially positive condition (i.e. a period of environmental enrichment. Initial analyses revealed that behavioural indicators of anxiety and stress were significantly higher after the health check than during enrichment, indicating that the former caused a negative shift in emotional state. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The macaques showed initial vigilance for aggressive faces across both conditions, but subsequent responses differed between conditions. Following the health check, initial vigilance was followed by rapid and sustained avoidance of aggressive faces. By contrast, during the period of enrichment, the macaques showed sustained attention towards the same aggressive faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that shifts in emotion state mediate social attention towards and away from facial cues of emotion in a non-human animal. This work

  14. Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence M; M'imunya, James Machoki; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2012-08-15

    Genital ulcer disease by virtue of disruption of the mucosal surfaces may enhance HIV acquisition. Genital ulcer disease treatment with resolution of the ulcers may therefore contribute in reducing the sexual acquisition of HIV. To determine the effects of treatment of genital ulcer disease on sexual acquisition of HIV. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, NLM Gateway, Web of Science, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant publications for eligible studies published between 1980 and August 2011. Randomized controlled trials of any treatment intervention aimed at curing genital ulcer disease compared with an alternative treatment, placebo, or no treatment. We included only trials whose unit of randomization was the individual with confirmed genital ulcer. We independently selected studies and extracted data in duplicate; resolving discrepancies by discussion, consensus, and arbitration by third review author. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were three randomized controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria recruited HIV-negative participants with chancroid (two trials with 143 participants) and primary syphilis (one trial with 30 participants). The syphilis study, carried out in the US between 1995 and 1997, randomized participants to receive a single 2.0 g oral dose of azithromycin (11 participants); two 2.0 g oral doses of azithromycin administered six to eight days apart (eight participants); or benzathine penicillin G administered as either 2.4 million units intramuscular injection once or twice seven days apart (11 participants). No participant in the trial seroconverted during 12 months of follow-up. The chancroid trials, conducted in Kenya by 1990, found no significant differences in HIV seroconversion rates during four to 12 weeks of follow-up between 400 and 200 mg single

  15. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  16. Function and Innervation of the Locus Ceruleus in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-01-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afte...

  17. Social management of laboratory rhesus macaques housed in large groups using a network approach: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne; Hannibal, Darcy

    2017-12-07

    Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being. Thus for both welfare and other management reasons, aggression among rhesus macaques at primate centers and facilities needs to be addressed with a more proactive approach.Management strategies need to be instituted that maximize social housing while also reducing problematic social aggression due to instability using efficacious methods for detection and prevention in the most cost effective manner. Herein we review a new proactive approach using social network analysis to assess and predict deleterious aggression in macaque groups. We discovered three major pathways leading to instability, such as unusually high rates and severity of trauma and social relocations.These pathways are linked either directly or indirectly to network structure in rhesus macaque societies. We define these pathways according to the key intrinsic and extrinsic variables (e.g., demographic, genetic or social factors) that influence network and behavioral measures of stability (see Fig. 1). They are: (1) presence of natal males, (2) matrilineal genetic fragmentation, and (3) the power structure and conflict policing behavior supported by this

  18. Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC  =  0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation  =  0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of

  19. Glial cell morphological and density changes through the lifespan of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Katelyn N; Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; MacLean, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    How aging impacts the central nervous system (CNS) is an area of intense interest. Glial morphology is known to affect neuronal and immune function as well as metabolic and homeostatic balance. Activation of glia, both astrocytes and microglia, occurs at several stages during development and aging. The present study analyzed changes in glial morphology and density through the entire lifespan of rhesus macaques, which are physiologically and anatomically similar to humans. We observed apparent increases in gray matter astrocytic process length and process complexity as rhesus macaques matured from juveniles through adulthood. These changes were not attributed to cell enlargement because they were not accompanied by proportional changes in soma or process volume. There was a decrease in white matter microglial process length as rhesus macaques aged. Aging was shown to have a significant effect on gray matter microglial density, with a significant increase in aged macaques compared with adults. Overall, we observed significant changes in glial morphology as macaques age indicative of astrocytic activation with subsequent increase in microglial density in aged macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  1. Toxicity and efficacy of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine in clinical trials of pigtailed macaques infected with simian retrovirus type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, C C; Follis, K E; Yarnall, M; Blakley, G A

    1989-01-01

    Four dosing regimens of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) were administered intravenously for 10 to 28 days to 18 pigtailed macaques with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ten macaques naturally infected with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus serotype 2 (SRV-2), the etiologic agent of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received ddC by continuous intravenous infusion or by a daily bolus injection for 10 to 12 days. Another eight macaques that were negative for SRV...

  2. Characterization of Microbiota in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meij, Tim G. J.; de Groot, Evelien F. J.; Eck, Anat; Budding, Andries E.; Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Benninga, Marc A.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in

  3. Comparative Pathology of Smallpox and Monkeypox in Man and Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, J. A.; Jahrling, P. B.; Hensley, L. E.; Wahl-Jensen, V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the three decades since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination, the collective memory of the devastating epidemics caused by this orthopoxvirus has waned, and the human population has become increasingly susceptible to a disease that remains high on the list of possible bioterrorism agents. Research using surrogate orthopoxviruses in their natural hosts, as well as limited variola virus research in animal models, continues worldwide; however, interpretation of findings is often limited by our relative lack of knowledge about the naturally occurring disease. For modern comparative pathologists, many of whom have no first-hand knowledge of naturally occurring smallpox, this work provides a contemporary review of this historical disease, as well as discussion of how it compares with human monkeypox and the corresponding diseases in macaques. PMID:22884034

  4. Spatial and temporal vision of macaques after central retinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigan, W.H.; Pasternak, T.; Zehl, D.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial contrast and temporal modulation sensitivity of two macaque monkeys were measured at three luminance levels before and after binocular laser coagulation of the fovea. The radius of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 2.2 degree from the center of the fovea. After placement of the lesions, the visibility of high spatial frequencies was greatly reduced, although sensitivity at middle and low spatial frequencies was unaffected. No loss of spatial resolution was found at the lowest luminance tested. When temporal modulation sensitivity was tested with 4 deg targets, foveal lesions had no effect at any temporal frequency or luminance. However, with a 0.57 degree target, sensitivity to lower temporal frequencies was impaired. Thus visual loss after destruction of the fovea is limited to high luminance, small targets, and the resolution of fine detail

  5. Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Chivers, Meredith L

    2009-08-01

    Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal.

  6. Young women's genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W

    2017-12-01

    Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.

  7. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  8. Discovery of a secular trend in Cayo Santiago macaque reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Kessler, Matthew J; Delgado, Diana L; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Sabat, Alberto M

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques from 1973 to 2013, this study distinguishes synchrony (a greater than chance clustering of births) from seasonality (a cluster of births during a period of the year when abiotic conditions are favorable) and shows that females are highly synchronized (>72% of births in a 3-month period) but the effects of environmental zeitgebers on reproduction are overridden by biological factors. Specifically, biotic and abiotic factors including (i) loss of immature offspring; (ii) population density; (iii) age at delivery; (iv) rainfall; and (v) changes in colony management were modeled in relation to the annual onset of births and the median birth date. Females experiencing loss of immature offspring had an interbirth interval of trend in both the onset of births and the median date of birth is documented and the model predicts that the median birth date will advance across all calendar-based seasons by 2050. The secular trend in reproduction appears to be triggered by changes in the age at delivery of females, the absence of physiological constraints from maternal investment due to offspring loss, shorter interbirth interval, and a higher degree of coordination due to increasing population density. This study challenges the reproductive phenology previously described for rhesus macaques highlighting the importance of long-term studies in addressing the ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques for individual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The vocalizations of primates contain information about speaker individuality. Many primates, including humans, are able to distinguish conspecifics based solely on vocalizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques in individual vocal discrimination. Furthermore, we tested human subjects using monkey vocalizations to evaluate species specificity with respect to such discriminations. Two monkeys and five humans were trained to discriminate the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. We created a stimulus continuum between the vocalizations of the two monkeys as a set of probe stimuli (whole morph). We also created two sets of continua in which only one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency ( f 0 ) or vocal tract characteristic (VTC), was changed from the coo call of one monkey to that of another while the other acoustic feature remained the same ( f 0 morph and VTC morph, respectively). According to the results, the reaction times both of monkeys and humans were correlated with the morph proportion under the whole morph and f 0 morph conditions. The reaction time to the VTC morph was correlated with the morph proportion in both monkeys, whereas the reaction time in humans, on average, was not correlated with morph proportion. Japanese monkeys relied more consistently on VTC than did humans for discriminating monkey vocalizations. Our results support the idea that the auditory system of primates is specialized for processing conspecific vocalizations and suggest that VTC is a significant acoustic feature used by Japanese macaques to discriminate conspecific vocalizations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Development of a Zika Virus Infection Model in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusataka Koide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of Indian rhesus macaques (IRM is a bottleneck to study Zika virus (ZIKV pathogenesis and evaluation of appropriate control measures in non-human primates. To address these issues, we report here the Mauritian cynomolgus macaque (MCM model for ZIKV infection. In brief, six MCMs (seronegative for dengue and ZIKV were subdivided into 3 cohorts with a male and female each and challenged with different doses of Asian PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico or FSS13025 (Cambodia or African (IBH30656 lineage ZIKV isolates. Clinical signs were monitored; and biological fluids (serum, saliva and urine and tissues (testes and brain were assessed for viral load by quantitative RT-PCR and neutralizing antibodies (Nab by 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT50 at various times post infection (p.i. PRVABC59 induced viremia detectable up to day 10, with peak viral load at 2 to 3 days p.i. An intermittent viremia spike was observed on day 30 with titers reaching 2.5 ×103 genomes/mL. Moderate viral load was observed in testes, urine and saliva. In contrast, FSS13025 induced viremia lasting only up to 6 days and detectable viral loads in testes but not in urine and saliva. Recurrent viremia was detected but at lower titers compare to PRVABC59. Challenge with either PRVABC59 or FSS13025 resulted in 100% seroconversion; with mean PRNT50 titers ranging from 597 to 5179. IBH30656 failed to establish infection in MCM suggesting that MCM are susceptible to infection with ZIKV isolates of the Asian lineage but not from Africa. Due to the similarity of biphasic viremia and Nab responses between MCM and IRM models, MCM could be a suitable alternative for evaluation of ZIKV vaccine and therapeutic candidates.

  11. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of insubordinate aggression among captive female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Shannon K; Hannibal, Darcy L; Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    Cercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques. To identify factors influencing insubordination, multivariate analyses of 10,821 dyadic conflicts among rhesus macaque females were conducted, using data from six captive groups. A segmented regression analysis was used to identify dyads with insubordination. Negative binomial regression analyses and an information theoretic approach were used to assess predictors of insubordination among dyads. In the best models, weight difference (w = 1.0; IRR = 0.930), age (dominant: w = 1.0, IRR = 0.681; subordinate: w = 1.0, IRR = 1.069), the subordinate's total number of allies (w = 0.727, IRR = 1.060) or non-kin allies (w = 0.273, IRR = 1.165), the interaction of the dominant's kin allies and weight difference (w = 0.938, IRR = 1.046), violation of youngest ascendancy (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.727), and the subordinate's maternal support (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.928), are important predictors of insubordination. These results show that both intrinsic and social factors influence insubordinate behavior. This adds to evidence of the importance of intrinsic factors and flexibility in a social structure thought to be rigid and predetermined by external factors. Further, because insubordination can precipitate social overthrow, determining predictors of insubordination will shed light on mechanisms underlying stability in nepotistic societies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  15. Microbiota intestinal en la salud y la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-01-01

    La microbiota intestinal es la comunidad de microorganismos vivos residentes en el tubo digestivo. Muchos grupos de investigadores a nivel mundial trabajan descifrando el genoma de la microbiota. Las técnicas modernas de estudio de la microbiota nos han acercado al conocimiento de un número importante de bacterias que no son cultivables, y de la relación entre los microorganismos que nos habitan y nuestra homeostasis. La microbiota es indispensable para el correcto crecimiento corporal, el de...

  16. [Microbiota in women; clinical applications of probiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Suárez, Evaristo; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Jimena

    2015-07-18

    The main function of vaginal microbiota is to protect the mucosa against the colonization and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This microbiota is modified by hormonal activity. Its maximum concentration and effectiveness occurs during the fertile period, where there is a predominance of lactobacilli. When it is reduced (microbiota dysbiosis) leads to bacterial vaginosis and candida vaginitis which are common diseases in women. Consequently, instillation of lactobacilli in the vagina has beneficial effects on the symptomatology and prognosis of these illnesses. Breast milk is one of the key factors in the development of gut microbiota of the infant. There is an enteric-breast circulation, which is higher at the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. This circulation could explain the modulation of the breast microbiota by using probiotics. It could have a positive impact not only for the health of the mother, who would reduce the incidence of mastitis, but also for their infant. The use of probiotics is a hopeful alternative in various gynecological pathologies. However, it's is necessary first some well-designed, randomized trials with standardized methods and with a significant number of patients in order to confirm its benefits and allow us its use in protocols. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction......, but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic......-Meyer KS, Bohm-Starke N, Damsted Petersen C, Fugl-Meyer A, Parish S, and Giraldi A. Standard operating procedures for female genital sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  18. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  19. Des Menschens Genitive Normabweichende Genitiv-Varianten bei schwachen Maskulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Krischke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genitive singular of the weak masculine nouns appears in three non-standard variations in addition to the standard suffix -(en: one variation is case augmenting (des Bär-en-s, one is stem affixing (des Polizist-s and one lacks a case suffix (des Patient-Ø. Linguists as well as language critics have focussed mainly on the stem affixing genitive while more or less ignor­ing the two other non-standard variations. This paper presents a corpus-based investigation regarding frequency and contexts of all three variations, also considering the diachronic back­ground and the implications the results might have for predicting the further development of the declension class of the weak masculine nouns.

  20. Tumorigenic Effects of Tamoxifen on the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu M.D., Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen is widely used for endocrine treatment and breast cancer prevention. It acts as both an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue and an estrogen agonist in the female lower genital tract. Tamoxifen causes severe gynecologic side effects, such as endometrial cancer. This review focuses on the effects of prolonged tamoxifen treatment on the human female genital tract and considers its tumorigenicity in the gynecologic organs through clinical data analysis. Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of benign endometrial lesions such as polyps and hyperplasia and a two- to four-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal patients. Moreover, the incidence of functional ovarian cysts is significantly high in premenopausal tamoxifen users. To prevent tamoxifen from having severe side effects in gynecologic organs, frequent gynecological examination should be performed for both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who are treated with this drug.

  1. Update on chancroid: an important cause of genital ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, C

    1996-08-01

    Chancroid is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide, and occurred at epidemic rates in the United States in the late 1980s. Though the recent epidemic in the U.S. appears to be waning, a number of areas continue to report significant numbers of cases. Chancroid is a particular concern, because, like other diseases that cause genital ulceration, it is associated with an increased risk for transmission or acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent studies have advanced the understanding of chancroid epidemiology, and new diagnostic tests may improve the ability to recognize and appropriately treat chancroid. Increased awareness of chancroid, with appropriate treatment for suspected lesions, along with public health efforts to implement prevention in high-risk populations, will be critical to prevent ongoing transmission of chancroid, and potentially ongoing transmission of HIV.

  2. The presentation and management of complex female genital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acién, Pedro; Acién, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Common uterine anomalies are important owing to their impact on fertility, and complex mesonephric anomalies and certain Müllerian malformations are particularly important because they cause serious clinical symptoms and affect woman's quality of life, in addition to creating fertility problems. In these cases of complex female genital tract malformations, a correct diagnosis is essential to avoid inappropriate and/or unnecessary surgery. Therefore, acquiring and applying the appropriate embryological knowledge, management and therapy is a challenge for gynaecologists. Here, we considered complex malformations to be obstructive anomalies and/or those associated with cloacal and urogenital sinus anomalies, urinary and/or extragenital anomalies, or other clinical implications or symptoms creating a difficult differential diagnosis. A diligent and comprehensive search of PubMed and Scopus was performed for all studies published from 1 January 2011 to 15 April 2015 (then updated up to September 2015) using the following search terms: 'management' in combination with either 'female genital malformations' or 'female genital tract anomalies' or 'Müllerian anomalies'. The MeSH terms 'renal agenesis', 'hydrocolpos', 'obstructed hemivagina' 'cervicovaginal agenesis or atresia', 'vaginal agenesis or atresia', 'Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome', 'uterine duplication' and 'cloacal anomalies' were also used to compile a list of all publications containing these terms since 2011. The basic embryological considerations for understanding female genitourinary malformations were also revealed. Based on our experience and the updated literature review, we studied the definition and classification of the complex malformations, and we analysed the clinical presentation and different therapeutic strategies for each anomaly, including the embryological and clinical classification of female genitourinary malformations. From 755 search retrieved references, 230 articles were analysed and

  3. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  4. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Genital herpes simplex virus infection: clinical course and attempted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L G; Keeney, R E

    1981-06-01

    The epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and attempted treatments of herpes genitalis are reviewed. Herpes genitalis is an increasingly common sexually transmitted disease for which there is no effective treatment. It can occur in either sex and is mot commonly first found in patients 14 to 29 years old. Initial exposure to the virus may result in prolonged local symptoms (pain, itching, discharge) and signs (ulcerative lesions) as well as fever, malaise, myalgias, and fatigue. After the initial exposure, the virus may be found in a latent stage in the dorsal nerve root ganglia in the sacral area, and recurrences of disease may ensue. The frequency and clinical course of recurrent genital herpes can be of varying duration and severity. Although antiviral substances, immune potentiators, topical surfactants, and photodynamic inactivation have been used to treat genital herpes infections, there is no proven effective therapy.

  6. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  7. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  8. Omics approaches to study host-microbiota interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Kleerebezem, M.; Wells, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has profound effects on our physiology and immune system and disturbances in the equilibrium between microbiota and host have been observed in many disorders. Here we discuss the possibilities to further our understanding of how microbiota impacts on human health and

  9. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  10. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moussa Garba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  11. Malignant tumours of the genital tract among Batswana women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanko, M. N.; Cainelli, F.; Vento, S.; Kayembe, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of malignant tumours of the female genital tract among Batswana women. A four-year retrospective histological study of the pattern of female genital tract malignancy in Botswana. University of Botswana and the National Health Laboratory Gaborone, Botswana. The National Health Laboratory is the only public tertiary referral laboratory that provides diagnostic pathology services in the South-Eastern part of Botswana. It is located just adjacent to Princess Marina Hospital, the major tertiary referral hospital in the country. All histologically confirmed diagnoses of female genital tract malignancies from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009 were reviewed by two pathologists and diagnoses re-confirmed by taking fresh tissue sections from paraffin embedded archival tissue blocks. The age of patients ranged from 13-96 years with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years. Cancer of the cervix constituted 80.6%, followed by uterine cancer (10.0%), carcinomas of the vulva (4.5%) and ovary (3.4%) in that order. Ovarian cancers predominated in the younger age group. There was a steady increase in the frequencies of cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers over the 4-year study period with a decline in uterine cancer in the 4th year. Cervical cancer incidence is high among Batswana women and all female genital tract cancers occurred at a relatively early mean age. Therefore the importance of established and accessible screening programs and awareness campaigns need more emphasis than it is being given currently. (au)

  12. Genital Autoinoculation with Vaccinia: A Look at Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julie R; Rollene, Nanette L; Gist, Richard S

    2018-05-01

    Smallpox, or vaccinia, has been eradicated worldwide as a disease; however, it may be weaponized and is thus a required immunization when military members deploy to certain parts of the world. We report two unusual cases of genital autoinoculation following smallpox vaccination. Both patients' lesions resolved without sequelae within 20 d. We advocate for thorough education on this potential vaccination adverse event. These cases highlight the importance of a broad differential diagnosis when dealing with vulvar lesions, particularly in our military population.

  13. FEMALE GENITAL TRACT CANCERS IN SAGAMU, SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, P O; Adefuye, B O; Oluwole, A A

    2014-11-01

    To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. OOUTH is a tertiary health institution of the State's university and it takes referrals from within and outside the State. Case records of all female genital tract cancers managed between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrieved and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. There were 2059 women treated forvarious gynaecologic conditions, 179 (8.7%) were cases of female genital tract cancers and 161 records were available for analysis. Cervical cancer constituted the commonest (51.6%), followed by ovarian (35.4%), endometrial (9.9%), and choriocarcinoma (1.9%). There were no cases of vaginal and fallopian tube cancers. The lowest mean age was found in choriocarcinoma (36.60 ± 4.50 years) and highest in vulvar cancer (70.00 ± 2.82 years). The mean ages for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers were (51.98 ± 12.39), (65.38 ± 7.24), and (54.42 ± 10.51) years respectively. Similarly the least mean parity was found in choriocarcinoma (2.33 ± 1.52), and the highest in vulvar cancer (6.00 ± 1.44). The mean parity for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian were (4.10 ± 1.49),(3.06 ± 1.48), and (3.72 ± 1.68) respectively. These differences are statistically significant, age; F = 7.61, p < 0.0001, and parity; F = 3.27, p= 0.013. Incidence of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers remain high and presentations are at late stages. There is a need to improve on cervical cancer screening, and for the attending physicians to improve on their indices of suspicions as regards endometrial and ovarian cancers.

  14. Female Genital Cutting: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital cutting (FGC) dynamics, beliefs and fundamentals across African countries. Results show that social and economic conditions are worse in countries where FGC is practiced. However, if we consider the dynamics of FGC in those countries, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the abandonment of the practice. Instead, we find a significant correlation with social expectations and trust. Our findings support the implementation of b...

  15. Female Genital Mutilation: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) dynamics, social expectations and fundamentals across African countries. We show that socioeconomic conditions are overall worse in countries where FGM/C is practiced. Yet when we consider the dynamics of FGM/C within countries that perform it, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the decline of the practice. We find instead that FGM/C dynamics are strongly related to social expectations and social...

  16. Cryotherapy versus electrocautery in the treatment of genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, P D; Langlet, F; Thin, R N

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two male patients with ano-genital warts were randomly allocated to a single-blind study of cryotherapy versus electrocautery. There was no significant difference in the success rates of these two forms of treatment in patients followed for three months. Cryotherapy was qualitatively much more acceptable to the patients than electrocautery. It seems particularly suited to patients with widely scattered warts who are unable to attend for regular treatment. PMID:7272706

  17. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  18. Peculiarities of immune effects in patients with genital endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasanova Ch.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study the immune effects in patients with external genital endometriosis. 126 patients with external genital endometriosis ages 22-44 years have been examined. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+, CD25+, immunoglobulin A, M, G are defined in peripheral blood and peritoneal liquid. Method of cytoflowmetry and radial immunodiffusion by Manchini has been used. Statistical processing of results has been spent by means of a package of the statistical program «Statgraphics», STSC (USA. Reliability of variability has been estimated by means of calculation of nonparametric criterion by Uilkokson — Mann — Uitni. Depression of cellular and increase of humoral immunity (IgG and IgA in peritoneal liquid have been revealed. Degree of expressiveness of immunity has been depended on presence of inflammatory diseases, duration of disease, localization of the pathology center. In peritoneal liquid the total amount of T-lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ lymphocytes has been increased in patients with of external genital endometriosis of lll-IV degree. The immunoregulatory index has been also increased. These results have confirmed the presence of inflammatory process in peritoneal cavity

  19. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  20. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  1. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire showed no difference between cases and controls in regards to hygiene practices, exposure to specific irritants, or history of possible sexual abuse. Normal vaginal flora was similar to that described in previous studies, with the exception of organisms likely to be associated with sexual activity. 80% of cases had no evidence of an infectious cause. In the 10 cases in whom an infectious cause was found, there was significantly more visible discharge and distinct redness of the genital area on examination compared with other cases.
CONCLUSIONS— The findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in this age group is not usually infectious or necessarily related to poor hygiene, specific irritants or sexual abuse, although any of these can present with genital irritation. The possibility of sexual abuse should always be considered when a child presents with genital symptoms, but our data indicate it is not a common contributing factor. Infection is generally associated with vaginal discharge and moderate or severe inflammation.

 PMID:10373139

  2. HPV-11 variability, persistence and progression to genital warts in men: the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-09-01

    HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases. The same HPV-11 variant was detected in the GW sample and its preceding genital swab. There was a lack of association between any particular HPV-11 variant and the increased risk for GW development.

  3. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity...... for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti....... In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention....

  4. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested...... to increase the systemic inflammatory level of the host, which may in turn influence plaque composition and rupture. We previously showed that bacteria from the oral cavity and the gut could be found in atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: To elucidate whether the oral microbiota composition differed between...... patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. RESULTS...

  5. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyto- and receptor architecture of area 32 in human and macaque brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl; Schleicher, Axel; Vogt, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    Human area 32 plays crucial roles in emotion and memory consolidation. It has subgenual (s32), pregenual (p32), dorsal, and midcingulate components. We seek to determine whether macaque area 32 has subgenual and pregenual subdivisions and the extent to which they are comparable to those in humans by means of NeuN immunohistochemistry and multireceptor analysis of laminar profiles. The macaque has areas s32 and p32. In s32, layer IIIa/b neurons are larger than those of layer IIIc. This relationship is reversed in p32. Layer Va is thicker and Vb thinner in s32. Area p32 contains higher kainate, benzodiazepine (BZ), and serotonin (5-HT)1A but lower N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α2 receptor densities. Most differences were found in layers I, II, and VI. Together, these differences support the dual nature of macaque area 32. Comparative analysis of human and macaque s32 and p32 supports equivalences in cyto- and receptor architecture. Although there are differences in mean areal receptor densities, there are considerable similarities at the layer level. Laminar receptor distribution patterns in each area are comparable in the two species in layers III-Va for kainate, NMDA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B , BZ, and 5-HT1A receptors. Multivariate statistical analysis of laminar receptor densities revealed that human s32 is more similar to macaque s32 and p32 than to human p32. Thus, macaque 32 is more complex than hitherto known. Our data suggest a homologous neural architecture in anterior cingulate s32 and p32 in human and macaque brains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Limited evidence of the effect of prophylactic pelvic floor training on genital prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Jeppesen, Ulla; Bor, Isil Pinar

    Abstract A growing number of women are bothered by genital prolapse. The treatment of genital prolapse includes pelvic floor exercise in variable extent, but only few data are published. Variations in interventions, follow-up time, outcome etc. complicates a comparison. Because of the very limited...... material it is difficult to conclude if pelvic floor exercises have any effect on genital prolapse. There is need for studies concerning the clinical relevance and a cost-benefit analysis....

  9. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam

    2013-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic reson...

  10. Elsberg syndrome: a neurologic basis for acute urinary retention in patients with genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrika, D J; Schutte, M F; Bleker, O P

    1986-09-01

    Three patients with genital herpes simplex type II primoinfection and acute urinary retention are described. All patients showed pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, substantiating central nervous involvement. The association of genital herpes and sacral (myelo-) radiculitis has gained little attention in gynecologic literature, yet it is not an uncommon finding in female patients suffering from herpes. The present report emphasizes the importance of urinary symptoms in genital herpes and reviews the literature on similar cases.

  11. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Carding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship between the colonic microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host immune system. The establishment of a ‘healthy’ relationship early in life appears to be critical to maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Whilst we do not yet have a clear understanding of what constitutes a ‘healthy’ colonic microbiota, a picture is emerging from many recent studies identifying particular bacterial species associated with a healthy microbiota. In particular, the bacterial species residing within the mucus layer of the colon, either through direct contact with host cells, or through indirect communication via bacterial metabolites, may influence whether host cellular homeostasis is maintained or whether inflammatory mechanisms are triggered. In addition to inflammation, there is some evidence that perturbations in the gut microbiota is involved with the development of colorectal cancer. In this case, dysbiosis may not be the most important factor, rather the products of interaction between diet and the microbiome. High-protein diets are thought to result in the production of carcinogenic metabolites from the colonic microbiota that may result in the induction of neoplasia in the colonic epithelium.Ever more sensitive metabolomics methodologies reveal a suite of small molecules produced in the microbiome which mimic or act as neurosignallers or neurotransmitters. Coupled with evidence that probiotic interventions may alter psychological endpoints in both humans and in

  12. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  13. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  14. Oncogenic mutations in melanomas and benign melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Diane; Kim, Julie; Warrick, Andrea; Nelson, Dylan; Pukay, Marina; Beadling, Carol; Heinrich, Michael; Selim, Maria Angelica; Corless, Christopher L; Nelson, Kelly

    2014-08-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of melanomas and melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract is poorly understood. We aim to characterize the frequency of mutations of the following genes: BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNA11, and GNAQ in female genital tract melanomas. We also characterize the frequency of BRAF mutations in female genital tract melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. Mutational screening was performed on the following female genital tract melanocytic neoplasms: 25 melanomas, 7 benign melanocytic nevi, and 4 atypical melanocytic nevi. Of the 25 female genital tract melanoma specimens queried, KIT mutations were detected in 4 (16.0%), NRAS mutations in 4 (16.0%), and BRAF mutations in 2 (8.0%) samples. Two of the tumors with KIT mutations harbored double mutations in the same exon. No GNAQ or GNA11 mutations were identified among 11 melanomas screened. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 7 of 7 benign melanocytic genital nevi (100%) and 3 of 4 atypical genital nevi (75%). Our study is limited by the small sample size of this rare subset of melanomas. KIT, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are found in a subset of female genital tract melanomas. Screening for oncogenic mutations is important for developing and applying clinical therapies for melanomas of the female genital tract. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  16. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Fei; Shen, Yan-Qin

    2018-04-26

    Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD. Microbiota-targeted interventions, such as antibiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation, have been shown to favorably affect host health. In this review, recent findings regarding alterations and the role of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in PD are summarized, and potential molecular mechanisms and microbiota-targeted interventions in PD are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota of lean and obese humans, (3) the impact of diet on the gut microbiota, (4) manipulating the gut microbiota and (5) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can impact on weight gain. PMID:22572830

  18. The Gut Microbiota in Host Metabolism and Pathogen Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak

    The human microbiota consists of a complex community of microbial cells that live on and inside each person in a close relationship with their host. The majority of the microbial cells are harboured by the gastro intestinal tract where 10-100 trillion bacteria reside. The microbiota is a dynamic...... community where both composition and function can be affected by changes in the local environment. With the microbiota containing ~150 times more genes than the human host, the microbiota provides a large modifiable “secondary genome” (metagenome). Within the last decade, changes in the gut microbiota...... composition has indeed been established as a factor contributing to the health of the host. Therefore, being able to understand, control and modify the gut microbiota is a promising way of improving health. The following thesis is based on four different projects investigating the murine gut microbiota...

  19. Prevention of rectal SHIV transmission in macaques by daily or intermittent prophylaxis with emtricitabine and tenofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerardo García-Lerma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread globally, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated daily and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model that closely resembles human transmission.We used a repeat-exposure macaque model with 14 weekly rectal virus challenges. Three drug treatments were given once daily, each to a different group of six rhesus macaques. Group 1 was treated subcutaneously with a human-equivalent dose of emtricitabine (FTC, group 2 received orally the human-equivalent dosing of both FTC and tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (TDF, and group 3 received subcutaneously a similar dosing of FTC and a higher dose of tenofovir. A fourth group of six rhesus macaques (group 4 received intermittently a PrEP regimen similar to group 3 only 2 h before and 24 h after each weekly virus challenge. Results were compared to 18 control macaques that did not receive any drug treatment. The risk of infection in macaques treated in groups 1 and 2 was 3.8- and 7.8-fold lower than in untreated macaques (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively. All six macaques in group 3 were protected. Breakthrough infections had blunted acute viremias; drug resistance was seen in two of six animals. All six animals in group 4 that received intermittent PrEP were protected.This model suggests that single drugs for daily PrEP can be protective but a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be required to increase the level of protection. Short but potent intermittent PrEP can provide protection comparable to that of daily PrEP in this SHIV/macaque model. These findings support PrEP trials for HIV prevention in humans and identify promising PrEP modalities.

  20. Expression of Kv3.1b potassium channel is widespread in macaque motor cortex pyramidal cells: A histological comparison between rat and macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, David; Goldrick, Isabelle; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2017-06-15

    There are substantial differences across species in the organization and function of the motor pathways. These differences extend to basic electrophysiological properties. Thus, in rat motor cortex, pyramidal cells have long duration action potentials, while in the macaque, some pyramidal neurons exhibit short duration "thin" spikes. These differences may be related to the expression of the fast potassium channel Kv3.1b, which in rat interneurons is associated with generation of thin spikes. Rat pyramidal cells typically lack these channels, while there are reports that they are present in macaque pyramids. Here we made a systematic, quantitative comparison of the Kv3.1b expression in sections from macaque and rat motor cortex, using two different antibodies (NeuroMab, Millipore). As our standard reference, we examined, in the same sections, Kv3.1b staining in parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which show strong Kv3.1b immunoreactivity. In macaque motor cortex, a large sample of pyramidal neurons were nearly all found to express Kv3.1b in their soma membranes. These labeled neurons were identified as pyramidal based either by expression of SMI32 (a pyramidal marker), or by their shape and size, and lack of expression of parvalbumin (a marker for some classes of interneuron). Large (Betz cells), medium, and small pyramidal neurons all expressed Kv3.1b. In rat motor cortex, SMI32-postive pyramidal neurons expressing Kv3.1b were very rare and weakly stained. Thus, there is a marked species difference in the immunoreactivity of Kv3.1b in pyramidal neurons, and this may be one of the factors explaining the pronounced electrophysiological differences between rat and macaque pyramidal neurons. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bipedal locomotion of bonnet macaques after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Rangasamy Suresh; Anand, P; Jeraud, Mathew; Periasamy, P; Namasivayam, A

    2007-10-01

    Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals'motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways--narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways--with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly

  2. Turnover rates of B cells, T cells, and NK cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Mohri, H.; Ho, D.D.; Perelson, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We determined average cellular turnover rates by fitting mathematical models to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine measurements in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. The daily turnover rates of CD4(+) T cells, CD4(-) T cells, CD20(+) B cells, and CD16(+) NK cells in normal uninfected rhesus macaques

  3. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K Watson

    Full Text Available Serotonin signaling influences social behavior in both human and nonhuman primates. In humans, variation upstream of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has recently been shown to influence both behavioral measures of social anxiety and amygdala response to social threats. Here we show that length polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR predict social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, a species in which 5-HTTLPR variation is analogous to that of humans.In contrast to monkeys with two copies of the long allele (L/L, monkeys with one copy of the short allele of this gene (S/L spent less time gazing at face than non-face images, less time looking in the eye region of faces, and had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of a high versus low status male macaques. Moreover, in a novel primed gambling task, presentation of photos of high status male macaques promoted risk-aversion in S/L monkeys but promoted risk-seeking in L/L monkeys. Finally, as measured by a "pay-per-view" task, S/L monkeys required juice payment to view photos of high status males, whereas L/L monkeys sacrificed fluid to see the same photos.These data indicate that genetic variation in serotonin function contributes to social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in humans and rhesus macaques alike.

  4. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  5. The genetic composition of populations of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Satkoski Trask, J; George, D A; Kou, A J; Hoffman, L N; Doherty, T B; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2013-06-01

    The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia, and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity, while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deepwater and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Investigators should verify their research subjects' origin, ancestry, and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M J Ylinen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  7. [Breaking paradigms. Intestinal microbiota transplantation: Preliminar report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Tiburcio, Álvaro; Bermúdez-Ruiz, Héctor; Lezama-Guzmán, Hugo Ricardo; Guevara-Ortigoza, María Del Pilar; Islas-Solares, Elena; Sosa-López, Francisco Antonio

    2017-12-01

    In the fourth century, during the Chinese Dong Jin dynasty, the doctor Ge Hong described good results after the oral administration of a suspension prepared from human faeces in patients with severe diarrhoea or food poisoning. Faecal microbiota transplantation has been used for five years in order to treat different diseases in addition to the severe diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile 1 . This paper aims to confirm that intestinal microbiota transplantation succeeds in reducing the negative impact of diseases such as severe diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, allergies, metabolic syndrome and others and that it is not only indicated for severe diarrhoea caused by C. difficile. This preliminary study included six patients who underwent faecal microbiota transplantation, aged 83, 76, 66, 37 and 36 years (four men and two women). An improvement in symptoms of 70% was observed. The methodology and criteria to be followed with donors are described and the results are listed in three tables. The methodology followed for the microbiota transplant is the same as that reported by other researchers for the treatment of C. difficile diarrhoea and other diseases. The discussion addresses the issues raised in other parts of the world in handling different pathologic entities, as well as genetic advances. The conclusions show encouraging results. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Rett Syndrome: A Focus on Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Borghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFAs concentration was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The RTT microbiota showed a lower α diversity, an enrichment in Bacteroidaceae, Clostridium spp., and Sutterella spp., and a slight depletion in Ruminococcaceae. Fecal SCFA concentrations were similar, but RTT samples showed slightly higher concentrations of butyrate and propionate, and significant higher levels in branched-chain fatty acids. Daily caloric intake was similar in the two groups, but macronutrient analysis showed a higher protein content in RTT diets. Microbial function prediction suggested in RTT subjects an increased number of microbial genes encoding for propionate and butyrate, and amino acid metabolism. A full understanding of these critical features could offer new, specific strategies for managing RTT-associated symptoms, such as dietary intervention or pre/probiotic supplementation.

  10. Introduction to the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-05-16

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host-microbe interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. The gut microbiota and host health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesi, Julian R.; Adams, David H.; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial

  12. Gut Microbiota and Host Juvenile Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Strigini, M.; Leulier, F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2018) ISSN 0171-967X Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germ free * Gnotobiology * Microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2016

  13. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  14. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Beijleveld, Hans; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem; Schraa, Gosse; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Smallegange, Renate C.

    2009-01-01

    Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours.

  15. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  16. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  17. The role of microbiota in retinal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ten years since the first publications on the human microbiome project have brought enormous attention and insight into the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. Connections between populations of microbiota and ocular disease are now being established, and increased accessibility ...

  18. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  19. Fasting the Microbiota to Improve Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Joel T; Staels, Bart

    2017-10-03

    While intermittent or periodic fasting provides a variety of favorable health benefits, the molecular mediators of these effects are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Li and colleagues (2017) highlight the role of gut microbiota in mediating benefits of intermittent fasting through activation of adipose tissue beiging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  1. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  2. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-01-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. PMID:25757941

  3. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  4. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  5. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-04-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Distress prevention by grooming others in crested black macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Yates, Kerrie

    2010-02-23

    Allogrooming is probably one of the most common and most studied social behaviours in a variety of animals. Whereas the short-term benefits for the groomee have often been investigated, little is known about the effects for the groomer. Our study focused on the short-term effects of grooming another group member in seven adult female crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). We found reductions in self-directed behaviour, an indicator of anxiety, and aggressive tendencies soon after grooming, when compared to matched-control periods. These findings can be interpreted as evidence of distress prevention, possibly mediated by an increase in tolerance. Indeed, a former groomee was more likely to be the nearest neighbour of the former groomer in the 10 min after grooming ended. Thus, the role of grooming in short-term distress alleviation can be applicable to the groomer as well as the groomee. These short-term effects, together with the longer-term effects of large and/or strong grooming networks confirm that grooming, as well as receiving grooming, has great importance for social dynamics.

  7. Gut Microbiota, Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes has vastly increased throughout the world. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective suggesting that our microbiota might be involved in the development of these disorders. This represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems. CONTENT: Our bowels have two major roles: the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of a barrier against the external environment. They fulfill these functions in the context of, and with the help from, tens of trillions of resident microbes, known as the gut microbiota. Studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with profound microbiotal changes, and the induction of a metabolic syndrome phenotype through fecal transplants corroborates the important role of the microbiota in this disease. Dietary composition and caloric intake appear to swiftly regulate intestinal microbial composition and function. SUMMARY: The interaction of the intestinal microbial world with its host, and its mutual regulation, will become one of the important topics of biomedical research and will provide us with further insights at the interface of microbiota, metabolism, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. A better understanding of the interaction between certain diets and the human gut microbiome should help to develop new guidelines for feeding humans at various time points in their life, help to improve global human health, and establish ways to prevent or treat various food-related diseases. KEYWORDS: gut microbiota, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes.

  8. The metabolism of the Antartic crytoendolithic microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, J. Robie

    1989-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of the cryptoendolithic microbiota in sandstones from the Ross Desert region of Antarctica was studied in situ and in vitro. Organic and inorganic compounds were metabolized by the microbiota, with bicarbonate being metabolized maximally in the light. There was a linear response of photosynthesis to light up to 200 to 300 micromole photons/sq m/s. The community photosynthetic response to temperature was a minimum at -5 C, two optima at +5 and +15 C and a maximum at +35 C. Photosynthetic metabolism occurred maximally in the presence of liquid water, but could occur in an environment of water vapor. Biomass of the cryptoendolithic microbiota was measured as the amount of lipid phosphate present. The in situ biomass ranged from 1.92 to 3.26 g carbon/sq m of rock and 2 orders of magnitude less than epilithic lichen microbiota from Antarctica in a location 7 degrees more north in latitude. With these data, it was possible to calculate primary production and carbon turnover in this simple microbiota. Production values ranged from 0.108 to 4.41 mg carbon/sq m/yr, while carbon turnover values ranged from 576 to 23,520 years. These values are the lowest and longest yet recorded for any ecosystem on Earth. If life did evolve on Mars to the level of prokaryotes or primitive eukaryotes, the possibility that the organisms retreated, to the protection of the inside of the rock so that metabolism could continue during planetary cooling, cannot be overlooked.

  9. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  10. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  11. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  12. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  13. A Case of Genital Self-mutilation Committed Before Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yadukul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires; depression and having a history of GSM. We present a case of a suicide wherein the deceased before committing the suicidal act had GSM.

  14. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.

  15. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  16. Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2016-10-10

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were "female genital mutilation", "female genital circumcision", "female genital cutting" and "female circumcision". Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal's impact factor. One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 - 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on

  17. Two cases of male genital self-mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are the presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem, and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires, depression, and having a history of GSM. The eponym Klingsor Syndrome, which involves the presence of religious delusions, is proposed for GSM. Psychiatric case reports of male GSM in the literature are rare and mostly anecdotal.

  18. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  19. Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that food is an important factor that influences and shapes the composition and configuration of the gut microbiota. Most studies have focused on macronutrients (fat, carbohydrate, protein) in particular and their effects on the gut microbiota. Although the microbiota can synthesize different water-soluble vitamins, the effects of vitamins synthesized within the microbiota on systemic vitamin status are unclear. Few studies exist on the shuttling of vitamins between the microbiota and intestine and the impact of luminal vitamins on the microbiota. Studying the interactions between vitamins and the microbiota may help to understand the effects of vitamins on the barrier function and immune system of the intestinal tract. Furthermore, understanding the impact of malnutrition, particularly low micronutrient supply, on microbiota development, composition, and metabolism may help in implementing new strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of malnutrition on child development. This article reviews data on the synthesis of different micronutrients and their effects on the human microbiota, and further discusses the consequences of malnutrition on microbiota composition. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  1. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  2. The Management of Pediatric Genital Injuries at a Pediatric Emergency Department in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hirokazu; Nomura, Osamu; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2018-04-25

    Genital injuries among children are often associated with consumer products or specific activities. There are few descriptive studies from Asia on pediatric genital injuries seen in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic features of accidental genital injuries among children. A retrospective chart review of children aged 15 years or younger who visited our ED for genital injuries between March 2010 and November 2014 was conducted. Data on age, arrival time at the ED, location of the incident, mechanism of injury, objects, injured organ, consultation with specialists, emergency operation, sedation at the ED, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in this analysis. Girls comprised 71% of the subject pool. The median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 4-9 years). Straddle injuries were the most common form of injury (56%). Male genital injuries occurred mostly outdoors (64%). Common consumer products associated with pediatric genital injuries were furniture (21%), exercise equipment (17%), and bicycles (15%). Thirty-two patients were examined by a surgeon, gynecologist, or urologist. The most commonly injured organs were the penis (55%) in boys and the labia (60%) in girls. Most patients (93%) were treated at the ED and discharged. The characteristics of accidental genital injuries among Japanese children were similar to those of children in other countries. The strategy for preventing genital injuries used in the West might be applicable to the East Asian context.

  3. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...

  4. Female genital mutilation : a hidden epidemic (statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Neubauer, David

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one

  5. The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies(,)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbizis, G.F.; Gordts, S.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Brucker, S.; De Angelis, C.; Gergolet, M.; Li, T.C.; Tanos, V.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Gianaroli, L.; Campo, R.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONWhat classification system is more suitable for the accurate, clear, simple and related to the clinical management categorization of female genital anomalies?SUMMARY ANSWERThe new ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies is presented.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCongenital

  6. Cesarean Delivery in Women With Genital Herpes in Washington State, 1989–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M. Marrazzo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery.

  7. CHLAMYFAST-OIA TEST IN THE GENITAL CHLAMYDIA MALE INFECTION DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Vasic

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ch. trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum represent, in the countries with developed industry, those diseases which are most often sexually transmissible. Chronic infections provoked by the mentioned causes are considered to be the risk factors for sterility.The aim of this paper is to examine the importance and specific characteristics of the CHLAMYFAST-OIA test in the Chlamydia genital infection diagnosis. This study includes 400 male patients with urethritis symptoms. The CHLAMYFAST-optical immunologic test has been used to determine the presence of the Ch. trachomatis in the genital tract of 360 males (Mycoplasma, International, France. The genital microplasmas, that is M. hominis and U. urealyticum, have been detected with the use of MYCOFAST-test (Mycroplasm International, France. The presence of the genital microplasmas has been studied in 129 patients.Chlamydia genital infection has been determined in 128 males (35,55%. The genital infection caused by M. hominis has been determined in a largely lower number of patients (3; 2,32%, as well as the infection caused by U. urealyticum (in 8 patients; 6,20%. Mixed infections have been detected in 8 patients. In 6 men (4,64% there has been detected a mixed infection caused by genital microplasmas. The mixed infection provoked by Ch. Trachomatis and M. hominis, and the one caused by Ch. trachomatis and U. urealyticum, has been proven only in one patient respectively.

  8. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin R; Johnson, Welkin E; Kirmaier, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm). Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac) and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne) have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa) were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  9. Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-03-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) can be used to generate rule-based sequences of stimuli. Some of these can be used to investigate sequence-processing computations in non-human animals that might be related to, but not unique to, human language. Previous AG learning studies in non-human animals have used different AGs to separately test for specific sequence-processing abilities. However, given that natural language and certain animal communication systems (in particular, song) have multiple levels of complexity, mixed-complexity AGs are needed to simultaneously evaluate sensitivity to the different features of the AG. Here, we tested humans and Rhesus macaques using a mixed-complexity auditory AG, containing both adjacent (local) and non-adjacent (longer-distance) relationships. Following exposure to exemplary sequences generated by the AG, humans and macaques were individually tested with sequences that were either consistent with the AG or violated specific adjacent or non-adjacent relationships. We observed a considerable level of cross-species correspondence in the sensitivity of both humans and macaques to the adjacent AG relationships and to the statistical properties of the sequences. We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques. A subset of humans was sensitive to this non-adjacent relationship, revealing interesting between- and within-species differences in AG learning strategies. The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties. However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Impact of menstruation on select hematology and clinical chemistry variables in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigard, Christopher J; Parrula, M Cecilia M; Larkin, Matthew H; Gleason, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    In preclinical studies with cynomolgus macaques, it is common to have one or more females presenting with menses. Published literature indicates that the blood lost during menses causes decreases in red blood cell mass variables (RBC, HGB, and HCT), which would be a confounding factor in the interpretation of drug-related effects on clinical pathology data, but no scientific data have been published to support this claim. This investigation was conducted to determine if the amount of blood lost during menses in cynomolgus macaques has an effect on routine hematology and serum chemistry variables. Ten female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 5 to 6.5 years old, were observed daily during approximately 3 months (97 days) for the presence of menses. Hematology and serum chemistry variables were evaluated twice weekly. The results indicated that menstruation affects the erythrogram including RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCV, reticulocyte count, RDW, the leukogram including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, and chemistry variables, including GGT activity, and the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and calcium. The magnitude of the effect of menstruation on susceptible variables is dependent on the duration of the menstrual phase. Macaques with menstrual phases lasting ≥ 7 days are more likely to develop changes in variables related to chronic blood loss. In preclinical toxicology studies with cynomolgus macaques, interpretation of changes in several commonly evaluated hematology and serum chemistry variables requires adequate clinical observation and documentation concerning presence and duration of menses. There is a concern that macaques with long menstrual cycles can develop iron deficiency anemia due to chronic menstrual blood loss. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John

    2017-01-01

    Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm. Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  13. Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis and is responsible for a large and increasing fraction of hospital-acquired infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI refractory to antibiotic therapy. It has recently been discussed favorably in the clinical and scientific communities and is receiving increasing public attention. However, short- and long-term health consequences of FMT remain a concern, as the effects of the transplanted microbiota on the patient remain unknown. To shed light on microbial events associated with RCDI and treatment by FMT, we performed fecal microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of 14 pairs of healthy donors and RCDI patients treated successfully by FMT. Post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples collected up to one year after FMT were studied longitudinally, including one post-FMT patient with antibiotic-associated relapse three months after FMT. This analysis allowed us not only to confirm prior reports that RCDI is associated with reduced diversity and compositional changes in the fecal microbiota, but also to characterize previously undocumented post-FMT microbiota dynamics. Members of the Streptococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, or Enterobacteriaceae were significantly increased and putative butyrate producers, such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were significantly reduced in samples from RCDI patients before FMT as compared to post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. RCDI patient samples showed more case-specific variations than post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. However, none of the bacterial groups were invariably associated with RCDI or successful treatment by FMT. Overall microbiota compositions in post-FMT patients, specifically abundances of the above-mentioned Firmicutes, continued to change for at least 16 weeks after FMT, suggesting that

  14. Differences in Perceived and Physiologic Genital Arousal Between Women With and Without Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Data from 5 studies (N = 214) were used in this analysis. Women were categorized into 3 groups: women with arousal-specific sexual dysfunction (n = 40), women with decreased sexual function (n = 72), and women who were sexually functional (n = 102). Women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic genital arousal was measured using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. After watching the film, women completed a self-report measure of perceived genital arousal. There were differences in vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) levels and association of VPA with perceived genital sensations based on level of sexual function. Commonly used methods of analysis failed to identify significant differences in VPA among these groups of women. When VPA data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling, significant differences emerged. Notably, women with arousal-specific dysfunction exhibited lower VPA than sexually functional women at the beginning of the assessment. As the erotic film progressed, women with arousal-specific dysfunction became aroused at a faster rate than sexually functional women, and these 2 groups ultimately reached a similar level of VPA. Sexually functional women reported the highest levels of perceived genital responses among the 3 groups of women. No significant relation between VPA and perceived genital arousal emerged. Women's perception of their genital responses could play

  15. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  17. Better living through microbial action: the benefits of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota on the host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Mølbak, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Mammals live in a homeostatic symbiosis with their gastrointestinal microbiota. The mammalian host provides the microbiota with nutrients and a stable environment; whereas the microbiota helps shaping the host’s gut mucosa and provides nutritional contributions. Microorganisms start colonizing...

  18. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  19. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic

  20. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  1. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  2. CELLULAR IMMUNITY OF THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM RECURRENT GENITAL CANDIDOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Miladinovic

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the cellular immunity parameters comprised 20 women suffering from the recurrent genital candidose (RGK in the remission phase as well as 20 women of the control grooup that never had any verified genital mucous infection. The aim of the research was to determine the interferon-gamma (INF gamma production in the culture of specifically (by the Candida albicans - HKB-antigens and non-specifically (Concavalin-A-ConA stimulated mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood of the women with the RKG as well as of the healthy women for the sake of determining a possible presence of the system cellular immunity hypo-activity. The IFN gamma was determined by the quantitative immuno-enzymic Quantikine method (R/D system, Minneapolis, USA.The IFN gamma was confirmed in minimal quantities in the cultures of the lymphocytes stimulated by the specific antigen (average value - 15 pg/ml. A considerably higher value of the produced IFN gamma was confirmed in the cultures of the stimulated lymphocytes (average value - 954 pg/ml as well as at the ConA and the HKB lymphocyte stimulus (average value - 1247 pg/ml.

  3. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  4. Genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas. The author presents the results of genetic variability studies for M. hominis, gene vaa, U. parvum, gene mba, and M. genitalium, gene mg192, sampled from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. Based on the molecular typing results for 138 samples of genital mycoplasmas, the author revealed a relationship between clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system caused by U. parvum and different U. parvum serovars as well as different genetic variations of M. hominis.Infection with 6 U. parvum serovar results in the development of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by subjective manifestations (р < 0.05. Genetic variant II of М. hominis was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases while variant I was revealed more often in patients infected with М. hominis without any signs of inflammation (р < 0.05. Genetic variants of M. genitalium were determined; no significant differences in terms of their prevalence in the examined patients were revealed.

  5. Microbiota-induced obesity requires farnesoid X receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parséus, Ava; Sommer, Nina; Sommer, Felix

    2017-01-01

    weight gain and hepatic steatosis in an FXR-dependent manner, and the bile acid profiles and composition of faecal microbiota differed between Fxr-/- and wild-type mice. The obese phenotype in colonised wild-type mice was associated with increased beta-cell mass, increased adipose inflammation, increased...... microbiota and bile acid composition, beta-cell mass, accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue, liver steatosis, and expression of target genes in adipose tissue and liver. We also transferred the microbiota of wild-type and Fxr-deficient mice to GF wild-type mice. RESULTS: The gut microbiota promoted...... steatosis and expression of genes involved in lipid uptake. By transferring the caecal microbiota from HFD-fed Fxr-/- and wild-type mice into GF mice, we showed that the obesity phenotype was transferable. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the gut microbiota promotes diet-induced obesity and associated...

  6. We Are Never Alone: Living with the Human Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Gabriela Jorge; Domingues, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The human body is inhabited by millions of tiny living organisms, which, all together, are called the human microbiota. Bacteria are microbes found on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and especially in the gut. We acquire these bacteria during birth and the first years of life, and they live with us throughout our lives. The human microbiota is involved in healthy growth, in protecting the body from invaders, in helping digestion, and in regulating moods. Some changes in the microbiota may occur...

  7. Demonstration of Microbial Subgroups among Normal Vaginal Microbiota Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M.-L. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we identified subgroups of observations relating to the healthy vaginal microbiota. This microbiota resides in a dynamic environment that undergoes cyclic change during the menstrual cycle. Cluster analysis procedures were applied to divide a set of 226 normal microbiota observations into groups. Three subgroups containing 100, 65, and 61 observations were identified. Plots of principal components determined by canonical analysis were obtained to demonstrate graphically the clus...

  8. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lene S. Myrmel; Even Fjære; Bjørn Liaset; Karsten Kristiansen; Karsten Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  9. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  10. Links between dietary protein sources, the gut microbiota, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S.; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  11. Skin Microbiota Workshop: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This report details the outcome of the 1st Skin Microbiota Workshop, Boulder, CO, held on October 15th-16th 2012. The...Sep-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Skin Microbiota Workshop: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Challenges and...Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Skin Microbiota Workshop

  12. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut

    OpenAIRE

    Bäumler, Andreas J.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, thes...

  13. Crossmodal integration of conspecific vocalizations in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Payne

    Full Text Available Crossmodal integration of audio/visual information is vital for recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to social signals. Here we examined how rhesus macaques process bimodal species-specific vocalizations by eye tracking, using an unconstrained preferential looking paradigm. Six adult rhesus monkeys (3M, 3F were presented two side-by-side videos of unknown male conspecifics emitting different vocalizations, accompanied by the audio signal corresponding to one of the videos. The percentage of time animals looked to each video was used to assess crossmodal integration ability and the percentages of time spent looking at each of the six a priori ROIs (eyes, mouth, and rest of each video were used to characterize scanning patterns. Animals looked more to the congruent video, confirming reports that rhesus monkeys spontaneously integrate conspecific vocalizations. Scanning patterns showed that monkeys preferentially attended to the eyes and mouth of the stimuli, with subtle differences between males and females such that females showed a tendency to differentiate the eye and mouth regions more than males. These results were similar to studies in humans indicating that when asked to assess emotion-related aspects of visual speech, people preferentially attend to the eyes. Thus, the tendency for female monkeys to show a greater differentiation between the eye and mouth regions than males may indicate that female monkeys were slightly more sensitive to the socio-emotional content of complex signals than male monkeys. The current results emphasize the importance of considering both the sex of the observer and individual variability in passive viewing behavior in nonhuman primate research.

  14. Functional organization of area V2 in the alert macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, E; von der Heydt, R

    1993-05-01

    We studied the relation between anatomical structure and functional properties of cells in area V2 of the macaque. Visual function was assessed in the alert animal during fixation of gaze. Recording sites were reconstructed with respect to cortical lamination and the cytochrome oxidase pattern. We measured orientation and direction selectivity, end-stopping, sensitivity to binocular disparity and ocular dominance, and determined more complex functions like sensitivity to anomalous contours and lines defined by coherent motion. Orientation selectivity was found in all parts of area V2, with high frequencies in the pale and thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, and with lower frequency in the thin stripes. Representations of anomalous contours were found in the pale and thick stripes with similar frequencies, but generally not in the thin stripes, which have been thought to process colour. Lines defined by coherent motion were most frequently represented in the thick stripes; they were less frequent in the pale stripes, and (as with anomalous contours) were not found in the thin stripes. Sensitivity to binocular disparity was found in all types of stripes, but more frequently in the thick stripes, where the exclusively binocular neurons were also concentrated. By contrast, no segregation was found for direction selectivity and end-stopping. All neuronal properties were distributed evenly across cortical laminae. We conclude that mechanisms for figure-ground segregation involve the pale and the thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, perhaps with greater emphasis on 'shape from motion' and 'stereoscopic depth' in the thick stripes, while more elementary neuronal properties are distributed almost evenly across the stripe pattern.

  15. A neural circuit covarying with social hierarchy in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Sallet, Jerome; Mars, Rogier B; Neubert, Franz X; O'Reilly, Jill X; Andersson, Jesper L; Mitchell, Anna S; Bell, Andrew H; Miller, Karla L; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2014-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI) data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM) approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status.

  16. A neural circuit covarying with social hierarchy in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn P Noonan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status.

  17. A Neural Circuit Covarying with Social Hierarchy in Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Franz X.; O'Reilly, Jill X.; Andersson, Jesper L.; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.; Miller, Karla L.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI) data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM) approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status. PMID:25180883

  18. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-DeGraaf, Kelly E; Putra, I G A Arta; Wandia, I Nengah; Rompis, Aida; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2014-02-01

    Spatial overlap and shared resources between humans and wildlife can exacerbate parasite transmission dynamics. In Bali, Indonesia, an agricultural-religious temple system provides sanctuaries for long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), concentrating them in areas in close proximity to humans. In this study, we interviewed individuals in communities surrounding 13 macaque populations about their willingness to participate in behaviors that would put them at risk of exposure to gastrointestinal parasites to understand if age, education level, or occupation are significant determinants of exposure behaviors. These exposure risk behaviors and attitudes include fear of macaques, direct contact with macaques, owning pet macaques, hunting and eating macaques, and overlapping water uses. We find that willingness to participate in exposure risk behaviors are correlated with an individual's occupation, age, and/or education level. We also found that because the actual risk of infection varies across populations, activities such as direct macaque contact and pet ownership, could be putting individuals at real risk in certain contexts. Thus, we show that human demographics and social structure can influence willingness to participate in behaviors putting them at increased risk for exposure to parasites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Diaz-Perdigones, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin. Currently, use of pro and prebiotics and other new techniques such as gut microbiota transplant, or even antibiotic therapy, has been postulated to be useful tools to modulate the development of obesity and insulin resistance through the diet. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.