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Sample records for macao

  1. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  2. Emergy synthesis and simulation for Macao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Kampeng [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Avn Do Ouvidor Arriaga, 46/48, Edf. Nga Lim, 13 And. (D), Macao (China); Macao Science Center Ltd., Macao (China); Wang, Zhishi [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Avn Do Ouvidor Arriaga, 46/48, Edf. Nga Lim, 13 And. (D), Macao (China)

    2008-04-15

    Macao is a tourist city with a dense population and has a shortage of natural resources. Almost all of the city's life-support systems thus depend on imports of external resources. During the past 20 years, Macao has experienced an economic boom accompanied by rapid social development, in which the gambling industry and related tourism services have become the main economic activity. This paper employs emergy flow analysis to investigate and characterize the evolution and development of Macao from 1983 to 2003. In addition, Macao has experienced six periods of land reclamation since 1866, supported by large-scale importation of sand and rocks from China. By simulating the emergy trends using the STELLA dynamic modeling software, we predicted the evolution of Macao's development and trends in the coming 20 years. In 2025, the city's economy is estimated to be 15 times its current size as a result of Macao's territorial expansion. The exported emergy will increase slowly and then stabilize, the population will reach 593 185, and the area covered by Macao will expand to 38.91 km{sup 2}. (author)

  3. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  4. Contractual medical liability in Portugal and Macao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.

  5. Casino taxation in macao: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinhua; Tam, Pui Sun

    2011-12-01

    Macao's gaming industry has experienced dramatic growth for 8 years, yet with certain social costs due to compulsive gambling. The government has come under pressure for tax cuts even though its gaming receipts are falling relatively to the casino retained revenue. The request for tax relief is triggered by a recent decline in net profit despite fast growing gross gaming revenue under favorable market conditions. This is very likely caused by a substantial hike in casino operating costs due to increased competition and might also signal the presence of the principal-agent problem. Given the regressivity of gaming tax with respect to net profit, it is no surprise that casinos with lower profitability are more prone to seek tax cuts. The source of Macao gaming profit hinges on three distinct factors: rising demand from China, monopoly location for casinos, and market structure of oligopoly. These factors provide economic justifications for the current tax regime of Macao with a strong ability to pass tax burdens on to massive visitors. The government relies on casino tax revenue to deal with gambling related problems and promote local diversified development. Pushing for tax variability may create policy instability, business uncertainty, and unpredictable prosperity in the long term.

  6. A Study of Macao Tertiary Students' Language Attitudes after the Handover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates Macao tertiary students' language attitudes under the dynamic interplay of local, national, and global forces. The Portuguese established their settlement at Macao during the mid-sixteenth century and their colonial rule over Macao during the mid-nineteenth century. Macao's sovereignty was transferred to China at midnight…

  7. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianjun; Wang Zhishi; Ran Shenghong

    2006-01-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future

  8. Going Begging:Casino Culture and its Contrasts as Revealed in the New Macao Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the key themes of contemporary Macao poetry, chance and luck loom large, along with their figuration in Macao life through sites such as casinos and temples, through personae such as those of the gambler, the beggar, the prostitute. Macao as dot-on-the-map is likewise conceived as a site for all kinds of portal semiotics, as paradigm for cultural crossing and cultural shift. Macao may be re-garded as a work enduring (in Brechtian terms because it is unfinished. While this is a formula that could be notionally applied to any city, this view seems par-ticularly apt given both the extraordinary pace of change in post-handover Macao (i.e. since 1999, and the present bubble-bursting effect of the 2008 "financial tsunami". Relating Augé's conception of "non-places" to Eco's notion of open (as op-posed to closed text, this paper observes that consciousness of place in contem-porary Macao poetry appears to be dominated by two kinds of space, glossed here as "Macao space" and "anywhere space". Macao space is uniquely of an historical moment and place, something culturally positioned; in anywhere space (e.g. in-side of a casino or an airport subjects are hailed by consumption-oriented reifica-tions of putative universal value. The contemporary Macao poetry typically values Macao space and sees it as under threat from the "non-negotiable" space of cul-ture that could be anywhere. Interested in the paradoxes, ironies and hypocrisies inherent in the present-day culture, politics and international position of Macao, the new Macao poetry re-veals a place-based poetics deeply concerned with Macao identity, its evolution and potentials.

  9. Social impacts of casino gaming in Macao: A qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    King Penny Wan, Yim; Li, Xin Crystal; Kong, Weng Hang

    2011-01-01

    The casino gaming sector has witnessed rapid growth worldwide in the past three decades. As the casino industry has been developing rapidly, it is important to understand the pros and cons of casino development and seek ways to minimize the potential negative impacts. This study investigates the social consequences of casino gaming in Macao since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, using a qualitative research method. The results reveal that the expansion of casino gaming did brin...

  10. Factors influencing Macao nurses' intention to leave current employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Luk, Andrew Leung; Leong, Sok Man; Yeung, Siu Ming; Van, Iat Kio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate factors associated with nurses' intention to leave current employment in Macao. The shortage of nursing staff and nurses voluntarily leaving their jobs has continued to be a problem affecting the delivery of health care all over the world. One way to alleviate this shortfall is via recruitment, but this is not always successful. Another way is to reduce the rate at which nurses voluntarily leave their work places. A descriptive survey was conducted and data were collected using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Nurses were recruited in the Health Bureau and one private hospital in Macao. The status of nurses' intention to leave current employment (yes vs. no) was the dependent variable and nurses' predisposing characteristics, organisational environments and five components on job satisfaction outcomes were independent variables. Of 426 nurses, 166 (39.0%) indicated an intention to leave current employment. The results showed that age (p job satisfaction: pay and benefits (p third of the nurses in Macao indicated an intention to leave current employment. This figure may be a cause of concern for the hospital management and highlights the need to implement strategies to improve the communication between nurses and the organisation, to enhance nurse job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Our findings outline some issues contributing to this problem and provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on nurses' turnover in Macao. Given the complexity of issues outlined in this analysis, nurse managers should assist their nursing staff to deal with those influences, make efforts to address the nursing shortage that will require additional communications and recognise the needs and values of their staff and empower them to create a better work environment. As a consequence, their commitment to the organisation can be fostered.

  11. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  12. Public Awareness and Practice of Responsible Gambling in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kwok-Kit; Hung, Eva P W; Lei, Caren M W; Wu, Anise M S

    2018-01-30

    Responsible gambling (RG) is a relatively new concept to the Macao gambling industry. Although recent studies reported a heightened public awareness of RG, the prevalence of disordered gambling is still high. This discrepancy may suggest an existing gap between RG awareness and gambling practices, pinpointing aspects that need to be improved by different RG stakeholders. The gap may be attributable to people's limited knowledge toward practices favoring RG. To explore means for enhancing the RG campaign, we studied Macao residents' interpretation and adoption of RG practices. In Study 1, a random community sample was collected to assess the extent to which common RG practices were adopted. Results suggested that there was a fair proportion of gamblers not adhering to them and gambling disorder tendency was related to the adoption of RG practices. It implied a successful promotion of RG practices may reduce gambling problems. In Study 2, focus group discussions were conducted to explore how RG was conceptualized. Twenty-five participants (including 11 casino employees) took part in four focus group interviews. All participants were aware of RG but their knowledge of RG practices was limited. Very few of them were able to identify major practices such as putting constraints on gambling amount and time and the application for self-exclusion. We argue that future RG promotion needs to be more specific and behavior-oriented and it should also address various procedural concerns on how RG practices can be implemented.

  13. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  14. Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level.

  15. An Edge-Based Macao License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Pun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system to recognize Macao license plates. Sobel edge detector is employed to extract the vertical edges, and an edge composition algorithm is proposed to combine the edges into candidate plate regions. They are further examined on the existence of the character qMq by a verification algorithm. A row separation algorithm is also proposed to cater both one-row and two-row types of plates. Projection analysis and template matching methods are exploited to segment and recognize the characters. Various pre and post processing steps are proposed other than traditional implementation so as to improve the recognition accuracy. This work achieves a high recognition rate of 95%.

  16. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun; Mo Cehui; Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD ≤ 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD ≤ 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  17. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mo Cehui, E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.c [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD {<=} 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD {<=} 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  18. Sustainability assessment and prioritisation of bottom ash management in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, W I; Chu, Andrea; Chiueh, P T

    2016-12-01

    In Macao, about 7200 t yr -1 of bottom ash (BA) is generated and conventionally landfilled with construction waste. Because the properties of BA are similar to those of natural aggregates, it is suitable to be recycled as construction material. However, pre-treatment processes for BA reuse may require more resource input and may generate additional environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment, multi-media transport model analysis, cost-benefit analysis and the analytical hierarchy process were conducted to evaluate the impacts of current and potential BA management scenarios regarding environmental, economic, social and regulatory aspects. The five analysed scenarios are as follows: (0) BA buried with construction and demolition waste (current system); (1) pre-treated BA used to replace 25% of the natural aggregate in asphalt concrete; (2) pre-treated BA used to replace 25% of the natural aggregate in cement concrete; (3) pre-treated BA used to replace 25% of cement in cement concrete; and (4) pre-treated BA sent to China, blended with municipal solid waste for landfill. The results reveal the following ranking of the scenarios: 3 > 2 > 0 > 1 > 4. Scenario 3 shows the best conditions for BA recycling, because the quantity of cement concrete output is the highest and this brings the greatest economic benefits. Our use of integrated analysis provides multi-aspect investigations for BA management systems, particularly in accounting for site-specific characteristics. This approach is suitable for application in other non-western regions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Evaluating School-Based Psychological and Counselling Services in Macao Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Sit, Holly H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the status of psychological services in schools in Macao, and the role of school counsellors providing these services. At present, school psychology is not a recognized profession within the territory and school counsellors appointed by the Direccao dos Servicos de Educacao e Juventude (DSEJ) through their…

  20. Influences of face, stigma, and psychological symptoms on help-seeking attitudes in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Sut Ieng; Davis, J Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between concerns about loss of face, stigma, psychological symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking mental health services such as counseling in Macao. Participants included 391 students attending the largest public university in Macao: 277 were from Macao and 114 were from Mainland China. Participants completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, concerns about loss of face, self-stigma, public-stigma, and psychological symptoms. Results showed that positive attitudes toward help-seeking were significantly negatively correlated with self-stigma, public-stigma, and concerns about loss of face but there was no significant correlation with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms were positively correlated with face concerns, self-stigma, and public-stigma. Stigma (self and public) was found to be significantly positively associated with face concerns, but the correlations were weak. Findings also showed that Macao students had higher levels of distress, and endorsed greater self- and public-stigma than Mainland Chinese students; however, the groups did not differ in face concerns or attitudes toward help-seeking. Regression analysis indicated that group membership was not a significant predictor of help-seeking. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of professional help-seeking. Age and sex were also found to be significant predictors. Results suggested that younger students were more likely to seek help and that female students reported greater levels of distress and tended to have more positive attitudes toward seeking psychological services than male students. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Vaughan; Nicole Nemeth; Leonel Marineros

    2006-01-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds to...

  2. Breast cancer screening behavior, attitude, barriers among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yan Xiang; Lao, Cheng-Kin; Chan, Alexandre

    2018-05-08

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among females in Macao, but little is known about local practice of breast cancer screening. The study aims to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors and to identify the predictors of insufficient knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer and its screening among female residents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2016 in Macao. Quota sampling of women completed the modified Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs questionnaire (CBCSB) to assess their breast cancer-related perceptions, screening attitudes and behaviors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of poor-screening practices, attitudes, knowledge and perceived barriers to mammography. A total of 417 women (mean age±SD: 50.5±5.7) completed surveys, with 160 (38.4%), 196 (47.0%) and 103 (24.7%) women received breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as recommended, respectively. Nulliparity (OR=2.56, 95% CI = 1.14-5.73) and low education (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84) were significantly associated with negative attitude towards health check-ups. Women did not know anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.50-3.55) were more likely to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. Low education (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.25-3.04) and not knowing anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31-3.13) were identified as predictors for perceived barriers to mammography. Recommendations for breast cancer screening are poorly followed by the residents in Macao, and a culturally tailored educational program is urgently needed to raise the public's awareness of the disease and the screening practices.

  3. Clinical characteristics and quality of life of older adults with cognitive impairment in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam Nogueira, Bernice O C; Li, Lu; Meng, Li-Rong; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Kuok, Kenny C F; Tran, Linda; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2018-02-06

    Little is known about the characteristics of older adults with cognitive impairment in Macao. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and the quality of life (QOL) of older adults living in the community and nursing homes. A consecutive sample of 413 subjects (199 from the community; 214 from nursing homes) was recruited and interviewed using standardized instruments. Cognition was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and QOL with the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument. Altogether 87 subjects (21.0%) had cognitive impairment. On multivariate analyses, advanced age (P impairment. Married marital status (P = 0.01, OR = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.1-0.7) and higher education level (P impairment. After the confounders were controlled for, cognitive impairment was significantly associated with the lower psychological (F (11,412)  = 6.3, P = 0.01) and social relationship domains of QOL (F (11,412)  = 4.0, P = 0.04). Cognitive impairment was found to be common in community-dwelling and nursing home resident older adults in Macao. Given cognitive impairment's negative impact on QOL, appropriate strategies should be implemented to improve access to treatment in this population. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Traditional Chinese Pregnancy Restrictions, Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Pregnant Women in Macao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lau, RN, RM, IBCLC, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings provided cultural rationales of pregnancy restrictions within a Macao context that may assist health professionals to better understand women from different cultures. It is essential in the development of culturally appropriate healthcare to support women in making a healthy transition to motherhood.

  5. hybrid talk in mongrel town – questions of identity in the cross-cultural space of the new Macao poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Macao is a place of plural identities; or it will be more nuanced to say that identity in Macao is dynamic, layered, often paradoxical – for instance, at once cosmopolitan and parochial. Identity, for the poet, is gleaned from an historicized knowledge of position. Among the key themes of contemporary Macao poetry, chance and luck loom large, along with their figuration in Macao life through sites such as casinos and temples, through personae such as those of the gambler, the beggar, the prostitute. Macao as dot-on-the-map is likewise conceived as a site for all kinds of portal semiotics, as paradigm for cultural crossing and cultural shift. In the identity of the Macanese we find conditions emblematic of Macao’s situation more generally. Here – however the soul is unified or split – the body is of two places. The poet’s identity is something beyond what is circumscribed in national or local devotions. A poetic sense of place-based identity depends in some degree on the poet’s reflexive awareness of him/herself as a poet and of the work (and play of making poetry. It depends, that is to say, on a consciousness of tradition/s and of breaks from tradition/s. That consciousness points to the infinite task in which every poet engages when s/he sees herself as participating in a tradition or a community; when s/he acknowledges that is, that words are from somewhere and that words have a destination.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Mai, B.X.; Yang, Q.S.; Fu, J.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Wang, Z.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column.

  7. Modeling of electricity consumption in the Asian gaming and tourism center - Macao SAR, People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, T.M.; To, W.M. [School of Business, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao SAR (China); Lo, W.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Choy, Y.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-05-15

    The use of electricity is indispensable to modern life. As Macao Special Administrative Region becomes a gaming and tourism center in Asia, modeling the consumption of electricity is critical to Macao's economic development. The purposes of this paper are to conduct an extensive literature review on modeling of electricity consumption, and to identify key climatic, demographic, economic and/or industrial factors that may affect the electricity consumption of a country/city. It was identified that the five factors, namely temperature, population, the number of tourists, hotel room occupancy and days per month, could be used to characterize Macao's monthly electricity consumption. Three selected approaches including multiple regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and wavelet ANN were used to derive mathematical models of the electricity consumption. The accuracy of these models was assessed by using the mean squared error (MSE), the mean squared percentage error (MSPE) and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The error analysis shows that wavelet ANN has a very promising forecasting capability and can reveal the periodicity of electricity consumption. (author)

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  9. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of Internet gaming disorder among community dwelling adults in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Chen, Juliet Honglei; Tong, Kwok-Kit; Yu, Shu; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested. Methods A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40.0) was surveyed using a telephone poll design from October to November 2016. Results The estimated prevalence of probable IGD was 2.0% of the overall sample and 4.3% among the recent gamers (n = 473), with no statistically significant sex and age effects observed (p > .05). The two most prevalent IGD symptoms were mood modification and continued engagement, despite negative consequences. Probable IGD respondents were more vulnerable to psychological distress (25.0% and 45.0% for moderate or above levels of depression and anxiety, respectively) than their non-IGD counterparts. They also reported a lower level of psychological resilience than non-IGD respondents. No significant buffering effect of the two character strength variables on the distress-IGD relationship was found. Discussion and conclusions These results provide empirical evidence that IGD is a mental health threat not only to adolescents but also to adults. IGD was significantly associated with psychological distress, which should be addressed in conjunction with IGD symptoms in interventions. Inclusion of gamers of both sexes and different age groups in future prevention programs is also recommended.

  11. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae Parental Nest Visitation in Costa Rica: Implications for Research and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied temporal parental visitation of Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao to six active nests in the Central Pacific Conservation Region of Costa Rica. Total parental time in the nest decreased significantly as the nestlings aged. Results provide guidelines to scientists for planning invasive activities to nestlings, such as placement of radio collars, or biological sample collection. These activities should be performed close to the end of the nesting period for minimal disturbance of parents and nestlings. Our results also provide information to aid wildlife guards in protecting active nests from poachers when chicks are close to fledging. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 395-400. Epub 2009 June 30.Estudiamos las visitas temporales de padres de la lapa roja (Ara macao a seis nidos activos en el Área de Conservación del Pacifico Central (Costa Rica. El tiempo total que pasaron los padres en los nidos bajó en forma significativa en relación con el crecimiento de los pichones. Estos resultados pueden ayudar a los científicos a planear sus actividades "invasivas", tales como colocación de radio collares o colección de muestras biológicas. Las actividades deben coincidir con el final de la época de anidación para molestar menos a las aves. Nuestros resultados proveen información que puede ayudar a los guardaparques a proteger nidos activos cuando los pichones estan casi listos para salir.

  12. What Studying Problems Are Faced by the Adolescent Grade Repeaters in Macao: Uncovering Underlying Mechanisms Based on Evidences from the PISA 2012 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Pou-seong; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Cheong, Wai-cheong; Mak, Soi-kei; Soh, Kay-cheng; Ieong, Man-kai

    2015-01-01

    Most schools in Macao are private schools, and there is a variety of grade repetition policy practiced in the 45 secondary schools. The policies are translated into school-based accountability of some kind of minimum competency standards. The objective of this study is to uncover the mediation mechanisms accounting for the influences of grade…

  13. Particle Swarm-Based Translation Control for Immersed Tunnel Element in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-jun; Yang, Xiao-jun; Xiao, Ying-jie; Xu, Bo-wei; Wu, Hua-feng

    2018-03-01

    Immersed tunnel is an important part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) project. In immersed tunnel floating, translation which includes straight and transverse movements is the main working mode. To decide the magnitude and direction of the towing force for each tug, a particle swarm-based translation control method is presented for non-power immersed tunnel element. A sort of linear weighted logarithmic function is exploited to avoid weak subgoals. In simulation, the particle swarm-based control method is evaluated and compared with traditional empirical method in the case of the HZMB project. Simulation results show that the presented method delivers performance improvement in terms of the enhanced surplus towing force.

  14. Entre l'authenticité et l’illusion : Macao, ville du patrimoine mondial et du jeu

    OpenAIRE

    Drouin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Bordant la mer de Chine de chaque côté du delta de la rivière des Perles, Hong Kong et Macao ont fait rêver plus d’un voyageur. En dépit des similitudes évoquées, les deux destinations ne projettent pas du tout la même image. Leur contenu semble presque même s’opposer. Plus particulièrement, tel est le thème de la présente chronique, la place occupée par le patrimoine culturel dans l’expérience touristique diffère considérablement, malgré les transformations notables observées au cours des de...

  15. Relationship between Traditional Chinese Beliefs about Aetiology of Mental Disorders and Help Seeking: A Survey of the Elderly in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, A

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of factors can influence help-seeking attitudes when individuals experience a mental disorder. The current study investigated the relationship between traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes among elderly participants in Macao. In order to ensure the suitability of participants for inclusion in this study, the participants were required to complete an initial screening test using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Participants who successfully passed the test (n = 183) completed a questionnaire that included the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS), a set of 9 items related to traditional Chinese beliefs about aetiology of mental disorders and demographic items. The IASMHS scores were higher for female participants and for participants who had completed high school compared with those who had never attended school or who had only completed primary education. Endorsement of traditional Chinese beliefs about the aetiology of mental disorders was higher for male participants. There was a negative correlation between traditional Chinese aetiology beliefs related to mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes. Traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders are a negative factor that inhibits help seeking. Implications for efforts to increase the utilisation of mental health services by the elderly are discussed.

  16. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Guittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals, remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%, Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%, Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0% and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%. We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.

  17. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Henn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao. In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 929-938. Epub 2014 September 01.

  18. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  19. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Seabury

    Full Text Available Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly. The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000. The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000. Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw. Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's. Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7, which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure of children at home and prevalence of parental smoking following implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z L; Deng, H Y; Wu, C P; Lam, W L; Kuok, W S; Liang, W J; Wang, H L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) of children at home and the prevalence of parental smoking after implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao. This study explored whether the smoking ban in public places in Macao has decreased the prevalence of smoking or led to increased SHS exposure of children at home. As smokers cannot smoke in public places any more, they may smoke at home more frequently; a displacement effect of smoke-free legislation. Cross-sectional survey. This study surveyed 337 fathers and 538 mothers. Questions from a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2nd edition) were applied to assess the SHS exposure of children and the prevalence of parental smoking since the smoking ban. A classification tree analysis was used to analyse the factors increasing SHS exposure of children. The prevalence of SHS exposure in children at home was 41.3%. The prevalence rates of paternal and maternal smoking were 43.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Compared with data reported by the Health Bureau of Macao SAR in 2011, the prevalence of parental smoking and the prevalence of SHS exposure of children at home have not decreased since the smoking ban. Analysis of the factors increasing the prevalence of SHS exposure of children indicated that fathers with an education level below high school were more likely to contribute to this increase, compared with fathers with a high school education or more (48.2% vs 32.4%, respectively). In addition, fathers represented the majority of smokers at home, accounting for 92.0% of 415 smoking parents. The prevalence of paternal smoking (82.0%) in the group of children with SHS exposure was much higher than that in the unexposed group (16.7%, Chi-squared test = 367.199, P = 0.000). The SHS exposure of children increased consistently with the decrease in paternal education level. This was consistent with the increasing prevalence of paternal smoking as paternal education level decreased. SHS

  1. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  2. Laboratorio di Comunicazione Militante, Isola Art Centre, and MACAO: enhancing autonomous social organisation through artistic means and rethinking the radical imaginary and the radical imagination in curatorial practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Spinelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relation between curatorial practice and political theory, through a recuperation and proposal of the philosophical work of Greek-French philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis. In it, I will isolated the terms the radical imaginary and the radical imagination, and argue that their relation to curatorial practice is exemplified in the politics of cultural spaces that use autonomous social organisation as their means for artistic production. In his writings, specifically in his manuscript The Imaginary Institution of Society (1998, Castoriadis uses the terms to describe the capacity of socialized human beings to rethink and criticize social structures, and sees the radical imaginary and the radical imagination as means of a radical social transformation towards autonomy, or rather towards autonomous social organisation. Within this framework, this article proposes a historical parallelism between three self-organised platforms for art and activism from Milan, such as Laboratorio di Comunicazione Militante, Isola Art Centre, and MACAO, arguing that they are three cases in which autonomous social organisation is a means for artistic and curatorial production. This historical parallelism, constructed around the concepts of the radical imaginary and the radical imagination, demonstrates how the work of Castoriadis is a valuable resource for contextualising and analysing processes politicization of artistic, curatorial and cultural practices. Based on his writings, this article wants to also highlight the importance of autonomous social organisation as a functional framework capable unpacking the complexity of the relation between artistic, curatorial and cultural practices and political and social activism.

  3. 利益相关体视角下港澳台海岛旅游资源安全问题探析%Safety Issue of Island Tourism Resource from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Based on Perspective of Related Interest Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何巧华; 苏欣慰; 陈金华

    2015-01-01

    The island tourism resources of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan face the safety problem on production, distribution, exchange and consumption, and the problem of tourism carrying capacity is becoming worse and worse. The tourism resource safety problems mainly come from the directly related group, the indirectly related group and the external influence group from the perspective of the benefit correlation degree. So the article puts forward to perfect the island tourism resources security prevention and control system, to standardize the island tourism enterprise management, to strengthen the island tourist safety consciousness, to strengthen the safety education of islanders, to upgrade safety monitoring level of island tourism resources planning and tourism management departments, to strengthen the watchdog role of social organizations and the media of public opinion, to set up perfect early warning mechanism, crisis management mechanism and other measures suggested, aiming at the tourism resource safety in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan areas.%港澳台海岛旅游资源存在着生产、分配、交换与消费等安全问题,旅游承载力问题日趋严重. 从利益关联程度的角度看,其旅游资源安全问题主要出自直接相关体、间接相关体与外部影响体. 因此,针对港澳台地区旅游资源安全问题,提出了完善岛上旅游资源安全防控体系,规范岛上旅游企业经营,加强游客岛游安全意识,强化岛上居民安全教育,提升海岛旅游资源规划部门和旅游管理部门安全监控水平,加强社会团体与舆论媒体监督作用,建立完备预警机制、危机处理机制等措施建议.

  4. Holes: a novel method for promoting vegetation restoration (Macao)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-Lin Peng; Yi-Na Yu; Yu-Ping Hou; Long-Sheng Yu; Bao-Ming. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Restoration Notes have been a distinguishing feature of Ecological Restoration for more than 25 years. This section is geared toward introducing innovative research, tools, technologies, programs, and ideas, as well as providing short-term research results and updates on ongoing efforts.

  5. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  6. Multilingual Institutional Discourses of Negotiation and Intertextuality in Writing Center Interactions in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice Shu-Ju

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the identity enactments (Bucholtz & Hall, 2005) of 14 multilingual university writing center tutors and multilingual student writers who use English and Putonghua to negotiate their interactions. The study is situated within sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978) and uses ethnographic methods such as observation,…

  7. Tackling tourism-driven development in World Heritage cities: A comparison between Macao, China and Evora, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarrafa Pereira da Silva, A.M.; Imon, S.S.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Imon, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    World Heritage cities, all over the world, are a centre of tourist attraction. In many of these cities, tourism is one of the main driving forces of local economies. As a result, these cities come under intense pressure to accommodate tourism-driven developments; summed up with the pressure to

  8. Interlopers at the Fringes of Empire: The Procurators of the Propaganda Fide Papal Congregation in Canton and Macao, 1700-1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Menegon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The office of the procurator of the papal Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide offers a unique case study of noncommercial interloping in the long eighteenth century in the Pearl River Delta, and reveals the complexity and fluidity of life at the intersection of Asian and European maritime environments in that special human ecosystem. The oceanic infrastructure of the Age of Sail and the Sino-Western trade system in Canton sustained the Catholic missionary enterprise in Asia, and the professional figure of the procurator represented its economic and political linchpin. Procurators were agents connected with both European and Qing imperial formations, yet not directly at their service. They utilized existing maritime trade networks to their own advantage without being integral parts of those networks’ economic mechanisms. All the while, they subverted Qing prohibitions against Christianity. Using sources preserved in Rome, this article offers new insights into the global mechanisms of trade, communication, and religious exchange embodied by the procurators-interlopers and their networks, with significant implications for the history of the Sino-Western trade system, Qing policies toward the West and Christianity, and the history of Asian Catholic missions.

  9. Formación, registro y la práctica autorizada de la medicina tradicional, alternativa y complementaria-OMS-Macao/China 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Oré, Félix; Salaverry García, Oswaldo; Reyes Mandujano, Ivonne F.

    2014-01-01

    La información expuesta y analizada en este contexto, permitirá destacar la importancia de la MT/MAC como una opción a considerar para fortalecer la capacidad de atención de la medicina convencional, establecer estrategias o iniciativas para garantizar la calidad de la práctica y proveedores de la MT/MAC, mediante el establecimiento de un sistema de registro nacional de proveedores calificados con licencia en medicina tradicional china; un sistema nacional de cualificación/licenciamiento d...

  10. Estudio citogenético de tres especies de guacamayas ( Ara clhoroptera , Ara ararauna y Ara macao en cautiverio, pruebas preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stelle

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca presentar el primer reporte de bandeo cromosómico, en tres especies del género Ara encontradas en el territorio nacional; y así contribuir al conocimiento genotípico de la especie, el cual serviría en programas de conservación y reproducción en cautiverio o espacios abiertos controlados, y la posible aplicación metodológica a otras especies del mismo género. Así mismo, colaborar con el establecimiento de un banco de información genética en especies silvestres neotropicales.

  11. China Back in the Frame. A comparative study of Canton, Whampoa and Macao harbour views in the Leiden Museum of Ethnology and in the Guangzhou Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.; Groenendijk, E.; Viallé, C.; Blussé, L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of research results deriving from the investigation of a group of 18th and 19th century export oil paintings from China in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnology n Leiden. The oils were compared with a group of reverse glass paintings in the same

  12. Policies on smoking in the casino workplace and their impact on smoking behavior among employees: Case study of casino workers in Macao

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S. H.; Pilkington, P.; Wan, Y. K. P.; Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macao; Institute for Sustainability, Health and Environment, UWE

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is a major health concern, contributing to a range of adverse health effects. Workers in the hospitality industry are often exposed to increased levels of SHS in the workplace, and casino workers in particular have been shown to be exposed to high levels of SHS. During the past decade, authorities worldwide have introduced smoke-free legislation in enclosed public places, primarily to protect workers from the harmful effects of SHS. Importantly, implementat...

  13. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macao, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania...

  14. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao China...

  15. Urban Terrain Building Types: Second Edition Public Releasable Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Biographies xv 1. Need 1 2. Goals 2 3. Approach 2 4. Method 3 5. Introduction to Tables 2 Through 6 4 6. An Overview of the UTBT Catalog by...173 xv Authors’ Biographies Richard A. Ellefsen, Ph.D. is a professor...Iran Tehran, Elburz Mountains Israel Haifa, Jerusalem , Tel Aviv Japan Tokyo Macao Macao Malaysia Kuala Lulmpur Philippines Manila Singapore

  16. Emergy synthesis of tourism-based urban ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kampeng; Wang, Zhishi

    2008-09-01

    Macao is a tourist city with a dense population, but is short on natural resources. Almost all of the life-support resources of the city depend on imports from outside. During the past 20 years, Macao has experienced an economic boom accompanied by rapid social development. The tourism industry (including gambling, hotel accommodation, restaurant dining, and shows) have become the city's main economic activity since 1991. This paper uses emergy flow analysis to investigate and characterize the urban evolution and city development that have occurred in Macao from 1983 to 2003. Macao's tourism industry has existed almost from the establishment of the city, with the legalization of gambling in Macao occurring in 1850. Tourism has become the biggest industry in Macao, contributing more than half of the city's revenues since 1995. The emergy flow related to tourism was tracked and analyzed to measure its contribution to Macao. In addition, we used statistical analysis to divide the various emergy-based indicators into three categories: positive, negative, and insensitive indicators.

  17. Leedu päritolu kasiinoärimees püsib rikkuselt kolmanda ameeriklasena / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Väidetavalt Leedu päritolu kasiinoärimehest Sheldon Adelsonist, tema rivaliteedist Steve Wynniga, nende tegevus Hiina Rahvavabariigi territooriumil Macaos. Lisa: Las Vegas kolib Aasiasse. Tabel : Las Vegas Sands Corporation

  18. GI Locator Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LIBERIA LIBYA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MACAO MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALAYSIA MALDIVES MALI MALTA MARIANA ISLANDS MARSHALL ISLANDS Martinique ... OF KOREA REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA REUNION ROMANIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA SAINT BARTHéLEMY SAINT HELENA SAINT KITTS AND ...

  19. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic... regarding the burden estimates or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions..., Macao China, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain...

  20. 76 FR 26334 - Request for Comments on Possible Negotiations in the World Trade Organization To Expand the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... (Director for Tariff Affairs), Office of Small Business, Market Access, and Industrial Competitiveness...; Australia; Bahrain; Canada; China; Chinese Taipei; Costa Rica; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Egypt; El...; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Korea; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Macao; Malaysia...

  1. Report of the third international workshop on molecular blood group genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, G.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Gassner, C.; Olsson, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Third International Society of Blood Transfusion Workshop on Molecular Blood Group Genotyping was held in 2008, with a feedback meeting at the International Society of Blood Transfusion Congress in Macao SAR, China. Thirty-three laboratories participated, eight less than in 2006. Six samples

  2. Intent to Pursue Further Studies among Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, W. M.; Lai, Linda S. L.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of students pursuing graduate qualifications has increased, especially in Asian countries and cities, such as China, Macao and Hong Kong. This paper examines the intent to pursue further studies among Chinese students according to the theory of planned behaviour. Based on responses from 321 final-year students in higher education…

  3. Stock in Trade: The Role of English in International Trade Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Rolf D.; Willes, Mary J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the use of English by merchandisers in Macao, where the required proficiency exceeds that these individuals can be expected to possess. Examples of serious language mistakes are given and contextual and other clues are identified. Possible solutions for these problems are suggested and potential directions of further enquiry are explored.…

  4. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 221 ... The Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice (JOMIP) is a .... international trade, banking, taxation, public policy, public private .... principles, methodology and practice, with emphasize on areas of common interest to all scientists. ... Macao SAR, China, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia ...

  5. Identificación de parásitos gastrointestinales en aves silvestres en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    García Corredor, Diego José; Sánchez Parada, Oscar Javier; Pulido Medellín, Martin Orlando; Andrade Becerra, Roy José

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo identifica los parásitos gastrointestinales que presentaron las aves silvestres en cautiverio, en el municipio de Tibasosa (Boyacá, Colombia). Se tomaron 100 muestras de materia fecal de aves silvestres correspondientes a 11 familias (Psittacidae, Ramphastidae, Ophistocomidae, Cracidae, Anatidae, Icteridae, Alaudidae, Burhinidae, Phoenicopteridae, Anhimidae y Rallidae) y 16 especies (Ara ararauna, Ara macao, Amazona spp, Amazona ochrocephala, Ramphastos toco,...

  6. Community pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of ... Considering the barriers identified and integrating other country experiences, establishing an enabling ... Benefits of pharmaceutical care have been fully .... pharmacies in Macao served tourists mainly,.

  7. Projecting Post-colonial Conditions at Shanghai Expo 2010, China: Floppy Ears, Lofty Dreams and Macao’s Immutable Mobiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Cros, du H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased academic attention in urban studies on the flows of city artefacts and images. Conceptualised as ‘immutable mobiles’, the Macao Pavilion and its associated objects on show at Shanghai Expo 2010 are examined for the ways they encouraged and regulated uniformed flows

  8. Notas acerca de las guacamayas (Psittacidae : Ara) introducidas en el municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara-Vásquez, C.E.; Castaño-Rivas, A.M.; Jonker, R.M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the 90s, organizations in charge of wildlife management in Medellín, released macaws (Psittacidae: Ara) in the city. We report Ara severa, A. chloroptera and A. macao in the city. A group of eight individuals, belonging to the latter two species was observed flocking together in the urban area of

  9. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    impact of migration on labour market such as wages and employment (see ... revealed that exports from Korea to U.S. positively started to escalate in 1970s .... Canada; Chile; China, P. R.: Hong Kong; China, P. R.: Macao; China, P. R.: ... Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Jordan; Kenya; Lesotho; Libya; Malawi; Malaysia; Malta; Mexico;.

  10. The Perceived Value of Higher Education: The Voice of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda S. L.; To, W. M.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study on the perceived value of higher education by Chinese students in Macao SAR, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Taipei. Using responses from 316 students, we find that the Sheth-Newman-Gross Theory of Consumption Values explains how students perceive the services offered by higher education institutions. Students…

  11. Külalisena üle-aasialisel sümpoosionil / Leida Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talts, Leida

    1999-01-01

    Hiinas Macao linnas peetud IV rahvusvahelisest Aasia noorsoouuringute sümpoosionist, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida muutusi, mis 1990. aastatel on Aasia regiooni sotsiaalmajanduslikus arengus toimunud, pöörates erilist tähelepanu noortele

  12. Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Un, Puikei; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao. - Highlights: • A fuel consumption model is developed for Macao's light-duty passenger cars. • Increased vehicle size partially offset energy benefit from tightened fuel consumption standard. • Lower speed and use of air-conditioning greatly increase fuel use of Macao light-duty passenger cars. • A high resolution inventory of fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions is built with link-level traffic data. • Policy suggestions are provided to mitigate fuel use in a traffic populated city.

  13. The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China.

  14. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  15. How to sell Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Arquitectura, apresentada ao Departamento de Arquitectura da F. C. T. da Univ. de Coimbra. Since the official establishment of the Macao Special Administrative Region [MSAR] in 1999, which meant its handover to the People's Republic of China [PRC], this territory has been in delirious transformation. The liberalization of the gambling industry and the consequent proliferation of casinos and luxury hotels, as well as the recent inscription of i...

  16. Address for the Beginning Issue of “RFID Technologies and Applicationsn”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recently RFID technology got a widely attentions. As a result of this, RFID Technology and Application is published as the first professional RFID publication mainly issuing in the China and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. This article summarizes the RFID characteristic, suitable applied field and its development situation and its developing reason in Asia-Pacific area. The article also presents the Magazine’s target and goal, column and the future perspective.

  17. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae: application for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia T. Presti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable], and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao. Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus to 0.85 (A. macao. As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

  19. Development and evaluation of a learner-centered training course on communication skills for baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Wenru

    2013-12-01

    There is no standardized or formal communication skills training in the current nursing curriculum in Macao, China. To develop and evaluate a learner-centered communication skills training course. Both qualitative and quantitative designs were used in two separate stages. A randomized sample and a convenience sample were taken from students on a four-year bachelor's degree program at a public institute in Macao. Stage I consisted of developing a learner-centered communication skills training course using four focus groups (n=32). Stage II evaluated the training's efficacy by comparing communication skills, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving abilities using a quasi-experimental longitudinal pre-post design among 62 nursing students. A course evaluation form was also used. Content analysis was used to evaluate the essential themes in order to develop the specific content and teaching strategies of the course. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed significant improvement in all post-training scores for communication ability, content of communication, and handling of communication barriers. According to the mean scores of the course evaluation form, students were generally very satisfied with the course: 6.11 to 6.74 on a scale of 1 to 7. This study showed that the course was effective in improving communication skills, especially in terms of the content and the handling of communication barriers. The course filled an important gap in the training needs of nursing students in Macao. The importance of these findings and their implications for nursing education are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in BRICS under a DFA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP theory in Brazil, Russia, India, Macao-China and South Africa. We examine real exchange rates of these countries for mean reversion. The Hurst exponent is our mean reversion measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA in a rolling window to determine the validity of the PPP theory amongst these countries through time. Our results show persistence in real exchange rates; an indication not supporting the PPP theory in the five countries. The study contributes to the extant literature of the PPP theory in BRICS using the DFA approach in a rolling window through time.

  1. Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in ICFWI 2011 conference. The 2011 International Conference on Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems (ICFWI 2011) has been held on November 30 ~ December 1, 2011, Macao, China. Topics covered include Wireless Information Networks, Wireless Networking Technologies, Mobile Software and Services, intelligent computing, network management, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Wireless Networks and Information Systems.

  2. Automated Technology for Verificiation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -of-the-art research on theoretical and practical aspects of automated analysis, verification, and synthesis. Among 74 research papers and 10 tool papers submitted to ATVA 2009, the Program Committee accepted 23 as regular papers and 3 as tool papers. In all, 33 experts from 17 countries worked hard to make sure......This volume contains the papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis held during October 13-16 in Macao SAR, China. The primary objective of the ATVA conferences remains the same: to exchange and promote the latest advances of state...

  3. Prevalence of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus and Avian Polyomavirus in Captivity Psittacines from Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolz, Gaby; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    , shelters and rescue centers of wildlife in Costa Rica. They belonged to 19 species of psittacine birds. The most representative species in the sample were Ara macao (157), Ara ambigua (37), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazon ochrocephala (21) and Ara ararauna (8). A prevalence of 19.7% (53/269) for PBFDV...... and 4.8% (13/269) for APV was determined using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In 3.3% (9/269) of the birds mixed infections were detected. Statistical analysis determined that psittacines living in shelters and rescue centers had a greater risk to be positive to PBFDV and APV than birds that were...

  4. O grande navio de Amacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonçalves Salvador

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available C. R. Boxer já é bem conhecido através das obras que tem publicado, versando certos aspectos da história portuguêsa, re-lacionados com o Brasil e com o Oriente distante, especialmen-te. Lembraria, a propósito, os valiosos estudos: The Dutch in Brazil (1624-1654, Salvador Ide Sá and the Struggle for Brazil and Angola (1602-1686, Macao 300 years Ago, Fidalgos in the Far East, South China in the sixteenth century, e outros, de igual importância.

  5. Records of two species of Parrots (Psittacidae and hybrid in urban and rural areas of Armenia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Guerrero-Peláez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturalization of non-native species has been well documented in temperate zones, but little is known about tropical regions. Understanding the process of expanding geographic range of species generated management and conservation strategies. In this note is documented the presence of Ara macao and Amazona ochrocephala, and the first record of a hybrid in the wild in urban and rural areas of the department of Quindío, Central Andes of Colombia. Through direct observation it was possible to identify a high adaptability of the species A. macao and hybrid to the rural and urban conditions of low-lying areas of the department between the municipalities of Armenia and Tebaida. Several individuals of A. ochrocephala which were categorized as wandering birds were observed. A total 17 species of parrots in the department of Quindío are reported. The importance of the presence of these non-native birds in ecosystems where naturally inhabit its possible implications to changing the composition of the native avifauna is emphasized, as well as monitoring for future conservation and management plans are encouraged.

  6. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  7. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazona ochrocephala (21), and Ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4%) birds using molecular detection (PCR). The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  8. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Betting Decision Under Break-Streak Pattern: Evidence from Casino Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; So, Amy Siu Ian; Law, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems. Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study. A non-participatory observational study was conducted among the Cussec gamblers in a casino in Macao. An analysis of 1229 bets confirms our postulation, particularly when the streak of the alternative outcome is long, the latest outcome is frequent, and the gamblers are females. The findings provide meaningful implications for casino management and public policymakers regarding the minimization of gambling harm.

  10. 2012 International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (ICTCS 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Technology in Teaching

    2013-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (ICTCS 2012) is held on April 1-2, 2012, Macao.   This volume contains 120 selected papers presented at 2012 International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (ICTCS 2012), which is to bring together researchers working in many different areas of teaching and computational Science to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas.   This volume book can be divided into two sections on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered. The first section deals with teaching. The second section of this volume consists of computational Science.   We hope that all the papers here published can benefit you in the related researching fields.

  11. On the mirror of the memory: Macau a mythical place of reconstruction of identity in the works of Maria Ondina Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Maria Nunes Gago

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Born in Braga in January 1932, where she also died (March 2003, the Portuguese writer and translator Maria Ondina Braga travelled to several countries, lived in England, France, India (Goa, Angola, Macau and China. Those existential journeys to different corners of the world are fictionalized into her narratives, as in Estátua de Sal (Braga, 1965b and A Passagem do Cabo (Braga, 1994 – which will be analyzed in this work. By drawing on imagology we shall discuss the mechanisms used by the narrator in the process of identity reconstruction, through the memory in the midst of alterity and the exotic ‘Other’, having Macao as a scenario.

  12. Methods Dealing with Complexity in Selecting Joint Venture Contractors for Large-Scale Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of business dynamics has increased rapidly due to increased complexity, uncertainty, and risk of large-scale infrastructure projects. This fact made it increasingly tough to “go alone” into a contractor. As a consequence, joint venture contractors with diverse strengths and weaknesses cooperatively bid for bidding. Understanding project complexity and making decision on the optimal joint venture contractor is challenging. This paper is to study how to select joint venture contractors for undertaking large-scale infrastructure projects based on a multiattribute mathematical model. Two different methods are developed to solve the problem. One is based on ideal points and the other one is based on balanced ideal advantages. Both of the two methods consider individual difference in expert judgment and contractor attributes. A case study of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao-Bridge (HZMB project in China is used to demonstrate how to apply these two methods and their advantages.

  13. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF CAPTIVE PSITTACINE SPECIES IN PRERELEASE PROGRAMS AT COSTA RICAN RESCUE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Chavarría, Esteban; Umaña-Castro, Rodolfo; Abou-Madi, Noha; Solano-González, Stefany; Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mónica; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle

    2017-12-01

    With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012. Physical examination, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Blood and feathers were tested for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) via PCR. A DNA-based prevalence and sequence analysis characterized the strains of PBFDV and APV isolated. Physical abnormalities observed in 36% of the 122 birds examined were limited to thin body condition and poor feather quality. None of the feather abnormalities were characteristic of disease caused by either PBFDV or APV. Results of hematological and biochemical analyses were within normal limits except for five birds with leukocytosis and heterophilia, three birds with uric acid values above 16 mg/dl, and two additional birds with AST values above 400 IU/L. No hemoparasites were detected during blood smear examination. Overall prevalences of 9.8% (12/122) for PBFDV and 3.3% (4/122) for APV were documented, with only one bird testing positive for both PBFDV and APV. Birds from two of the eight centers were negative for both viruses. Findings from this study constitute the beginning of a standardized surveillance program for Costa Rican rescue centers, targeting the management of avian species enrolled in propagation and reintroduction programs and expanding of the spectrum of pathogen surveillance and husbandry recommendations in prerelease centers.

  14. Pesquisa de Mycoplasma em aves da família Psittacidae mantidas em diferentes cativeiros no Brasil Central

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    Andréa M. Carvalho

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a presença de Mycoplasma gallisepticum e M. synoviae em diferentes espécies de psitacídeos cativos no Brasil Central. Um total de 300 amostras foram coletadas e corresponderam a 41 espécies de psitacídeos da fauna brasileira, provenientes do CETAS, criadouro comercial e criadouro conservacionista. Quatorze espécies apresentaram amostras positivas para M. gallisepticum destacando a maracanã-verdadeira (Primolius maracana (01/02, 50%, a arara-canindé (Ara ararauna (15/48, 33,3% e a jandaia-verdadeira (Aratinga jandaia (03/10, 30%. Amostras do CETAS obtiveram total de 21,62% (16/74 de amostras positivas, do criadouro comercial 15,7% (19/121 e do criadouro conservacionista 6,66% (7/105. Apenas três espécies foram positivas para M. synoviae sendo essas, a maracanã-pequena (Primolius maracana (1/10 - 10%, arara-macao (Ara macao (1/12, 8,3% e arara-canindé (Ara ararauna (2/48, 4,1%. O CETAS obteve 2,7% (2/74 de amostras positivas totais, enquanto o criadouro conservacionista obteve total de 1,9% (2/105 de amostras. Não ocorreram amostras positivas para M. synoviae no criadouro comercial. Os resultados mostraram um considerável número de amostras positivas para M. gallisepticum em espécies da família Psittacidae, indicando que estes animais podem ser uma fonte de infecção silenciosa para outras aves, uma vez que não apresentaram sintomatologia clínica.

  15. Gambling in China: socio-historical evolution and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of gambling issues in China, including historical development, governmental responses and social consequences. Based on materials written in Chinese or English available at academic databases and other online resources, historical, cultural and policy analyses were conducted. The focus is on mainland China, but reference is made to Hong Kong and Macao to illustrate differences. Throughout Chinese history, gambling was strictly prohibited by law. In contrast, small-stakes betting for entertainment instead of monetary gain, defined as 'gaming' in this paper, has been culturally acceptable and tolerated by governments. After banning gambling for three decades, the Chinese government attempts to meet public demand for 'gaming' and to confine gambling to 'gaming' by issuing national lotteries. In response to increased economic wealth, gambling opportunities were allowed to develop, but were restricted to Macao. Social problems such as illegal and youth gambling are, however, emerging. The 'gaming' perception may predispose Chinese individuals to wagering activities and increase the risk of gambling disorder, which has been widely seen as misconduct rather than a mental disorder. Currently, the country has a dearth of gambling research and limited prevention and rehabilitation services, almost none at national level. A distinction between small-stakes 'gaming' and large-stakes 'gambling', which has cultural roots, plays an important role in relevant governmental policies and social responses in mainland China. Gambling disorder prevention and treatment is not yet on the national agenda. The country's knowledge and services gaps on gambling problems need to be filled out. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. International CJMT-1 Workshop on Asteroidal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2014-03-01

    An international workshop on asteroidal science was held between October 16 and 17, 2012, at the Macau University of Science and Technology gathering together experts on asteroidal study in China, Japan, Macao and Taiwan. For this reason, we have called it CJMT-1 Workshop. Though small in sizes, the asteroids orbiting mainly between the orbit of Mars and of Jupiter have important influence on the evolution of the planetary bodies. Topics ranging from killer asteroids to space resources are frequently mentioned in news reports with prominence similar to the search for water on Mars. This also means that the study of asteroids is very useful in exciting the imagination and interest in science of the general public. Several Asian countries have therefore developed long-term programs integrating ground-based observations and space exploration with Japan being the most advanced and ambitious as demonstrated by the very successful Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. In this volume we will find descriptions of the mission planning of Hayabusa II to the C-type near-Earth asteroid, 1999 JU3. Not to be outdone, China's Chang-E 2 spacecraft was re-routed to a flyby encounter with asteroid 4179 Toutatis in December 2012. It is planned that in the next CJMT workshop, we will have the opportunity to learn more about the in-depth data analysis of the Toutatis observations and the progress reports on the Hayabusa II mission which launch date is set to be July 2014. Last but not least, the presentations on the ground-based facilities as described in this volume will pave the way for coordinated observations of asteroidal families and Trojan asteroids - across Asia from Taiwan to Uzbekistan. Such international projects will serve as an important symbol of good will and peaceful cooperation among the key members of this group. Finally, I want to thank the Space Science Institute, Macao University of Science and Technology, for generous support, and its staff members

  17. Saudade da Índia et crise de l’union hispano-portugaise dans El Itinerario de las Misiones Orientales de Frei Sebastião Manrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Didier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available De 1629 à 1643, l’augustin Sebastião Manrique parcourt le Bengale et les lisières de la Birmanie, visite Macao et les Philippines, dans le vain espoir d’aller évangéliser les Japonais, puis, passant par Java, se rend au Bengale et revient en Europe après avoir traversé le nord de l’Inde, l’Iran et le Moyen-Orient. Il tire de son long voyage El itinerario de las Misiones Orientales [Rome, 1653] ouvrage écrit en un castillan lusitanisé et parsemé de mots hindis. Manifestant une grande admiration pour les Moghols, il suggère que le contrôle de l’Asie du sud aurait dû être la priorité de la monarchie ibérique unie (1580-1640. Mais les Castillans ont été incapables de tirer profit de la compétence des Portugais en matière orientale. Ils ne les ont guère aidés contre leurs ennemis en Asie. Sa Saudade da Índia est donc une lamentation sur un immense empire ibérique avorté.Entre 1629 y 1643, el agustino Sebastião Manrique recorre Bengala y los confines de Birmania, visita Macao y Filipinas con la frustrada esperanza de ir a evangelizar al Japón. Luego, con escala en la isla de Java, va a Bengala y vuelve a Europa  recorriendo el norte de la India, Irán y Oriente Medio. De su largo viaje saca El itinerario de las Indias Orientales [Roma, 1653], obra escrita en un castellano aportuguesado y salpicado de palabras indíes. Como siente gran admiración hacia los Mogoles, sugiere que el control del sur de Asia hubiera tenido que ser el imperativo principal de la monarquía ibérica unida (1580-1640. Pero los castellanos fueron incapaces de sacar provecho de la pericia de los portugueses en los asuntos orientales. No les prestaron ayuda contra sus enemigos en el Asia. Es pues su Saudadeda Índia un lamento en torno a un inmenso imperio ibérico abortado.

  18. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Laurinavičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the concept of basic income is being implemented on a small scale in the US state of Alaska and in a small autonomous territory of China – Macao. Finland and Switzerland are determined to fully implement the concept of basic income by providing monthly benefits to all their citizens. Although Lithuania is categorized as a country with high income inequality and high level of poverty risk, currently it is not possible to implement the concept of basic income in Lithuania: the state social insurance fund budget would not be able to fund sufficient benefits, and the benefits that could be provided by the budget would not comply with the objectives of the concept of basic income.

  19. "We want the world and we want it now": Materialism, time perspectives and problem spending tendency of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Wu, Anise M S; Lao, Angie K P; Lam, Kerwin I N

    2016-10-06

    Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST. An interaction between materialism and PTP intensified the relationship, whereas an interaction with FTP weakened the relationship. Another survey with a sample of university students (Study 2; N = 223) again found positive relationships among PST, materialism, and PTP, as measured by temporal discount rate. But further exploration showed that PST was only related with temporal discounting among high materialists, but not among low materialists. Study 3 experimentally examined the causal effects of materialism and FTP on PST. When being primed of an orientation towards materialism (n = 33), the participants' planned consumption doubled that of the control group (n = 31). A FTP prime interacted with materialism prime and put a "damper" on participants' planned spending (n = 29), compared to their counterparts who were not primed of such a time perspective. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Instructional practices and science performance of 10 top-performing regions in PISA 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kwok-chi; Lam, Terence Yuk-ping

    2017-10-01

    This study analysed 10 top-performing regions in PISA 2015 on their science performances and instructional practices. The regions include Singapore, Japan, Estonia, Taipei, Finland, Macao, Canada, Hong Kong, China and Korea. The science performances of the 10 regions and their teaching practices are described and compared. The construct of enquiry-based instruction as developed in PISA 2015 is revised into two new constructs using factor analysis. Then, the relationships of the teaching practices with science performance are analysed using hierarchical linear modelling. Adaptive instruction, teacher-directed instruction and interactive application are found positively associated with performance in all regions, while investigation and perceived feedback are all negative. The regions except Japan and Korea tend to have a high frequency of teacher-directed instruction facilitated by more or less authoritative class discussion in class. A fair amount of practical work is done, but not many of them are investigations. The cultural influences on teaching practices are discussed on how an amalgam of didactic and constructivist pedagogy is created by the Western progressive educational philosophy meeting the Confucian culture. The reasons for investigation's negative association with performance are also explored.

  1. Probability-based classifications for spatially characterizing the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Accurately classifying the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs is crucial for environmental resources use and management. This study spatially characterized classifications of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region of Northern Taiwan by using indicator kriging (IK). The water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs were first assigned to high, moderate, and low categories according to the two thresholds of the proposed spring classification criteria. IK was then used to model the occurrence probabilities of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs and probabilistically determine their categories. Finally, nine combinations were acquired from the probability-based classifications for the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. Moreover, various combinations of spring water features were examined according to seven subzones of spring use in the study region. The research results reveal that probability-based classifications using IK provide practicable insights related to propagating the uncertainty of classifications according to the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. The springs in the Beitou (BT), Xingyi Road (XYR), Zhongshanlou (ZSL), and Lengshuikeng (LSK) subzones are suitable for supplying tourism hotels with a sufficient quantity of spring water because they have high or moderate discharge rates. Furthermore, natural hot springs in riverbeds and valleys should be developed in the Dingbeitou (DBT), ZSL, Xiayoukeng (XYK), and Macao (MC) subzones because of low discharge rates and low or moderate water temperatures.

  2. Analysis on the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Q.; Bian, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the data of China's fourth, fifth and sixth population census, taking the seven geographical zone as research units, the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010 is studied by the means of spatial analysis and mathematical statistics. The empirical results show that: (1) The migration population in China was increasing a lot in 1985-2010, and the main part of it is Provincial migration. (2) The total number of migration, immigration and emigration, the relative proportion of inter provincial and provincial migration have been positively correlated to the regional economic development level. (3) The emigrations from Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and overseas mainly moved to East and North China. (4) Central and west of China are the main area where people outflowed from, and most migration population moved to south-eastern coastal areas. The migration in Northeast and northwest of China is still relatively small. The main direction of population migration and flowing is from west to east and from north to south.

  3. Disordered gambling among Chinese casino employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Wong, Eva M W

    2008-06-01

    A previous study suggests that casino employees are at higher risk for disordered gambling than non-casino employees. The present study examined the cognitive correlates of the gambling involvement of Chinese casino employees. These potential cognitive correlates included attitudes toward the gaming industry and gambling activities, perceived job meaningfulness, and job stress. One hundred and nineteen Chinese respondents (M = 57; F = 62) working as dealers in Macao casinos were recruited through convenience sampling to fill out a questionnaire. The results revealed that about 7% of the respondents scored 10 or more on the South Oaks Gambling Screen and engaged in disordered gambling. Path analysis showed that attitude toward the gaming industry had a positive impact on job meaningfulness, which largely explained variances of job stress among casino employees. Job stress had a significant, but weak, direct impact on disordered gambling. Though causality between variables cannot be confirmed, this study provided insights into the impacts of cognitive factors on gambling involvement among Chinese front-line employees in the gaming industry. Implications of the findings were also discussed.

  4. The Cantonese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P I

    1986-01-01

    Thousands of ethnic Chinese escaped from the Northern part of reunited Viet Nam during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Most were "boat people" who hoped to make it safely to Hong Kong or Macao. Owing to difficulties on board or unfavorable winds, some got no farther than Hainan Island or were forced to land on the People's Republic of China's (PRC) coast. Even for those who had strong cultural ties to, if not political sympathies with, the people of China, life in the PRC is not easy and adaptation to the regimentation of the socialist state is especially hard for those coming from lands where they had lived quite apart from the main stream of their society. Bonafide refugees bound for America are treated differently from other potential migrants, including those basing their claim to acceptance on family reunion. 2 family reunion cases are discussed. The difference between the 2 cases is that the 1st would receive assistance from societal institutions specifically geared to working with refugees; the 2nd would have to depend on the promised support of family members.

  5. Translation teaching in Macao’s polytechnic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lurdes Nogueira Escaleira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article "Translation teaching in Higher Education in Macau at the Polytechnic" aims to discuss the issues around teaching and learning of Chinese / Portuguese Translation in Macau, and the role played by the Macau Polytechnic Institute in translators training. For more than four centuries, Macau has been a place of intercultural contact where the Portuguese and the Chinese, now the current official languages, have coexisted and implied constant translation efforts; today, Macau is seen as an important platform between the People's Republic of China and Portuguese Speaking Countries, which has stressed the importance of translation professionals. Despite several attempts, Macau’s public higher education was only established in 1991, as well as a translation degree program; until then, and for more than a century, the translators training was held by a government department. We will discuss several curricular structures implemented over the years in the Macao Polytechnic Institute for training translators who can intermediate between Chinese and Portuguese languages and cultures growingly expanding in Macau, given the significant increase in the demand for properly trained translators/interpreters

  6. A comparative study of the mobile population in Wuhan and other major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    1997-01-01

    This study examined population mobility among residents of 5 cities in China: Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Data were obtained from the 1995 Sample Survey of 1% of Wuhan Population and provincial Statistical Yearbooks. The total mobile population in China has increased from 20-80 million during 1982-95. Shanghai is the largest Chinese city. Beijing has a large proportion of international and internal migrants. Guangzhou is a capital city that was the first to adopt economic reforms. Migration fueled development in Shenzhen. A larger mobile population was related to larger population density. The mobile population was 20% in all cities, 30% of central city population, and 140.5% of the central city of Shenzhen. Beijing and Shanghai had the highest growth rates. Construction accounts for the largest percentage of business-related mobile population in Wuhan, Beijing, and Shanghai. Manufacturing accounts for the largest percentage in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Most of the mobile population in capital cities such as Wuhan and Guangzhou, originates from within the provinces. The largest percentage of mobile population in Beijing and Shanghai come from adjacent provinces. Guangzhou receives many migrants from adjacent Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. 47.8-78.8% of mobile population were farmers. More migrants are men. Educational levels are low. The mobile population contributes to industry and informational/cultural exchange. The migrants detract from urban areas in population pressure on housing and services, shortages of employment, illegal activities and crime, and unplanned births.

  7. Brand Equity of a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Kyung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.

  8. RESEARCH ON THE DIRECT CARBON EMISSION FORECAST OF CHINA'S PROVINCIAL RESIDENTS BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, which mainly effected by human carbon emissions, would affect the regional economic, natural ecological environment, social development and food security in the near future. It’s particularly important to make accurate predictions of carbon emissions based on current carbon emissions. This paper accounted out the direct consumption of carbon emissions data from 1995 to 2014 about 30 provinces (the data of Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan is missing and the whole of China. And it selected the optimal models from BP, RBF and Elman neural network for direct carbon emission prediction, what aim was to select the optimal prediction method and explore the possibility of reaching the peak of residents direct carbon emissions of China in 2030. Research shows that: 1 Residents’ direct carbon emissions per capita of all provinces showed an upward trend in 20 years. 2 The accuracy of the prediction results by Elman neural network model is higher than others and more suitable for carbon emission data projections. 3 With the situation of residents’ direct carbon emissions free development, the direct carbon emissions will show a fast to slow upward trend in the next few years and began to flatten after 2020, and the direct carbon emissions of per capita will reach the peak in 2032. This is also confirmed that China is expected to reach its peak in carbon emissions by 2030 in theory.

  9. Research on the Direct Carbon Emission Forecast of CHINA'S Provincial Residents Based on Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, S.; Yan, W.

    2018-04-01

    Global climate change, which mainly effected by human carbon emissions, would affect the regional economic, natural ecological environment, social development and food security in the near future. It's particularly important to make accurate predictions of carbon emissions based on current carbon emissions. This paper accounted out the direct consumption of carbon emissions data from 1995 to 2014 about 30 provinces (the data of Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan is missing) and the whole of China. And it selected the optimal models from BP, RBF and Elman neural network for direct carbon emission prediction, what aim was to select the optimal prediction method and explore the possibility of reaching the peak of residents direct carbon emissions of China in 2030. Research shows that: 1) Residents' direct carbon emissions per capita of all provinces showed an upward trend in 20 years. 2) The accuracy of the prediction results by Elman neural network model is higher than others and more suitable for carbon emission data projections. 3) With the situation of residents' direct carbon emissions free development, the direct carbon emissions will show a fast to slow upward trend in the next few years and began to flatten after 2020, and the direct carbon emissions of per capita will reach the peak in 2032. This is also confirmed that China is expected to reach its peak in carbon emissions by 2030 in theory.

  10. Fear of intimacy with helping professionals and its impact on elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Sally; Wang, Wenru

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of Chinese older adults toward seeking help from healthcare professionals, and its impact on their self-care ability and medication adherence. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. A convenience sample of 301 older adults was recruited from six health centers in Macao, People's Republic of China. The Chinese versions of Fear of Intimacy with Helping Professionals (C-FIHP), Exercise of Self-care Agency (C-ESCA) and Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-Taking Behavior (C-MMAS) were used to measure the study variables. Chinese older adults who were married and had comorbidity with arthritis showed significantly negative attitudes toward seeking help form healthcare professional than those who were not married (P Chinese older adults' fear of intimacy with helping professionals impacts their perceived self-care ability and medication adherence. The three predictive factors identified in the present study might provide useful pointers for healthcare professionals to customize an effective approach to encourage and engage older adults. This might improve the self-care ability and medication adherence of older adults, which will result in a better quality of life and psychosocial well-being. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. How the Guangzhou Government Can Curtail Air Pollution from Road Traffic in a Least Costly Manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xu

    1998-12-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the increased motorized traffic and air pollution in urban Guangzhou, the prosperous capital of the Guangdong Province in southern China that is located in the vicinity of Hong Kong and Macao. The emphasis is placed on PM 10 pollutants (particles of less than 10 microns in size). It reviews the current status of ambient air quality, the harmful effects of PM 10 emissions on human health and how to reduce the problem. It is estimated that 3300 premature deaths per year could be avoided if Guangzhou met the Class II of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM 10, and the Guangzhou Government could save 10% of its GDP in 1994. A theoretical framework for reducing pollution problems is presented based on cost-effectiveness theory. There is also an overview of possible pollution reducing measures based on worldwide experience. The theoretical framework is applied to a case study of selected measures: (1) reduced sulfur content of diesel fuel, (2) creating bus lanes, (3) fuel taxation, (4) introduction of toll roads, (5) measures on the metro line. The bus lane measure is found to be the most cost-effective one, followed by the toll road and fuel taxation measures. The metro measure is the most expensive one. Finally, the report recommends to the Guangzhou Government what measures should have first priority according to cost-effectiveness. 23 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. The Impacts of Climate Change in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, A.; Trumbull, K.; Loh, C.

    2006-11-01

    Civic Exchange added climate change to their research agenda some time ago, recognising that it is a cross-cutting issue that will have substantial impact, not only on Hong Kong but on the entire Pearl River Delta. The Hong Kong region is the wealthiest part of China. Along with growing material wealth, Hong Kong's ecological footprint and particularly it's greenhouse gas emissions - have increased exponentially. Therefore, there exists a special responsibility to contribute to finding effective mitigation measures that can help to slow the process; as well as a pressing need to find ways to adapt to those effects of climate change that cannot be forestalled. This paper represents a first attempt to pull together the relevant materials, with the aim of providing a broad-brush view of how climate change may affect Hong Kong, Macao and the Pearl River Delta. The key recommendation is that more region-specific research must be carried out. Civic Exchange has also taken note of the recently published Stern Review, which was commissioned by the United Kingdom government, to assess the economics of climate change. The report calls for urgent action. In this respect, this report therefore doubles as a funding proposal

  13. [News on the trip and the diplomatic mission of a Portuguese ambassador to China in 1752. Critical and analytical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, J; Frada, C

    1994-11-01

    The author of this report has worked out a critical-analytical study, based on the news of a voyage to China, carried out by a Portuguese ambassador, which was also a diplomatic mission, in 1752, during the Marquis of Pombal era, Prime Minister of king Dom Jose I. This study is directed under two perspectives: medical and historical-diplomatic. The former not only allows the assessment of the high degree of organization of this voyage as far as food supplies and medical support are concerned, but it also shows the reflection and the diagnosis correction of tuberculosis of the lungs, in a seaman, carried out by a surgeon on board, which we totally refute. The latter, which only aims at giving some further data for the study of the Portuguese Diplomatic History, let us know some of the complex procedures and protocols established between our diplomatic representative and the high Chinese rulers, both the Emperor himself and the mandarins. Contrary to other previous attempts of diplomatic, economic and social relations, either partially or totally frustrated, this mission constituted a great success for Portugal and may, indeed, be considered as a decisive step for the recognition of Portuguese sovereignty over the territory of Macao and its dependencies in 1887.

  14. Analysis of publications in Medical Journal of Chinese People’s Liberation Army during 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-ping ZHU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of articles published in the Medical Journal of Chinese People’s Liberation Army(MJCPLA from year 2006 to 2010,so as to provide some beneficial references for further advance of the journal.Methods Each bibliometrics index of MJCPLA during 2006 to 2010 was analyzed with literature metrology.Results A total of 2442 articles were published in 60 issues over 5 years characterizing reasonable column setting,a high proportion,accounting for 43.5%,of fund-supported researches,with coauthor paper accounting for 95.6% and coauthor degree at 5.20.The articles were provided by authors widely distributed from 31 provinces,autonomous regions,mulicipality,and Macao Special Administrative Region,America,Ukraine,German and other overseas areas,implying the author ranks are of tremendous strength,and the readers group is of steady.Conclusion For the high quality of materials being published,the MJCPLA has a claim to one of the most important military medical information sources and an important core journal in medical field.

  15. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  16. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future.

  17. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

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    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  18. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

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    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irrefutable. Para este fin se trabaja con la pintura mural de dos sitios arqueológicos: el mural 1, Los pájaros, de la Estructura 86 en Xelhá, situado en la zona norte de Quintana Roo; y el mural oriente del Templo Rojo en Cacaxtla, Tlaxcala. De acuerdo con las modalidades de representación gráfica y bajo los criterios de integración temática se aborda la lectura de las escenas considerando a los otros elementos iconográficos que las integran. El resultado es una propuesta de participación simbólica de las guacamayas enfocada en la abstracción del tiempo a partir de la conducta diaria y estacional de esta especie de psitácido ruidosa (y de plumaje llamativo y sugerente; también se considera la asociación de estos animales con los conceptos de vida, movimiento y temporalidad, y con el Sol y el agua (este último como el elemento primordial vinculado con la fertilidad.In pre-Hispanic thought, Macaw (Ara macao and Ara militaris occupy a place of honour, as witness its image captured in the murals created by different peoples, such as the Maya, the Zapotec, the ancient inhabitants of Teotihuacan and Cacaxtla. This is not a coincidence, which is why this study aims to analyze and recognize the taxonomic identity of recreated individuals, as well as argue their presence in the pictorial language as a mean of irrefutable graphic expression. To this end works with mural paintings from two archaeological sites are analyzed: the mural 1 "The birds" of

  19. [Analysis on geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y H; Zou, Z Y; Wang, Z H; Wang, S; Yang, Z P; Chen, Y J; Ma, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects. The low, middle and high prevalence areas were identified according to their high blood pressure detection rates in the children and adolescents,7 % , to analyze the geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in the children and adolescents. The environmental data in the capitals of 31 provinces in 2014 were collected to analyze the correlation between environmental factors and blood pressure Z score in the children and adolescents. Results: The average detection rates of high blood pressure was 6.4 % in 31 provinces (1.5 % -14.2 % ). The high prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the eastern China, especially the Circum-Bohai sea area, low prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the central and western areas of China and some provinces in the east. Correlation analysis results showed that the annual average temperature, annual average air humidity and local altitude were negatively correlated with blood pressure Z score, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure, in both boys and girls. The annual average sunshine time, PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations, content of SO(2) were positively correlated with blood pressure Z score in both boys and girls. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in high blood pressure of children and adolescents among 31 provinces. More attention should be paid to the children and adolescents living high prevalence area. And it is necessary to understand

  20. The First Telescope in the Korean History I. Translation of Jeong`s Report

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    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1631 A.D. Jeong Duwon, an ambassador of the Joseon dynasty was sent to the Ming dynasty. There he met João Rodrigues, a Jesuit missionary, in Dengzhou of Shandong peninsula. The missionary gave the ambassador a number of results of latest European innovations. A detailed description on this event was written in `Jeong's official report regarding a message from an European country' ( which is an important literature work to understand the event. Since the document was written in classical Chinese, we make a comprehensive translation to Korean with detailed notes. According to the report, the items that Rodrigues presented include four books written in Chinese that describe European discoveries about the world, a report on the tribute of new cannons manufactured by Portuguese in Macao, a telescope, a flintlock, a Foliot-type mechanical clock, a world atlas drawn by Matteo Ricci, an astronomical planisphere, and a sun-dial. We discuss the meaning of each item in the Korean history of science and technology. In particular, Jeong's introduction is an important event in the history of Korean astronomy, because the telescope he brought was the first one to be introduced in Korean history. Even though king Injo and his associates of the Joseon dynasty were well aware of the value as military armaments of new technologies such as telescopes, cannons, and flintlocks, they were not able to quickly adopt such technologies to defend against the military threat of Jurchen. We revisit the reason in view of the general history of science and technology of east-Asian countries in the 17th century.

  1. [Total pollution features of urban runoff outlet for urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Bing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; He, Qiang; Liu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    The urban stormwater runoff discharged to urban river, especially to rainfall source river, cannot be ignored. In this study, the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen city in a typical southern city of China is taken as the research object. In order to guide the pollution control for urban river, the eighteen rainfall events were monitored, and the total pollution features of the urban runoff outlet for this urban river were analyzed and discussed by using the process of pollutographs, the identifying to first flush, event mean concentration (EMC), etc. Results show that the concentrations of COD, SS, TN, TP and BOD5 are ten times more than the grade V of the environmental quality standards for surface water during the runoff time; the pollution caused by heavy metals (Cr, Ge, Cu, Hg and As) in runoff at a typical rainfall event is serious; the average and range of pollutant concentration at this runoff outlet in study area are evidently higher than at Shapingba in Chongqing city of China and at Silerwood in Canada, but are lower than at Shilipu in Wuhan city of China. The first flushes of COD, SS, BOD5, especially COD and SS, are evident, but the TN and TP are not. The average EMC of COD, TN, TP and BOD5 are 224.14, 571.15, 5.223, 2.04, 143.5 mg/L, respectively. To some extent, the EMC of COD is about two times of the value of the near cities, Macao and Zhuhai. The EMC of TN and TP are obviously higher than Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai. To compared with foreign counties, the EMC of the study area in Shenzhen is obviously much higher than the cities of Korean, USA and Canada. So the total pollution caused by the urban surface runoff in study area is serious and necessary to be treated.

  2. The Chinese nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenez, J.C.; Bettoun, G.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides presents the organization of the Chinese nuclear industry and its perspectives for the 2 next decades. The presentation is divided into 5 parts. Part one: the energy sector in China. Due to the economic development of the country this sector is flourishing and reaches an average growth rate of 9% per year. More than fifty per cent of the power plants being built in the world, are located in China. The electricity production stems by far from fossil energies (>80%) but this part is expected to decrease to reach 70% in 2020. Part 2: the Chinese nuclear program. This program is dual: the massive deployment of chinese improved reactors of second generation (the construction of 6 CPR1000 reactors will be launched each year) and the import and assimilation of reactors of the third generation: 4 AP1000 and 2 EPR are being built. Part 3: the organization of the Chinese nuclear sector. The main actors are CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), CGNPC (China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation), CPI (China Power Investment Corporation), SNPTC (State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation). The main 5 Chinese suppliers are also presented. Part 4: The role of EDF. Today's EDF role is multiple: to be active in the Chinese nuclear program, to go beyond technical assistance to reach partnership, to invest in Chinese power plants, to promote cooperation between French and Chinese actors of the nuclear industry. A lot of joint ventures have been created. Part 5: the Taishan project. Taishan is a coastal site near Macao in the Guangdong province in which 2 EPR are being built, the first concrete was cast in october 2009, 52 months of construction are scheduled and the first unit will be commissioned in end 2013 while the second commissioning is planned for end 2014. (A.C.)

  3. [Progress of childhood immunization information management system in China in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling-Sheng; Liu, Da-Wei; Guo, Biao

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the coverage of childhood immunization information management system (CIIMS) in China (not include HongKong, Macao, and Taiwan) in 2008. Analyzing immunization cases and users' file record archives in CIIMS for china in 2008. These data indicated that 87.10% (27/31) of provinces and 30.36% (891/2935) of county level and 26.63% (11,512/43,231) of vaccination points of township level submitted immunization data to an CIIMS in 2008. The rate of implementation of the county > or = 90% are Fujian and Hubei. The rate of implementation of the township > or = 90% are Hubei, Fujian and Hebei. Coverage of eastern areas, middle areas and western areas were 28.91%, 43.20%, and 18.41% by county, 26.15%, 37.69%, and 16.44% by township respectively. The upload permissions against cases is in a total of 15,014 units, and the client software collect a total of 42,956,214 cases of immunization. 44.46% chinese children aged < 6 years old participated in an CIIMS in 2008. The vaccination point of township level submitted 8,793,334 cases to CIIMS, it accounted for 20.47% of client collection cases. To achieve the national CIIMS objectives for 2010, the extensive implementation must be promoted, the funding for system-building should be increased, an independent platform of CIIMS must be established, and admission of the issue of data exchange with the local information systems must be accelerated.

  4. Integrative review of international nursing research in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Wei, L; Liu, H; Tang, L

    2009-03-01

    Nursing research in Mainland China is divided into two parts: domestic nursing research, comprising all publications in Chinese; and international nursing research, comprising all publications in English. Domestic nursing research has been developing rapidly, demonstrated by the increase in new national or regional journals and publications. However, little is known about the extent of international research. To outline the development of international nursing research publications in Mainland China and to provide suggestions for future development. All of the papers were retrieved from PubMed. The key search phase was 'China or P.R.China NOT Hong Kong NOT Taiwan NOT Macao [AD]', with the limits of 'English', 'nursing journals' as well as the published date up to '2007/09/30'. PubMed recorded 57 English papers that were originally conducted in Mainland China during the search period from 1989 to 30 September 2007. Thirty-seven of the total 57 (65%) publications were contributed by Beijing, Shanghai and Hubei. Forty-four of the 57 publications were conducted with collaborators from Hong Kong, the USA, the UK and Canada. Thirteen publications were funded by international societies, while only three were funded by the Chinese government. The research topics mainly focused on clinical research, nursing education and nursing management. This study indicates that international nursing research has been growing slowly in Mainland China along with provincial variations. The suggestions to improve nursing research include the reform of nursing education, the enhancement of the collaboration with the international societies and the establishment of research priorities.

  5. Casino Capitalism and Its Legitimacy Impact on the Politico-administrative State in Macau Der Kasino-Kapitalismus in Macau und seine Bedeutung für die Legitimität des politisch-administrativen Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Lo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Casino capitalism has its dialectical tendencies in Macau. On the one hand, it stimulates economic growth, provides employment, and strengthens the post-colonial state in Macau during the period of economic boom. On the other hand, casino capitalism can widen the income gap between the rich and the poor, generate addictive gambling, and de-legitimize the post-colonial state in Macau during the global and regional economic downturn. The weaknesses of the politico-administrative state in Macau, including the absence of institutional checks and balances, the frail civil society and the relatively docile mass media, have magnified the negative impacts of casino capitalism on Macau. In response to the negative ramifications, the Macau government has taken measures to be more interventionist, to enhance social welfare, and to prepare contingency plans that would tackle the sudden bankruptcy of any casinos. The central government in Beijing also displays contradictory considerations when it deals with Macau’s casino development, supporting the casino industry while simultaneously encouraging the Macau government to diversify its economy. Overall, casino capitalism not only has contradictory impacts on the Macau city-state but also reveals the inherent contradictions of Beijing’s policy toward the territory’s over-dependence on the casino economy. Der Kasino-Kapitalismus ruft in Macao widersprüchliche TEndenzen hervor: Einerseits stimuliert er das wirtschaftliche Wachstum und stärkt den post-kolonialen Staat in wirtschaftlichen Boomphasen, andererseits kann er aber auch dazu beitragen, dass sich die Einkommensunterschiede zwischen ärmeren und wohlhabenderen Schichten verstärken und damit in Krisenphasen zur Deligitimierung des postkolonialen Staates beitragen.

  6. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

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    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  7. The role of Thailand in the international trade in CITES-listed live reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R

    2011-03-25

    International wildlife trade is one of the leading threats to biodiversity conservation. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the most important initiative to monitor and regulate the international trade of wildlife but its credibility is dependent on the quality of the trade data. We report on the performance of CITES reporting by focussing on the commercial trade in non-native reptiles and amphibians into Thailand as to illustrate trends, species composition and numbers of wild-caught vs. captive-bred specimens. Based on data in the WCMC-CITES trade database, we establish that a total of 75,594 individuals of 169 species of reptiles and amphibians (including 27 globally threatened species) were imported into Thailand in 1990-2007. The majority of individuals (59,895, 79%) were listed as captive-bred and a smaller number (15,699, 21%) as wild-caught. In the 1990s small numbers of individuals of a few species were imported into Thailand, but in 2003 both volumes and species diversity increased rapidly. The proportion of captive-bred animals differed greatly between years (from 0 to >80%). Wild-caught individuals were mainly sourced from African countries, and captive-bred individuals from Asian countries (including from non-CITES Parties). There were significant discrepancies between exports and imports. Thailand reports the import of >10,000 individuals (51 species) originating from Kazakhstan, but Kazakhstan reports no exports of these species. Similar discrepancies, involving smaller numbers (>100 individuals of 9 species), can be seen in the import of reptiles into Thailand via Macao. While there has been an increase in imports of amphibian and reptiles into Thailand, erratic patterns in proportions of captive-bred specimens and volumes suggests either capricious markets or errors in reporting. Large discrepancies with respect to origin point to misreporting or possible violations of the rules and

  8. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    (Xiayoukeng), and MC (Macao) with low discharge rates, and low or moderate temperatures, particularly in riverbeds or valleys.Keywords: Spring; Temperature; Discharge rate; Indicator kriging; Uncertainty

  9. Density and diversity of OpenStreetMap road networks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjia Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap is a geographic information platform designed to provide real-time updates and user-generated content related to its freely available global map, and it is one of the most widely used examples of volunteered geographic information, a technique associated with so-called neogeography. This paper, based on the data from China’s OpenStreetMap road network in May 2014, taking 340 prefecture-level cities in China as its study area, presents the geometric-related (road density and attribute-related (type diversity spatial patterns of the OpenStreetMap road network, and explores their relationship. The results are as follows. (1 The distribution of OpenStreetMap road density in Shenzhen, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Macao predominantly obeys a “positive skewness distribution”. OpenStreetMap data for eastern China shows a higher overall and circular structure. In central China, there are noticeable discrepancies in the road density, whereas in western China, the road density is low. (2 The OpenStreetMap road diversity shows a normal distribution. The spatial pattern for the so-called “Hu Huanyong line” was broken by the effect of diplomatic and strategic factors, showing a high diversity along the peripheral border, coastal cities, and core inland cites. (3 China’s OpenStreetMap is partitioned into four parts according to road density and diversity: high density and high diversity; low density and low diversity; high density and low diversity; and low density high diversity. (4 The OpenStreetMap geographical information-collection process and mechanism were analyzed, demonstrating that the road density reflects the preponderance of traffic in the real world. OpenStreetMap road diversity reflects the road-related geographic information demand and value, and it also reflects the interests of users toward to OpenStreetMap geographical information.

  10. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thac Nguyen

    Full Text Available Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine

  11. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  12. Chromosomal Diversity and Karyotype Evolution in South American Macaws (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete de Oliveira Furo

    Full Text Available Most species of macaws, which represent the largest species of Neotropical Psittacidae, characterized by their long tails and exuberant colours, are endangered, mainly because of hunting, illegal trade and habitat destruction. Long tailed species seem to represent a monophyletic group within Psittacidae, supported by cytogenetic data. Hence, these species show karyotypes with predominance of biarmed macrochromosomes, in contrast to short tailed species, with a predominance of acro/telocentric macrochromosomes. Because of their similar karyotypes, it has been proposed that inversions and translocations may be the main types of rearrangements occurring during the evolution of this group. However, only one species of macaw, Ara macao, that has had its genome sequenced was analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics. Hence, in order to verify the rearrangements, we analyzed the karyotype of two species of macaws, Ara chloropterus and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, using cross-species chromosome painting with two different sets of probes from chicken and white hawk. Both intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements were observed. Chicken probes revealed the occurrence of fusions, fissions and inversions in both species, while the probes from white hawk determined the correct breakpoints or chromosome segments involved in the rearrangements. Some of these rearrangements were common for both species of macaws (fission of GGA1 and fusions of GGA1p/GGA4q, GGA6/GGA7 and GGA8/GGA9, while the fissions of GGA 2 and 4p were found only in A. chloropterus. These results confirm that despite apparent chromosomal similarity, macaws have very diverse karyotypes, which differ from each other not only by inversions and translocations as postulated before, but also by fissions and fusions.

  13. [Analysis of qualifications of medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-qiang; Li, Tao; Qi, Fang; Wu, Rui; Nie, Wu; Yu, Chen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the qualifications and current situations of the medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and to provide a reference for developing relevant policies. Work reports and questionnaires survey were used to investigate the qualifications of all medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and their acceptance and diagnosis of occupational disease cases from 2006 to 2010. The rate for the work reports was 100%, and the response rate for the questionnaires was 71.0%. By the end of 2010, in the 31 provincial-level regions (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) in China, there had been 503 medical and health institutions which were qualified for providing occupational disease diagnosis, including 207 centers for disease control and prevention, accounting for 41.2%, 145 general hospitals, accounting for 28.8%, 69 enterprise-owned hospitals, accounting for 13.7%, and 64 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control, accounting for 12.7%; 4986 certified doctors got the qualification for providing occupational disease diagnosis, with 9.4 certified doctors on average in each institution, and there was 0.65 certified doctor per 100 000 employees. In addition, 16.5% of the institutions got all the qualifications for diagnosing 9 occupational diseases, and 17.1% of the institutions got the qualification for diagnosing one occupational disease. Each certified doctor accepted diagnosis of 16.8 cases of occupational diseases on average every year. A national occupational disease diagnosis network has been established in China, but the imbalance in regional distribution and specialty programs still exists among the qualified medical and health institutions and certified doctors. It is essential to further strengthen the development of regional qualified medical and health institutions and training of qualified

  14. Multi-cooperation of Cultural Heritage Conservation: The Cangdong Project of Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, some workshops and research cases have arisen in China to seek for suitable ways for heritage conservation and development of historic villages. However, the issue of multi-cooperation has not been much mentioned in research works. The case of Cangdong Project in Guangdong Province is a social enterprise. It is a center focusing on heritage education. It organizes tailor-made workshops for interested people from all over China and Hong Kong, Macao and overseas, including university courses for credits, summer/winter camps for primary and middle school students, as well as common people who are interested in heritage conservation. The purpose of the education center is to enhance heritage/cultural interest of the younger generations and common people, and try to work with local villagers to build a wealthy community. Nowadays, more and more villagers moved out for work and the countryside population in China is decreasing, this project also aims to create work opportunities for villagers through heritage conservation projects, so that the villagers can be willing to stay. The project focuses more in a sustainable way for community development. It has been five years since the project was set up in Cangdong Village. The project team worked with villagers, city people, students, scholars, different levels of local governments, investors, Medias, charitable organizations, as well as the market of tourism. As such, a platform of multi-cooperation for the above parties has formed during the past five years. This paper takes the Project experience from 2010-2015 as the case to study multi-cooperation in the field of heritage conservation in China, as well as to discuss how to co-operate the subjective initiatives of different stokeholds.

  15. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  16. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  17. Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

  18. [Statistics on notification of pneumoconiosis in China in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Min

    2012-11-01

    To describe the reported incidence of pneumoconiosis in China in 2010, and to investigate the reasons for increase in the number of new cases. Descriptive analysis was performed on the new cases of pneumoconiosis reported by the "Monitoring System of Health Hazard Factors" under "China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention" in China in 2010. A total of 23812 new cases of pneumoconiosis were reported in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities except Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, as well as Production and Construction Corps of Xinjiang, increased by 64.28% compared with the number in 2009. There were 12 564 cases of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis and 9870 cases of silicosis, accounting for 94.21% of all new cases. The cases of silicosis were distributed mainly in Sichuan, Liaoning, and Jiangsu, from which 52.21% of all new silicosis cases were reported; most of the cases were in railway, nonferrous metal, and coal industries, and the majority of them were drillers. The cases of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis were distributed mainly in Hunan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Beijing; most of the cases were in coal industry, and the majority of them were coal-getters. The main reasons for increase in the number of new cases were as follows: increased numbers of reporting agencies and diagnosis agencies, expanded coverage of occupational health surveillance and occupational insurance, closing down and integration of small coal mines, solution of untreated problems, enhanced legal awareness of employers and employees, and investigation into omission of pneumoconiosis case reporting. Coal-workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis are the most serious occupational diseases in China, and specific measurements for prevention and control should be taken according to the geographic, industrial, and occupational distributions.

  19. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao

    2012-11-01

    Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries

  20. 跨境重大工程多主体间决策冲突处理机制研究%Conflict-solving Mechanism Between Multi-agent Decision in the Cross-border Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雪; 张劲文

    2015-01-01

    在经济全球化推动下,各国、各地区之间的跨境工程合作日益频繁。然而,由于决策主体利益诉求不同、文化价值观差异、信息不对称等因素的影响,导致跨境工程决策主体间冲突越来越显著。如何科学有效地处理跨境工程主体间的决策冲突已引起理论和实践界的关注。结合港珠澳大桥工程多主体间决策冲突处理的实践,系统分析跨境工程前期决策冲突的起因,从内容维和关系维的角度对决策冲突进行分类。在冲突诱因分析及冲突分类的基础上,探索多主体间决策冲突处理机制,为一般跨境工程多主体间决策冲突的处理提供了新的思路和方法。%driven by increasing global economics,the cooperation of cross-border projects between states and districts has become more and more intense. However, due to different profits requirements,different culture and unbalanced information of different decision makers,the conflicts among these decision makers who are responsible for the cross-border projects are rising and becoming a significant factor. How to scientifically and effectively solve the conflicts among decision makers of cross-border projects has drawn attention both theoretically and practically. Based on the practice on dealing with conflicts between decision makers of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project,the paper systematically analyzes the cause of conflicts of cross-border projects in the early stage and categorizes such conflicts from the prospective of their contents and inner relationship. Then,the paper explores a conflicts solving system between multiple decision makers and provides new thoughts and methods for solving conflicts between decision makers in common cross-border projects.

  1. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  2. Suggestions on How to Better Enforce UNCLOS in China%大力推进《联合国海洋法公约》的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔洲

    2013-01-01

      针对我国在实施《联合国海洋法公约》过程中遇到的一系列困难和问题,提出加强、完善海洋法的国内立法;加强海洋法的宣传和教育;加强海洋法的行政执法力度,加快学习港、澳、台及国外的先进经验,以推进《联合国海洋法公约》在我国的实施。保护我国的主权,有利于更好地开发、利用保护海洋资源,提升我国人民的生活质量,增加安全感、幸福感,有利于解决我国与邻国的海洋权益纷争,有利于世界和平。%  Considering the difficulties in enforcing the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UN-CLOS), the following suggestions are proposed here , Strengthen and perfect our country's legislation concerning the law of the sea, solve the issue of laws in conflicts and fill up the gap between legislation while doing a better job in raising the public awareness the law of the sea through education .It is also suggested to further strengthen the ad-ministrative enforcement of the laws concerned and speed up the process of learning advanced experiences from Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and from other countries, so as to push forward the implementation of the UNCLOS in our country.By doing so, it will be conducive in safeguarding our sovereignty , developing and using marine re-sources in a better way, raising the quality of life for our people and letting them feel more secure and happier .Do-ing this will also be helpful in solving the disputes between our country and others over the marine rights and inter -ests and benefiting the world peace .

  3. [Field epidemiological study on news reports that related to public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-xiang; Li, Xue-mei; Luo, Nian-ci; Mei, Shu-jiang; Jiang, Li-juan

    2013-12-01

    All news reports (NR) that were related to public health emergency (PHE) were collected from the Southern Metropolis Daily (SMD) to explore the characteristics of epidemiology in the fields. Based on the theory of communication that including both case and text analysis, qualitative analysis on all the NR regarding PHE published in SMD from the years of 2008 to 2012, was carried out and input to database using the EpiData. Numbers of articles as indicators were compared to show the yearly change of different types of events. Various features of the NR including coverage, source of information, location of the incident, style and size of news, with or without editorials etc. were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 18.0. Among all the 998 reports related to PHE, higher proportion was found in the events of Infectious diseases (35.3%) and food safety (34.1%)respectively. Events on vaccines and drugs used for disease prevention and control (8.9%), environmental pollution caused incidents (8.0%)appeared to be less frequent. Events related to occupational disease, poisoning, bioterrorism and biochemical events were rare. Looking at the monthly distribution of reports, we noticed that the peaks occurred in 2008 and in 2009, which were caused by the Melamine-contamination events and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Between 2010 and 2012, figures of monthly reports were smooth, including some critical events from the interests of the media. Most events took place in Guangdong province (34.3%) and other provinces (50.9%), with some were from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions (9.5%). However, international events (5.2%)were less seen. Extensive coverage accounted for 17.6% of all of reports, and 11.5% allotted the editorials or other forms of in-depth reports. Most of the source of reports on infectious diseases and food safety were from the official release, however. The main sources of occupational diseases and poisoning, vaccines and drug incidents, environmental pollution

  4. HEMOGRAMA E BIOQUÍMICA CLÍNICA SANGUÍNEA DE ARARAS (Ara sp. MANTIDAS EM SÍTIOS ECOLÓGICOS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Malta Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish reference values for hemogram and clinical biochemistry, aiming at to evaluating the liver function of healthy macaws (Ara sp., with the influence of species on the blood constituents, in order to contribute to the health monitoring of this species kept in ecological farms in the state of Bahia (Brazil. We used forty-five blood samples from three distinct species: green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and scarlet macaws (Ara macao. A total of 3.5 mL of blood was collected from the ulnar vein of each bird: 1.5 mL was placed in tubes containing EDTA, to carry out the hemogram, and 2.0 mL of blood without anticoagulant was used to obtain serum, for the biochemical analysis. The averages obtained for the blood of the genus Ara were PCV: 2.74 ± 0.48 x106/μL; VG: 36.8 ± 5.56%; Hb: 15.4 ± 2.42 g/dL; thrombocytes:9,580 ± 2,850 x103/μL; leukocyte count: 5,340 ± 3,580/μL; lymphocytes: 1,408.8 ± 1,020.7/μL; heterophils: 3,252.0 ± 2,026.3/μL; monocytes: 169.1 ± 227.5/μL; basophils: 34.2 ± 72.3/μL; eosinophils: 186.9 ± 183.9/μL. The results of the serum biochemical parameters were activity of the enzymes AST 67.6 ± 12.8 IU/L; CK 77.9 ± 44.6 IU/L; LDH 240.1 ± 85.6 IU/L; cholesterol 160.3 ± 34.8 mg/dL; triglycerides 111.8 ± 58.6 mg/dL; glucose 228.5 ± 38.1 mg/dL and total proteins: 3.37 ± 0.8 g/dL. Significant differences (p <0.05 influenced by species were detected for the values of number of PCV, GV, number of leukocytes and the concentration of cholesterol and glucose.

  5. The Role of Thailand in the International Trade in CITES-Listed Live Reptiles and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Background International wildlife trade is one of the leading threats to biodiversity conservation. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the most important initiative to monitor and regulate the international trade of wildlife but its credibility is dependent on the quality of the trade data. We report on the performance of CITES reporting by focussing on the commercial trade in non-native reptiles and amphibians into Thailand as to illustrate trends, species composition and numbers of wild-caught vs. captive-bred specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on data in the WCMC-CITES trade database, we establish that a total of 75,594 individuals of 169 species of reptiles and amphibians (including 27 globally threatened species) were imported into Thailand in 1990–2007. The majority of individuals (59,895, 79%) were listed as captive-bred and a smaller number (15,699, 21%) as wild-caught. In the 1990s small numbers of individuals of a few species were imported into Thailand, but in 2003 both volumes and species diversity increased rapidly. The proportion of captive-bred animals differed greatly between years (from 0 to >80%). Wild-caught individuals were mainly sourced from African countries, and captive-bred individuals from Asian countries (including from non-CITES Parties). There were significant discrepancies between exports and imports. Thailand reports the import of >10,000 individuals (51 species) originating from Kazakhstan, but Kazakhstan reports no exports of these species. Similar discrepancies, involving smaller numbers (>100 individuals of 9 species), can be seen in the import of reptiles into Thailand via Macao. Conclusion/Significance While there has been an increase in imports of amphibian and reptiles into Thailand, erratic patterns in proportions of captive-bred specimens and volumes suggests either capricious markets or errors in reporting. Large discrepancies with respect to origin

  6. Update: Increase in Human Infections with Novel Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses During the Fifth Epidemic - China, October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, James C; Ren, Ruiqi; Liu, Liqi; Greene, Carolyn M; Roguski, Katherine; Iuliano, A Danielle; Jang, Yunho; Jones, Joyce; Thor, Sharmi; Song, Ying; Zhou, Suizan; Trock, Susan C; Dugan, Vivien; Wentworth, David E; Levine, Min Z; Uyeki, Timothy M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Jernigan, Daniel B; Olsen, Sonja J; Fry, Alicia M; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Davis, C Todd

    2017-09-08

    Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1). This report summarizes new viral and epidemiologic features identified during the fifth epidemic of Asian H7N9 in China and summarizes ongoing measures to enhance pandemic preparedness. Infections in humans and poultry were reported from most areas of China, including provinces bordering other countries, indicating extensive, ongoing geographic spread. The risk to the general public is very low and most human infections were, and continue to be, associated with poultry exposure, especially at live bird markets in mainland China. Throughout the first four epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections, only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were detected among human, poultry, and environmental specimens and samples. During the fifth epidemic, mutations were detected among some Asian H7N9 viruses, identifying the emergence of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as well as viruses with reduced susceptibility to influenza antiviral medications recommended for treatment. Furthermore, the fifth-epidemic viruses diverged genetically into two separate lineages (Pearl River Delta lineage and Yangtze River Delta lineage), with Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses emerging as antigenically different compared with those from earlier epidemics. Because of its pandemic potential, candidate vaccine viruses

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocity curve of 51 Peg (Birkby+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, J. L.; de Kok, R. J.; Brogi, M.; Schwarz, H.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2017-07-01

    We observed the bright star 51 Peg (G2.5V, V=5.46mag, K=3.91mag) for 3.7hr during the night beginning 2010 October 21, using the CRyogenic InfraRed Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) mounted at Nasmyth A at the VLT (8.2 m UT1/Antu), Cerro Paranal, Chile. The observations were collected as part of the ESO large program 186.C-0289. The instrument setup consisted of a 0.2 arcsec slit centred on 3236nm (order 17), in combination with the Multi-Application Curvature Adaptive Optic system (MACAO). The CRIRES infrared detector is comprised of four Aladdin III InSb-arrays, each with 1024*512 pixels, and separated by a gap of 280 pixels. The resulting wavelength coverage of the observations was 3.1806R{approx}100000 per resolution element. We observed 51 Peg continuously while its hot Jupiter companion passed through orbital phases 0.55data are given in Table 1 and span observing dates from 1994 September 15 to 2014 July 9, resulting in 639 radial velocity measurements over 20 years. The table includes the discovery measurements from the ELODIE spectrograph at Observatoire Haute Provence and subsequent additional monitoring. We took these radial velocity measurements from the Naef et al. 2004 (Cat. J/A+A/414/351) compilation. We also included the legacy data set from Lick Observatory observed with the Hamilton spectrograph, taking measurements from the self-consistent reprocessing of all the Lick spectra presented by Fischer et al. 2014 (Cat. J/ApJS/210/5). Finally, we included more recent additional monitoring from the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) at the Keck Observatory, and extracted RVs from observations with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) at the ESO-3.6m telescope in 2013 (ESO program ID 091.C-0271, PI: Santos). The reduced HARPS spectra were obtained from the ESO Science Archive (http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/adp/phase3_spectral/query). (1 data file).

  8. [Disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Cai, Y; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Qi, J L; Wang, L J; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates. Results: In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children disease (COPD), 12.0% of ischemic stroke, 14.2% of hemorrhagic stroke, 10.9% of ischemic heart disease, and 13.7% of lung cancer were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age groups, with the highest decline observed in the disease burden

  9. [Comparative analyze on hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys among population aged 1-29 years in different epidemic regions of China in 1992 and 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Sun, X J; Bi, S L; Liang, X F; Wang, H Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95 % CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95 %CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting. Results: 34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95 %CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95 % CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95 %CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95 % CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95 %CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95 % CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born

  10. Aterogênese em artéria ilíaca comum de suínos submetidos à homocisteinemia induzida pela ingestão de metionina Atherogenesis in swine iliac artery with homocystinemia induced by methionine ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Gil França

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da homocisteinemia induzida na artéria ilíaca de suínos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo experimental comparativo em dois grupos homogêneos de sete suínos da raça Macau, com peso entre 20 e 30 kg durante 30 dias. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, sendo um deles alimentado com metionina adicionada à dieta por um período de 4 semanas. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para a dosagem de colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL e homocisteína. Os animais foram submetidos à arteriografia para avaliação da perviedade das artérias ilíacas e, posteriormente, sacrificados. As artérias ilíacas foram enviadas para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Os animais sobreviveram ao experimento, e não houve alterações significativas nos níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos dois grupos. O exame microscópico do grupo-controle não apresentou alterações patológicas e foi semelhante em todas as preparações examinadas. No grupo da dieta com metionina, as placas eram formadas por macrófagos espumosos, mas não foram observadas células musculares lisas, cristais de colesterol ou células inflamatórias. A túnica média apresentava-se com lâmina elástica interna íntegra. No grupo-controle, não houve alteração nos níveis de homocisteína durante o experimento. No grupo-metionina, houve aumento dos níveis séricos da homocisteína, com valor médio de 59,80 µmol/l após 30 dias de dieta rica em metionina. CONCLUSÃO: A homocisteinemia induzida pela metionina causa aterogênese nas artérias ilíacas de suínos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of induced homocystinemia in the swine iliac artery. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A comparative experimental study with two homogeneous groups of seven pigs from the Macao specimen, weighed between 20 and 30 kg, which were assessed during 30 days. The pigs were divided into two groups. One of them was fed with a methionine-rich diet for a 4-week period

  11. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    the near-infrared 1.1 - 2.45 µm waveband. This advanced technique provides simultaneous spectra of numerous adjacent regions in a small sky field, e.g., of an interstellar nebula, the stars in a dense stellar cluster or a galaxy. Astronomers refer to these data as "3D-spectra" or "data cubes" (i.e., one spectrum for each small area in the two-dimensional sky field), cf. Appendix A. The SINFONI Adaptive Optics Module is based on a 60-element curvature system, similar to the Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics devices (MACAO), developed by the ESO Adaptive Optics Department and of which three have already been installed at the VLT (ESO PR 11/03); the last one in August 2004. Provided a sufficiently bright reference source ("guide star") is available within 60 arcsec of the observed field, the SINFONI AO module will ultimately offer diffraction-limited images (resolution 0.050 arcsec) at a wavelength of 2 µm. At the centre of the field, partial correction can be performed with guide stars as faint as magnitude 17.5. In about 6-months' time, it will benefit from a sodium Laser Guide Star, achieving a much better sky coverage than what is now possible. SPIFFI is a fully cryogenic near-infrared integral field spectrograph allowing observers to obtain simultaneously spectra of 2048 pixels within a 64 x 32 pixel field-of-view. In conjunction with the AO Module, it performs spectroscopy with slit-width sampling at the diffraction limit of an 8-m class telescope. For observations of very faint, extended celestial objects, the spatial resolution can be degraded so that both sensitivity and field-of-view are increased. SPIFFI works in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.1 - 2.45 µm) with a moderate spectral resolving power (R = 1500 to 4500). More information about the way SPIFFI functions will be found in Appendix A. "First Light with SINFONI's Adaptive Optics Module ESO PR Photo 24c/04 ESO PR Photo 24c/04 SINFONI AO "First Light" Image [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 482