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Sample records for macadamia nut macadamia

  1. 75 FR 59057 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15778-15891). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained... Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... make corrections relating to the insurance of cotton and macadamia nuts that published March 30,...

  2. Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdis, Jordan; Gaudion, Lauren; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Löschke, Sandra; Dong, Andy

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.

  3. Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdis, Jordan; Gaudion, Lauren; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Löschke, Sandra; Dong, Andy

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.

  4. 澳洲坚果饼干加工技术研究%Processing technology of Macadamia nut biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 胡小静; 邹建云; 黄克昌

    2012-01-01

    以面粉与澳洲坚果粕粉为主要原料,添加奶粉、白砂糖、坚果油等辅料,通过面团揉制、擀压、模具成型、烘烤等工艺,加工出了营养丰富、色泽淡黄、香味浓郁、口感酥脆的澳洲坚果饼干。通过单因素与正交实验确定产品的最佳配方为澳洲坚果粉50%、油脂8%、白砂糖45%、奶粉10%、小苏打0.4%、食盐0.4%、碳酸氢铵1%、鸡蛋10%、水适量,最佳焙烤温度为上火180℃、下火为150℃。%Macadamia nut biscuits were made after the processing of kneading dough, rolling, molding, roasting by flour, Macadamia nut power, milk power, sugar, Macadamia nut oil and so on as material, which was rich in nutrition and had primrose yellow, the better crispness and full aroma. The best formula of Macadamia nut biscuits was obtained according to the results from single factor and orthogonal experiment: Macadamia nut powder 50%, oil-fat 8%, sugar 45%, milk power 10%, saleratus 0.4%, salt 0.4%, ammonium bicarbonate 1%, egg 10% and appropriate water, the best soaking condition was the surface temperature 180 ℃ and the bottom temperature 150 ℃.

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella in Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts, and Walnuts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Johnson, Rhoma; Santillana Farakos, Sofia; Scott, Virginia N; Pouillot, Régis; Doren, Jane M Van; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

  6. 76 FR 4201 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... September 27, 2010 (75 FR 59057). The regulation, as here pertinent, related to the insurance of macadamia... (75 FR 59057). Need for Correction As published, the Background of the correcting amendment contained... 30, 2010.'' Correction of Publication In FR Doc. 2010-23884, on page 59057 in the issue of...

  7. 澳洲坚果破壳工艺参数优化及压缩特性的有限元分析%Optimization of technical parameters of breaking Macadamia nut shell and finite element analysis of compression characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂灿; 杨薇; 尹青剑; 吕俊龙

    2015-01-01

    Macadamia nuts have been successfully cultivated as crops in Australia and the USA and were introduced to China for experimental planting since 1980s. It is rich in fat and protein. The current production is over 700000 tons annually in China, but processing technology for macadamia nuts is undeveloped, especially breaking shell. So it has important significance to optimize technical parameters of breaking macadamia nut shell. Orthogonal design was carried out for optimizing technical parameters of breaking macadamia nut shell. The loading rate, the loading direction and the moisture content of macadamia nut shell were selected as factors and the integrated kernel rate of macadamia nuts was selected as evaluation index in this experiment. Macadamia nuts with different moisture content were selected as test samples, the moisture content of which was obtained by hot air drying at 55℃. Experiment of breaking macadamia nut was carried out in electronic tensile testing machine. The results indicated that the moisture content of macadamia nut shell and the loading direction had more significant effect on the integrated kernel rate than the loading rate. The most optimal combination of technics parameters was that loading rate, loading direction and moisture content of macadamia nut shell were 45 mm/min, horizontal, and 6%-9%, respectively. In this case, the highest integrated kernel rate of macadamia nut was 93%. The compression test was carried out in the macadamia nut shell moisture content of 6%-9%and the loading rate of 45 mm/min. Average shelled forces were 1018, 2274 and 1173 N in hilum, width and horizontal, respectively. The elastic moduli of macadamia nut shell calculated by the Hertz contact stress theory were 32.24, 68.63 and 39.65 MPa in hilum, width and horizontal, respectively. The results indicated that macadamia nut was anisotropic. Compression capability was the strongest in width and the weakest in horizontal. The shape of macadamia nut was close to

  8. Whole Genome Shotgun Sequences for Microsatellite Discovery and Application in Cultivated and Wild Macadamia (Proteaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Nock

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Next-generation sequencing (NGS data are widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery and genetic marker development in species with limited available genome information. We developed microsatellite primers for the Proteaceae nut crop species Macadamia integrifolia and assessed cross-species transferability in all congeners to investigate genetic identification of cultivars and gene flow. Methods and Results: Primers were designed from both raw and assembled Illumina NGS paired-end reads. The final 12 microsatellite markers selected were polymorphic among wild individuals of all four Macadamia species—M. integrifolia, M. tetraphylla, M. ternifolia, and M. jansenii—and in commercial macadamia cultivars including hybrids. Conclusions: We demonstrate the utility of raw and assembled Illumina NGS reads from total genomic DNA for the rapid development of microsatellites in Macadamia. These primers will facilitate future studies of population structure, hybridization, parentage, and cultivar identification in cultivated and wild Macadamia populations.

  9. Influence of Different Transplanting Treatments on Survival Rate of Macadamia Nut Seedlings in Dry Sloping Land%旱坡地不同植苗处理对澳洲坚果定植成活率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家兴; 田大清; 彭杨; 范建新; 王代谷

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of low survival rate of transplanted seedlings , serious waste of seedlings , and high garden-building cost of macadamia nut in Guizhou provincial South Asia dry hot area in winter and spring , the author studied the influence of different transplanting dates , methods, and seedling types on the survival rate of grafted seedlings of macadamia nut Hinde (H2) through field tests.The results showed that the treatment of transplanting 2-year-old nutrition-bag seedlings, irri-gating with the water collected by tree dish , and covering seedlings with mulching film in September could acquire more than 94%survival rate of seedlings .Using this method to plant macadamia nut had high survival rate , and could effectively reduce the cost of building a new garden and enhance the utilization rate of grafted seedlings .%为解决贵州南亚热区冬春季干旱澳洲坚果植苗成活率低、种苗浪费严重、建园成本高等问题,以澳洲坚果Hinde(H2)嫁接苗为试验材料,采用田间试验方法研究了植苗时间、植苗方法和苗木类型对澳洲坚果植苗成活率的影响。结果表明:用2年生营养袋苗于9月采用树盘作集水盘浇定根水加覆盖地膜方法植苗,苗木成活率可达94%以上。该方法建园植苗成活率高,可有效降低新建园生产成本,提高嫁接苗利用率。

  10. 澳洲坚果粕营养成分测定与氨基酸组成评价%Determination of nutritional components and evaluation of amino acid composition in macadamia nut residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 邹建云; 徐荣; 黄克昌; 姜士宽

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To research and analysis contents and composition of nutritional components in macadamia nut residue.Methods:Contents of amino acid,protein,carbohydrate were determined by amino acid mobile analyzer,Kjeldahl determination and anthrone-sulfuric acid method.Using WHO/FAO reference model as an appraisal criterion,the essential amino acid composition was evaluated by the method of ratio coefficient of amino acid.Results:The content of fat in macadamia nut residue was 17.22%,the protein 24.90%,the carbohydrate 24.78%,17 kinds of amino acids 17.84%.The essential amino acid composition in macadamia nut residue basically meets the requirement of the food standard issued by FAO/WHO,the coefficient of amino acids ratio was 86.95.Conclusion:Macadamia nut residue is rich in nutritional components,all kinds of human essential amino acids in a balanced proportion are contained,which is the better food material in favor of the balance of human amino acids.%目的:研究分析澳洲坚果粕营养成分的含量与组成。方法:采用氨基酸自动分析仪、凯氏定氮法及蒽酮-硫酸法等方法对澳洲坚果粕中的氨基酸、蛋白质、碳水化合物等营养成分进行了测定。应用氨基酸比值系数法,以WHO/FAO氨基酸参考模式为评价标准,对必需氨基酸的组成进行了评价。结果:澳洲坚果粕含脂肪17.22%、蛋白质24.90%、碳水化合物24.78%、氨基酸17种,总量为17.84%。其必需氨基酸的构成比例基本符合食品法典委员会(FAO/WHO)的标准,氨基酸的比值系数分(SRC)为86.95。结论:澳洲坚果粕营养丰富,人体必需氨基酸种类齐全,配比均衡,是有利于人体氨基酸营养平衡的优质食品原料。

  11. Research on Quality of the Macadamia Nut-in-shell by Silo Drying Method%用筒仓干燥方法对带壳澳洲坚果质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克昌; 徐荣; 郭刚军; 邹建云

    2011-01-01

    采用二步干燥过程,即风机强制风干(〈38℃)和热风干燥(50℃~60℃)为一体的筒仓来研究新鲜带壳澳洲坚果的干燥规律。根据含水量、颜色褐变、还原糖含量和过氧化值,评估被干燥的带壳澳洲坚果的质量。结果表明:筒仓干燥带壳澳洲坚果适合的条件是先采用30℃风机强制风干72h,含水量降到8%~10%,然后采用50℃热风干燥72h,含水量降低到干燥标准要求的1.5%以下;干燥后的带壳澳洲坚果的褐变率为2.3%,还原糖含量为0.04%,过氧化值为1.1300meq/kg;与传统网筛干燥方法相比,风机强制风干和热风组合的筒仓干燥,显著地缩短了带壳澳洲坚果的干燥时间,提高了品质。%Drying process, namely, the use of heat pump drying (38 ℃) followed by hot air drying (50 ℃~60 ℃) was chosen to investigate its feasibility to dry fresh macadamia nut-in-shell.The quality of dried macadamia nut-in-shell was assessed in terms of the moisture content, color, reducing sugar content and peroxide value. The results showed that the suitable drying conditions for macadamia nut-in-shell are the use of heat pump drying at 30 ℃(72 h)to decrease the moisture content to 8%~10%; this should be followed by hot air drying at 50 ℃(72 h)until the moisture content was reduced down to 1.5%. After dried macadamia nut-in-shell, the browning rate was 2.3%, reducing sugar content was 0.04%, peroxide value was 1.1300 meq/kg. Based on the comparison between conventional net screen drying and combined heat pump and hot air drying,it significantly save the drying time and improve quality of macadamia nut.

  12. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Chen, C-Y Oliver; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2011-12-01

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which are not. The phytochemical content of tree nuts can vary considerably by nut type, genotype, pre- and post-harvest conditions, as well as storage conditions. Genotype affects phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and phytosterols, but data are lacking for many other phytochemical classes. During the roasting process, tree nut isoflavones, flavanols and flavonols were found to be more resistant to heat than the anthocyanins, PAC and trans-resveratrol. The choice of solvents used for extracting polyphenols and phytosterols significantly affects their quantification, and studies validating these methods for tree nut phytochemicals are lacking. The phytochemicals found in tree nuts have been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antiviral, chemopreventive and hypocholesterolaemic actions, all of which are known to affect the initiation and progression of several pathogenic processes. While tree nut phytochemicals are bioaccessible and bioavailable in humans, the number of intervention trials conducted to date is limited. The objectives of the present review are to summarise tree nut: (1) phytochemicals; (2) phytochemical content included in nutrient databases and current publications; (3) phytochemicals affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions and analytical methodology; and (4) bioactivity and health benefits in humans.

  13. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which ...

  14. Métodos de proteção de enxerto na produção de mudas de mangueira, abacateiro e nogueira-macadâmia Methods of graft protection in the production of mango, avocado and macadamia nut nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELO PEDRO JACOMINO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes materiais de proteção do enxerto foram avaliados na produção de mudas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, abacateiro (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna e nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. Os materiais utilizados foram: saco de polietileno, parafina, parafina + vaselina, cera de abelha, parafilme e filme de PVC. Verificou-se que o parafilme promoveu melhor resultado de pegamento do enxerto em abacateiro (80,3% e nogueira-macadâmia (74,1%, seguido pelo filme de PVC (53,4% e 41,7%, respectivamente. Na enxertia de mangueira, o parafilme, filme de PVC e saco de polietileno não diferiram entre si estatisticamente (59,6%, 50,2% e 50,2%, respectivamente. Os porcentuais de pegamento observados nos tratamentos com parafina, parafina + vaselina e cera de abelha foram baixos, em comparação com o melhor tratamento (parafilme. Nas mudas de nogueira-macadâmia o parafilme promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das brotações, além de desprender-se naturalmente dos enxertos. Conclui-se que na enxertia de mangueira os garfos podem ser protegidos com parafilme, filme de PVC ou saco de polietileno; na enxertia de abacateiro, pode-se utilizar parafilme ou filme de PVC, e na enxertia de nogueira-macadâmia deve-se optar pelo parafilme.Different methods of graft protection were used in the production of nursery trees of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, avocado (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna and macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. The materials used were polyethylene bag, paraffin, paraffin + vaseline, beeswax, parafilm and PVC film. It was verified that the parafilm promoted more successful grafts in avocados (80.3% and macadamia nut (74.1%, followed by PVC film (53.4% and 41.7%, respectively. On the grafting of mango plants the parafilm, PVC film or polyethylene bags did not promote statistic difference to each other (59.6%, 50.2% and 50.2%, respectively

  15. ESTABILIDADE OXIDATIVA DE AMÊNDOAS DE NOZ MACADÂMIA SECAS POR MICRO-ONDAS COM AR QUENTE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MACADAMIA NUTS DRYED WITH HOT AIR MICROWAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ássima Bittar Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche produz amêndoas de alto valor comercial, que se destacam pelo fino sabor e qualidade de seu óleo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a estabilidade oxidativa de amêndoas secas, com aplicação de energia de micro-ondas com ar quente, em comparação ao processo de secagem convencional. As análises, realizadas no início (tempo zero, com 90 dias e 180 dias de armazenamento, avaliaram ácidos graxos livres, índice de peróxido, período de indução, composição em ácidos graxos e teor de tocoferol/tocotrienol. O teor de ácidos graxos livres (% das amêndoas de noz macadâmia variou de 0,095 (MW1 a 0,124 (MW3 e de 0,123 a 0,148 (CVL; os índices de peróxidos (meq O2 kg-1 de óleo entre 0,77 (MW2  e 2,57 (MW1 e de 1,52 a 3,29 (CVL; o período de indução (h de 16,7 (MW2 a 13,6 (MW4 e entre 11,9 e 10,6 (CVL; o teor de ?-Tocotrienol (mg 100 g-1 de 1,75 a 2,19 (MW1 e de 2,14 a 2,19 (CVL, respectivamente, para a secagem com micro-ondas e convencional. Os valores da composição em ácidos graxos não se alteraram durante o armazenamento, com os processos de secagem utilizados. O método de secagem com micro-ondas mostrou-se mais eficiente, em relação à estabilidade oxidativa das amêndoas de noz macadâmia, quando comparado ao processo de secagem convencional.

     

    The macadamia tree (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche produces a nut of highly commercial value, distinguishable from other nuts by its delicate flavour and oil quality. This study aimed to compare the oxidative stability of dried nuts, with the application of hot air microwave energy, in relation to conventional drying. The analyses were performed at the

  16. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C, time (min, and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL, and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity.

  17. Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste Using Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal microwave assisted extraction conditions for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin, an abundant waste source from the macadamia industry. Water, a safe, accessible, and inexpensive solvent, was used as the extraction solvent and Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to design and analyse the conditions for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The results showed that RSM models were reliable for the prediction of extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Within the tested ranges, MAE radiation time and power, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, affected the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant properties of the macadamia skin; however, the impact of these variables was varied. The optimal MAE conditions for maximum recovery of TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin were MAE time of 4.5 min, power of 30% (360 W and sample-to-water ratio of 5 g/100 mL. Under these conditions, an extract could be prepared with TPC of 45 mg/g, flavonoids of 29 mg RUE/g of dried macadamia skin.

  18. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  19. Optimisation of Ultrasonic Conditions as an Advanced Extraction Technique for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of tons of macadamia skin waste are generated annually with very limited utilisation of this extensive by-product. The aim of this study was to develop optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions for maximized recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Three ultrasonic parameters, including temperature (30–50 °C, time (10–50 min and power (150–250 W, were tested for their impact on the extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power had an impact on TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. The optimum ultrasonic conditions for the maximum recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin were found to be a temperature of 40 °C, a time of 35 min and a power of 80%/200 W. Under these optimal conditions, approximately 168 mg of TPC, 135 mg of flavonoids and 188 mg of proanthocyanidins can be extracted from one gram of dried macadamia skin.

  20. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Macadamia nutshell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakade, Vusumzi Emmanuel; Ntuli, Themba Dominic; Ofomaja, Augustine Enakpodia

    2016-04-01

    Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different activating agents [raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)] were investigated for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbent. Surface characteristics were also evaluated by the scanning electron microscopy and surface area analyzer. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent mass 0.2 g and concentration 100 mg L-1. The equilibrium data were fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms, and no single model could clearly explain the sorption mechanism. Maximum binding capacities of 45.23, 44.83 and 42.44 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic data were analyzed using the pseudo-first, pseudo-second and Elovich kinetic models, and it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model produced the best fit for the experimental data. Macadamia nutshell sorbents showed potential as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  1. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson A. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks were divided into four groups: (a control diet (CD, (b HF, (c CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO, and (d HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO. CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages.

  2. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  3. Structure-function relationships in Macadamia integrifolia seed coats--fundamentals of the hierarchical microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Schüler

    Full Text Available The shells/coats of nuts and seeds are often very hard to crack. This is particularly the case with Macadamia seed coats, known to exhibit astoundingly high strength and toughness. We performed an extensive materials science characterization of the complex hierarchical structure of these coats, using light and scanning electron microscopy in 2D as well as microCT for 3D characterization. We differentiate nine hierarchical levels that characterize the structure ranging from the whole fruit on the macroscopic scale down to the molecular scale. From a biological viewpoint, understanding the hierarchical structure may elucidate why it is advantageous for these seed coats to be so difficult to break. From an engineering viewpoint, microstructure characterization is important for identifying features that contribute to the high strength and cracking resistance of these objects. This is essential for revealing the underlying structure-function-relationships. Such information will help us develop engineering materials and lightweight-structures with improved fracture and puncture resistance.

  4. Fenología de floración y fructificación en Macadamia integrifolia Flowering and fructification phenology in Macadamia integrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En Timbío, departamento del Cauca (Colombia existen aproximadamente 287 ha cultivadas con diferentes variedades de macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia que aún no expresan su mejor potencial. Durante un año a partir de 2005 se evaluó el comportamiento fenológico de floración y fructificaciòn en las variedades: HAES 294, 344, 741, 788 y 800. Se seleccionaron 40 inflorescencias por variedad para medir: longitud de inflorescencia, número de flores/inflorescencia, número de frutos/racimo y diámetro de frutos y, definir las principales etapas fenológicas. El crecimiento de la flor se extendió entre 57 y 62 días y la inflorescencia presentó cinco fases: aparición del botón floral, diferenciación de unidades florales, finalización del crecimiento, apertura floral y polinización. La longitud de inflorescencia fue estadísticamente significativa y varió entre 10.7 y 15.7 cm, la variedad HAES 788 presentó las inflorescencias más largas y HAES 800 las más cortas. El número de flores/inflorescencia varió entre 89 y 135, la variedad HAES 800 mostró el menor número y la HAES 294, el mayor. Los frutos más grandes fueron producidos por HAES 788, 800 y 294 con diámetro promedio de 3.1 cm y los más pequeños, de 2.8 cm, por HAES 344 y 741. Se identificaron tres etapas: amarre de frutos, desarrollo morfológico y madurez fisiológica cuya duración varió entre 210 y 234 días. El número de frutos/racimo varió, en promedio, entre 3.2 y 3.9 para HAES 344, 294, 788 y 741, y fue de 1.2 frutos/ racimo para HAES 800.In the rural area of Timbío, located in the Cauca region of Colombia, an area of 287 ha is planted with different varieties of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, which still have not realized their full potential. In this research, the phenology of the flowering and fructification of five macadamia varieties: HAES 294, HAES 344, HAES 741, HAES 788, HAES 800 was evaluated. Forty inflorescences per variety were selected in order

  5. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  6. Characterization of macadamia and pecan oils and detection of mixtures with other edible seed oils by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Authenticating fats and detecting their adulteration with substantially cheaper fats can pose major problems for producers of high-value oils for nutritional and cosmetic use. In this work, we used Raman spectroscopy to discriminate macadamia and pecan oils from other, cheaper vegetable oils including corn and sunflower oils. This technique additionally allows one to detect and assess the adulteration of macadamia oil with another vegetable oil.La autentificación de grasas para detectar su adulteración con otras grasas más baratas es uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrentan los productores de aceites de alto valor, ya sea para uso alimentario o para uso cosmético. En este trabajo se emplea la espectroscopia Raman, por un lado, para caracterizar los aceites de macadania y de nuez pecanera, de alto valor y diferenciarlos de otros más baratos, como los de maíz y de girasol, y por otro, para detectar mezclas del aceite de macadamia con estos aceites vegetales más baratos.

  7. Study on Mineral Elements Content of Macadamia Shell%澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为海; 张明楷; 曾辉; 邹明宏; 罗炼芳; 张汉周; 陆超忠

    2011-01-01

    测定了28份澳洲坚果(Macadamia integrifoliaF.Mull)种质种壳中N、K、Ca、Mg、Zn、Cu、Fe、Mn等8种矿质元素含量,并对其进行了主成分分析和聚类分析.结果表明,澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量在不同种质之间差异较大,8种矿质元素可划分为4个有明确意义的主成分,28份种质种壳按矿质元素含量可聚类为4大类型.%The contents of 8 mineral elements(N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the macadamia (Macadamia inte-grifolia F. Mull) shells in 28 germplasm resources were analyzed by principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that the mineral elements content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia F. Mull) shell had a large variation among all tested germplasm resources, the 8 mineral elements were divided into 4 significant principal components and the shells of 28 germplasm resources were classified as 4 clusters according to the content of mineral elements.

  8. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE Rosellinia pepo Pat. EN PLANTAS DE MACADAMIA ISOLATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Rosellinia pepo Pat. IN MACADAMIA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Eliana Realpe Ortiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Rosellinia pepo Pat., causante de la llaga estrellada, se considera uno de los principales problemas fitosanitarios de la macadamia por ocasionar la muerte de la planta en su etapa productiva. Debido a que no existe una metodología de aislamiento confiable que asegure la recuperación del hongo con un porcentaje mínimo de contaminación y los estudios relacionados con este patógeno son escasos se planteó una investigación con el fin de perfeccionar una metodología de aislamiento y realizar algunas caracterizaciones morfológicas de este patógeno. La nueva metodología permitió obtener aislamientos con un 91,26% de pureza del hongo. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 4,68 mm día-1. Las colonias son de color blanco y apariencia algodonosa en su inicio, pero a medida que envejece el micelio toma un color café o negro y su apariencia se torna quebradiza. La observación de micelio blanco en forma de estrella en el lado interior del medio sintético permite diferenciarlo de otras especies como R. bunodes. Las mediciones microscópicas de los hinchamientos piriformes presentaron en promedio 106,4mm de largo y 75,3mm de ancho. Este trabajo también permitió determinar el nivel de inóculo infectivo.The fungus Rosellinia pepo Pat, the causal agent of star gall, is considered to be a main phytosanitary problem to the Macademia tree by causing the death of the tree while in its productive stage. Because no reliable isolation method exists that assures recovery of the mushroom with a minimum percentage of contamination and studies of this pathogen are scarce. This study was conducted to perfect an isolation methodology and permit some morphological characterizations of this pathogen. The new methodology allowed isolations with 91,26% purity of mushroom to be obtained. The rate of growth was 4,68 mm day-1. The colonies were of white color and cottony appearance in the beginning, but as the micelio aged it assumed a brown or black color and a

  9. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unless proper measures to control wildlife have not been taken; or (6) Failure of irrigation water supply... choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship to the maximum price offered by us for...

  10. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  11. Produção e amplitude de colheita de cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia em Itapira, São Paulo Production and breadth of harvest of walnut macadamia in Itapira, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira-macadâmia produz frutos do tipo folículo, cuja parte comestível é a semente, com alto valor agregado no mercado internacional e com grande aceitação pelos consumidores. No Brasil, sabe-se que a época de colheita dos frutos da nogueira-macadâmia inicia-se em meados de fevereiro, porém, não se conhece o potencial produtivo dos diversos cultivares disponíveis nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produção e a amplitude de colheita de cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia, no município de Itapira, SP. Para o experimento, foram utilizados dez cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia (HAES 722, IAC Campinas-B, 791 Fuji, HAES 842, HAES 849, HAES 814, HAES 344, IAC 9-20X, IAC 9-20 e HAES 816, sendo quantificadas durante três safras, em Itapira, SP, o número de frutos e a massa de colheita (produção e produtividade estimada, calculando-se, posteriormente, a massa média dos frutos. Concluiu-se que a produção da nogueira-macadâmia, em Itapira, SP, inicia-se em meados de fevereiro e estende-se até o final de junho. IAC 9-20 foi o cultivar mais precoce e, HAES 722, o mais tardio, enquanto o HAES 344 proporcionou a menor amplitude de colheita e 791 Fuji e HAES 849 as maiores. Os cultivares IAC 9-20X, IAC 9-20 e HAES 816 apresentaram o maior desempenho produtivo.Macadamia nuts achieve high values on the international market with widespread acceptance by consumers. In Brazil, harvesting of macadamia fruits starts in mid february, but it is not known the productive potential of different cultivars available in Brazilian conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the production and extent of harvest of macadamia cultivars in Itapira, São Paulo State. Ten macadamia cultivars (HAES 722, IAC Campinas-B, 791 Fuji, HAES 842, HAES 849, HAES 814, HAES 344, IAC 9-20X, IAC 9-20 and HAES 816 were used in the experiment. The following characteristics were evaluated during three harvest seasons in

  12. 澳洲坚果花粉母细胞减数分裂观察%Microscopic Observation of Meiosis of Macadamia Pollen Mother Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔广红; 柳觐; 倪书邦; 贺熙勇

    2013-01-01

    The complete process of meiosis of Macadamia pollen mother cells (PMC) was investigated, u-sing the squashing technique. Our results showed that meiosis of Macadamia started in December and the meiosis process was closely correlated with the bud length, and difference in the stages of meiosis was observed in same bud and in the same anther. Diplotene lasted for a long time and presented many shapes. The number and structure of Macadamia chromosome could be observed clearly in the stages of diakme-sis, metaphase Ⅰ, anaphase Ⅰ and anaphase Ⅱ. No variation in number and structure were detected of Macadamia chromosomes in meiosis, which was a typical division process of diploid species.%采用压片法观察了澳洲坚果花粉母细胞(PMC)减数分裂的完整过程,证实澳洲坚果PMC减数分裂始于12月份,其减数分裂进程与单花大小有密切关系,且同一花蕾甚至同一花药中表现不同步.减数分裂双线期历时时间长且形态多样,可于终变期、中期Ⅰ、后期Ⅰ以及后期Ⅱ观察到染色体数目和结构.澳洲坚果PMC减数分裂过程中无染色体结构和数目的变异,属二倍体的标准分裂进程.

  13. Fenología de floración y fructificación en Macadamia integrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En Timbío, departamento del Cauca (Colombia existen aproximadamente 287 ha cultivadas con diferentes variedades de macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia que aún no expresan su mejor potencial. Durante un año a partir de 2005 se evaluó el comportamiento fenológico de floración y fructificaciòn en las variedades: HAES 294, 344, 741, 788 y 800. Se seleccionaron 40 inflorescencias por variedad para medir: longitud de inflorescencia, número de flores/inflorescencia, número de frutos/racimo y diámetro de frutos y, definir las principales etapas fenológicas. El crecimiento de la flor se extendió entre 57 y 62 días y la inflorescencia presentó cinco fases: aparición del botón floral, diferenciación de unidades florales, finalización del crecimiento, apertura floral y polinización. La longitud de inflorescencia fue estadísticamente significativa y varió entre 10.7 y 15.7 cm, la variedad HAES 788 presentó las inflorescencias más largas y HAES 800 las más cortas. El número de flores/inflorescencia varió entre 89 y 135, la variedad HAES 800 mostró el menor número y la HAES 294, el mayor. Los frutos más grandes fueron producidos por HAES 788, 800 y 294 con diámetro promedio de 3.1 cm y los más pequeños, de 2.8 cm, por HAES 344 y 741. Se identificaron tres etapas: amarre de frutos, desarrollo morfológico y madurez fisiológica cuya duración varió entre 210 y 234 días. El número de frutos/racimo varió, en promedio, entre 3.2 y 3.9 para HAES 344, 294, 788 y 741, y fue de 1.2 frutos/ racimo para HAES 800.

  14. Fenología de floración y fructificación en Macadamia integrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Muñoz Maria Emma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Timbío, departamento del Cauca (Colombia existen aproximadamente 287 ha cultivadas con diferentes variedades de macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia que aún no expresan su mejor potencial. Durante un año a partir de 2005 se evaluó el comportamiento fenológico de floración y fructificaciòn en las variedades: HAES 294, 344, 741, 788 y 800. Se seleccionaron 40 inflorescencias por variedad para medir: longitud de inflorescencia, número de flores/inflorescencia, número de frutos/racimo y diámetro de frutos y, definir las principales etapas fenológicas. El crecimiento de la flor se extendió entre 57 y 62 días y la inflorescencia presentó cinco fases: aparición del botón floral, diferenciación de unidades florales, finalización del crecimiento, apertura floral y polinización. La longitud de inflorescencia fue estadísticamente significativa y varió entre 10.7 y 15.7 cm, la variedad HAES 788 presentó las inflorescencias más largas y HAES 800 las más cortas. El número de flores/inflorescencia varió entre 89 y 135, la variedad HAES 800 mostró el menor número y la HAES 294, el mayor. Los frutos más grandes fueron producidos por HAES 788, 800 y 294 con diámetro promedio de 3.1 cm y los más pequeños, de 2.8 cm, por HAES 344 y 741. Se identificaron tres etapas: amarre de frutos, desarrollo morfológico y madurez fisiológica cuya duración varió entre 210 y 234 días. El número de frutos/racimo varió, en promedio, entre 3.2 y 3.9 para HAES 344, 294, 788 y 741, y fue de 1.2 frutos/ racimo para HAES 800.

  15. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Moreno-Moyano, Laura T; Wormington, Kevin R; Brown, Philip H; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug), considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems.

  17. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Crisol-Martínez

    Full Text Available Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug, considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems.

  18. 西双版纳澳洲坚果树整形修剪技术%Pruning and Training of Macadamia integrifolia in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马福德; 高华平; 刘黔英

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of the development and production of Macadamia integrifolia in Xishuangbannan, Yunnan Province was described briefly, and pruning and training of M. inte grifolia was summarized based on many years of experiments and demonstration.%简述云南省西双版纳澳洲坚果生产发展现状,在多年试验示范、反复实践的基础上总结形成一套适宜澳洲坚果的整形修剪技术。

  19. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.

  20. Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

  1. Tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  2. 澳洲坚果青皮提取物对思茅松毛虫的杀虫活性研究%Study on Insecticidal Activity of Macadamia Peel's Extracts to Dendrolimu.kikuchii Matsumura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彪; 熊智; 王金华; 孙浩; 汪姝; 朱丽丽

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore insecticidal activities of different solvents extracts of macadamia peel, the author used water, ethanol and ether as solvents to extract active constituent of macadamia peel, and studied insecticidal activities of different extracts to 3rd instar and 4th instar Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura. The results showed that there was certain insecticidal activity of macadamia peel's water extract, ethanol extract and ether extract to 3rd instar and 4th instar Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura, and the higher concentration had the stronger insecticidal activity. Insecticidal activity of macadamia peel' s ether extract to Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura was higher than water extract and ethanol extract on same. Mortality and corrected mortality of 3rd instar Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura were higher than 4th instar Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura in same time and same concentration stress. The Mortality and corrected mortality of Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura were increased with the prolonging on some concentration water extract, ethanol extract and ether extract of macadamia peel. There were different insecticidal activities of different extracts of macadamia peel, the insecticidal activities was inversely proportional to polar of extract.%为了探究澳洲坚果青皮不同溶剂提取物的杀虫活性,以水、乙醇及石油醚为提取溶剂,对澳洲坚果青皮的活性物进行提取,并将提取物对3龄和4龄的思茅松毛虫进行杀虫活性的研究.结果表明:澳洲坚果青皮的水提物、醇提物及石油醚提取物对3龄和4龄思茅松毛虫都有一定的杀虫活性,且浓度越高,杀虫活性越强;相同浓度、相同时间处理下,澳洲坚果青皮的石油醚提取物对思茅松毛虫杀虫活性大于水提液和醇提液;相同的处理下,3龄松毛虫的死亡率高于4龄的死亡率;在一定浓度下对松毛虫进行处理,松毛虫的死亡率随处理时间的延长而增加.澳洲坚果青皮不同

  3. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  4. Caracterização química e perfil de ácidos graxos em cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia Chemical characterization and fatty acids profile in macadamia walnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Aparecida Castilho Maro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira-macadâmia produz nozes de alto valor no mercado internacional, devido às características nutricionais de suas amêndoas, consideradas uma excelente fonte energética. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar a caracterização química e o perfil de ácidos graxos em 22 cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia. As cultivares utilizadas foram: 'Edson', 'HAES 788 (Pahala', 'Beaumont 695', 'Flor Rosa', 'IAC 9-20X', 'HAES 344 (Kau', 'Cannon', 'IAC 9-20', 'C160', 'HAES 849', 'IAC 4-12B', 'HAES 816', 'Doroti', '791 Fuji', 'IAC 4-20 (Keaumi', 'HAES 814', 'HAES 722', 'África', 'IAC Campinas-B', 'HAES 246 (Keauhou', 'HAES 741 (Mauka' e 'HAES 842'. Foram quantificados a umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína, cinza e fibra bruta, além disso, extração de óleo e o perfil de ácidos graxos. A maior quantidade de proteína foi registrada na cultivar 'IAC 9-20X'. Quanto ao teor de fibra bruta, as maiores porcentagens foram observadas nas cultivares 'HAES 741' e 'HAES 842'. As amêndoas de todas as cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia analisadas possuem ácidos palmítico e oleico.The walnuts macadamia have a high value on the international market due to their almonds nutritional characteristics considered to be an excellent source of energy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of 22 cultivars of almond walnut macadamia. The cultivars tested were: 'Edson', 'HAES 788 (Pahala', 'Beaumont 695', 'Flor Rosa', 'IAC 9-20X', 'HAES 344 (Kau', 'Cannon', 'IAC 9-20', 'C160', 'HAES 849', 'IAC 4-12B', 'HAES 816', 'Doroti', '791 Fuji', 'IAC 4-20 (Keaumi', 'HAES 814', 'HAES 722', 'África', 'IAC Campinas-B', 'HAES 246 (Keauhou', 'HAES 741 (Mauka' and 'HAES 842'. Moisture, fat, protein, ash and crude fiber were analyzed and also oil extraction and fatty acid profile. The highest amount of protein was recorded in 'IAC 9-20X'. The highest percentages of crude fiber content were observed in cultivars 'HAES 741' and 'HAES 842'. The

  5. Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Bolling, Bradley W

    2015-04-01

    The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported.

  6. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method.

  7. Chemical composition of nuts and seeds sold in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Keun Hee; Shin, Kyung Ok; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Kyung-Soon

    2013-04-01

    Eleven types of nuts and seeds were analyzed to determine their energy (326-733 mg), moisture (1.6-18.3 mg), carbohydrate (8.8-70.9 mg), protein (4.9-30.5 mg), lipid (2.5-69.8 mg), and ash (1.2-5.5 mg) contents per 100 g of sample. Energy content was highest in pine nuts (733 mg/100 g), carbohydrate level was highest in dried figs (70.9 mg/100 g) and protein was highest in peanuts (30.5 mg/100 g). The amino acid compositions of nuts and seeds were characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 1,348.6-10,284.6 mg), hydrophilic (range = 341.1-3,244.3 mg), acidic (range = 956.1-8,426.5 mg), and basic (range = 408.6-4,738.5 mg) amino acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were highest in macadamia nuts (81.3%), whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were highest in the walnuts (76.7%). Macadamia nuts did not contain any vitamin E, whereas sunflower seeds contained the highest level (60.3 mg/kg). Iron (Fe) content was highest in pumpkin seeds (95.85 ± 33.01 ppm), zinc (Zn) content was highest in pistachios (67.24 ± 30.25 ppm), copper (Cu) content was greatest in walnuts (25.45 ± 21.51 ppm), and lead (Pb) content was greatest in wheat nuts (25.49 ± 4.64 ppm), significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, current commercial nuts and seeds have no safety concerns, although further analysis of Pb contents is necessary to ensure safety.

  8. Update on the healthful lipid constituents of commercially important tree nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Shewfelt, Robert L; Eitenmiller, Ronald R; Pegg, Ronald B

    2011-11-23

    Uncharacteristic of most whole foods, the major component of tree nuts is lipid; surprisingly, information on the lipid constituents in tree nuts has been sporadic and, for the most part, not well reported. Most published papers focus on only one nut type, or those that report a cultivar lack a quality control program, thus making data comparisons difficult. The present study was designed to quantify the healthful lipid constituents of 10 different types of commercially important tree nuts (i.e., almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English walnuts, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, and pistachios) according to standardized, validated methods. The total lipid content of each nut type ranged from 44.4 ± 1.9% for cashews to 77.1 ± 1.7% for macadamias. As expected, the major fatty acids present in the tree nuts were unsaturated: oleic (18:1 ω9) and linoleic (18:2 ω6) acids. A majority of the lipid extracts contained pine nuts, and pistachios). In most cases, total phytosterol contents were greater in the present study than reported in peer-reviewed journal papers and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, which is attributed to total lipid extraction and the inclusion of steryl glucosides in the analysis; the levels were highest for pistachios (301.8 ± 15.4 mg/100 g nutmeat) and pine nuts (271.7 ± 9.1 mg/100 g nutmeat). Minor sterols were also quantified and identified using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques.

  9. Determination of Trace Elements in Edible Nuts in the Beijing Market by ICP-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang Liang; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xian Zhang; Kong, Xiang Yin; Ji, Yan Qin

    2015-06-01

    Nuts have received increased attention from the public in recent years as important sources of some essential elements, and information on the levels of elements in edible nuts is useful to consumers. Determination of the elemental distributions in nuts is not only necessary in evaluating the total dietary intake of the essential elements, but also useful in detecting heavy metal contamination in food. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents in edible nuts, and to assess the food safety of nuts in the Beijing market. Levels of Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, and U in 11 types of edible nuts and seeds (macadamia nuts, lotus nuts, pistachios, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, and ginkgo nuts) as well as raisins were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy of the method was validated using standard reference materials GBW10014 (cabbage) and GBW10016 (tea). Our results provide useful information for evaluating the levels of trace elements in edible nuts in the Beijing market, will be helpful for improving food safety, and will aid in better protecting consumer interests.

  10. Solubilization and electrophoretic characterization of select edible nut seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sharma, Girdhari M; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-09-09

    The solubility of almond, Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, walnut, and peanut proteins in several aqueous solvents was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, the effects of extraction time and ionic strength on protein solubility were also investigated. Electrophoresis and protein determination (Lowry, Bradford, and micro-Kjeldahl) methods were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins, respectively. Depending on the seed, buffer type and ionic strength significantly affected protein solubility. The results suggest that buffered sodium borate (BSB; 0.1 M H(3)BO(3), 0.025 M Na(2)B(4)O(7), 0.075 M NaCl, pH 8.45) optimally solubilizes nut seed proteins. Qualitative differences in seed protein electrophoretic profiles were revealed. For a specific seed type, these differences were dependent on the solvent(s) used to solubilize the seed proteins. SDS-PAGE results suggest the polypeptide molecular mass range for the tree nut seed proteins to be 3-100 kDa. The results of native IEF suggested that the proteins were mainly acidic, with a pI range from >4.5 to <7.0. Western immunoblotting experiments indicated that rabbit polyclonal antibodies recognized substantially the same polypeptides as those recognized by the corresponding pooled patient sera IgE.

  11. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Jemmott, W; Surman-Lee, S; Hucklesby, L; de Pinnal, E

    2009-04-01

    There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early 2008 of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product. A total of 727 nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.2 and 0.4% of edible roasted nut kernels. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 (4.0%) sample of pistachio nuts, indicating a risk to health. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells. Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested (almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts). E. coli was found at low levels (range of 3.6 to 4/g) in walnuts (1.4%), almonds (1.2%), and Brazils (0.5%). The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in edible nut kernels. Prevention of microbial contamination in these products lies in the application of good agricultural, manufacturing, and storage practices together with a hazard analysis and critical control points system that encompass all stages of production, processing, and distribution.

  12. Fenologia da floração da nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche nas condições climáticas de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil Flowering phenology of macadamia nut tree (Macadâmia integrifolia Maiden & Betche in the climatic conditions of Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Kersul Sacramento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a fenologia da floração da nogueira macadâmia, foram efetuadas observações, durante o período de maio de 1993 a outubro de 1995, em plantas do pomar da FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil (latitude 21º 15'S, longitude 48º 18'W. Foram utilizadas plantas de 6 anos de idade, das cultivares IAC 5-10 e IAC 8-17, selecionadas no Brasil. Verificou-se que o período de intumescimento das gemas florais ocorreu a partir de maio. As gemas florais são mistas e localizam-se principalmente em ramos finos (0,2 a 0,7 cm. Das três gemas existentes na axila foliar, a gema superior e a mediana geralmente originam inflorescências. O período ocorrido entre o início de crescimento da gema floral e a antese foi de 48 a 55 dias ou 330 a 350 graus-dia (temperatura-base = 12,8 ºC. A inflorescência e a flor + pedicelo apresentaram um padrão de crescimento do tipo sigmoidal simples. O período de flores em antese concentrou-se entre meados de agosto e meados de setembro.Studies about macadâmia flowering were carried under conditions of Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil (latitude 21º 15'S, longitude 48º 18'W from May 1993 to October 1995 using six years old plants of cultivar IAC 5-10 and IAC 8-17 selected by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC. There are three buds in the axis leaf but only on the upper and median form inflorescences. It was observed that floral buds born principally on thin branches ( diameter between 0.2 and 0.7 cm and in a period of 48 and 55 days or 330 and 350 degree days (base temperature = 12.8 ºC from initial buds to anthesis. Inflorescence and flower + pedicel presented sigmoid development. Initial period of flowering (white buds occurred during May and anthesis occurred principally from August to September.

  13. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers.

  14. 7 CFR 457.130 - Macadamia tree crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... water supply, if caused by an insured cause of loss that occurs during the insurance period. (b) In... the same percentage relationship to the maximum dollar amount offered by us for each age group. For...

  15. Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... The resultant increase in input ... PHYTAGEL® (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc 3050 Spruce street, St Louis .... integrifolia cultivar KRG-15 explants on MS medium after six weeks in .... (BTA) and the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project.

  16. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp.; Hickory nut, Carya spp.; Macadamia nut (bush nut), Macadamia spp.; Pecan, Carya illinoensis; Walnut, black and English (Persian), Juglans spp. EPA proposes to... (Makino) Rehder, J. ailantifolia Carri re) Hickory nut (Carya cathayensis Sarg., C. glabra (Mill.)...

  17. Bioavailability assessment of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Bioavailability of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds has been assessed by using an in vitro dialyzability approach. The samples studied included walnuts, Brazil nuts, Macadamia nuts, pecans, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashews, peanuts, pistachios and seeds (almond, pine, pumpkin and sunflower). Metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dialyzates and also in samples after a microwave assisted acid digestion pre-treatment. Low dialyzability percentages were found for Al, Fe and Hg; moderate percentages were found for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl and Zn; and high dialyzability ratios were found for As, Cr and Ni. The highest dialyzability percentages were found in raw chestnuts and raw hazelnuts. Metal dialyzability was found to be negatively affected by fat content. Positive correlation was found between carbohydrate content and metal dialyzability ratios. Protein and dietary fibre content did not influence metal bioavailability. Predicted dialyzability for some metals based on fat and protein content could also be established.

  18. A new approach in sample treatment combined with UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination of multiclass mycotoxins in edible nuts and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2013-10-15

    A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of fourteen mycotoxins in nuts and seeds (including almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, walnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, hazelnuts and pine nuts) has been developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The sample treatment comprises a first step based on QuEChERS procedure for the determination of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone and ochratoxin A. A subsequent clean-up step based on the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was necessary for the determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), since their determination was not possible applying only the QuEChERS-based extraction. The method was validated for peanuts as representative matrix and was subsequently evaluated for the other eight matrices. Quantification limits obtained for aflatoxins, the unique mycotoxins legislated on these matrices, were lower than the maximum levels allowed by the current legislation, while quantification limits obtained for the other mycotoxins were lower than the limits usually permitted by the legislation in other food matrices. Precision of the method was always lower than 11%, and recoveries ranged between 60.7% and 104.3%.

  19. Analysis of seven kinds of trace copper nuts%七种坚果中微量铜分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮超凡; 赵伟; 陈璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective: More and more people pay attention to the reasonable diet health problems, the content of trace elements in nuts rich, gradual y become people daily consumption goods often.Copper is one of essential trace elements in human body, for the maintenance of human life activities play an important role.The content of copper element monitoring nuts, guide people rational selection of food. Methods :With wet digestion and flame atomic absorption of 7 kinds of common market sel ing nuts spectrophotometry (almonds, Carya il inoensis Koch, Juglans, pine nut, pistachio , Macadamia ternifolia F. Muel ) were measured.The use of statistical methods to analyze the results, determine whether significant. Results:The copper content in samples from high to low is Juglans (15.4229mg/kg) > pistachio (13.0142mg/kg)> pine mnut (11.7226mg/kg) > almonds (9.8965mg/kg) > Carya il inoensis Koch(9.1470mg/kg) > salted pistachios (6.8381mg/kg) > Macadamia ternifolia F. Muel (5.3722mg/kg);The sample products contain copper, the highest content of walnut than macadamia nuts in the lowest 2.7 times higher, with significant;After salted pistachios copper content processing technology is lower than unprocessed pistachios , there are significant. Conclusion:The experiment proved that the high copper content of nuts, have a certain guiding significance for the people's daily edible nuts.The pistachio copper salt baked processing loss, select the edible nuts can choose the unprocessed nuts.Copper deficiency people can choose to eat high copper content of walnut, pine nut, almond, necessary to supplement the body of copper;For in vivo copper content of more people, as far as possible to Eat nuts food, avoid copper poisoning.%目的:人们越来越注意饮食的合理健康问题,坚果微量元素含量丰富,渐渐成为人们日常消费品。铜是人体必需的微量元素之一,对于维持人的生命活动发挥着重要作用。监测坚果中铜元素的含量,指导人

  20. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  1. Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2003-08-01

    ícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

  2. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. ... proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein .... The data obtained were analyzed for descriptive (i.e. mean, sum, standard .... African Journal of Biotechnology, ... the possible industrial application.

  3. Insetos associados às panículas de macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia, Maiden & Betche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINO F.D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar de macadâmia para se determinar os insetos associados às panículas, horário e número de visitas. Os estudos foram conduzidos na Extação Experimental de Tietê (São Paulo, localizada entre as coordenadas geográficas 47º 44' W G- 47º 42 WG e 22º 59'01 S. Os insetos foram capturados com rede entomológica, mortos e identificados segundo espécie. O horário e número de visitas para A mellifera e abelhas Trigona, foi determinado através da contagem dos insetos presentes em cinco panículas, das 7:40h às 17:40h, durante 15 minutos por hora. Insetos pertencentes a 20 espécies foram capturados em oito coletas. A espécie A. mellifera foi a mais abundante e responsável por 96% das visitas, sendo o restante distribuído entre as demais espécies. Constatou-se diferença significativa para o número de visitas de Apis às 7:40h; 9:40h;10:40h; 13:40h;14:40h e 15:40h; para abelhas Trigona não foram constatadas diferenças significativas nos horários estudados. O número de visitas de abelhas Apis mellifera foi crescente a partir das 7:40h, com a ocorrência de um pico às 10:40h e outro entre 13:40h e 14:40h, entretanto, entre 11:40h e 12:40h, constatou-se redução no número de visitas.

  4. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Almond Artificial nuts Brazil nut Beechnut Butternut Cashew Chestnut Chinquapin nut *Coconut Filbert/hazelnut Gianduja (a chocolate- ... safe. The following are not nuts: nutmeg, water chestnuts and butternut squash. Argan oil is derived from ...

  5. NUT wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gérard; Guenouche, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    We show that supercritically charged black holes with NUT provide a new setting for traversable wormholes. This does not require exotic matter, a price being the Misner string singularities. Without assuming time periodicity to make Misner strings unobservable, we show that, contrary to expectations, geodesics do not stop there. Moreover, since there is no central singularity the space-time turns out to be geodesically complete. Another unpleasant feature of spacetimes with NUTs is the presence of regions where the azimuthal angle $\\varphi$ becomes timelike, signalling the appearance of closed timelike curves (CTCs). We show that among them there are no closed timelike or null geodesics, so the freely falling observers should not encounter causality violations. Considering worldlines of charged particles, we find that, although these can become closed in the vicinity of the wormhole throat for large enough charge-to-mass ratio, the non-causal orbits are still disconnected from the distant zones. All these fin...

  6. NUT wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gérard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Guenouche, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    We show that supercritically charged black holes with a Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) parameter provide a new setting for traversable wormholes. This does not require exotic matter, but there is a price—the Misner string singularities. Without assuming time periodicity to make Misner strings unobservable, we show that, contrary to expectations, geodesics do not stop there. Moreover, since there is no central singularity, the spacetime turns out to be geodesically complete. Another unpleasant feature of spacetimes with NUTs is the presence of regions where the azimuthal angle φ becomes timelike, signalling the appearance of closed timelike curves (CTCs). We show that among them there are no closed timelike or null geodesics, so the freely falling observers should not encounter causality violations. Considering worldlines of charged particles, we find that, although these can become closed in the vicinity of the wormhole throat for large enough charge-to-mass ratio, the noncausal orbits are still disconnected from the distant zones. Integrating the geodesic equations completely, we demonstrate the existence of timelike and null geodesics connecting two asymptotic regions of the wormhole, such that the tidal forces in the throat are reasonably small. We also discuss bounds on the NUT charge which follow from the Schwinger pair creation and ionization thresholds.

  7. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  8. 75 FR 17132 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... tropical Honolulu, HI 96819. fruit juices, preserves, chocolate covered food products, macadamia nuts, and... line production capabilities for the same industries. Alpha Machining & Manufacturing, 1604 N. 161st East 3/29/2010 Machined parts for the aircraft Inc. Avenue, Tulsa, OK 74116. industry. Any party having...

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. Adsorption of heavy metals by agroforestry waste derived activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Activated carbons prepared from macadamia nut shells, baobab shells, pigeon pea husks, rice husks,. Moringa ... residues as adsorbents for the removal of dyes and metal ions from ..... dye from aqueous solutions onto apricot stone activated. Bioresour ... solution using natural and modified rice husk.

  12. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  13. Truthiness and Falsiness of Trivia Claims Depend on Judgmental Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Eryn J.; Garry, Maryanne; Unkelbach, Christian; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Lindsay, D. Stephen; Nash, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    When people rapidly judge the truth of claims presented with or without related but nonprobative photos, the photos tend to inflate the subjective truth of those claims--a "truthiness" effect (Newman et al., 2012). For example, people more often judged the claim "Macadamia nuts are in the same evolutionary family as peaches" to…

  14. 40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Loganberry 8 Lupin, seed 8 Mango 8 Melon 8 Mushroom 8 Nectarine 8 Nut, macadamia 1 Oat, grain, postharvest 8..., dry seed 8 Bean, succulent 8 Beet, garden, roots 8 Beet, garden, tops 8 Beet, sugar, roots 1 Beet... 8 Eggplant 8 Fig 8 Flax, seed 0.1 Garlic, bulb 8 Gooseberry 8 Grape 8 Grapefruit 8 Guava 8...

  15. Composição química de nozes e sementes comestíveis e sua relação com a nutrição e saúde Chemical composition of nuts and edible seeds and their relation to nutrition and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges Freitas

    2010-04-01

    composition to nutrition and health. This literature review was based on Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Medline and Lilacs, in accordance with the following selection criteria: original research articles published in the last five years in Brazilian or international journals in the fields of Food Science, Medicine I and Medicine II, indexed in the Institute for Scientific Information. The articles were analyzed according to pre-established quality criteria. True nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashew nuts, Brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, walnuts and pistachios and edible seeds (peanuts and baru almonds are good sources of lipids and proteins. The lipid fractions are composed especially of oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 fatty acids, with emphasis on the ω-6 to ω-3 relation in macadamia, walnut, chestnut and baru almond, whose profiles favor the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. Their proteins present an amino acid profile that meets the requirements of school children and contain more sulfur-containing amino acids than legumes such as beans. These nuts and edible seeds are also good sources of phytoesterols, mainly β-sitosterol; minerals, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, selenium and potassium; tocopherols, especiallyα-tocopherol; and insoluble fiber. These nutrient-dense foods contain bioactive substances that maximize their beneficial health effects and, for this reason, their study and consumption should be encouraged.

  16. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  17. Elaboración de un plan de negocios para la comercialización de Nuez de Macadamia en el mercado guayaquileño.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Para Ecuador, existen tendencias y costumbres que no son originarias pero es muy fácil la adaptación en este entorno por todos los ámbitos. En la agricultura, con objetivo de comercialización y rentabilidad, existen nuevos productos que son atractivos para la venta y por beneficios naturales a los ciudadanos ecuatorianos. La globalización y algunos fenómenos mundiales ayudan a involucrarse en el comercio de productos que son requeridos en varios mercados, y aunque no son nativos, la falta ...

  18. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  19. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure Reactions to foods, like peanuts ... outgrow certain food allergies over time (like milk, egg, soy, and wheat allergies), peanut and tree nut ...

  20. Nuts and Your Heart: Eating Nuts for Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of nuts if they're covered with chocolate, sugar or salt. Here's some nutrition information on ... disease. Clinical Cardiology. 2015;38:570. Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2:652. Suggested ...

  1. 40 CFR 180.411 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., meat byproducts 0.05 Milk 0.05 Nut, macadamia 0.1 Onion, bulb 0.5 Peanut 1.5 Peanut, meal 2.2 Pecans 0.05 Poultry, fat 0.05 Poultry, meat 0.05 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.05 Sheep, fat 0.05 Sheep, meat 0.05 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.05 Soybean, seed 2.5 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 (b) Section 18...

  2. 40 CFR 180.300 - Ethephon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., except kidney 0.2 Milk 0.01 Nut, macadamia 0.5 Pepper 30.0 Pineapple 2.0 Poultry, fat 0.02 Poultry, liver 0.05 Poultry, meat 0.01 Poultry, meat byproducts, except liver 0.01 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, kidney 1.0 Sheep, meat 0.02 Sheep, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.2 Sugarcane, molasses 1.5 Tomato...

  3. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets.

  4. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  5. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.110 Mixed nuts. (a) Mixed nuts is the food consisting of a mixture of four or more of the...

  6. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  7. NUT SCREW MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J.A.F.

    1958-07-01

    A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that may telescope one within the other. These screw mechanisms are connected through a magnetic clutch to a speed reduction gear and an accurately controllable prime motive source. With the clutch energized, the fuel rod may be moved into the reactor core area, and fine adjustments may be made through the reduction gearing. However, in the event of a power failure or an emergency signal, the magnetic clutch will become deenergized, and the fuel rod will drop out of the core area by the force of gravity, thus shutting down the operation of the reactor.

  8. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  9. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  10. The energetics of nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Nuts are a nutrient-rich food group. Depending on the type, they may provide substantive concentrations of Vitamin E, magnesium, folate, essential fatty acids, fiber and protein to the diet. They also contain potentially important phytochemicals. By mechanisms yet to be identified, they are reported to improve postprandial lipid profiles and may hold other health benefits. However, they are also energy dense so a theoretical contributor to positive energy balance and weight gain. However, epidemiological studies have consistently revealed an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Further, intervention trials demonstrate less than predicted weight gain following inclusion of nuts in the diet. The mechanisms for these observations are currently under study. Candidates include strong satiety effects, promotion of energy expenditure and/or inefficient energy utilization. Recent trials have revealed support for each. Inclusion of nuts in the diet results in strong satiety effects as revealed by robust compensatory dietary responses that offset approximately 65-75% of the energy they provide. Several trials note increased energy expenditure that may account for an additional 10% of their energy yield. Limited bioaccessibility results in a loss of 5-15% of energy. Taken together, these findings largely account for the energy provided by nuts and explain the epidemiological and clinical observations. Thus, current knowledge suggests moderate nut consumption does not pose a threat for weight gain.

  11. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  12. 利用改良CTAB法提取澳洲坚果成熟叶片高质量DNA%High Quality DNA Extraction from Mature Leaves of Macadamia by Modified CTAB Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凌飞; 邹明宏; 曾辉; 杜丽清; 陆超忠

    2007-01-01

    澳洲坚果的成熟叶片中次生物质含量很高,因此给DNA的提取造成很大困难.CTAB法可有效去除多糖等杂质,但常规CTAB法的提取效果并不好.为此,我们在此基础上进行改进.采用改良后的CTAB法提取了7个澳洲坚果样品的总DNA.结果表明:使用CTAB free缓冲液进行前处理可去除大部分的杂质.所获得的DNA纯度较高,OD260/OD280均在1.7~1.9之间,RNA消化彻底,DNA无明显降解,进行ISSR分析(UBC-835)条带清晰,多态性好.说明该方法获得的基因组DNA适合于进行以PCR为基础的DNA多态性的研究.

  13. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  14. Hypersensitivity reaction to pine nuts (pinon nuts--pignolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, A J

    1987-09-01

    This report describes two patients with allergic reactions due to the ingestion of pine nuts. Skin testing to the aqueous allergen revealed immediate positive prick test reactions suggesting an IgE-mediated response. No reported cases have been found previously in a review of the medical literature.

  15. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  16. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  17. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  18. Collar nut and thrust ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  19. Deformed and twisted black holes with NUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Krtous, Pavel; Frolov, Valeri P; Kolar, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new class of vacuum black hole solutions whose geometry is deformed and twisted by the presence of NUT charges. The solutions are obtained by `unspinning' the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes, effectively switching off some of their rotation parameters. The resulting geometry has a structure of warped space with the Kerr-like Lorentzian part warped to a Euclidean metric of deformed and/or twisted sphere, with the deformation and twist characterized by the `Euclidean NUT' parameters. In the absence of NUTs, the solution reduces to a well known Kerr-(A)dS black hole with several rotations switched off. New geometries inherit the original symmetry of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS family, namely, they possess the full Killing tower of hidden and explicit symmetries. As expected, for vanishing NUT, twist, and deformation parameters, the symmetry is further enlarged.

  20. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  1. Nuts, blood lipids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate nut-related epidemiological and human feeding study findings and to discuss the important nutritional attributes of nuts and their link to cardiovascular health. Frequent nut consumption has been found to be protective against coronary heart disease in five large epidemiological studies across two continents. A qualitative summary of the data from four of these studies found an 8.3% reduction in risk of death from coronary heart disease for each weekly serving of nuts. Over 40 dietary intervention studies have been conducted evaluating the effect of nut containing diets on blood lipids. These studies have demonstrated that intake of different kinds of nuts lower total and LDL cholesterol and the LDL: HDL ratio in healthy subjects or patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia, even in the context of healthy diets. Nuts have a unique fatty acid profile and feature a high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, an important contributing factor to the beneficial health effects of nut consumption. Additional cardioprotective nutrients found in nuts include vegetable protein, fiber, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, magnesium, copper, phytosterols and other phytochemicals.

  2. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  3. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Rangil, I; García-Lorda, P; Torres-Moreno, M; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2004-06-01

    Nuts are foods with a high energy density, due in part to its small water content. They also present a low saturated fat content (unsaturated fat contribution (40-60%). They represent one of the richest sources of dietary fiber, which is basically of the insoluble type. The effects of nut intake on health have been widely studied. Several prospective epidemiological studies performed on large cohorts have consistently shown that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts is negatively related to the risk of cardiovascular disease and to the risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. From these studies can be concluded that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts leads to a 30-50% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, intervention studies have shown a positive effect of nut intake on lipid profile with significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels and small or null effects on the HDL fraction. More recently, some studies have focused on the effect of nuts on body weight. At present, no evidences support a detrimental effect of nut consumption on body weight. On the contrary some weight loss studies suggest a beneficial effect of nut intake on body weight regulation.

  4. Growing black walnut for nut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Reid; Mark Coggeshall; H.E. Garrett; Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2009-01-01

    Eastern black walnut trees (Juglans nigra) produce high-value, hardwood products and distinctively flavored, edible nuts. The potential for producting two valuable products from the same tree has captured the imagination of tree planters for years. Both large and small black walnut plantations have been established with the intent to harvest huge nut...

  5. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  6. Deformed and twisted black holes with NUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David; Frolov, Valeri P.; Kolář, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    We construct a new class of vacuum black hole solutions whose geometry is deformed and twisted by the presence of NUT charges. The solutions are obtained by ‘unspinning’ the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes, effectively switching off some of their rotation parameters. The resulting geometry has a structure of warped space with the Kerr-like Lorentzian part warped to a Euclidean metric of a deformed and/or twisted sphere, with the deformation and twist characterized by the ‘Euclidean NUT’ parameters. In the absence of NUTs, the solution reduces to a well known Kerr-(A)dS black hole with several rotations switched off. New geometries inherit the original symmetry of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS family, namely, they possess the full Killing tower of hidden and explicit symmetries. As expected, for vanishing NUT, twist, and deformation parameters, the symmetry is further enlarged.

  7. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  8. Nut consumption and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Wei, Yongyue; Zhu, Wusheng; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-03-01

    Nut consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of stroke. Our aim was to carry out a meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the relation between nut consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Embase through June 2014 and by reviewing the references of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between nut consumption and risk of stroke were included. Six articles including nine independent prospective cohorts with 476,181 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98) comparing the highest with the lowest nut consumption. Stratifying by gender, significant inverse association was observed for females (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.98). Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with adjustment for common confounding factors showed similar results, strengthening the association between nut consumption and stroke risk. Moreover, we observed a trend toward an inverse association between higher nut consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.69-1.06), although it is not significant. Current evidence indicated that nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of stroke.

  9. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  10. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  11. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  12. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  13. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2012-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a highly lethal tumor defined by translocations involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. NMC involves midline structures including the sinonasal tract, but its overall incidence at this midline site and its full morphologic profile are largely unknown because sinonasal tumors are not routinely tested for the NUT gene translocation. The recent availability of an immunohistochemical probe for the NUT protein now permits a more complete characterization of sinonasal NMCs. The archival files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology were searched for all cases of primary sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed from 1995 to 2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and NUT immunohistochemical analysis was performed. All NUT-positive cases underwent a more detailed microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis. Among 151 primary sinonasal carcinomas, only 3 (2%) were NUT positive. NUT positivity was detected in 2 of 13 (15%) carcinomas diagnosed as sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and in 1 of 87 (1%) carcinomas diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. All occurred in men (26, 33, and 48 y of age). The NMCs grew as nests and sheets of cells with a high mitotic rate and extensive necrosis. Two were entirely undifferentiated, and 1 tumor showed abrupt areas of squamous differentiation. Each case had areas of cell spindling, and 2 were heavily infiltrated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining was observed for cytokeratins (3 of 3), epithelial membrane antigen (3 of 3), p63 (2 of 3), CD34 (1 of 3), and synaptophysin (1 of 3). All patients died of the disease (survival time range, 8 to 16 mo; mean, 12 mo) despite combined surgery and chemoradiation. NMC represents a rare form of primary sinonasal carcinoma, but its incidence is significantly increased in those carcinomas that exhibit an undifferentiated component. Indiscriminant analysis for evidence of the NUT translocation is unwarranted. Instead, NUT analysis can be restricted to

  14. ‘De Zin van het Nut en het Nut van de Zin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Julia

    2012-01-01

    J.J.H. Klooster, ‘De Zin van het Nut en het Nut van de Zin’ (essay/review of The Public Value of the Humanities, ed. J. Bates and Collini, S. What Universities are for), Academische Boekengids 95, 1-3.

  15. A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus, areca nut is not a harmless substance as often perceived and proclaimed by the manufacturers of areca nut products such as Pan Masala, Supari Mix, Betel quid, etc. There is an urgent need to recognize areca nut as a harmful food substance by the policy makers and prohibit its glamorization as a mouth freshener. Strict laws are necessary to regulate the production of commercial preparations of areca nut.

  16. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

  17. Air-driven Brazil nut effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.

    2003-07-01

    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  18. Circular motion in NUT space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Jefremov, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori ("Polish doughnuts") which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, a NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.

  19. Area Products for Taub-NUT and Kerr-Taub-NUT Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2014-01-01

    We examine properties of the inner and outer horizon thermodynamics of Taub-NUT(Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Kerr-Taub-NUT black holes in four dimensional gravity theories. We compare and contrasted these properties with the properties of Reissner Nordstr{\\o}m black hole and Kerr black hole. We focus on "area product", "entropy product", "irreducible mass product" of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons of the said black hole. We find that these products have no beautiful quantization features. Nor does it has any mass-independence(universal) properties. We also show that the \\emph{First law} of black hole thermodynamics and \\emph {Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem } relation do not hold for Taub-NUT and Kerr-Taub-NUT black hole. This is happening due to the explicitly presence of the NUT parameter. The black hole \\emph{ mass formula} and \\emph{Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula} for Taub-NUT and Kerr-Taub-NUT black holes are also computed.

  20. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clément, Gérard, E-mail: gerard.clement@lapth.cnrs.fr [LAPTh, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, 9 chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France); Gal' tsov, Dmitri, E-mail: galtsov@phys.msu.ru [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guenouche, Mourad, E-mail: guenouche_mourad@umc.edu.dz [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université de Constantine 1 (Algeria); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef (Algeria)

    2015-11-12

    We revisit the Taub–NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal geodesics. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub–NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  1. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gérard; Guenouche, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the Taub-NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal {\\em geodesics}. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub-NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  2. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Clément

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the Taub–NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal geodesics. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub–NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  3. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gérard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Guenouche, Mourad

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the Taub-NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal geodesics. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub-NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  4. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; French, C A; Josiassen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid...... and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis...

  5. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. The Shea-butter nuts ... Machine. The average room temperature in the laboratory was 30°C through the period of .... interaction were not at 95 percent confidence ... this condition, the material (nut in this case).

  7. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Developmental Strategies of Betel Nut Industry in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the mino amount of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry fruit to sell to Hunan Province to reprocess. The problems exist in the development of betel nut industry in Hainan Province are analyzed, covering blind cultivation, extensive management, backward processing, lagged new product development and the single and concentrated consumer market. The strategic choice of developing the betel nut industry of Hainan Province is analyzed as well. Hainan Province should carry out the green, sustainable, diversified, cooperative and export-oriented industrial developmental strategy.

  9. NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SHEA NUT (Vitellaria paradoxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... Generally, protein composition and digestibility of the SNPs in this study were .... fingerlings with shea nut meal based diets and recommended ... Wheat bran. 520.00 ..... dwarf rams fed a mixture of rice straw and groundnut ...

  10. Engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulharman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There had been mechanically conducted an engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools for rocking nut small industry. The objective is to engineer a maker tool for rocking nut which can work with the assistance of motor without using manpower, thus it will increase the production of rocking nut. Making method on rocking nut maker tool includes: (1 Designing tool; (2 tool making; (3 Tool testing. According to the result of engineering tool, there were obtained: frame for tray that was made from angle iron: the height was 450 mm, the length was 1500 mm, and the width was 500 mm width, while the thickness was 3 mm. The tray was made from aluminium with 60 mm height, 1485 mm length, 485 mm width and 3 mm plate thickness. The motor had the power capacity of ½ HP, single phase and 1400 rpm while gearbox was 1:10. The wheels were made from iron with the diameter of 60 mm and the thickness of 20 mm. There are 4 wheels which were installed under the tray. Popper mechanism was made from iron that included iron plate with the diameter of 210 mm, the thickness of 7 mm and iron bar with the diameter of 15 mm and the length of 220 mm. This was equipped with speed variable. The result from tools performance could increase the production capacity by 400%; the bumpy texture on peanut surface could attach more strongly, the storage capacity increased for 6 months, while the production only lasted for 3 months if it was by manual. The capacity of rocking nut maker was 45 kg/day; it was only 7.5 kg/day by manual. The average time consumed for rocking nut making was 1.5 hours/ processing, while by manual was 3 hours/ processing. The rocking speed was 89-99rpm. This was an economical technology, by using this engineered tool, the production capacity per month was increased by 750 kg or equivalent with Rp. 47,250,000.- and by using this tool, there was an increase in profit of Rp. 13,450/ kg while by manual was only Rp 2,250/ kg. On the other side, the production cost by

  11. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  12. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  13. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  14. WALNUT: NOT A HARD NUT TO CRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Deepa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Walnuts grow on large trees, known for their beauty, timber and tasty edible nuts. There are many varieties of walnuts that vary in hardiness, nut size and thickness of the nut shell. When it comes to their health benefits, Walnuts definitely are not hard nuts to crack. They contain free radical scavenging compounds like ellagic acid, juglone and certain phytosterols that support the immune system and appear to have anti-cancer properties. Walnuts have higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids including α-Linolenic acid, than do other nuts which may give walnuts additional anti-atherogenic and cosmetic value. It was found in clinical trials that walnut consumption in the amount of two to three servings per day consistently decreased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Linolenic acid and Linoleic acids present abundantly in walnuts are crucial for maintaining skin functions such as regulation of transepidermal water loss and anti- inflammatory action. The beneficial action of walnut oil on skin is known for centuries and is widely used in cosmetic industry. The walnut oil is a component of dry skin creams, anti-wrinkle and anti-ageing products as it possesses moisturizing property as well as free radical scavenging capacity. Besides, they also exhibit anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, anti-ageing and Hepatoprotective activities. “Walnuts are better than cookies, french fries or potato chips, when you need a snack” as they provide rich nutrients. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on Walnuts covering its synonyms, phytoconstituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.

  15. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world.

  16. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  17. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  18. Stamping automotive parts with clinch nut process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Paweł; Świntoniowski, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    In this paper authors present joining by forming method for screws and nuts that is more and more used nowadays. They aim to show its basic advantages and problems that occurred during the conducted researches. They concerned both joining process as well as strength tests of a sheet and nuts junction. That process is very often carried out for UHSS and AHSS steels which usually contain decreased plastic properties and increased strength. It usually causes a problem to set up the self-clinching process. Currently, there are a few companies specialising only in this kind of processes, however correct designing of such tool requires taking into account many factors such as choose of joining method by forming and proper connector type.

  19. NUT midline carcinomas in the thymic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Cano, Oscar D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare tumors described predominantly in the pediatric age group. We recently reported two cases of these tumors occurring in the thymic region. In order to establish the true incidence of these tumors, we examined a large series of thymic carcinomas for morphological features of NUT tumor and further assessed the expression of NUTM1 (also known as NUT) protein by immunohistochemistry. The histological review of slides from 110 cases of thymic carcinoma was undertaken to identify carcinomas with mixed undifferentiated and squamous features that are typically associated with NUT carcinomas. The presenting symptoms, morphological spectrum of tumors and outcome data of patients with these histologies are presented. Immunohistochemistry for NUTM1 was performed on 35 cases of thymic carcinoma with available blocks (3 with these histological features and 32 without these features) to exclude the possibility of midline carcinoma. Tumors from 10 patients had features of mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (M:F, 1.5:1; age range, 22-79). These patients predominantly presented with advanced disease and had respiratory-related symptoms or chest pain; four had paraneoplastic syndromes. The squamous component in all cases was well differentiated with little or no atypia. The undifferentiated component varied in cell size and lacked characteristic features of small cell carcinoma. All but one patients developed metastases or died within 3 years of diagnosis. NUTM1 expression was seen in two of three tumors with these histological features and in none of the 32 cases without. Mixed small cell undifferentiated carcinomas share histological and immunohistochemical similarity with NMCs and have aggressive clinical course. These tumors are not uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas in the thymic region as novel therapies might be available.

  20. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol using an amine extractant (alanine with the aid of shake-out separation equipment. Subsequently, the polyphenol was further separated into dihydric phenols (resorcinol and monohydric phenol (phenol.The physical separation of the CNSL showed that it consisted of about 10% cardol (dicarboxy- pentadica-dienylbenzene, 50% cardanol and 30% anacardic acid (carbopenta-dica dienylphenol (with the remainder being made up of other substances whose boiling points and specific gravities were 900C and 0.9g/m3 1750C and 1.1g/m3 and 1790C and 1.2g/m3.

  1. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) strategically place nuts in a stable position during nut-cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Liu, Qing; Wright, Barth W; Allen, Angellica; Brown, Callie Welch; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Humans can use hand tools smoothly and effectively in varying circumstances; in other words, skillfully. A few other species of primates crack encased foods using hammer tools and anvils. Are they skilled? Positioning the food on the anvil so that it does not fall off when struck is a component of skilled cracking. We discovered that bearded capuchin monkeys deliberately place palm nuts in a relatively stable position on the anvil before striking them. In the first experiment, we marked the meridians of palm nuts where they stopped when rolled on a flat surface ("Stop meridian"). We videotaped monkeys as they cracked these nuts on an anvil. In playback we coded the position of the Stop meridian prior to each strike. Monkeys typically knocked the nuts on the anvil a few times before releasing them in a pit. They positioned the nuts so that the Stop meridian was within 30 degrees of vertical with respect to gravity more often than expected, and the nuts rarely moved after the monkeys released them. In the second experiment, 14 blindfolded people (7 men) asked to position marked nuts on an anvil as if to crack them reliably placed them with the Stop meridian in the same position as the monkeys did. In the third experiment, two people judged that palm nuts are most bilaterally symmetric along a meridian on, or close to, the Stop meridian. Thus the monkeys reliably placed the more symmetrical side of the nuts against the side of the pit, and the nuts reliably remained stationary when released. Monkeys apparently used information gained from knocking the nut to achieve this position. Thus, monkeys place the nuts skillfully, strategically managing the fit between the variable nuts and pits in the anvil, and skilled placement depends upon information generated by manual action.

  2. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  3. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  4. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY APPARATUS FOR CASHEW NUT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for determination of various physical properties of Vengurla-4 variety of cashew nut. The diameter or size and sphericity of cashew nut were found to be 21.92 mm and 0.68 respectively. The average gravimetric properties such as bulk density were found to be 533 kg/m3, true density were 663.3 kg/m3 and porosity were 19.6%. Angle of repose for cashew nut were found as 30.50.   Thermal conductivity of cashew nut were determined at different moisture conten...

  5. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  6. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  7. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial beta-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (=ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228)....

  8. The supersymmetric NUTs and bolts of holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, Dario; Passias, Achilleas [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Sparks, James [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, 24-29 St Giles' , Oxford OX1 3LB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-21

    We show that a given conformal boundary can have a rich and intricate space of supersymmetric supergravity solutions filling it, focusing on the case where this conformal boundary is a biaxially squashed Lens space. Generically we find that the biaxially squashed Lens space S{sup 3}/Z{sub p} admits Taub-NUT-AdS fillings, with topology R{sup 4}/Z{sub p}, as well as smooth Taub-Bolt-AdS fillings with non-trivial topology. We show that the Taub-NUT-AdS solutions always lift to solutions of M-theory, and correspondingly that the gravitational free energy then agrees with the large N limit of the dual field theory free energy, obtained from the localized partition function of a class of N=2 Chern–Simons-matter theories. However, the solutions of Taub-Bolt-AdS type only lift to M-theory for appropriate classes of internal manifold, meaning that these solutions exist only for corresponding classes of three-dimensional N=2 field theories.

  9. Areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu: A growing threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gunaseelan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Areca nut is the fourth main psychoactive substance in the world. In India, tobacco is added to the quid, and the commercially manufactured nonperishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or gutkha are on the rise in the market. Objective : To find out the prevalence of areca nut among the rural residents of Sriperambudur Taluk . Settings and Design: A community-based survey using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Materials and Methods :0 The survey was conducted in 2 villages and their colonies, which were randomly selected out of 168 villages. Data was collected from 500 residents of the study population. The survey was conducted for a period of 2 months. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 10.0. Results :The study participants were more likely to initiate areca nut use by 22 years of age. As many as 19.8% (n = 99 of the study participants chewed areca nut products, out of whom 11.2% (n = 56 indulged in chewing habit alone (areca nut products. Areca nut use was higher among male study subjects compared to females. The commercial forms of areca nut products (gutkha were the most prevalent ones [47.5% (n = 47 of those who used areca nut] observed in the community. Compared to female participants, male participants were more likely to perceive areca nut use as the most harmful habit draining the community health and wealth. Conclusion :There seems to be an increase in the prevalence of areca nut use. The community also perceives it to be a harmful habit. Therefore, effective interventions should be targeted towards the high-risk subpopulation of the community to decrease the prevalence of areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu.

  10. micron-sized polymer particles from tanzanian cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    CNSL is branded as natural or technical depending on the method of ... Cashew nut shell liquid was collected from TANITA cashew nut processing industry located in ... The washing and filtration cycles were repeated and finally the particles ... strong agitation and inorganic insoluble powdered salts [19] are used to stabilize ...

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  12. The beneficial effects of tree nuts on the aging brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary patterns may play an important role in protecting the brain from the cellular and cognitive dysfunction associated with the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts are showing promise as possible dietary interventions for age-related brain dysfunction. Tree nuts are an impo...

  13. NUT carcinoma presenting in the palate - a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornstrup, Libana Raffoul; Reibel, Jesper; Kiss, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    NUT carcinomas (NC) are rare and aggressive tumours characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene encoding for nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) located on chromosome 15q14. This article presents a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with NC presenting as a fast growing primary tumo...

  14. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  15. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  16. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts--a boon in alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B

    2000-12-01

    In alternative medicine, medicinal plant preparations have found widespread use particularly in the case of diseases not amenable to treatment by modern methods. Chemical and phytochemical analyses of Semecarpus anacardium nut reveal the presence of biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. A variety of nut extract preparations from this source are effective against many diseases, viz. arthritis, tumours, infections etc. and non-toxic even at high dose of 2000 mg/kg. However understanding of the mechanism of the pharmacological action of S. anacardium nut can be greatly aided by the isolation of its active principle from the nut and determination of the structure-function relationship. Also, the potent curative effect of S. anacardium nut extract against human ailments need to be verified by controlled clinical studies.

  17. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  18. Twisted black hole is Taub-NUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2017-01-01

    Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner—the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry. As such, despite the original claim that the twisted black hole might have observational consequences, it cannot be.

  19. Metallic nut for use with ceramic threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly has ceramic components therein having a conventional thread thereon including a preestablished pitch and having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion. The nozzle guide vane assembly has a metallic components therein having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater that the rate of thermal expansion of the ceramic components is positioned in a gas turbine engine. The metallic component, a nut, has a thread therein including a plurality of crests being spaced on a pitch equal to that of the ceramic component and has a pair of contacting surfaces extending from the plurality of crests. A notch spirally extends intermediate adjacent ones of the plurality of crests and has a preestablished depth which is at least twice the size of the conventional pitch. Furthermore, the pair of contacting surfaces are in contact with only a portion of the threaded surface of the ceramic components.

  20. Twisted Black Hole Is Taub-NUT

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner -- the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry.

  1. Investigation of failure to separate an Inconel 718 frangible nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, William C., III; Hohmann, Carl

    1994-01-01

    The 2.5-inch frangible nut is used in two places to attach the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the External Tank. It must be capable of sustaining structural loads and must also separate into two pieces upon command. Structural load capability is verified by proof loading each flight nut, while ability to separate is verified on a sample of a production lot. Production lots of frangible nuts beginning in 1987 experienced an inability to reliably separate using one of two redundant explosive boosters. The problems were identified in lot acceptance tests, and the cause of failure has been attributed to differences in the response of the Inconel 718. Subsequent tests performed on the frangible nuts resulted in design modifications to the nuts along with redesign of the explosive booster to reliably separate the frangible nut. The problem history along with the design modifications to both the explosive booster and frangible nut are discussed in this paper. Implications of this failure experience impact any pyrotechnic separation system involving fracture of materials with respect to design margin control and lot acceptance testing.

  2. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  3. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Prakash

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present investigation Indicate that milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut showed anti-arthritic activity.

  4. A curious electrovac spacetime as $G = 0$ limit of the NUT space

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, N K; Dadhich, Naresh

    2002-01-01

    We take the $G = 0$ limit of the NUT space which yields a non flat space and show that source of its curvature is electromagnetic field generated by the NUT parameter defining the NUT symmetry. This is a very curious electrovac NUT space. Further it is also possible to superpose on it a global monopole.

  5. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhirendra Prakash; M. C. Bindal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Anil Kumar Gupta; Vedpal

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model...

  6. Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariella

    Key words: Sapucaia nuts, inflammation, oxidative stress, gene expression. INTRODUCTION ... High-fat diets can affect the redox balance in the body. Fispecies (ROS) ..... Relationship between energy dense diets and white adipose tissue ...

  7. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during cracking. Thirteen .... moisture were determined from the weight lost (ASAE, 1983;. Ajibola et al. .... measurement-Grains and Seeds, American Society of. Agricultural ...

  8. Current Situation and Management Recommendations about Betel Nut Planting in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide HUANG; Haolun HUANG; Haiqing LIU

    2016-01-01

    The betel nut planting area and yield in Hainan have reached 94000 ha and 231000 t,respectively.There are some problems in betel nut planting such as dispersed cultivation,irrational planting layout,excessively dense planting and serious betel nut yellow leaf disease.For the sustainable development of Hainan betel nut,it is necessary to focus on building the disease-resistant betel nut plantation,so as to prevent and control the occurrence and spread of betel nut yellow leaf disease;transform the low-yield betel nut plantation,and strengthen betel nut production management,in order to improve betel nut yield and promote sustainable development of betel nut industry.

  9. Managing nut-induced anaphylaxis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomas JM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne M Lomas, Kirsi M Järvinen Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: The prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the USA has increased, especially in the pediatric population. Nut allergy remains the leading cause of fatal anaphylactic reactions. Management of anaphylaxis includes not only treatment of symptoms during a reaction, but strict dietary avoidance and education on potential situations, which may place the patient at high risk for accidental exposure. Cross-reactivity between various nuts along with various cross-contamination sources should be discussed with all nut-allergic individuals. Exciting research continues to emerge on other potential treatments for patients allergic to nuts, including allergen immunotherapy. Results of such interventions have been encouraging, though further studies are needed regarding safety and long-term outcomes before these can be applied to clinical practice. Keywords: peanut, tree nut, anaphylaxis, cross-reactivity, avoidance, immunotherapy

  10. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-03-05

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  11. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  12. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  13. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  14. Acute effects of monounsaturated fat on postprandial lipemia and gene expression in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Gregersen, S; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives (REL) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Dietary fat elicits increased PPL in T2D...... compared with nondiabetic controls, but our knowledge of PPL responses to fat in REL is sparse. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REL respond to a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) challenge with a higher PPL response compared with controls who have no family history of T2D (CON) and that MUFAs exert...... a differential impact on incretin responses and on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues of REL and CON.Subjects/Methods:A total of 17 REL and 17 CON consumed a meal with 72 energy percent derived from MUFAs (macadamia nut oil). Plasma triglycerides...

  15. Detection of Food Allergens by Taqman Real-Time PCR Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Aina; Madrid, Raquel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) has shown to be a very effective technology for the detection of food allergens. The protocol described herein consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the plant ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region, using species-specific primers and hydrolysis probes (Taqman) dual labeled with a reporter fluorophore at the 5' end (6-carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a quencher fluorophore at the 3' end (Blackberry, BBQ). The species-specific real-time PCR systems (primers/probe) described in this work allowed the detection of different nuts (peanut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, cashew, macadamia, walnut and pecan), common allergens present in commercial food products, with a detection limit of 0.1 mg/kg.

  16. High consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by non-allergic mothers around the time of pregnancy reduces the risk of nut allergy in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Peanut or tree nut avoidance during pregnancy is not recommended for non-allergic mothers. Maternal nut consumption does not appear to increase the risk of nut allergy in offspring and may even be protective. Further research is required to clarify the role of maternal nut consumption during pregnancy and lactation; research should consider potential differential effects of the genetic risk of peanut allergy in children.

  17. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  19. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  20. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  1. Textural, rheological and sensory properties and oxidative stability of nut spreads—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-02-20

    Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  2. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  3. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  5. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  6. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts.

  7. A trial investigating the symptoms related to pine nut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, N Z

    2012-09-01

    During the last few years, thousands of cases of pine nut-related dysgeusia have been reported. The symptoms involved are predominantly related to taste disturbances such as a constant bitter or metallic taste. The taste disturbance has been reported to occur 1-2 days after ingestion of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii. This paper describes a small trial where six volunteers consumed six to eight pine nuts suspected to cause dysgeusia. Incubation periods, symptoms and their duration were recorded. The trial showed that all subjects had developed symptoms of pine nut-related dysgeusia. Four out of six subjects experienced the classical bitter and metallic taste 1-2 days after ingestion. Two subjects experienced minor symptoms such as dryness and a sensation of enlarged tonsils. After the disappearance of symptoms, laboratory tests determined the pine nuts to originate from the species of P. armandii. A follow-up conversation with the subjects after 1 year showed no recurrent symptoms.

  8. Implementation of PPPoE Dialer based on NUT/OS%基于NUT/OS的PPPoE拨号器实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳维松

    2005-01-01

    介绍了在实时操作系统NUT/OS基础上实现PPPoE拨号功能.根据运行于Atmel ATmeg128/103CPU上实时操作系统NUT/OS在8位CPU上支持TCP/IP协议的特点,通过对NUT/OS及PPP、PPPoE协议的分析,实现了NUT/OS还未实现的PPPoE协议,拓展了实时操作系统NUT/OS的适用性.

  9. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulló, M; Juanola-Falgarona, M; Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological and/or clinical trials have suggested that nut consumption has a beneficial impact on health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, CVD, cancer, other inflammatory conditions and total mortality. Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with a healthy fatty acid profile, as well as provide other bioactive compounds with recognised health benefits. Among nuts, pistachios have a lower fat and energy content and the highest levels of K, γ-tocopherol, vitamin K, phytosterols, xanthophyll carotenoids, certain minerals (Cu, Fe and Mg), vitamin B₆ and thiamin. Pistachios have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The aforementioned characteristics and nutrient mix probably contribute to the growing body of evidence that consumption of pistachios improves health. The present review examines the potential health effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in pistachios, as well as epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting these health benefits.

  10. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  11. Taub-NUT Dynamics with a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jante, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    We study classical and quantum dynamics on the Euclidean Taub-NUT geometry coupled to an abelian gauge field with self-dual curvature and show that, even though Taub-NUT has neither bounded orbits nor quantum bound states, the magnetic binding via the gauge field produces both. The conserved Runge-Lenz vector of Taub-NUT dynamics survives, in a modified form, in the gauged model and allows for an essentially algebraic computation of classical trajectories and energies of quantum bound states. We also compute scattering cross sections and find a surprising electric-magnetic duality. Finally, we exhibit the dynamical symmetry behind the conserved Runge-Lenz and angular momentum vectors in terms of a twistorial formulation of phase space.

  12. Taub-NUT dynamics with a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jante, Rogelio; Schroers, Bernd J.

    2016-06-01

    We study classical and quantum dynamics on the Euclidean Taub-NUT geometry coupled to an abelian gauge field with self-dual curvature and show that, even though Taub-NUT has neither bounded orbits nor quantum bound states, the magnetic binding via the gauge field produces both. The conserved Runge-Lenz vector of Taub-NUT dynamics survives, in a modified form, in the gauged model and allows for an essentially algebraic computation of classical trajectories and energies of quantum bound states. We also compute scattering cross sections and find a surprising electric-magnetic duality. Finally, we exhibit the dynamical symmetry behind the conserved Runge-Lenz and angular momentum vectors in terms of a twistorial formulation of phase space.

  13. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-03-06

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  15. The classical double copy for Taub-NUT spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, A; O'Connell, D; White, C D

    2015-01-01

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr-Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub-NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr-Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  16. Regularization of Kerr-NUT spacetimes and their thermodynamical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Nashed, G G L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) theory, continues calculations of the total energy and momentum for Kerr-NUT spacetimes using three different methods, the gravitational energy-momentum, the Riemannian connection 1-form, ${\\widetilde{\\Gamma}_\\alpha}^\\beta$ and the Euclidean continuation method, have been achieved. Many local Lorentz transformations, that play the role of regularizing tool, are given to get the commonly known form of energy and momentum. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities of Kerr-NUT spacetime. We also investigate the first law of thermodynamics and quantum statistical relation.

  17. From Taub-NUT to Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Nematollah; Hashemi, S. Sedigheh

    2016-03-01

    We present a Kaluza-Klein vacuum solution which closely resembles the Taub-NUT magnetic monopole and we investigate its physical properties as viewed from four space-time dimensions. We show that the Taub-NUT Kaluza-Klein vacuum solution in five dimensions is a static magnetic monopole. We find that the four dimensional matter properties do not obey the equation of state of radiation and there is no event horizon. A comparison with the available magnetic monopole solutions and the issue of vanishing and negative mass are discussed.

  18. The classical double copy for Taub-NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Andrés; Monteiro, Ricardo; O'Connell, Donal; White, Chris D.

    2015-11-01

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr-Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub-NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr-Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  19. From Taub-NUT to Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Riazi, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    We present a Kaluza-Klien vacuum solution which closely resembles the Taub-NUT magnetic monopole and we investigate its physical properties as viewed from four space-time dimensions. We show that the Taub-NUT Kaluza-Klein vacuum solution in five dimensions is a static magnetic monopole. We find that the four dimensional matter properties do not obey the equation of state of radiation and there is no event horizon. A comparison with the available magnetic monopole solutions and the issue of vanishing and negative mass are discussed.

  20. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  1. The Gregory–Laflamme instability and non-uniform generalizations of NUT strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2014-02-05

    We explore via linearized perturbation theory the Gregory–Laflamme instability of the NUT string (i.e. the D=4 Lorentzian NUT solution uplifted to five dimensions). Our results indicate that the Gregory–Laflamme instability persists in the presence of a NUT charge n, the critical length of the extra-dimension increasing with n for the same value of mass. The non-uniform branch of NUT strings is numerically extended into the full nonlinear regime.

  2. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOCARP AND KERNEL OF CASHEW NUT 'CCP 76' PRIOR AND POST THERMAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    De Araujo, MC; Ferraz, ACD

    2008-01-01

    Viscoelastic characteristics of raw cashew nut shell hinder its decortication by compression. In order to facilitate the shell opening and to liberate the kernel, nuts were subjected to hydration and thermal treatment in cashew nut shell liquid (CSL) at 210 degrees C. With the objective of developing more appropriate shelling mechanisms the cashew nut 'CCP 76' was characterized by its main dimensions, mass and volume, as well as mechanical behavior of the endocarp and kernel, prior and after ...

  3. CASHEW NUT SHELLS AS SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR PREPARATION OF CHALCOGENIDE NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    MUBOFU E.B.; MLOWE S.; N. Revaprasadu

    2016-01-01

    Cashew nut shell wastes produced in cashew nut processing factories cause environmental problems. Currently, these wastes are being converted to a variety of bio-based chemicals and functional materials. Cashew nut shells (CNS) produce cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a dark reddish brown viscous liquid ( ca. 30 35 wt. %) which is extracted from the soft honeycomb of the CNS. CNSL offers multitude interesting possibilities for the synthesis of speciality chemicals, high value products and poly...

  4. Brazil Nut Effect and CONCRETE: Entering Terra Incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; He, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some evidence of the impact of the Brazil nut effect (BNE) on concrete’s particulate structure on meso-level (aggregate) as well as on micro-level (cement paste). BNE is associated with long-range size segregation in particle mixtures due to vibration in slurry state of concrete,

  5. Fungistatic activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f nut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Mehta, Pooja; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2002-03-01

    Alcoholic extract of dry nuts of S. anacardium showed dose dependent antifungal activity in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. At 400 mg/ml concentration, growth of both the fungi was inhibited and considerable reduction in size of cells and hyphae was observed. Sporulation also decreased.

  6. Amphiphilic antioxidants from "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Attanasi, Orazio A; Favi, Gianfranco; Menichetti, Stefano; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Viglianisi, Caterina

    2011-03-07

    Hydrogenated cardanol and cardols, contained in industrial grade cardanol oil and obtained by distillation of the raw "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL), are easily transformed into efficient 4-thiaflavane antioxidants bearing a long alkyl chain on A ring and a catechol group on B ring.

  7. synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    at different ratios using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) components as templates. ... indeed the organoamine groups were attached onto the silica surface, with a maximum .... observation is attributed to steric effects. .... groups reduces the surface areas and pore volume of the materials (Krishna et al. ... diffusion limitations.

  8. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    from the hard nuts, there is need to properly crack them; this process of ... appropriate dimension of angle iron bar of 45 mm × 45 mm × 3 mm was used for the structural support. .... cracking drum of the machine is made up of two disc plates.

  9. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet

  10. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet c

  11. Salivary arecoline levels during areca nut chewing in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen; Vickers, Edward R; Ghu, Sonia; Zoellner, Hans

    2010-07-01

    Arecoline stimulates cultured cells above 0.1 microg/ml and is cytotoxic above 10 microg/ml. Although this alkaloid seems important for areca nut induced oral carcinogenesis, little is known of the levels achieved during chewing. Saliva was collected in 3- to 5-min intervals over 50 min in 32 habitual chewers: before, for 25 min during, and for 20 min after chewing areca nut (0.5 g) without any other additives. Salivary arecoline was quantitated by HPLC-MS. Controls comprised six subjects who denied areca nut use, and who were given rubber-base material to chew during experiments instead. Arecoline was detected before chewing in 22 subjects, exceeding the 0.1 microg/ml threshold in 20 cases. Salivary arecoline exceeded either the 0.1 or 10 microg/ml thresholds in all participants during chewing (P arecoline in at least 85% of time points studied (P Arecoline concentrations varied greatly over time between individuals, and levels were much lower when peak concentrations were reached before 3 min, than in cases where arecoline peaked later (P arecoline was found in control saliva. Areca nut users have persistent background salivary arecoline levels long after chewing, whereas concentrations achieved are highly variable and consistent with a role in oral pre-malignancy and malignancy.

  12. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  13. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet c

  14. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  15. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  16. A double row alley-cropping system for establishing nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry Van Sambeek; William. Reid

    2017-01-01

    One of the greatest deterrents to establishing a new nut orchard is the long period of time it takes from tree planting to first commercial nut harvest. At the Pecan Experiment Field, a pecan or walnut must grow ten seasons or more and maybe a little less for Chinese chestnuts before the trees produces enough nuts to warrant mechanical harvesting.

  17. The Association between Soy Nut Consumption and Decreased Menopausal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K.; Lee, Karen S.; Lew, Natalie S.; Nasca, Melita; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a low incidence of hot flashes in populations that consume dietary soy. The present study examined the effect of soy nuts on hot flashes and menopausal symptoms. Methods Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized in a crossover design to a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet alone and a TLC diet of similar energy, fat, and protein content in which one-half cup soy nuts divided into three or four portions spaced throughout the day (containing 25 g soy protein and 101 mg aglycone isoflavones) replaced 25 g of nonsoy protein. During each 8-week diet period, subjects recorded the number of hot flashes and amount of exercise daily. At the end of each 8-week diet period, subjects filled out the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire. Results Compared to the TLC diet alone, the TLC diet plus soy nuts was associated with a 45% decrease in hot flashes (7.5 ± 3.6 vs. 4.1 ± 2.6 hot flashes day, respectively, p 4.5 hot flashes/day at baseline and 41% in those with ≤4.5 hot flashes/day (2.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.3 ± 1.1, respectively, p < 0.001). Soy nut intake was also associated with significant improvement in scores on the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire: 19% decrease in vasomotor score (p = 0.004), 12.9% reduction in psychosocial score (p = 0.01), 9.7% decrease in physical score (p = 0.045), and a trend toward improvement in the sexual score, with a 17.7% reduction in symptoms (p = 0.129). The amount of exercise had no effect on hot flash reduction. Conclusions Substituting soy nuts for nonsoy protein in a TLC diet and consumed three or four times throughout the day is associated with a decrease in hot flashes and improvement in menopausal symptoms. PMID:17439381

  18. Circular Orbits in the Taub-NUT and mass-less Taub-NUT Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the equatorial causal geodesics of the Taub-NUT(TN) space-time in comparison with \\emph{mass-less} TN space-time. We emphasized both on the null circular geodesics and time-like circular geodesics. From the effective potential diagram of null and time-like geodesics, we differentiate the geodesics structure between TN spacetime and mass-less TN space-time. It has been shown that there is a key role of the NUT parameter to changes the shape of pattern of the potential well in the NUT spacetime in comparison with mass-less NUT space-time. We compared the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbit), MBCO (marginally bound circular orbit) and CPO (circular photon orbit) of the said space-time with graphically in comparison with mass-less cases. Moreover, we compute the radius of ISCO, MBCO and CPO for \\emph{extreme} TN black hole. Interestingly, we show that these \\emph{three radii} coincides with the Killing horizon i.e. the null geodesic generators of the horizon. Finally in Appendix, we comput...

  19. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  20. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias, E-mail: mkfranco@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yokaichiya, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.yokaichiya@helmholtz-berlin.de [Department Quantum Phenomena in Novel Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay, E-mail: kardjilov@helmholtz-berlim.de [Institut Angewandte Materialforschung, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: carlos@feagri.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    2015-07-15

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  2. Online LC-GC-based analysis of minor lipids in various tree nuts and peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esche, Rebecca; Müller, Luisa; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-11-27

    As information on free sterols/stanols and steryl/stanyl esters in nuts is lacking, the compositions and contents of these lipid constituents in ten different nut types were analyzed. The applied approach was based on online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography and enabled the simultaneous analysis of free sterols/stanols and individual steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters, and additionally of tocopherols and squalene. Total contents of free sterols/stanols ranged from 0.62 mg/g nut in hazelnuts to 1.61 mg/g nut in pistachios, with sitosterol as the predominant compound. Total contents of steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters were in the range of 0.11-1.26 mg/g nut, being lowest in Brazil nuts and highest in pistachios. There were considerable differences between the various nut types not only regarding the contents, but also the compositions of both classes. The levels of tocopherols were highest in pine nuts (0.33 mg/g nut); those of squalene were remarkably high in Brazil nuts (1.11 mg/g nut).

  3. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  4. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  5. Some physical properties of ginkgo nuts and kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, P. E.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Mathai, E. J.; Yunus, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Some data of the physical properties of ginkgo nuts at a moisture content of 45.53% (±2.07) (wet basis) and of their kernels at 60.13% (± 2.00) (wet basis) are presented in this paper. It consists of the estimation of the mean length, width, thickness, the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, unit mass, surface area, volume, true density, bulk density, and porosity measures. The coefficient of static friction for nuts and kernels was determined by using plywood, glass, rubber, and galvanized steel sheet. The data are essential in the field of food engineering especially dealing with design and development of machines, and equipment for processing and handling agriculture products.

  6. Taub-NUT and Dynamical Systems : the geometric connection demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Sumanto; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2015-01-01

    A short analysis of the curvature of the Taub-NUT tells us if it truly is a gravitational instanton, followed up by a brief review of its other geometrical properties. We follow this up with a comparison to Bertrand spacetime and computation of its conserved quantities. Such quantities reflect on its symmetries expressed through Killing tensors, like the Killing St\\"ackel and Yano tensors. We will attempt to describe an easy procedure to derive the spatial Killing-Yano tensors from the conserved quantities and examine the possibility of a graded Lie-algebra structure via Schouten-Nijenhuis brackets. Finally we will derive the related hyperk\\"ahler structures and compare them with the Killing-Yano tensors of Taub-NUT.

  7. Quantum Gravity and the Nuts and Bolts of Thermodynamic Volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS_4 with an S^3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

  8. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Y B; Singh, A V

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extract of pericarp showed significant protection against FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation, as compared with whole native nut and seeds. Mechanism of action may be through metal chelation or activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, because the extract did not show hydroxyl and super oxide anion scavenging property. Further in vitro experiments against FeSO4, it did not maintain the level of reduced glutathione.

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  10. Quantum Tunneling Radiation of Kerr-NUT Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Ling; YANG Shu-Zheng; QI De-Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Based on particles in a dynamical geometry, extending the Parikh's method of quantum tunneling radiation,we deeply investigate the quantum tunneling radiation of Kerr-NUT black hole. When self-gravitating action, energyconservation, and angular momentum conservation are taken into account, the emission rate of the particle on the event horizon is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the emission spectrum is not precisely thermal, but is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  11. A Machine Vision System for Quality Inspection of Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikramullah Khosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Computers and artificial intelligence have penetrated in the food industry since last decade, for intellectual automatic processing and packaging in general, and in assisting for quality inspection of the food itself in particular. The food quality assessment task becomes more challenging when it is about harmless internal examination of the ingredient, and even more when its size is also minute. In this article, a method for automatic detection, extraction and classification of raw food item is presented using x-ray image data of pine nuts. Image processing techniques are employed in developing an efficient method for automatic detection and then extraction of individual ingredient, from the source x-ray image which comprises bunch of nuts in a single frame. For data representation, statistical texture analysis is carried out and attributes are calculated from each of the sample image on the global level as features. In addition co-occurrence matrices are computed from images with four different offsets, and hence more features are extracted by using them. To find fewer meaningful characteristics, all the calculated features are organized in several combinations and then tested. Seventy percent of image data is used for training and 15% each for cross-validation and test purposes. Binary classification is performed using two state-of-the-art non-linear classifiers: Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Performance is evaluated in terms of classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. ANN classifier showed 87.6% accuracy with correct recognition rate of healthy nuts and unhealthy nuts as 94% and 62% respectively. SVM classifier produced the similar accuracy achieving 86.3% specificity and 89.2% sensitivity rate. The results obtained are unique itself in terms of ingredient and promising relatively. It is also found that feature set size can be reduced up to 57% by compromising 3.5% accuracy, in combination with

  12. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack.

  13. Particularities in a Child With Cashew Nut Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Soares MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy affects many young children and tree nut allergy is accountable for a large number of severe, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Cross-reactivity can occur not only with foods that are in the same biological family but also between certain fruits or vegetables and latex (latex–fruit syndrome. We present the case of a previous healthy 5-year-old girl referred to Pediatric/Allergology Consultation after an episode of sialorrhea, perioral urticarial rash, tongue swelling, and immediate vomiting after oral contact with cashew nut. Investigation revealed the following: positive skin prick test to walnut and positive specific IgE for cashew nut, walnut, hazelnut, and almond. ImmunoCAP ISAC was positive for storage proteins of walnut and hazelnut (Jug r 1 e Cor a 9 and for a specific allergen of latex (Hev b 3. It is interesting that anaphylaxis was the first manifestation of allergy in a healthy child. Also, we emphasize the importance to latex sensitization with potential future clinical relevance and the sensitization to Hev b 3, which is not documented to be involved in cross-reactivity phenomena/latex–fruit syndrome or present in an otherwise healthy child.

  14. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Volpe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight. Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions.

  15. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  16. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-07-01

    Decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates (Mazafaty, Zard and Sayer variety) with Tribolium Confusum, Oryzaephilus Surinamensis and Ephestia Cautella in different stages studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they have received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. Finally the sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have compared. In this study, we have also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus. The first sequence involved, the freshly harvested pistachio nuts inoculated with A. Flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a environmental chamber, set at temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second sequence during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts have analyzed.

  17. Determination of selenium in nuts by cathodic stripping potentiometry (CSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; La Pera, Lara; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Mavrogeni, Ekaterini; Alfa, Maria

    2003-06-18

    The aim of this work was to determine the selenium content in nut samples by cathodic stripping potentiometry. Dry-powdered nuts were digested by HNO(3) and dissolved with concentrated hydrochloric acid. To avoid the interference of natural oxygen, the potentiometric determination of selenium was carried out in an electrolyte solution consisting of 2 M CaCl(2) and 4 M HCl. The analysis was executed applying an electrolysis potential of -150 mV for 60 s and a constant current of -30 microA. Under these conditions, detection limits lower than 1.0 ng g(-)(1) were obtained for selenium analysis in nuts. The relative standard deviation of these measurements (expressed as rsd %) ranged from 0.44 to 0.88% while recoveries ranged from 90.2 to 95.3%. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those obtained via hydride vapor generation atomic absorption spectroscopy, a common method for determining selenium. The results of the two methods agreed within 5% for almond, hazelnut, and pistachio samples. The mean concentrations of selenium determined in Sicilian samples of almond, hazelnut, and pistachio were 531 +/- 1, 865 +/- 1, and 893 +/- 4 microg/kg, respectively.

  18. Identification of irradiated cashew nut by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sajilata, M G; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Singhal, Rekha S; Variyar, Prasad S; Kamat, M Y; Sharma, Arun

    2008-10-01

    Cashew nut samples were irradiated at gamma-radiation doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy, the permissible dose range for insect disinfestation of food commodities. A weak and short-lived triplet (g = 2.004 and hfcc = 30 G) along with an anisotropic signal (g perpendicular = 2.0069 and g parallel = 2.000) were produced immediately after irradiation. These signals were assigned to that of cellulose and CO 2 (-) radicals. However, the irradiated samples showed a dose-dependent increase of the central line (g = 2.0045 +/- 0.0002). The nature of the free radicals formed during conventional processing such as thermal treatment was investigated and showed an increase in intensity of the central line (g = 2.0045) similar to that of irradiation. Characteristics of the free radicals were studied by their relaxation and thermal behaviors. The present work explores the possibility to identify irradiated cashew nuts from nonirradiated ones by the thermal behaviors of the radicals beyond the period, when the characteristic electron paramagnetic resonance spectral lines of the cellulose free radicals have essentially disappeared. In addition, this study for the first time reports that relaxation behavior of the radicals could be a useful tool to distinguish between roasted and irradiated cashew nuts.

  19. Pollution Sources and Standards of Cashew Nut Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Mohod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: India is largest producer, processor, exporter and second largest consumer of cashew in the world with annual production of 6,20,000 MT. India processed about 1.18 million MT of raw cashew seeds through 3650 cashew processing industries scattered in many states of country. The cashew industries employed different unit operations/ methodologies for processing depend on variety of raw material, location, technological mechanization and availability of secured energy supply. Approach: There are two commonly followed methods of cashew nut processing, viz., roasting process and steam (roasting process. The sources of different environmental pollutant discharged in to the atmosphere during the cashew nut processing have been revealed in the article. Results: The environmental standards for air pollution emission for roasting process, steam cooking process and broma oven have been presented. The solid waste disposal practice and new and relocation sitting criteria have been discussed for cashew processing industries. Conclusion: The cashew nut processing by cooking (steam roasting process, which is relatively less pollution intensive and an alternative process to roasting process may be considered to reduce the environmental discharge load.

  20. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  1. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

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    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  2. Design, Development and Testing of an Areca nut Dehusking Agri-machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut has to be processed in dry condition by peeling the outer shell completely. Peeling of Areca nut is very difficult by hand. However it is being done manually by using a sharp knife with a production rate of 3kg/hr. So it is essential to develop an agri-machine which will increase the production rate and safety to labourers. Presently there are few machines available but these machines are not suitable for variety of sizes of Areca nut which leads into the insufficient removal of outer shell of Areca nut. Therefore there is enough scope to develop a agri-machine suitable for variety of sizes of Areca nut which will overcome these problems. The present reserch work emphasizes on developing an Areca nut Dehusking agri-machine for three different sizes of Areca nut. The concept is to shear-off the husk of the dry Areca nut by shearing force. The features a Dehusking mechanism, and a power drive. The experiments were conducted by changing the blades, and selecting the best method. The first experiment were conducted by mounting set of two cutters separated by spacers for each size of Areca nut, then the set of two cutters were replaced by single cutters and the results of both the experiments were compared and concluded that the single cutters were more efficient than the set of two cutters in Dehusking the Areca nut.

  3. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  4. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation: evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing increases the risk of systemic diseases remains elusive. We hypothesize that systemic inflammation may be elevated among areca nut users, which is linked with many systemic diseases. Therefore, this present study was conducted to examine the systemic inflammation among areca nut chewers and healthy controls. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on areca nut chewers and healthy individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were selected from a region of the city by invitation request sent from door to door. Information was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile and the pattern of use, and a blood sample was obtained to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between socio-demographic profile, areca nut chewing and CRP levels. Results We carried out final analysis on 1112 individuals of which 556 were areca nut chewers and 556 were the age, gender and area matched controls. Areca nut chewers had a significantly higher proportion of men (15.1%, n = 84 who had an elevated CRP (>10 mg/dl as compared to controls (5.2%, n = 29. Multivariate analyses showed that areca nut chewers had significantly higher odds of an elevated CRP (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.08-5.02, p value Conclusions Areca nut chewing has a significant association with systemic inflammation. Further work is required to confirm that systemic inflammation is the main pathway by which areca nut use increases the risk of systemic diseases.

  5. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abenaa A. Okyere; George T. Odamtten

    2014-01-01

    Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mout...

  6. Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the Adventist health study-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Jaceldo-Siegl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP, low tree/high peanut (LT/HP, high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP, and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.53, 1.48, HT/HP (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.99 and HT/LP (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.88 consumers, p for trend = 0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28, 0.65 (0.42, 1.00 and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07, respectively (p for trend = 0.056. Frequency of nut intake (once/week had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts. CONCLUSIONS: Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors.

  7. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  8. Effect of Maturation Degree of Areca Nut and Binder Treatment to The Physicochemical Properties and Citotoxicity of Spray-Dried Areca Nut (Areca catechu L Extracted Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yernisa Yernisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut (Areca catechu L is a rich polyphenol source which is potential health-benefit. Polyphenol could extract from the sources and then converted to solid powder by spray drying. Polyphenol powder is easy to use and to introduce it into food (materials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maturation degree of areca nut (unripe, ripe and binder treatment (without a binder, arabic gum 2% w/v on the  physicochemical properties and citotoxicity of spray-dried areca nut extracted powder. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed statistically used an analysis of variance. Analysis of the results exhibited unripe areca nut produced powder  with higher in yield, moisture content and total phenolic content but had no significant effect on pH and lower in bulk density and solubility than ripe areca nut. Arabic gum treatment produced powders with higher in yield, and solubility, but had no significant effect on moisture content and lower in bulk density, pH and total phenolic content than the treatment without binder. The areca nut extracted powders from all combination of treatments exhibited high cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 less than 1000 ppm, excepted the powders from ripe areca nut with arabic gum.

  9. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.

  10. The properties and geodesics related to the NUT-Taub-like spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ya-Bo; Zhao Guo-Ming; Deng Xue-Mei; Yang Xiu-Yi; Lü Jian-Bo; Li Song

    2006-01-01

    Some properties related to the NUT-Taub-like spacetime, such as the surface of infinite red-shift, horizon, singularity and the area of the NUT-Taub-like black hole are discussed. Furthermore, the geodesics in the NUT-Taub-like spacetime are obtained in some special cases. Specifically, the circular orbits for a massive particle are derived, which can reduce to the cases of the Schwarzschild spacetime and the NUT-Taub spacetime when m* = 0 and m* < M,respectively.

  11. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  12. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  13. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of nuts of Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mohapatra, Tapas Kumar; Das, Apurba

    2008-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of different extracts of nuts of Semecarpus anacardium were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether, chloroform extract of S. anacardium (PESA and CESA, respectively) showed better anthelmintic activities than ethanol (EESA) and aqueous (AESA) extract of it. The anthelmintic effects of PESA and CESA at 10 mg/ml and EESA at 20 mg/ml concentration are comparable to that of the effects produced by the reference standards, albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml).

  14. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product.

  15. On the NUT-Born-Infeld-$\\Lambda$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Bretón, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The stationary axisymmetric spacetime coupled to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics is studied. The solution was derived by Plebanski et al (1984) and it is characterized by six free parameters: mass, NUT charge, electric and magnetic charge, Born-Infeld parameter and cosmological constant. The geodesic and Lorentz force equations are integrated, and a qualitative analysis of the effect of varying the parameters in the effective potential is provided. Then the light and charged particle trajectories are discussed. The conditions that determine an extreme black hole are presented as well.

  16. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.;

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol......, cyclopeptin, dehydrocyclopeptin, viridicatin and viridicatol. It also produces the mouldy smelling compounds geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol, and a series of specific orange to red pigments on yeast extract sucrose agar, hence the epithet discolor. P. discolor resembles P. echinulatum morphologically...

  17. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz; Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas; Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier; Danilo Rodrigues Fernandes; Germano Augusto Gerônimo Nascimento; Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM) has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying ...

  18. Heating and cooling gas-gun targets: nuts and bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehr, Russell J [HONEYWEL FM& T; Bucholtz, Scott M [HINEYWELL FM& T

    2009-01-01

    The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

  19. Nut member and mine roof support system incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.L.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes an improved mine roof support system including a support plate having a central opening, and an elongated rod having a leading end inserted into a drill hole behind a resin cartridge and advanced to break the cartridge and rotated to mix the components thereof to form a hardened, chemical anchor for the rod, and a trailing end of predetermined diameter from which the rod is threaded for a portion of its length. The improvement described here comprises a nut element engaged with the threaded portion of the rod.

  20. Smooth Gowdy symmetric generalized Taub-NUT solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Florian

    2011-01-01

    We study a class of S3 Gowdy vacuum models with a regular past Cauchy horizon which we call smooth Gowdy symmetric generalized Taub-NUT solutions. In particular, we prove existence of such solutions by formulating a singular initial value problem with asymptotic data on the past Cauchy horizon. The result of our investigations is that a future Cauchy horizon exists for generic asymptotic data. Moreover, we derive an explicit expression for the metric on the future Cauchy horizon in terms of the asymptotic data on the past horizon. This complements earlier results about S2xS1 Gowdy models.

  1. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Principle and Implementation of NUT/OS%嵌入式操作系统NUT/OS的原理和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小萍

    2009-01-01

    NUT/OS是一个实时的嵌入式操作系统,源码完全公开且免费.该文通过研究其内核可以更好的理解嵌入式操作系统的实现原理,重点分析了NUT/OS系统中的任务调度机制,时间管理机制,任务管理机制以及内存管理机制的实现原理,并指出NUT/OS在移植过程中面临的困难.

  3. Brief Introduction About Nuts & Bolts Tools Module%Nuts & Bolts工具组件使用简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永战

    2000-01-01

    @@ Nuts & Bolts软件是一个运行于Win9X系统的、用于系统维护和测试的工具组件.该组件包含了注册表的备份、恢复、优化、修理等诸多功能,提供图形界面,按钮操作,使用户操作更加方便、快捷、灵活.下面对该组件的主要功能作一简单介绍.

  4. SYNTHESIS ALKANOLAMIDE TETRAHIDROXY OCTADECANOATE COMPOUND FROM CANDLE NUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candle nut oil could be transesterificated by methanol with concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst to form fatty acid methyl esther. Methyl linoleate could be separated by Column Chromatography mechanism technic partition from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME mixture, then it was treated by ethanolamine at base condition in benzene as solvent and sodium methylate as a catalyst at reflux condition for 6 hours to form an alkanolamide. Alkanolamide could be epoxydized by tert-buthyl hydroperoxyde and peroxygenase as a catalyst and it was refluxed for 6 hours at 40 °C and nitrogen gas condition to form the epoxy alkanolamide octadecanoate, and then it was hydrolyzed by HCl 0.1 M to form alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate (Polyol. Alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate could be separated by Column Chromatography using silica gel H 40 and the eluent was the mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, formic acid in a ratio 90:10:1 (v/v/v/. Determination of HLB value from alknolamide tetrahydroxy octadecanoate is 13.096. Therefore, this compound was particularly suitable for application as an o/w emulsifiers. All af the reaction steps were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS, Gas Chromatography and TLC.   Keywords: Esterification, Candle nut oil, Surfactant, Amidation, Polyol.

  5. Cashew nut meal in the feeding of meat quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Danilo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Filgueira, Thales Marcel Bezerra; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; do Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo; Aguiar, Geovana Costa; Nascimento, Etho Robério Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    A study was aimed to evaluate the effects of cashew nut meal inclusion (CNM) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of meat quails. A total of 432 meat quails with 7 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and nine replicates of eight birds each. Treatments were obtained with inclusion of CNM at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg. According to regression analysis, the inclusion of CNM, at levels above 50 g/kg, provided a linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter and metabolizable energy of diets, linear increase in feed intake and an increase in feed conversion ratio, not influencing weight gain and carcass characteristics. Comparing the results obtained with the different inclusion levels compared to those obtained with the diet without CNM (control group), it was noted that diets with 200 g/kg of CNM inclusion, the dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of diet were lower and the level of 250 g/kg provided higher feed intake. Considering the results, it can be inferred that cashew nut meal can be used as a feedstuff in meat quail's diets at levels up to 250 g/kg.

  6. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia seed contains about 64 percent of non-edible oil in its oily kernel and this oil can be used for various purposes such as biofuel and bio-oil; making of paints, insecticides, cosmetics, lubricants and cooling oil in electrical transformers. The cakes obtained after oil extraction are incorporated on the field as manure. In order to get quality oil kernels from the hard nuts, there is need to properly crack them; this process of cracking is still a great challenge. As result of the aforementioned problem, this work focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a thevetia nut cracking machine. The machine works based on the principle of attrition force. Some of the parts designed for were diameter of shaft (13 mm solid shaft and length of belt (A55, power required to operate the machine (2.5 hp, speed of operation (9.14 m/s and the appropriate dimension of angle iron bar of 45 mm × 45 mm × 3 mm was used for the structural support. The fabrication was done systematically followed by the performance evaluation of the machine. The result of the overall cracking efficiency and throughput capacity of the machine were evaluated to be 96.65 % and 510 g⁄min respectively.

  7. Acceptance of handmade products containing nuts and fructooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilce Andrezza de Freitas Folly

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prebiotic and food with functional properties are beneficial for consumers through prevention of many diseases. Aim: Verify the acceptance of handmade product (chocolate bar, soy sweet and sweet bread formulated based on oil seeds (flaxseed, peanut and Brazil nut and or fructooligosaccharides (FOS. Methods: Four samples of each handmade product were prepared adding different concentrations of oil seed and FOS. The sensory evaluation was performed by a sample of 373 consumers; 126, 121 and 126 tasters of chocolate bar, soy sweet and sweet bread, respectively, using a hedonic scale of nine points. The results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results and Discussion: Observing the trials averages, we inferred that samples of sweet bread with Brazil nut and/or FOS had the greater acceptance. However, all the samples are good market alternatives because they had presented averages between 6 and 9 points, and conferred accretion of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, protein, fiber, antioxidant vitamins and minerals, as well as, phytochemicals, which plays an important role in health promotion. Conclusion: The handmade products formulated based on oil seeds and FOS had good acceptance and can improve the consumer dietary patterns. But, in order to prove the functionality of these products, new studies should be performed.

  8. Genetic gains in physic nut using selection indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic gains in physic nut (Jatropha curcas using selection indexes and to establish the best selection strategy for the species. Direct and indirect selection was carried out using different selection indexes, totalizing 14 strategies. One hundred and seventy five families from the active germplasm bank of Embrapa Agroenergy, Brasília, Brazil, were analyzed in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. The evaluated traits were: grain yield; seeds per fruit; endosperm/seed ratio; seed weight, length, width, and thickness; branches per plant at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m; plant height; stem diameter; canopy projection on rows and between lines; canopy volume; juvenility (days to the first flowering; and height of the first inflorescence. Evaluations were done during the second year of cultivation. The use of selection indexes is relevant to maximize the genetic gains in physic nut, favoring a better distribution of desirable traits. The multiplicative and restrictive indexes are considered the most promising for selection.

  9. NUT midline carcinoma of the parotid gland with mesenchymal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Michael A; Beverloo, Berna H; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Meeuwis, Cees A; Tan, Liane M; Johnson, Laura A; French, Christopher A; van Leenders, Geert J L H

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear protein in testis midline carcinomas (NMC) are highly aggressive carcinomas typically arising in midline structures in young individuals. These carcinomas are characterized by the presence of a chromosomal rearrangement of nuclear protein in testis the (NUT) gene on chromosome 15 (15q14), resulting from a chromosomal translocation most commonly involving the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19p13. Rarely, in about 1/3 of cases, other translocation partners are involved (termed NUT-variants). Most cases have involved midline structures and with few exceptions were located in the upper aerodigestive tract and the mediastinum. Except for a single case, all reported NMC have been fatal, proving resistant to multimodality treatment. We report an exceptional case of a NMC presenting outside of midline structures in the parotid gland and showing mesenchymal chondroid differentiation in a 15-year-old male. The presence of the t(15;19) chromosomal translocation in the chondroid component was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemical staining, indicating mesenchymal transdifferentation of the tumor. The findings demonstrate the first case of NMC arising within salivary gland, and the first example of mesenchymal differentiation in this group of tumors.

  10. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  11. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years ol...

  12. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  13. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  14. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  15. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  16. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  17. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  18. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  19. Berry fruit and nuts: their role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in the aging brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits and nuts are nutrient dense and contain a variety of bioactive phytochemicals, specifically polyphenols. A growing body of literature describes pre-clinical research, using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, which show beneficial effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain in ...

  20. Nondestructive inspection of nuts for food quality and safety using NIRS (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold infection and insect infestation are significant postharvest problems for processors of nuts. Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting techniques...

  1. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  2. Developing Management Techniques For Black Walnut to Stabilize the Annual Nut Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller

    2001-01-01

    Two studies involving cultural methods to increase nut production of plantation black walnut are presented. In the first study, nut production was measured for 5 years to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilization separately, in combination, and with and without phosphorus (P) broadcast annually for 4 years at two rates. Fertilization...

  3. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  4. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  5. Nut production in response to thinning and fertilization for planted walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; Steve Rutledge; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2013-01-01

    Nut production from nursery-run black walnuts grown on 225 acres at the Hammons Products Company's Sho-Neff Black Walnut Farm in Stockton, MO, was evaluated from 1995 to 2010 to determine if nut production increased after thinning and fertilization in 2001. The farm consists of 11 upland and 10 bottomland plantings on sites ranging from unsuitable to well suited...

  6. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of brazil-nut allergen Ber e 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu, E-mail: zhangy@iit.edu [Department of Biology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The crystallization of the brazil nut allergen Ber e 2 is reported. Peanut and tree-nut allergies have attracted considerable attention because of their frequency and their lifelong persistence. Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa) allergies have been well documented and the 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ber e 2 (excelsin) is one of the two known brazil-nut allergens. In this study, Ber e 2 was extracted from brazil-nut kernels and purified to high purity by crystalline precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  7. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  8. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  9. Vitamin K content of nuts and fruits in the US diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismore, MacKenzie L; Haytowitz, David B; Gebhardt, Susan E; Peterson, James W; Booth, Sarah L

    2003-12-01

    Assessment of vitamin K dietary intakes has been limited by incomplete vitamin K food composition data for the US food supply. The phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) concentrations of nuts (n=76) and fruits (n=215) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Each sample represented a composite of units obtained from 12 to 24 outlets, which provided geographic representation of the US food supply. With the exception of pine nuts and cashews, which contain 53.9 and 34.8 microg of phylloquinone per 100 g of nut, respectively, nuts are not important dietary sources of vitamin K. Similarly, most fruits are not important sources of vitamin K, with the exception of some berries, green fruits, and prunes. Menu planning for patients on warfarin can include a healthy diet including fruits and nuts without compromising the stability of their oral anticoagulation therapy.

  10. Frequency of nut consumption and mortality risk in the PREDIMED nutrition intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in non-Mediterranean populations have consistently related increasing nut consumption to lower coronary heart disease mortality. A small protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality has also been suggested. To examine the association between frequency of nut consumption and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high average nut intake per person. Methods We evaluated 7,216 men and women aged 55 to 80 years randomized to 1 of 3 interventions (Mediterranean diets supplemented with nuts or olive oil and control diet) in the PREDIMED (‘PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea’) study. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and mortality was ascertained by medical records and linkage to the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression and multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the association between yearly repeated measurements of nut consumption and mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths and 130 cancer deaths occurred. Nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend 3 servings/week (32% of the cohort) had a 39% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.61; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.83). A similar protective effect against cardiovascular and cancer mortality was observed. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet with nuts group who consumed nuts >3 servings/week at baseline had the lowest total mortality risk (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Conclusions Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/165. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN

  11. Anacardic acid: molluscicide in cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J T; Richards, C S; Lloyd, H A; Krishna, G

    1982-03-01

    The components of anacardic acid, (a mixture of 6-n-C (15) alkylsalicylic acids whose side chains vary in degrees of unsaturation) have been isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography from a crude extract of cashew nut shell, Anacardium occidentale, and tested for toxicity to fresh water snails, Biomphalaria glabrata. The triene component is the most toxic form (LC (50) 0.35 ppm), the diene and monoene components are less toxic (LC (50) 0.9 and 1.4 ppm), and the saturated component is relatively nontoxic (LC (50) > 5 ppm). Since decarboxylated anacardic acid (cardanol) and salicylic acid do not kill snails at concentrations up to 5 ppm, it appears that both, carboxyl group and unsaturated side chain are absolutely required for molluscicidal activity. The mechanism of toxicity of anacardic acid to snails is unknown.

  12. Thermodynamic product formula for a Taub-NUT black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We derive various important thermodynamic relations of the inner and outer horizons in the background of the Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We compare these properties with the properties of the Reissner-Nordström black hole. We compute the area product, area sum, area subtraction, and area division of black hole horizons. We show that they all are not universal quantities. Based on these relations, we compute the area bound of all horizons. From the area bound, we derive an entropy bound and an irreducible mass bound for both horizons. We further study the stability of such black holes by computing the specific heat for both horizons. It is shown that due to the negative specific heat, the black hole is thermodynamically unstable. All these calculations might be helpful in understanding the nature of the black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level.

  13. Thermodynamic Product Formula for Taub-NUT Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We derive various important thermodynamic relations of the inner and outer horizon in the background of Taub-NUT(Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four dimensional \\emph{Lorentzian geometry}. We compare these properties with the properties of Reissner Nordstr{\\o}m black hole. We compute \\emph{area product, area sum, area minus and area division} of black hole horizons. We show that they all are not universal quantities. Based on these relations, we compute the area bound of all horizons. From area bound, we derive entropy bound and irreducible mass bound for both the horizons. We further study the stability of such black hole by computing the specific heat for both the horizons. It is shown that due to negative specific heat the black hole is thermodynamically unstable. All these calculations might be helpful to understanding the nature of black hole entropy both \\emph{interior} and exterior at the microscopic level.

  14. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are exempted...

  16. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for Comments, Scientific Data and Information; Extension of... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking this...

  17. 典型螺母加工工艺研究%Study on Machining Technology for Typical Nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀芳

    2011-01-01

    以六角螺母为典型零件,简述了切削加工制造螺母的工艺方法、程序编制.%Based on hexagon nut as typical part, the manufacturing technology of nut by machining, programming, technology and testing were presented by practice experience in manufacturing nut for aeroengine.

  18. Going nuts for nuts? The trace proteome of a Cola drink, as detected via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-05-01

    The "invisible" proteome of a Cola drink, stated to be produced with a kola nut extract, has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL). Indeed, a few proteins in the M(r) 15-20 kDa range could be identified by treating large beverage volumes (1 L) and performing the capture with CPLLs at very acidic pH values (pH 2.2) under conditions mimicking reverse-phase adsorption. Ascertaining the presence of proteins deriving from plant extracts has confirmed the genuineness of such beverage and suggests the possibility of certifying whether soft drinks present on the market are indeed made with vegetable extracts or only with artificial chemical flavoring.

  19. Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Hu, Frank B

    2014-07-01

    There is some concern that the high-fat, energy-dense content of nuts may promote weight gain. Nuts, however, are rich in protein and dietary fiber, which are associated with increased satiety. They also contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytoesterols that may confer health benefits for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes delay and prevention. Therefore, it is important to determine the association between nut consumption and long-term weight change and disease risk to reach scientific consensus and to make evidence-based public health recommendations. Several cross-sectional analyses have shown an inverse association between higher nut consumption and lower body weight. In addition, several independent prospective studies found that increasing nut consumption was associated with lower weight gain over relatively long periods of time. Moreover, high consumption of nuts (especially walnuts) has been associated with lower diabetes risk. Therefore, regular consumption (approximately one handful daily) of nuts over the long term, as a replacement to less healthful foods, can be incorporated as a component of a healthy diet for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. The Overview and Prospects for Production and Marketing of Cashew Nut in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan; ZHENG; Jinhui; LUO

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we analyze the cultivation and production of cashew in the world during the period 2005-2010,and make a concrete analysis of the import and export trade of cashew nut in the world in recent years.In particular,we give an overview of the production and trade in major producing countries of cashew such as Vietnam and India.Finally,we analyze the nutritional value,pharmaceutical and industry role of cashew nut,and look into the future of development of the cashew nut industry in the world.

  1. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Phenolic Compounds of Areca Nut(Areca catechu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing; WU Jiao; HAN Zhuang; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Areca catechu L.(Palmae),commonly known as an important economical seed crop,is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas,including India,Southeast Asia,East Africa and New Guinea.Areca nut(frequently known as betel nut) is the ripe fruit of the tree A.catechu.Areca nut can be chewed and it is a common masticatory in tropical and subtropical countries.It was estimated in the early 1990s that 10% to 20% of the world's population chewed betel quid daily.

  2. Entropy of Warped Taub-NUT AdS Black String via the Brick Wall Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chong Oh

    2014-01-01

    When we consider five-dimensional warped Taub-NUT AdS black string with minimally coupled massive scalar field, we calculate an entropy by using the brick wall method. In extremely light effective mass, we find the entropy is proportional to an extra dimension wave number as well as quadratically divergent in a cutoff parameter. After taking zero NUT charge, we find the entropy of warped (AdS) Schwartzshield black hole string has a similar properties in as warped Taub-NUT AdS black string.

  3. Remarks on the Taub-NUT solution in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the generalization of the NUT spacetime in General Relativity (GR) within the framework of the (dynamical) Einstein-Chern-Simons (ECS) theory with a massless scalar field. These configurations approach asymptotically the NUT spacetime and are characterized by the 'electric' and 'magnetic' mass parameters and a scalar 'charge'. The solutions are found both analytically and numerically. The analytical approach is perturbative around the Einstein gravity background. Our results indicate that the ECS configurations share all basic properties of the NUT spacetime in GR. However, when considering the solutions inside the event horizon, we find that in contrast to the GR case, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound.

  4. Plasma metabolomic biomarkers of mixed nuts exposure inversely correlate with severity of metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mora-Cubillos, X.; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia Aloy, Mar; Bulló, M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    SCOPE: To identify the most discriminant dietary biomarkers of nuts exposure in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and investigate the potential association between exposure and the severity of the MetS diagnostic traits. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied the untargeted LC-ESI-qToF-MS-driven metabolomic workflow to explore the changes occurring in the plasma metabolome of MetS subjects following 12-week intake of mixed nuts (30 g/d) (nuts versus control groups). Urolithin A glucuronide wa...

  5. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  6. Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography; Analise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Joao Rodrigues de; Lima, Antonio Calixto [EMBRAPA, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: paiva@cnpat.embrapa.br; Biscegli, Clovis Isberto [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: clovis@cnpdia.embrapa.br

    2004-11-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study. (author)

  7. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  8. The Spherical Brazil Nut Effect and its Significance to Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Viranga; Jackson, Alan P.; Asphaug, Erik; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Asteroids are intriguing remnant objects from the early solar system. They can inform us on how planets formed, they could possibly impact the earth in the future, and they likely contain precious metals; for those reasons, there will be future exploration and mining space missions to them. Telescopic observations and spacecraft data have helped us understand basic properties such as their size, mass, spin rate, orbital elements, and their surface properties. However, their interior structures have remained elusive. In order to fully characterize the interiors of these bodies, seismic data will be necessary. However, we can infer their interior structures by combining several key factors that we know about them: 1). Past work has shown that asteroids between 150 m to 10 km in size are rubble-piles that are a collection of particles held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. 2). Asteroid surfaces show cratering that suggests that past impacts would have seismically shaken these bodies. 3). Spacecraft images show that some asteroids have large protruding boulders on their surfaces. A rubble-pile object made of particles of different sizes and that undergoes seismic shaking will experience granular flow. Specifically, a size sorting effect known as the Brazil Nut Effect will lead larger particles to move towards the surface while smaller particles will move downwards. Previous work has suggested that this effect could possibly explain not only why there are large boulders on the surfaces of some asteroids but also might suggest that the interior particles of these bodies would be organized by size. Previous works have conducted computer simulations and lab experiments; however, all the particle configurations used have been either cylindrical or rectangular boxes. In this work we present a spherical configuration of self-gravitating particles that is a better representation of asteroids. Our results indicate that while friction is not necessary for the Brazil Nut

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Femilub” and maintenance of vaginal moisture pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on a health claim related to “Femilub®” and maintenance of vaginal moisture. The food that is the subject of the health claim, “Femilub®”, which is a combination of macadamia oil, borage oil, perilla oil, d‑α‑tocopherol and biotin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of vaginal...

  10. remediative potential of bambara nut on lead and zinc polluted soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    levels of heavy metals in sediments to acceptable levels with time, because metals are ... phytoextraction of copper and cadmium from ... nut to extract, stabilize or accumulate lead and zinc with or ..... submerged mine tailings. Environmental.

  11. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS: SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUG? BRIEF REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom Seyram Achoribo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, This review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.

  12. Spectroscopic observation of SN 2017pp by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Tronsgaard, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of SN 2017pp in PGC 1378162. The candidate was discovered by F. Ciabattari, E. Mazzoni, S. Donati (ISSP; http://italiansupernovae.org).

  13. Remarks on the Taub-NUT solution in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brihaye, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the generalization of the NUT spacetime in General Relativity (GR) within the framework of the (dynamical) Einstein--Chern-Simons (ECS) theory with a massless scalar field. These configurations approach asymptotically the NUT spacetime and are characterized by the `electric' and `magnetic' mass parameters and a scalar `charge'. %NUT parameter, the mass and a scalar 'charge'. The solutions are found both analytically and numerically. The analytical approach is perturbative around the Einstein gravity background. Our results indicate that the ECS configurations share all basic properties of the NUT spacetime in GR. However, when considering the solutions inside the event horizon, we find that in contrast to the GR case, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound.

  14. Euler Characteristic and Topological Phase Transition of NUT-Kerr-Newman Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; YUE Jing-Hua; YANG Guo-Hong; TIAN Li-Jun; ZHU Shu

    2008-01-01

    From the Causs-Bonnet-Chern theorem, the Euler characteristic of NUT-Kerr-Newman black hole is calculated to be some discrete numbers from 0 to 2. We find that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the largest entropy in topology by taking into account of the relationship between the entropy and the Euler characteristic. The NUT-Kerr-Newman black hole evolves from the torus-like topological structure to the spherical structure with the changes of mass, angular momentum, electric and NUT charges. In this process, the Euler characteristic and the entropy are changed discontinuously, which give the topological aspect of the first-order phase transition of NUT-Kerr-Newman black hole. The corresponding latent heat of the topologicaJ phase transition is also obtained. The estimated latent heat of the black hole evolving from the star just lies in the range of the energy of gamma ray bursts.

  15. Use of Areca nut pericarp as a substrate for the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripheuk, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut pericarp and pararubber sawdust were used as a substrates for Volvariella volvacea cultivation. The five formulas of substrates were used as spawing media : entirely Areca nut pericarp, Areca nut pericarp : pararubber sawdust (ratios 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and entirely pararubber sawdust. Five kilograms of each substrates was spread in baskets for 15 days until harvesting time. The average yields obtained were 600.0 (B.E. = 34.20%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25%, 380.0 (B.E. = 21.66%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25% and 330.0 (B.E. = 18.81% g/basket, respectively. Using entirely Areca nut pericarp gave thehighest yield, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from using entirely pararubber sawdust.

  16. Deflection of light in equatorial plane due to Kerr-Taub-NUT body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Sarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to General Relativity, there are factors like mass, rotation, charge and presence of Cosmological constant that can influence the path of light ray. Apart from these factors, many authors have also reported the influence of gravitomagnetism on the path of light ray. In this study we have discussed the effect of a rotating Kerr-Taub-NUT body where the strength of the gravitomagnetic monopole is represented by the NUT factor or magnetic mass. We use the null geodesic of photon method to obtain the deflection angle of light ray for a Kerr-Taub-NUT body in equatorial plane upto the fourth order term. Our study shows that the NUT factor has a noticeable effect on the path of the light ray. By considering the magnetism to be zero, the expression of bending angle gets reduced to the Kerr bending angle. However, we obtained a non-zero bending angle for a hypothetical massless, magnetic body.

  17. Using 'may contain' labelling to inform food choice: a qualitative study of nut allergic consumers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Julie; Muncer, Kate; Leftwich, Jo; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M; Gowland, M Hazel; Grimshaw, Kate; Lucas, Jane S

    2011-01-01

    .... Neither food safety nor foods labelling legislation address this issue. The aim of this study is to understand how peanut and nut allergic adults interpret 'may contain' labelling and how they use this information when purchasing food...

  18. Nut Caching by Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): Implications for Tree Demography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W. Carter Johnson; Curtis S. Adkisson; Thomas R. Crow; Mark D. Dixon

    1997-01-01

    .... Three aspects were examined: jay habitat preferences for caching, jay caching patterns before and after fire, and the influence of predation on nuts by small mammals on tree recruitment in jay territories...

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics to identify pine nuts that cause taste disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Helmut; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Tschiersch, Christopher; Vancutsem, Jeroen; Thielert, Gerhard; Mohring, Arne; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-07-13

    Nontargeted 400 MHz (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used in the context of food surveillance to reveal Pinus species whose nuts cause taste disturbance following their consumption, the so-called pine nut syndrome (PNS). Using principal component analysis, three groups of pine nuts were distinguished. PNS-causing products were found in only one of the groups, which however also included some normal products. Sensory analysis was still required to confirm PNS, but NMR allowed the sorting of 53% of 57 samples, which belong to the two groups not containing PNS species. Furthermore, soft independent modeling of class analogy was able to classify the samples between the three groups. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the screening of pine nuts for PNS. This process may be advantageous as a means of importation control that will allow the identification of samples suitable for direct clearance and those that require further sensory analysis.

  20. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  1. Enzymatic bioremediation of cashew nut shell liquid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Soly; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-04-15

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a by-product of the cashew kernel industry, is a caustic, viscous, dark liquid. The process is done manually, which leaves stains on the hands of the workers. The aim was to find the utility of enzymes, oxidoreductases and proteases for the bioremediation of CNSL, which contains phenolics, mainly cardanol (60-65%). The results show that peroxidase reduced the color of the CNSL solution by polymerization and precipitation, where as laccase, papain and fungal and bacterial protease degraded the phenolic constituents. The degradation was mainly at the double bonds of the C15 hydrocarbon chain of the cardanol. To improve the enzyme stability, laccase and papain was separately immobilized in alginate-starch beads. Immobilized laccase can degrade 28.6% CNSL within 2 h, where as papain takes longer duration, and at 73 h, the adsorbed phenols on the alginate (45.86%) also got degraded. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that, immobilized laccase-papain beads combination; 1:1 (w/w) degraded 60% of the cardanol and some phenolic compounds having molecular mass of 374, 390 and 407. These beads are active and stable in aqueous media, can be used to prepare a mild, nontoxic, ecofriendly, cost effective hand wash solution for the removal of phenolic stains.

  2. The spherical Brazil Nut Effect and its significance to asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, Viranga; Asphaug, Erik; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Many asteroids are likely rubble-piles that are a collection of smaller objects held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. These asteroids are seismically shaken by impacts, which leads to excitation of their constituent particles. As a result it has been suggested that their surfaces and sub-surface interiors may be governed by a size sorting mechanism known as the Brazil Nut Effect. We study the behavior of a model asteroid that is a spherical, self-gravitating aggregate with a binary size-distribution of particles under the action of applied seismic shaking. We find that above a seismic threshold, larger particles rise to the surface when friction is present, in agreement with previous studies that focussed on cylindrical and rectangular box configurations. Unlike previous works we also find that size sorting takes place even with zero friction, though the presence of friction does aid the sorting process above the seismic threshold. Additionally we find that while strong size sorting can take place n...

  3. The Brazil-nut effect and its application to asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Soko; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Out of the handful of asteroids that have been imaged, some have distributions of blocks that are not easily explained. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that seismic shaking leads to the size sorting of particles in asteroids. In particular, we focus on the so-called Brazil Nut Effect (BNE) that separates large particles from small ones under vibrations. We study the BNE over a wide range of parameters by using the N-body code PKDGRAV, and find that the effect is largely insensitive to the coefficients of restitution, but sensitive to friction constants and oscillation speeds. Agreeing with the previous results, we find that convection drives the BNE, where the intruder rises to the top of the particle bed. For the wide-cylinder case, we also observe a "whale" effect, where the intruder follows the convective current and does not stay at the surface. We show that the non-dimensional critical conditions for the BNE agree well with previous studies. We also show that the BNE is scalable for low-gra...

  4. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  5. Thermodynamics of $(d+1)$-dimensional NUT-charged AdS Spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, R.; Fatibene, L.; Mann, R. B.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of $(d+1)$-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either $(d-1)$-dimensional (called "bolts") or of lower dimensionality (pure "NUTs"). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge meth...

  6. Instantons on multi-Taub-NUT Spaces I: Asymptotic Form and Index Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkis, Sergey A; Stern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We study finite action anti-self-dual Yang-Mills connections on the multi-Taub-NUT space. We establish the curvature and the harmonic spinors decay rates and compute the index of the associated Dirac operator. This is the first in a series of papers proving the completeness of the bow construction of instantons on multi-Taub-NUT spaces and exploring it in detail.

  7. A New Way to Derive the Taub-NUT Metric with Positive Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Osuga, Kento

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a biaxial Bianchi IX model with positive cosmological constant, which is sometimes called the Lambda-Taub-NUT spacetime, whose exact solution is well known. The minisuperspace of biaxial Bianchi IX models admits two non-trivial Killing tensors that play an important role for deriving the Taub-NUT metric. We also give a brief discussion about the asymptotic behaviour of Bianchi IX models.

  8. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Cameiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Sartori, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigate...... in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius....

  9. Characterization of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from organic Brazil nuts using a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, T A; Baquião, A C; Atayde, D D; Grabarz, F; Corrêa, B

    2014-09-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an important non-timber forest product from Amazonia, is commercialized in worldwide markets. The main importers of this nut are North America and European countries, where the demand for organic products has grown to meet consumers concerned about food safety. Thus, the precise identification of toxigenic fungi is important because the Brazil nut is susceptible to colonization by these microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterize by polyphasic approach strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from organic Brazil nuts. The results showed Aspergillus flavus as the main species found (74.4%), followed by Aspergillus nomius (12.7%). The potential mycotoxigenic revealed that 80.0% of A. flavus were toxin producers, 14.3% of which produced only aflatoxin B (AFB), 22.85% of which produced only cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and 42.85% produced both them. All strains of A. nomius were AFB and AFG producers and did not produce CPA. There is no consensus about what Aspergillus species predominates on Brazil nuts. Apparently, the origin, processing, transport and storage conditions of this commodity influence the species that are found. The understanding about population of fungi is essential for the development of viable strategies to control aflatoxins in organic Brazil nuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Matching nuts and bolts in O(n log n) time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlos, J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Ma, Yuan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Szemeredi, E. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Given a set of n nuts of distinct widths and a set of n bolts such that each nut corresponds to a unique bolt of the same width, how should we match every nut with its corresponding bolt by comparing nuts with bolts (no comparison is allowed between two nuts or between two bolts)? The problem can be naturally viewed as a variant of the classic sorting problem as follows. Given two lists of n numbers each such that one list is a permutation of the other, how should we sort the lists by comparisons only between numbers in different lists? We give an O(n log n)-time deterministic algorithm for the problem. This is optimal up to a constant factor and answers an open question posed by Alon, Blum, Fiat, Kannan, Naor, and Ostrovsky. Moreover, when copies of nuts and bolts are allowed, our algorithm runs in optimal O(log n) time on n processors in Valiant`s parallel comparison tree model. Our algorithm is based on the AKS sorting algorithm with substantial modifications.

  11. Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae Regeneration in Logging Gaps in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Julian Moll-Rocek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. extraction serves as an important economic resource in the Madre de Dios region of Peru simultaneously promoting forest conservation, yet, under current management, it cannot compete with other land uses. This study investigated the effects of logging gaps on Brazil nut natural regeneration. A total of 48 paired logging gap-understory sites were visited in Brazil nut concessions in the Tambopata province of Madre de Dios, Peru. At each site, the number of Brazil nut recruits was counted and canopy openness and gap area were measured. Significantly higher levels of recruit density were found in logging gaps than in understory sites. Additionally, recruit density was positively correlated with canopy openness. Further, in experimental plantings in paired gap and understory sites, canopy openness, height, total leaf area, and number were recorded from August 2011 to February 2012. Height, total leaf area, and leaf number were significantly higher for tree-fall gap grown seedlings, lending further evidence to improved recruitment success of Brazil nuts in forest gaps. These results suggest that multiple-use forest management could be considered as an alternative for the sustainable extraction of Brazil nuts but also highlight that further studies are required.

  12. Modulating role of Semecarpus anacardium L. nut milk extract on aflatoxin B(1) biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a substantial effort to curtail the adverse health effects posed by aflatoxin B(1), studies have been conducted to elucidate the possible mechanism for the anticarcinogenic action of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Rats are monitored for levels of urinary, serum and liver biomarkers, namely, unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1), and its metabolites aflatoxin M(1), and aflatoxin Q(1), over the course of 2 weeks with nut extract therapy following a single-exposure to aflatoxin B(1). Due to the administration of nut extract, the excretion of unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1) was increased in day 1 urine when compared with rats without drug treatment. In serum and liver which were collected on day 16 and the rest of periodical urine samples showed aflatoxin B(1) and its metabolites in undetectable levels. The nut extract administration induced cytochrome P(450), glutathione, and glutathione-S-transferase levels in liver homogenates of aflatoxin B(1)-treated rats. These data seem to indicate that anticarcinogenic action by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract is possibly via suppression of aflatoxin B(1)activation and through interaction with microsomal-activating components. Previous evidence from this laboratory about the potency of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma together with the present results suggest that extremely effective therapeutic protection can be achieved by this drug against aflatoxin B(1)-mediated ill effects. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  15. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Erinfolami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of sociodemographic variables (of the students and their parents with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385 randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  16. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in Older Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

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    Yangbo Sun

    Full Text Available In Western contexts nut consumption is associated with better health. We examined the associations of nut consumption with cardiovascular disease risk in the non-Western setting of Southern China.In the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study we used multivariable linear regression to examine the associations of baseline nut (mainly peanuts consumption (none (n = 6688, <3 portions/week (n = 2596 and ≥3 portions/week (n = 2444 with follow-up assessment of Framingham cardiovascular disease score (excluding smoking and its components in older Chinese (≥50 years (follow-up 57.8%.Nut consumption was not associated with Framingham score (≥3 portions/week compared to none: 0.02 95% confidence interval (CI -0.11 to 0.15, systolic blood pressure (-0.66 mmHg 95% CI -1.94, 0.62, diastolic blood pressure (-0.69 mmHg 95% CI -1.44, 0.07, HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.005, LDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.05, 0.02 or fasting glucose (0.04 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.09, adjusted for baseline values, energy intake, age, sex, phase of recruitment, socio-economic position, lifestyle and baseline health status.Observations concerning the benefits of nut consumption may be contextually specific, perhaps depending on the type of nut consumed.

  17. A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers

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    Elisângela Colpo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp., triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  18. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

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    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  19. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  20. Sequential organization and optimization of the nut-cracking behavior of semi-free tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corat, Clara; Siqueira, José; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Stone-aided nut-cracking requires the coordination of three elements: the agent must assemble nuts, a "hammer" stone and an "anvil." Under naturalistic settings, nut-cracking sites, constituted of anvil-like surfaces and already containing a hammer stone, can be fairly stable, lasting as long as the "hammer" stays in place. In an experiment with a semi-free-ranging group of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) we observed the behavioral sequences leading to nut-cracking. We positioned nuts, hammer, and anvil at the vertices of a 10-m-sided equilateral triangle. Thus, to crack a nut the individuals had to visit the vertices and gather the movable elements (nut and hammer) at the anvil. Under such conditions, the monkeys systematically employed a nut-hammer-anvil vertex visit sequence, one of the shortest and more cost-effective possible routes. In the following experiment, we examined whether the gathering of the hammer after the nuts resulted solely from a "nut first" strategy or if the monkeys were also minimizing hammer transport costs. We positioned two hammers, of the same weight, at different distances from the nuts and anvil, so the cost of hammer transportation (energy and risk of injury) would be higher or lower depending on the choice of hammer (the hammer closer to the nuts being farther from the anvil). We found that, instead of collecting the closest hammer, after collecting the nut, the monkeys systematically chose the hammer closer to (and beyond) the anvil, thus minimizing transport costs.

  1. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  2. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    Full Text Available Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013 in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80% of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha. In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09 P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil

  3. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model

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    Iqbal Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Methods Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10–12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12 and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination. Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG – a marker of inflammation. Results When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04 in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach

  4. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

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    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  5. Effects of Temporal Dynamics, Nut Weight and Nut Size on Growth of American Chestnut, Chinese Chestnut and Backcross Generations in a Commercial Nursery

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    Cornelia C. Pinchot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata may soon be commercially available, but few studies have tested methods to produce high quality seedlings that will be competitive after planting. This study evaluated the performance of one American, one Chinese (C. mollissima, one second-generation backcross (BC3F2, and 10 third-generation backcross chestnut families (BC3F3. We examine growth over one year in a commercial tree nursery in east Tennessee. We examined relationships among nut size and weight and seedling growth, between germination timing and seedling survival, and between germination percentage and growth. Across the population tested, a 1 g increase in nut weight corresponded to a 6 cm increase in seedling height, a 0.5 mm increase in root collar diameter and one additional first order lateral root, but models had low predictive power. BC3F3 chestnuts grew similarly to American chestnuts, with substantial differences in growth among chestnut families within generation. Nuts that germinated by 23 April had greater than 1955 odds of surviving the first growing season than nuts that germinated in late May. American and backcross chestnut growth slowed in late June, presumably due to exhaustion of their cotyledons before leaf expansion. These results will help nursery managers refine cultural practices to maximize growth of backcross chestnuts.

  6. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food.

  7. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

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    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  8. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  9. High-resolution Orbitrap™-based mass spectrometry for rapid detection of peanuts in nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Linda; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Bavaro, Simona L; Pilolli, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Peanut represents one of the most harmful allergenic foods capable of triggering severe and sometimes lethal reactions in allergic consumers upon ingestion of even small amounts. Several proteins capable of inducing allergic reactions that have been recognised by patients' IgE antibodies have been identified from this nut source. Methods mainly based on ELISA assays have been developed in order to detect peanuts in several food commodities. In addition LC-MS/MS methods based on different mass analysers have also been devised for tracing peanut contamination in different foods achieving low limits of detection. The applicability of a benchtop high-resolution Exactive™ mass spectrometer has never been investigated for the rapid screening of peanut contamination in complex food matrices like mixtures of nuts. We report in this paper the design of suitable peanut markers and the development of an high-resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer-based method for peanut detection in a mixture of nuts species. With this aim, different types of samples were prepared: (1) nuts-based powder made up of a mixture of hazelnuts, pistachios, almonds and walnuts; and (2) nuts powder fortified with peanuts. Different levels of fortifications were produced and the applicability of the method was tested. Finally, a subset of six peptides fulfilling specific analytical requirements was chosen to check the suitability of the method tailored to the detection of peanuts in nuts-based products, and two of them, peptides VYD and WLG, were selected as quantitative markers. The method proved to be a suitable screening tool to assess the presence of traces of peanuts in other tree nuts with a limit of detection as low as 4 µg of peanuts proteins or 26 µg of peanuts in 1 g of matrix.

  10. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  11. Pre-shelling parameters and conditions that influence the whole kernel out-turn of steam-boiled cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Sunday Ogunsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of moisture content (MC, nut size distribution and steam exposure time (SET on the whole kernel out turn (WKO of cashew nuts during shelling using a 3 x 5 x 4 factorial experiment. Three nut sizes: small (18–22 mm, medium (23–25 mm and large (26–35 mm; five levels of MC: 8.34%, 11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40%, 16.84% (wet basis and four levels of steam exposure time (SET: 28, 30, 32, and 34 min were considered. Nuts were conditioned with warm water to the desired moisture content of 8.34%,11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40% and 16.84% (wb; and steam-boiled at 700 kPa for 28, 30,32, and 34 min. The pre-treated nuts were shelled using a hand-operated cashew nuts shelling machine. The results showed that the single effect of MC, steam exposure time (SET or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The optimum WKO of steam-boiled nuts was 91.74%, 90.94% and 87.98% for large, medium and small sized nuts at MC∗SET combination of 8.34%∗30 min, 11.80%∗32 min and 8.34%∗30 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of cashew nuts by steam boiling was found to improve whole kernel out-turn of the cashew nut. Whole kernel out-turn decreased as MC increased, thereby limiting the need for moisture adjustment when nuts are to be processed by steam boiling.

  12. Role of Areca Nut Induced TGF-β and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Pant

    Full Text Available Areca nut consumption has been implicated in the progression of Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSF; an inflammatory precancerous fibrotic condition. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activation of TGF-β signaling in epithelial cells by areca nut components and also propose a role for epithelial expressed TGF-β in the pathogenesis of OSF. Although the importance of epithelial cells in the manifestation of OSF has been proposed, the actual effectors are fibroblast cells. However, the role of areca nut and TGF-β in the context of fibroblast response has not been elucidated. Therefore, to understand their role in the context of fibroblast response in OSF pathogenesis, human gingival fibroblasts (hGF were treated with areca nut and/or TGF-β followed by transcriptome profiling. The gene expression profile obtained was compared with the previously published transcriptome profiles of OSF tissues and areca nut treated epithelial cells. The analysis revealed regulation of 4666 and 1214 genes by areca nut and TGF-β treatment respectively. The expression of 413 genes in hGF cells was potentiated by areca nut and TGF-β together. Further, the differentially expressed genes of OSF tissues compared to normal tissues overlapped significantly with areca nut and TGF-β induced genes in epithelial and hGF cells. Several positively enriched pathways were found to be common between OSF tissues and areca nut +TGF-β treated hGF cells. In concordance, areca nut along with TGF-β enhanced fibroblast activation as demonstrated by potentiation of αSMA, γSMA and collagen gel contraction by hGF cells. Furthermore, TGF-β secreted by areca nut treated epithelial cells influenced fibroblast activation and other genes implicated in fibrosis. These data establish a role for areca nut influenced epithelial cells in OSF progression by activation of fibroblasts and emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in OSF.

  13. Role of Areca Nut Induced TGF-β and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Ila; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Rao, Somanahalli Girish; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2015-01-01

    Areca nut consumption has been implicated in the progression of Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSF); an inflammatory precancerous fibrotic condition. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activation of TGF-β signaling in epithelial cells by areca nut components and also propose a role for epithelial expressed TGF-β in the pathogenesis of OSF. Although the importance of epithelial cells in the manifestation of OSF has been proposed, the actual effectors are fibroblast cells. However, the role of areca nut and TGF-β in the context of fibroblast response has not been elucidated. Therefore, to understand their role in the context of fibroblast response in OSF pathogenesis, human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were treated with areca nut and/or TGF-β followed by transcriptome profiling. The gene expression profile obtained was compared with the previously published transcriptome profiles of OSF tissues and areca nut treated epithelial cells. The analysis revealed regulation of 4666 and 1214 genes by areca nut and TGF-β treatment respectively. The expression of 413 genes in hGF cells was potentiated by areca nut and TGF-β together. Further, the differentially expressed genes of OSF tissues compared to normal tissues overlapped significantly with areca nut and TGF-β induced genes in epithelial and hGF cells. Several positively enriched pathways were found to be common between OSF tissues and areca nut +TGF-β treated hGF cells. In concordance, areca nut along with TGF-β enhanced fibroblast activation as demonstrated by potentiation of αSMA, γSMA and collagen gel contraction by hGF cells. Furthermore, TGF-β secreted by areca nut treated epithelial cells influenced fibroblast activation and other genes implicated in fibrosis. These data establish a role for areca nut influenced epithelial cells in OSF progression by activation of fibroblasts and emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in OSF.

  14. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidramesh Shivanand Muttagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut′s deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  15. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  16. Modeling the survival kinetics of Salmonella in tree nuts for use in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Pouillot, Régis; Anderson, Nathan; Johnson, Rhoma; Son, Insook; Van Doren, Jane

    2016-06-16

    Salmonella has been shown to survive in tree nuts over long periods of time. This survival capacity and its variability are key elements for risk assessment of Salmonella in tree nuts. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict survival of Salmonella in tree nuts at ambient storage temperatures that considers variability and uncertainty separately and can easily be incorporated into a risk assessment model. Data on Salmonella survival on raw almonds, pecans, pistachios and walnuts were collected from the peer reviewed literature. The Weibull model was chosen as the baseline model and various fixed effect and mixed effect models were fit to the data. The best model identified through statistical analysis testing was then used to develop a hierarchical Bayesian model. Salmonella in tree nuts showed slow declines at temperatures ranging from 21°C to 24°C. A high degree of variability in survival was observed across tree nut studies reported in the literature. Statistical analysis results indicated that the best applicable model was a mixed effect model that included a fixed and random variation of δ per tree nut (which is the time it takes for the first log10 reduction) and a fixed variation of ρ per tree nut (parameter which defines the shape of the curve). Higher estimated survival rates (δ) were obtained for Salmonella on pistachios, followed in decreasing order by pecans, almonds and walnuts. The posterior distributions obtained from Bayesian inference were used to estimate the variability in the log10 decrease levels in survival for each tree nut, and the uncertainty of these estimates. These modeled uncertainty and variability distributions of the estimates can be used to obtain a complete exposure assessment of Salmonella in tree nuts when including time-temperature parameters for storage and consumption data. The statistical approach presented in this study may be applied to any studies that aim to develop predictive models to be

  17. Driving Mechanism of the Brazil Nut Effect in Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Viranga; Jackson, Alan P.; Asphaug, Erik; Ballouz, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids are remnant objects from the early planet formation process. Most asteroids are considered rubble-piles since they are likely conglomerates of smaller objects held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. Due to that particular structure, asteroids may be studied using techniques of granular flow. One particular effect called the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE) has previously been proposed to be relevant to asteroids. This effect entails the size-sorting of particles when shaken, where larger particles migrate against the direction of gravity while the smaller particles migrate towards the direction of gravity. Analysis of data from the Hayabusa mission led to asteroid 25143 Itokawa being considered an example where the BNE has occurred bringing large boulders to its surface. Since spacecraft data are limited due to the cost of space missions, there are two other methods of studying this effect: experiments and computer simulations. Though experiments have been done under terrestrial gravity and in low-gravity conditions on parabolic flights, experimental setups cannot fully model the BNE for three-dimensional, self-gravitating, conglomerate objects such as asteroids. Computer simulations have been done in low-gravity conditions utilizing rectangular and cylindrical box configurations and recently in a spherical configuration of particles. Most works have focused on using one large particle embedded with smaller particles (i.e. the intruder model). This has been due to the simplicity and the lack of detailed knowledge about the interior of asteroids. However, in this work we show that the intruder BNE, though important in a wider granular flow context, is not relevant to asteroids. We have run BNE simulations for one, two, and three intruders in a spherical configuration of particles and we find that unless the intruder starts off near the surface of our simulated aggregates they generally do not rise to the surface. This contrasts with a bimodal population of

  18. Anomalous Lense-Thirring precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-12-15

    Exact Lense-Thirring (LT) precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime is reviewed. It is shown that the LT precession does not obey the general inverse cube law of distance at strong gravity regime in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Rather, it becomes maximum just near the horizon, falls sharply and becomes zero near the horizon. The precession rate increases again and after that it falls obeying the general inverse cube law of distance. This anomaly is maximum at the polar region of this spacetime and it vanishes after crossing a certain 'critical' angle towards the equator from the pole. We highlight that this particular 'anomaly' also arises in the LT effect at the interior spacetime of the pulsars and such a signature could be used to identify a role of Taub-NUT solutions in the astrophysical observations or equivalently, a signature of the existence of a NUT charge in the pulsars. In addition, we show that if the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime rotates with the angular momentum J = Mn (mass x dual mass), the inner horizon goes to r = 0 and only the event horizon exists at the distance r = 2M. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of the irradiation history of the Iranian dates and pistachio nuts using thermoluminescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1993-07-01

    Three different varieties of Iranian fresh dates and five types of raw and salted pistachio nuts have been tested for identification of irradiation histories. Doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy from a gamma cell Gc-220 have been administrated to the samples under investigation. TL response versus dose for date and for pistachio nuts have been obtained. The effect of added ingredients such as salt in pistachio nuts, and moisture in date samples on the TL response have been studied. The fading of TL intensity of the irradiated dates and pistachio nuts have also been measured. Based on the latter results, it appears possible to identify the irradiated dates (10 kGy), within (1-2) months post-irradiation. In the salted pistachio nuts, the salt itself gives a very significant and distinguishable response. In the unsalted case, however, the difference between the irradiated and unirradiated samples seem difficult to detect due to partial overlapping of the respective responses.

  20. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abenaa A. Okyere

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L. cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The sugar content varied from 6.0 ± 0.3% (Techiman to 15.00 ± 1.00% (Asebu Ekroful depending on the irradiation dose applied. Generally, increase in dose increased the sugar availability but decreased viscosity of the milk prepared from the nuts. The milk with the highest viscosity was from Kwahu Aduamoa and Techiman with the least viscosity from Bawjiase. Generally, no significant difference was detected by the sensory panellists with regard to mouth feel and taste among the milk samples prepared from the various tiger nut cultivars.

  1. Nut predation and dispersal of Harland Tanoak Lithocarpus harlandii by scatter-hoarding rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2006-03-01

    Plants that use the propagule to co-opt animals as dispersal agents must balance the costs of seed predation with the benefits of dispersal. Successful post-dispersal germination is a key metric that reflects these costs and benefits. By tracking individual nuts with coded tin-tags over 3 years (2000-2003), this study quantified nut predation and dispersal of harland tanoak ( Lithocarpus harlandii) by seed-caching rodents in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in the Duiangyan Region of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. We found that tanoak seedlings established from rodent-generated caches in the primary stands over a 12-month post-dispersal period. Our results indicate that seed-caching rodents are effective dispersers of tanoak nuts, but dispersal effectiveness varies among years and stands, probably due to mast seeding of harland tanoak or community-level seed availability according to the predator satiation hypothesis. Some nut traits in tanoak species, e.g. large seed size, hard nut husk, lower tannin and mast seeding, are important characteristics for seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, compared with oak species with higher tannin content.

  2. An Analytical Model for Rotation Stiffness and Deformation of an Antiloosening Nut under Locking Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Screw fasteners are undoubtedly one of the most important machine elements due to their outstanding characteristic to provide a high clamping force just with a simplified design. However, the loosen vibration is their inherent and inevitable fault. The friction locking approach is one of the basic locking fastener categories by enhancing the bearing load on the contact surface of thread by applying a locking force on an antiloosening nut. This locking force may cause more severe deformation in the nut. The contact stress distribution on the nut would be changed and that can cause the variation of the friction torque for the bolt joint. However, there exists no established design calculation procedure that accounts for the rotation deformation and its stiffness of the antiloosening nut under the locking force. The main objective of the work is to develop an analytical solution to the rotation deformation problem encountered in the antiloosening nut. The proposed model is supported by comparison with numerical finite element analysis of different sizes of joint elements and different applied forces.

  3. Expression of P16 in NUT carcinomas with no association with human papillomavirus (HPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Paulo Guilherme de Oliveira; Moura, Rafael de Deus; Menezes, Letícia M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2014-04-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a rare malignant neoplasm usually located in the midline, including the upper aerodigestive tract. NC is an aggressive and highly lethal type of carcinoma. It is defined by the rearrangement of the nuclear protein in the testis (NUT) gene on chromosome 15q14. In most cases, the NUT is involved in a balanced translocation with the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19p13.1, an event that creates a BRD4-NUT fusion gene. The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV), p16, and upper aerodigestive tract cancer has been long postulated. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of the p16 expression in 4 cases of NCs and its eventual association with HPV. All 4 cases presented typical histopathologic findings with nuclear positivity of the NUT protein and strong expression for p16. None of these cases, however, showed an association with HPV evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. Despite the expression of p16, this negative result for HPV indicates that HPV infection probably does not play a role in the pathogenesis of NC.

  4. Anomalous Lense-Thirring precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur

    2015-12-01

    Exact Lense-Thirring (LT) precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime is reviewed. It is shown that the LT precession does not obey the general inverse cube law of distance at strong gravity regime in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Rather, it becomes maximum just near the horizon, falls sharply and becomes zero near the horizon. The precession rate increases again and after that it falls obeying the general inverse cube law of distance. This anomaly is maximum at the polar region of this spacetime and it vanishes after crossing a certain `critical' angle towards the equator from the pole. We highlight that this particular `anomaly' also arises in the LT effect at the interior spacetime of the pulsars and such a signature could be used to identify a role of Taub-NUT solutions in the astrophysical observations or equivalently, a signature of the existence of a NUT charge in the pulsars. In addition, we show that if the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime rotates with the angular momentum J=Mn (mass × dual mass), the inner horizon goes to r=0 and only the event horizon exists at the distance r=2M.

  5. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Levels of inorganic constituents in raw nuts and seeds on the Swedish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodushkin, I; Engström, E; Sörlin, D; Baxter, D

    2008-03-25

    The levels of approximately 70 elements were determined in different culinary nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, bitter almonds, pecans, cashews, Brazil nuts, pistachios, pine nuts, peanuts and coconuts) and seeds (pumpkin and sunflower) available on the Swedish market. The study was limited to raw, virtually unprocessed nuts and seeds (both shelled and unshelled) excluding mixed, roasted or salted products. In total, 44 products from different suppliers were analyzed, with the number of samples per nut/seed variety reflecting the availability of unprocessed products in retail outlets, varying from two for bitter almonds and pistachios to six for hazelnuts and walnuts. This selection includes samples from at least 11 different countries of origin. The optimized analytical procedure consists of microwave-assisted sample digestion using a HNO3/HF mixture, followed by multi-elemental analysis by double focusing, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The analyses were accompanied by rigorous quality control measures including thorough control of potential sample contamination at all analytical stages, participation in inter-laboratory performance assessment schemes, and the analysis of certified reference materials of plant origin. Concentrations thus obtained were compared with data from product labels (where available), food composition tables and other relevant surveys, demonstrating, depending on the elements in question, close agreement as well as considerable differences.

  7. Anomaly of the Lense-Thirring precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur

    2014-01-01

    Exact Lense-Thirring (LT) precession in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime is reviewed. It is shown that the LT precession does not obey the general inverse cube law of distance at strong gravity regime in Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Rather, it becomes maximum just near the horizon, falls sharply and becomes negligibly small near the horizon. The precession rate increases again and after that it falls obeying the general inverse cube law of distance. This anomaly is maximum at the polar region of this spacetime and it vanishes after crossing a certain `critical' angle towards equator from pole. In addition, we show that if the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime rotates with the angular momentum $J=Mn$ (Mass$\\times$Dual Mass), one horizon disappears and only {\\it event horizon} exists at the distance $r=2M$.

  8. Review Paper on Performance Evaluation of Nut and Bolt Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Paunikar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is constant research going on in the field of recognition by means of artificial intelligence to enhance the productivity. The automotive industry requires an automated system to sort different sizes and shapes nut and bolt which are the mainly used component in the industry, to improve the overall productivity. This review paper deals with some feature extraction techniques and its performance impact on the artificial neural network efficiency for the recognition of nut and bolt. The main feature extraction techniques analysed for this review paper are stationary wavelet transform, principle component analysis and radius analysis. The aforementioned techniques are already tested and simulation is done on MATLAB.The results obtained varies depending on pre-processing techniques used for the nut and bolt recognition.

  9. Kerr-Taub-NUT General Frame, Energy, and Momentum in Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new exact solution describing a general stationary and axisymmetric object of the gravitational field in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR is derived. The solution is characterized by three parameters “the gravitational mass M, the rotation a, and the NUT L.” The vierbein field is axially symmetric, and the associated metric gives the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Calculation of the total energy using two different methods, the gravitational energy momentum and the Riemannian connection 1-form Γα̃β, is carried out. It is shown that the two methods give the same results of energy and momentum. The value of energy is shown to depend on the mass M and the NUT parameter L. If L is vanishing, then the total energy reduced to the energy of Kerr black hole.

  10. Hyposensitization to poison ivy after working in a cashew nut shell oil processing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginella, R F; Fairfield, J C; Marks, J G

    1989-04-01

    19 adults were patch tested to urushiol, the allergen in poison ivy/oak, to determine their sensitivity to this allergen after working in a cashew nut shell oil (CNSO) processing plant. The cashew nut tree and poison ivy/oak are in the same botanical family. Anacardiaceae, and they share similar chemicals which cause allergic contact dermatitis. 13 of the 19 workers had a preemployment history of poison ivy sensitivity, with 10 developing CNSO dermatitis. After working in this factory for several months, 9 of the 13 noticed a decreased sensitivity or no sensitivity to poison ivy/oak. When tested to urushiol extract, only 3 reacted positively, 2 minimally. These results imply that hyposensitization to poison ivy/oak occurred in these employees after development of hardening to cashew nut shell oil.

  11. DAMAGE CAUSED BY TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN STORED BRAZIL NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Pires

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribolium castaneum is an insect that occurs worldwide and it is a pest that attacks stored products, in particular, grains and seeds. The adult and immature forms are categorized as secondary pests which feed on grains or seeds previously damage in storage conditions. The objective of this study was to describe the type of damage caused by adults and immature of T. castaneum in Brazil nuts and identify the type of damage caused by Coleoptera. It was also verified whether the shell can protect the almond from the attack of this pest. The lesions inflicted by this insect starts as a scratched surface, which evolves into galleries and even injuries capable of modifying the original shape of the almond. Due to its capacity to promote considerable damage with consequent losses in the value of the nuts, T. castaneum may be listed among pests of Brazil nut categorized as primary pest by its ability to initiate injuries in the intact almond.

  12. Experimental field test of spatial variation in rodent predation of nuts relative to distance and seed density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Díaz-Vélez, María C

    2010-06-01

    The spatial context in which seed predation occurs may modify the spatial structure of recruitment generated by seed dispersal. The Janzen-Connell (J-C) model predicts that granivores will exert greater pressure on the parent plant or at those sites where the density of dispersed seeds is higher. We have investigated how the probability of post-dispersal survival of Juglans australis varies with nut density across a hierarchy of spatial scales. We experimentally evaluated the survival of 3,120 nuts at three spatial scales: meso-scale (seed predation, a condition that allowed us to test the density-dependent seed predation hypothesis. We found that the probability of nut survival was greater at forest sites with higher J. australis density. Nut survival was not affected by nut density in the seed shadow of individual specimens: at sites where J. australis density was greater, the proportion of surviving nuts did not differ between microsites located at different distances from the parent plant, but it was greater at microsites with greater initial nut density. Nut survival depended on the scale at which rodents responded to nut density, being negatively density dependent at the meso-scale and spatially random at intermediate and small scales. At the meso-scale, excess nut supply increased the probability of nut survival, which is in agreement with a model of granivore satiation near the seed source. Rodent satiation at the meso-scale may favour maintenance of sites with high J. australis density, where individual trees may have greater probabilities of passing their genes onto the next stage of the dispersal cycle.

  13. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-14

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD.

  14. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-09-08

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  15. Speciation of arsenic in different types of nuts by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-03-24

    In this work the quantitative determination and analytical speciation of arsenic were undertaken in different types of nuts, randomly purchased from local markets. The hardness of the whole nuts and high lipid content made the preparation of this material difficult for analysis. The lack of sample homogeneity caused irreproducible results. To improve the precision of analysis, arsenic was determined separately in nut oil and in the defatted sample. The lipids were extracted from the ground sample with the two portions of a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). The defatted material was dried and ground again, yielding a fine powder. The nut oil was obtained by combining the two organic extracts and by evaporating the solvents. The two nut fractions were microwave digested, and total arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained for oils from different types of nuts showed element concentration in the range 2.9-16.9 ng g(-)(1). Lower levels of arsenic were found in defatted material (pine nuts, peanuts, pistachio nuts, and sunflower seeds. The recovery for the speciation procedure was in the range 72.7-90.6%. The primary species found in the oil extracts were As(III) and As(V). The arsenic concentration levels in these two species were 0.7-12.7 and 0.5-4.3 ng g(-)(1), respectively. The contribution of As in DMAs(V) ranged from 0.1 +/- 0.1 ng g(-)(1) in walnuts to 1.3 +/- 0.3 ng g(-)(1) in pine nuts. MMAs(V) was not detected in almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, sunflower seeds, or walnuts, and the highest concentration was found in pistachio nuts (0.5 +/- 0.2 ng g(-)(1)).

  16. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ. The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, C-reactive protein (CRP and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044. Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014, with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023. There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001 and CRP (p = 0.045 were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease.

  17. Complex chromosomal rearrangements by single catastrophic pathogenesis in NUT midline carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-K.; Louzada, S.; An, Y.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S.; Youk, J.; Park, S.; Koo, S. H.; Keam, B.; Jeon, Y. K.; Ku, J.-L.; Yang, F.; Kim, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare aggressive malignancy often occurring in the tissues of midline anatomical structures. Except for the pathognomonic BRD3/4–NUT rearrangement, the comprehensive landscape of genomic alterations in NMCs has been unexplored. Patients and methods We investigated three NMC cases, including two newly diagnosed NMC patients in Seoul National University Hospital, and a previously reported cell line (Ty-82). Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing were carried out for these cases, and findings were validated by multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and using individual fluorescence probes. Results Here, we present the first integrative analysis of whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing and cytogenetic characterization of NUT midline carcinomas. By whole-genome sequencing, we identified a remarkably similar pattern of highly complex genomic rearrangements (previously denominated as chromoplexy) involving the BRD3/4–NUT oncogenic rearrangements in two newly diagnosed NMC cases. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that these complex rearrangements were transcribed as very simple BRD3/4–NUT fusion transcripts. In Ty-82 cells, we also identified a complex genomic rearrangement involving the BRD4–NUT rearrangement underlying the simple t(15;19) karyotype. Careful inspections of rearrangement breakpoints indicated that these rearrangements were likely attributable to single catastrophic events. Although the NMC genomes had >3000 somatic point mutations, canonical oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes were rarely affected, indicating that they were largely passenger events. Mutational signature analysis showed predominant molecular clock-like signatures in all three cases (accounting for 54%−75% of all base substitutions), suggesting that NMCs may arise from actively proliferating normal cells. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that a single catastrophic event in

  18. Kola Nut and Conflict Resolution Among the Igala People of Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Abah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined Kola nut and Conflict Resolution among the Igala people of Kogi State, Nigeria. In a world ravaged by conflicts, certain Africans have kept the fire of brotherhood, through the breaking and eating of Kola nut. Literatures exist on Conflict Resolution, but no empirical study on the topic in question. The aims are to examine (a the types of Kola nut cotyledons and its relevance in conflict resolution (b the myths about Kola nut that enhances conflict resolution, and (c its role in conflict resolution. The qualitative approach was adopted. The sources of data were primary and secondary. The Primary Sources included 20 oral interviews. Purposive sampling was adopted. Content analysis was used to analyse. The secondary sources included books and an unpublished work. The findings reveal (a two types of Kola nut, (cola acuminata 0-7 cotyledons and cola nitida 2 cotyledons, (b As regards the myth, it is used to invite and welcome the ancestors during conflict resolution, whosoever harbours grudges against a neighbour after the kola had been eaten will come under the wrath of the ancestors, and (c It is the harbinger of peace. In conclusion, peace can only be guaranteed when there is security and justice, which could be embedded in a unifying factor(s, like the kola nut. Any community that finds this generally acceptable factor will experience a considerable level of peace, especially when acculturated into every aspect of the modern conflict resolution mechanisms, putting into consideration the indigenous socio-religious conflict resolution strategies.

  19. Development and Design of DTU Module Based on NUT/OS%基于NUT/OS的DTU模块设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小平; 孙军; 方彦军

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种在ATmegal28L单片机上通过NUT/OS实时操作系统控制GPRS Modem来实现INTERNET接入的DTU模块设计方案.在介绍NUT/OS实时操作系统的基础上,阐述DTU模块的硬件设计和软件设计,其中详细解释了CPU及GPRS模块的选择和电源电路设计,并说明网络结构和程序流程.实践表明,该DTU模块很好地实现了无线网络的数据传输,具有可靠性高,功耗低、运用广泛等特点.

  20. 3D numerical simulation of projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, W.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of developing a three-dimensional finite element computer program for electro-thermo-mechanical industrial modeling of resistance welding is presented, and the program is applied to thesimulation of projection welding of square nuts to sheets. Results are compared with experimental...... formulation inorder to model the frictional sliding between the square nut projections and the sheets during the weld-ing process. It is proved that the implementation of friction increases the accuracy of the simulations,and the dynamic influence of friction on the process is explained.© 2014 Elsevier B...

  1. Quantum entropies of electromagnetic and gravitational fields on Taub-NUT black hole background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-ying; XIAO Shi-fa; LI Fang-yu

    2005-01-01

    The main characteristics and Petrov type of Taub-NUT spacetime are studied, and the quantum entropy of Taub-NUT black hole due to electromagnetic and gravitational fields is calculated via brick-wall model. It is shown that the quantum entropy has both the linearly and the logarithmically divergent terms. For electromagnetic field, these terms depend on the characteristic of the black hole; while for gravitational field, they depend not only on the characteristic of the black hole but also on the spin of the fields.

  2. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  3. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  4. Voluntary ingestion of nut paste for administration of buprenorphine in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Sundbom, Renée; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann

    2012-10-01

    An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste for voluntary ingestion. This method has many advantages over parenteral administration. To use the method in a successful way, however, it is important to prepare and administer the mix correctly. The present paper describes in detail how to implement the method, by means of habituation, presentation, adequate concentrations and amounts of buprenorphine/nut paste, and dosage of buprenorphine to rats and mice.

  5. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2013-01-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counte...

  6. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelge, Evren [Food Engineering Department, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: evren.golge@ege.edu.tr; Ova, Guelden [Food Engineering Department, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes.

  7. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölge, Evren; Ova, Gülden

    2008-03-01

    Pine nuts ( Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes.

  8. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  9. Effects of Industrial Cashew Nut Processing on Anacardic Acid Content and Allergen Recognition by IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts are consumed worldwide and are in high demand, but they can also cause food allergy in some individuals. The present study aimed to assess the effect(s) of industrial processing on anacardic acids and allergens present in cashew nuts. Sample analyses were performed using liquid chromat...

  10. USE OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPES TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF WHITEBARK PINE NUTS TO YELLOWSTONE GRIZZLY BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in ...

  11. Proceedings of the first international symposium on wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first International Symposium on Wild Relatives of Subtropical and Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops offered a platform for the scientists and others concerned with conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops. Wild relative...

  12. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  13. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  14. Identification of the Botanical Origin of Commercial Pine Nuts Responsible for Dysgeusia by Gas-Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Destaillats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years, complaints were increasingly reported from consumers that experienced dysgeusia following the consumption of pine nuts. In the present study, pine nuts samples (N = 16 from consumers that reported dysgeusia have been analyzed to identify the botanical origin of critical pine nuts samples. The fatty acid composition of the samples was performed, and diagnostic index values were used to identify the botanical origin of the samples. Pinus armandii nuts were identified in all the samples pure or in mixture with P. koraiensis nuts. P. armandii is not reported as edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. This study confirmed that consumption of P. armandii nuts may lead to dysgeusia. Based on the present study and previous work, we advise import companies to trade pine nuts from traditionally recognized species such as P. pinea, P. sibirica, P. koraiensis, or P. gerardiana.

  15. Identification of the botanical origin of commercial pine nuts responsible for dysgeusia by gas-liquid chromatography analysis of Fatty Acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola; Mostin, Martine; Verstegen, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, complaints were increasingly reported from consumers that experienced dysgeusia following the consumption of pine nuts. In the present study, pine nuts samples (N = 16) from consumers that reported dysgeusia have been analyzed to identify the botanical origin of critical pine nuts samples. The fatty acid composition of the samples was performed, and diagnostic index values were used to identify the botanical origin of the samples. Pinus armandii nuts were identified in all the samples pure or in mixture with P. koraiensis nuts. P. armandii is not reported as edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). This study confirmed that consumption of P. armandii nuts may lead to dysgeusia. Based on the present study and previous work, we advise import companies to trade pine nuts from traditionally recognized species such as P. pinea, P. sibirica, P. koraiensis, or P. gerardiana.

  16. Use of sulfur and nitrogen stable isotopes to determine the importance of whitebark pine nuts to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Phillips, D.L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat- and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is strongly linked to variation in pine-nut availability. Because whitebark pine trees are infected with blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), an exotic fungus that has killed the species throughout much of its range in the northern Rocky Mountains, we used stable isotopes to quantify the importance of this food resource to Yellowstone grizzly bears while healthy populations of the trees still exist. Whitebark pine nuts have a sulfur-isotope signature (9.2 ?? 1.3??? (mean ?? 1 SD)) that is distinctly different from those of all other grizzly bear foods (ranging from 1.9 ?? 1.7??? for all other plants to 3.1 ?? 2.6??? for ungulates). Feeding trials with captive grizzly bears were used to develop relationships between dietary sulfur-, carbon-, and nitrogen-isotope signatures and those of bear plasma. The sulfur and nitrogen relationships were used to estimate the importance of pine nuts to free-ranging grizzly bears from blood and hair samples collected between 1994 and 2001. During years of poor pine-nut availability, 72% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts. During years of abundant cone availability, 8 ?? 10% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts, while 67 ?? 19% derived over 51% of their assimilated sulfur and nitrogen (i.e., protein) from pine nuts. Pine nuts and meat are two critically important food resources for Yellowstone grizzly bears.

  17. A systematic review of the effect of thermal processing on the allergenicity of tree nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.; Hoff, R.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Michelsen-Huisman, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Pasmans, S.G.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergenicity of foods can be influenced by processing. Tree nuts are an important source of nutrition and increasingly consumed; however, processing methods are quite variable and data are currently lacking on the effects of processing on allergenicity. Objective To perform a systematic

  18. NUT carcinoma of the thorax: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Herpel, Esther; Pfarr, Nicole; Penzel, Roland; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Herth, Felix J F; Dienemann, Hendrik; Weichert, Wilko; Warth, Arne

    2015-12-01

    NUT (nuclear protein in testis) carcinomas are exceedingly rare neoplasms with specific molecular alterations and often follow a devastating course. Thus, a precise early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Known from the sinonasal region for years, the new 2015 WHO classification now also recognizes the existence of this entity in the thorax, specifically the lungs and the mediastinum. However, yet available data on this entity are sparse. Here, we report on a 31 years old female patient with an aggressively growing tumor localized in the median line that was initially sampled by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsies. Pathological assessment of the biopsy specimens revealed a NUT carcinoma with typical morphological characteristics and an uncommon NUT translocation variant with a NSD3-NUT fusion. Diagnosis was further confirmed in the subsequent resection specimen. We describe specific clinical, histomorphological, and molecular characteristics of this tumor and provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on these rare neoplasms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  20. Potential of aqueous ozone to control aflatoxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Morales-Valle, Héctor; Venâncio, Armando

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the use of aqueous ozone as alternative technology for fungal control. Brazil nuts sterilized were inoculated with either 1 × 10(6) or 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) of Aspergillus flavus (MUM 9201) to determine optimal treatment parameters and different aqueous ozone contact times. These assays showed that the effect of ozone is almost immediate against A. flavus, and the optimum ozone concentration depended on the number of initial viable spores on the shell. The remaining viable spores in the ozone solution were recorded, and the rate of inactivation for each treatment was determined by assessing the ratio between the cfu of each treatment and the control. The ozonized nuts were also cultured to recover the fungal population. Aqueous ozone was effective in reducing the conidia of A. flavus and the natural fungal population associated with Brazil nuts. Aqueous ozone presented a great potential to reduce microorganisms counts in Brazil nuts with a great potential use in packing houses for decontamination step.

  1. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-11-14

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  2. A systematic review of the effect of thermal processing on the allergenicity of tree nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.; Hoff, R.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Michelsen-Huisman, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Pasmans, S.G.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergenicity of foods can be influenced by processing. Tree nuts are an important source of nutrition and increasingly consumed; however, processing methods are quite variable and data are currently lacking on the effects of processing on allergenicity. Objective To perform a systematic

  3. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  4. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  5. Modification in the design of an already existing palm nut - fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    The modified palm nut-fibre separator machine comprises of a feed hopper, a separating chamber with an upper .... The specific objective of this paper is, therefore to improve .... The injurious nature of hand sorting is facilitated by the use of.

  6. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  7. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  8. Loosening and Sliding Behaviour of Bolt-Nut Fastener under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruse T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thread joint has been frequently used for the efficient productivity and maintainability as a machine element. However, many troubles such as loosening of bolted joints or fatigue failure of bolt were often experienced. Many attentions must be paid on the improvement of the strength and the reliability of the thread joints [1, 2]. It is generally said that the fastening axial force rapidly decreases by the rotation loosening of nuts if the relative slippage on the interfaces between nuts and fastened body goes beyond a certain critical limit [3]. This critical relative slippage (Scr that prescribes the upper limit for preventing the loosening behaviour has been estimated according to the theoretically obtained equation considering the bending deformation of bolt and the geometrical constraint condition. In this paper, firstly we present the equation for estimating the Scr based on the fundamental cantilever deformation model. Then we present the investigated results of the deformation behaviour of bolt-nut joint under transverse loading condition considering the reaction moment by nut (Mn. Finaly we can confirmed that these estimated results of critical relative slippage coincided well with the experimental results [4, 5].

  9. Cashew nut shell liquid: an agricultural by-product with great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may also be obtained through expression of residual shells or solvent extraction of the pulverized shells. Kenya has ... Processing of the nuts has been left to small scale processors who in many cases, burn residue shells as fuel or as waste.

  10. A review of human carcinogens - Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretan, B.; Straif, K.; Baan, R.; Grosse, Y.; El Ghissassi, F.; Bouvard, V.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L.; Guha, N.; Freeman, C.; Galichet, L.; Cogliano, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    2009-11-15

    In October, 2009, 30 scientists from 10 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to reassess the carcinogenicity of tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salt-preserved fish, and to identify additional tumor sites and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. These assessments will be published as Part E of Volume 100 of the IARC Monographs.

  11. Klimop 1, Nut en schadelijkheid : je bent onvoorwaardelijk vóór of faliekant tegen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dit artikel is het eerste in een serie van drie over de toepassing en het beheer van klimop. Het is gebaseerd op het rapport Klimop in het stedelijk groen, dat schrijver dezes opstelde op verzoek van stadsdeel Amsterdam-Noord. Dit eerste deel gaat over het nut en de schadelijkheid van klimop en de b

  12. Thermodynamics of (d+1)-dimensional NUT-charged AdS spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, R. E-mail: rick@avatar.uwaterloo.ca; Fatibene, L. E-mail: fatibene@dm.unito.it; Mann, R.B. E-mail: mann@avatar.uwaterloo.ca

    2003-03-03

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of (d+1)-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either (d-1)-dimensional (called 'bolts') or of lower dimensionality (pure 'NUTs'). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge methods and the AdS/CFT-inspired counterterm approach. We then generalize these results to arbitrary dimensionality. We find in 4k+2 dimensions that there are no regions in parameter space in the pure NUT case for which the entropy and specific heat are both positive, and so all such spacetimes are thermodynamically unstable. For the pure NUT case in 4k dimensions a region of stability exists in parameter space that decreases in size with increasing dimensionality. All bolt cases have some region of parameter space for which thermodynamic stability can be realized.

  13. Thermodynamics of $(d+1)$-dimensional NUT-charged AdS Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, R; Mann, R B

    2003-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of $(d+1)$-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either $(d-1)$-dimensional (called "bolts") or of lower dimensionality (pure "NUTs"). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge methods and the AdS/CFT-inspired counterterm approach. We then generalize these results to arbitrary dimensionality. We find in $4k+2$ dimensions that there are no regions in parameter space in the pure NUT case for which the entropy and specific heat are both positive, and so all such spacetimes are thermodynamically unstable. For the pure NUT case in $4k$ dimensions a region of stability exists in parameter space that decreases in size with increasing dimensionality. All bolt cases have some region of parameter space for wh...

  14. European survey on sterigmatocystin in cereals, cereals-based products, beer and nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; MacDonald, S.J.; Anagnostopoulos, C.; Spanjer, M.; Bertuzzi, T.; Pietri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of sterigmatoc

  15. Diversity of Diaporthe species associated with wood cankers of fruit and nut crops in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaporthe ampelina, causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), is also frequently isolated from grapevine wood, causing Phomopsis dieback. In California, Diaporthe species cause a wide range of symptoms not only on grape, but also other fruit and nut crops. To bet...

  16. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  17. Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in betel nut chewers - with and without oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF has a multifactorial etiology. Recent studies have shown that there is an increased level of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP in plasma of OSMF patients suggesting its possible role in etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Aims: To detect the presence of FDP in the plasma of betel nut chewers with and without OSMF and in normal subjects without any habits, to correlate these levels with respect to the clinical and histological grading of OSMF and whether it can be used as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in detection of suspected OSMF cases. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 35 cases of betel nut chewers with OSMF, 10 patients with betel nut chewing habit but having apparently normal oral mucosa, and 10 normal patients without any habits. The patients were evaluated for plasma FDP levels. Results: All the betel nut chewers with OSMF showed the presence of plasma FDP. However, controls and subjects with habit, but without OSMF did not show FDP in the plasma. Spearman′s rank correlation was used to find the association between the clinical and histological grades and it was not statistically significant (P = 0.910 and the correlation being 0.020. Conclusion: Since only those patients with OSMF have showed the presence of FDP in plasma, we suggest that our test can be utilized as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in suspected OSMF patients.

  18. Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Huynh Nhu Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction method was applied to extract oil from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.. The commercial enzyme (Viscozyme cassava C was tested for effectiveness in releasing oil during the aqueous extraction. The effect of several parameters such as material/water ratio, enzyme concentration and duration for enzyme incubation on the oil yield was investigated. The conditions for maximum oil release were found with the material/water ratio of 1:9, enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w E/S, and in 3 h of enzyme incubation at 50oC with constant shaking. The maximum oil yield obtained at those conditions (38.88 % raw material was significantly (p <0.05 higher than that of the control (without enzyme (35.92 %, and it represented 86.28 % recovery of the total oil in seed. No hexane and other organic solvents were needed for this process. The cashew nut oil by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction was relatively stable. Both peroxide value and free fatty acid value were lower than those in the oil obtained by Soxhlet method. Total un-saturated fatty acid in the cashew nut oil was about 84.43 %, in which the most abundant was oleic acid (65.0 %, followed by linoleic acid (18.53%. Cashew nut oil is a good dietary source of un-saturated fatty acids.

  19. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  20. Surface area products for Kerr-Taub-NUT space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We examine properties of the inner and outer horizon thermodynamics of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Kerr-Taub-NUT (KTN) black hole (BH) in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We compare and contrasted these properties with the properties of Reissner Nordstrøm (RN) BH and Kerr BH. We focus on “area product”, “entropy product”, “irreducible mass product” of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons. Due to mass dependence, we speculate that these products have no nice quantization feature. Nor do they have any universal property. We further observe that the first law of BH thermodynamics and Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem relations do not hold for Taub-NUT (TN) and KTN BH in Lorentzian regime. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to the presence of the non-trivial NUT charge which makes the space-time be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with RN BH and Kerr BH. Another reason for the failure is that Lorentzian TN and Lorentzian KTN geometries contain Dirac-Misner-type singularity, which is a manifestation of a non-trivial topological twist of the manifold. The black-hole mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula for TN and KTN BHs are also computed. These thermodynamic product formulae give us further understanding of the nature of inner as well as outer BH entropy at the microscopic level.

  1. CoCoNUT: an efficient system for the comparison and analysis of genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. This area of research is driven by the large number of sequenced genomes and heavily relies on efficient algorithms and software to perform pairwise and multiple genome comparisons. Results Most of the software tools available are tailored for one specific task. In contrast, we have developed a novel system CoCoNUT (Computational Comparative geNomics Utility Toolkit that allows solving several different tasks in a unified framework: (1 finding regions of high similarity among multiple genomic sequences and aligning them, (2 comparing two draft or multi-chromosomal genomes, (3 locating large segmental duplications in large genomic sequences, and (4 mapping cDNA/EST to genomic sequences. Conclusion CoCoNUT is competitive with other software tools w.r.t. the quality of the results. The use of state of the art algorithms and data structures allows CoCoNUT to solve comparative genomics tasks more efficiently than previous tools. With the improved user interface (including an interactive visualization component, CoCoNUT provides a unified, versatile, and easy-to-use software tool for large scale studies in comparative genomics.

  2. Drip irrigation with treated wastewater from cashew nut industry under service pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketson Bruno da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of wastewater generated in the processing of cashew nuts enables the rationalization of water use, as well as the minimization of pollution and environmental degradation. The study aimed to analyze the effect of service pressures in the distribution uniformity of drip irrigation units applying treated wastewater from cashew nut industry. The experiment was conducted in split-split plots scheme having the service pressures (70, 140, 210 and 280 kPa on parcels, the emitters models (G1, G2 and G3 on subplots and the evaluation periods (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 h of operation of the irrigation units on subsubplots. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The coefficient of uniformity of distribution of irrigation units, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the effluent were determined every 20 hours of operation the irrigation units to totalize 160 h. The combination of dripper G3 and service pressure of 140 kPa provided excellent levels of distribution uniformity of effluent on irrigation units operating with treated wastewater of cashew nut industry. For application of treated wastewater from cashew nut it is not recommended the use of drippers with low flow rate (? 1.6 L h-1 and labyrinth of greater length (? 58 mm.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-12-29

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut.

  5. NUT-charged black holes in matter-coupled N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Marta; Klemm, Dietmar

    2012-06-01

    Using the results of Cacciatori, Klemm, Mansi, and Zorzan [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 05 (2008) 09710.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/097], where all timelike supersymmetric backgrounds of N=2, D=4 matter-coupled supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging were classified, we construct genuine NUT-charged BPS black holes in anti-deSitter4 with nonconstant moduli. The calculations are exemplified for the SU(1,1)/U(1) model with prepotential F=-iX0X1. The resulting supersymmetric black holes have a hyperbolic horizon and carry two electric, two magnetic, and one NUT charge, which are however not all independent, but are given in terms of three free parameters. We find that turning on a NUT charge lifts the flat directions in the effective black hole potential, such that the horizon values of the scalars are completely fixed by the charges. We also oxidize the solutions to 11 dimensions, and find that they generalize the geometry found in the work of Gauntlett, Kim, Pakis, and Waldram [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 65, 026003 (2001)10.1103/PhysRevD.65.026003] corresponding to membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in a Calabi-Yau fivefold. Finally, a class of NUT-charged Nernst branes is constructed as well, but these have curvature singularities at the horizon.

  6. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  7. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, enriched with olive oil and nuts. People with diabetes, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, could benefit greatly from following this type of eating pattern. Analysis of vegetable fats intake from nuts and olive oil in patients with 1 Diabetes Mellitus type (DM1). Transverse descriptive study comparing 60 people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) with 60 healthy individuals. We collect the frequency of consumption of vegetable oils and nuts and calculate the contribution of these foods in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid). For data collection we designed a food frequency questionnaire specifically. We also collect anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Vegetable fat intake from vegetable oils (3.02 ± 1.14 vs 3.07 ± 1.27 portions/day, P = 0.822) and nuts (1.35 ± 2.24 vs 1.60 ± 2.44 portions/week, P = 0.560), was similar in both groups. The DM1 group consumed fewer portions of olive oil daily than the control group (2.55 ± 1.17 vs 3.02 ± 1.34 portions/day, P = 0.046). We detected a significantly lower intake of α-linolenic acid in the control group (1.13 ± 2.06 versus 2.64 ± 4.37 g/day, p = 0.018) while there were not differences in the rest of fatty acids (oleic acid 28.30 ± 18.13 vs 29.53 ± 16.90 g/day, P = 0.703; linoleic 13.70 ± 16.80 vs 15.45 ± 19.90 g/day, P = 0.605). In DM1, it not demonstrated an influence of the intake of vegetable fats and oils from nuts in the anthropometric, metabolic and diabetes-specific variables. In people with DM1, total intake of vegetable oils and nuts do not differ from the general population. However, the consumption of olive oil and the contribution of α-linolenic fatty acid derived from such fats are slightly lower than the general population. Although intake of vegetable oils and nuts in people with DM1

  8. Integrability in conformally coupled gravity: Taub-NUT spacetimes and rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoux, Yannis; Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos

    2014-05-01

    We consider four dimensional stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes for conformally coupled scalar-tensor theories. We show that, in analogy to the Lewis-Papapetrou problem in General Relativity (GR), the theory at hand can be recast in an analogous integrable form. We give the relevant rod formalism, introduced by Weyl for vacuum GR, explicitly giving the rod structure of the black hole of Bocharova et al. and Bekenstein (BBMB), in complete analogy to the Schwarzschild solution. The additional scalar field is shown to play the role of an extra Weyl potential. We then employ the Ernst method as a concrete solution generating example to obtain the Taub-NUT version of the BBMB hairy black hole. The solution is easily extended to include a cosmological constant. We show that the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of this solution is free of closed timelike curves that plague usual Taub-NUT metrics, and thus consists of a rotating, asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter black hole. This stationary solution has no curvature singularities whatsoever in the conformal frame, and the NUT charge is shown here to regularize the central curvature singularity of the corresponding static black hole. Given our findings we discuss the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of Taub-NUT in four dimensions, and show that the curvature singularity of the NUT-less solution is now replaced by a neighbouring chronological singularity screened by horizons. We argue that the properties of this rotating black hole are very similar to those of the rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changpin; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-11-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play key roles in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism, and stress responses. A total of 125 MYB genes (JcMYB) have been identified in the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) genome, including 120 2R-type MYB, 4 3R-MYB, and 1 4R-MYB genes. Based on exon-intron arrangement of MYBs from both lower (Physcomitrella patens) and higher (physic nut, Arabidopsis, and rice) plants, we can classify plant MYB genes into ten groups (MI-X), except for MIX genes which are nonexistent in higher plants. We also observed that MVIII genes may be one of the most ancient MYB types which consist of both R2R3- and 3R-MYB genes. Most MYB genes (76.8% in physic nut) belong to the MI group which can be divided into 34 subgroups. The JcMYB genes were nonrandomly distributed on its 11 linkage groups (LGs). The expansion of MYB genes across several subgroups was observed and resulted from genome triplication of ancient dicotyledons and from both ancient and recent tandem duplication events in the physic nut genome. The expression patterns of several MYB duplicates in the physic nut showed differences in four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 34 MYB genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots based on the data analysis of digital gene expression tags. Overexpression of the JcMYB001 gene in Arabidopsis increased its sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses.

  10. Integrability in conformally coupled gravity: Taub-NUT spacetimes and rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoux, Yannis [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Caldarelli, Marco M. [Mathematical Sciences and STAG research centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Charmousis, Christos [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (LMPT), Université Tours, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)

    2014-05-09

    We consider four dimensional stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes for conformally coupled scalar-tensor theories. We show that, in analogy to the Lewis-Papapetrou problem in General Relativity (GR), the theory at hand can be recast in an analogous integrable form. We give the relevant rod formalism, introduced by Weyl for vacuum GR, explicitly giving the rod structure of the black hole of Bocharova et al. and Bekenstein (BBMB), in complete analogy to the Schwarzschild solution. The additional scalar field is shown to play the role of an extra Weyl potential. We then employ the Ernst method as a concrete solution generating example to obtain the Taub-NUT version of the BBMB hairy black hole. The solution is easily extended to include a cosmological constant. We show that the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of this solution is free of closed timelike curves that plague usual Taub-NUT metrics, and thus consists of a rotating, asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter black hole. This stationary solution has no curvature singularities whatsoever in the conformal frame, and the NUT charge is shown here to regularize the central curvature singularity of the corresponding static black hole. Given our findings we discuss the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of Taub-NUT in four dimensions, and show that the curvature singularity of the NUT-less solution is now replaced by a neighbouring chronological singularity screened by horizons. We argue that the properties of this rotating black hole are very similar to those of the rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions.

  11. Characterization of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of plant oils using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcapek, Michal; Jandera, Pavel; Zderadicka, Petr; Hrubá, Lucie

    2003-08-29

    Triacylglycerols (TGs) and diacylglycerols (DGs) in 16 plant oil samples (hazelnut, pistachio, poppy-seed, almond, palm, Brazil-nut, rapeseed, macadamia, soyabean, sunflower, linseed, Dracocephalum moldavica, evening primrose, corn, amaranth, Silybum arianum) were analyzed by HPLC-MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and UV detection at 205 nm on two Nova-Pak C18 chromatographic columns connected in series. A single chromatographic column and non-aqueous ethanol-acetonitrile gradient system was used as a compromise between the analysis time and the resolution for the characterization of TG composition of five plant oils. APCI mass spectra were applied for the identification of all TGs and other acylglycerols. The isobaric positional isomers can be distinguished on the basis of different relative abundances of the fragment ions formed by preferred losses of the fatty acid from sn-1(3) positions compared to the sn-2 position. Excellent chromatographic resolution and broad retention window together with APCI mass spectra enabled positive identification of TGs containing fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms such as margaric (C17:0) and heptadecanoic (C17:1) acids. The general fragmentation patterns of TGs in both APCI and electrospray ionization mass spectra were proposed on the basis of MSn spectra measured with an ion trap analyzer. The relative concentrations of particular TGs in the analyzed plant oils were estimated on the basis of relative peak areas measured with UV detection at 205 nm.

  12. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  13. Influence of soil biochar aging on sorption of the herbicides MCPA, nicosulfuron, terbuthylazine, indaziflam, and fluoroethyldiaminotriazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Carmen; Spokas, Kurt A; Cox, Lucia; Koskinen, William C

    2014-11-12

    Sorption of four herbicides and a metabolite of indaziflam on a fresh macadamia nut biochar and biochars aged one or two years in soil was characterized. On fresh biochar, the sorption was terbuthylazine (Kd = 595) > indaziflam (Kd = 162) > MCPA (Kd = 7.5) > fluoroethyldiaminotriazine (Kd = 0.26) and nicosulfuron (Kd = 0). Biochar surface area increased with aging attributed to the loss of a surface film. This was also manifested in a decline in water extractable organic carbon with aging. Correspondingly, an increase in the aromaticity was observed. The higher surface area and porosity in aged biochar increased sorption of indaziflam (KdBC-2yr = 237) and fluoroethyldiaminotriazine (KdBC-1yr = 1.2 and KdBC-2yr = 3.0), but interestingly decreased sorption of terbuthylazine (KdBC-1yr = 312 and KdBC-2yr = 221) and MCPA (KdBC-1yr = 2 and KdBC-2yr = 2). These results will facilitate development of biochars for specific remediation purposes.

  14. ALIMENTOS TÓXICOS PARA CÃES E GATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Turner Giannico

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet animals are closer to their owners and for this reason erroneously share the same alimentation. Several substances can cause intoxication or poisoning in dogs and cats, being many of those also found in human food. Some foods that are edible for humans or even to other animal species can be risky for dogs and cats due to different metabolic pathways, and further damage can be caused depending on the amount or concentration consumed. Poisoning in animals occur intentionally or accidentally in the household of its owner, occurring acute onset of clinical signs. Thus, the objective of this review was to present the food products for humans that cannot be given to dogs and cats as well as clinical signs characteristic of a toxicosis, also demonstrating the therapy for the damage created by consumption of those substances. This review explores the mechanisms of action and clinical signs of toxicosis caused by chocolate, xylitol, macadamia nuts, onions, garlic, grapes and raisins, avocado, alcoholic beverages and milk.

  15. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  16. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES—IV*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. G. J. VAN STEENIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. In connection with the first record from Malaysia (Atjeh, North Sumatra of a species of Schoepfia (Olacaceae, viz. S. fragrans Wall, in Roxb., some notes on the genus are given, including a key to the species of section Schoepfiopsis (emended and to the two Indian species of Schoepfia. The specimens of the Kew and Leyden Herbaria of these two species are listed. The name Schoepfia ffriffithii Tiegh. is validly published in the present paper, if this was not done before. 2. Smilax pygmaea Merr. (Liliaceae is recorded from Atjeh, Sumatra. 3. The first indigenous species of Mivmlus (Scrophulariaceae, M. tenellus Bunge, is recorded for Malaysia from Atjeh, Sumatra. 4. A new species of Macadamia (Proteaceae is described from Celebes: Maca- damia hildebrandii Van Steenis. It belongs to the same genus as the common Australian bush nut, M. ternifolia, with edible seeds. 5. Some information, additional to a previous paper on Biophytum (Oxalidaceae in Malaysia, is given. • 6. Some records of plants new to Mount Pangrango, West Java, are mentioned. 7. The recent introduction and the present distribution in Malaysia of the weed Eupatorium odoratum L. (Compositae is discussed. 8. Some additional records of the liana Hollrungia aurantioides K. Schum. (Passifloraceae from New Guinea and from outside this island (Ternate, Moluccas are published.

  17. Pine mouth (pine nut) syndrome: description of the toxidrome, preliminary case definition, and best evidence regarding an apparent etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2012-11-01

    Pine mouth syndrome (PMS), otherwise known as pine nut syndrome, is a relatively new condition. At least several thousand cases have now been described in the literature. The author describes the PMS toxidrome, offers a preliminary case definition, and discusses current best evidence regarding the etiology and risk factors related to the development of PMS.A clinically compatible case of PMS must include taste disturbance, usually characterized as bitter or metallic, following the ingestion of affected pine nuts by 1 to 3 days. Affected nuts would appear to include all, or some portion, of nuts harvested from species Pinus armandii (Chinese white pine), but could include nuts from other species. The specific toxin that is apparently present in affected nuts has not yet been isolated, and the mechanism of toxicity and factors determining PMS susceptibility need to be further detailed. There are no proven therapies for PMS. The only treatment is to cease ingesting implicated nuts and to wait for symptoms to abate.

  18. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  19. Influência do processo de beneficiamento na qualidade de amêndoas de castanha-do-brasil Influence of Brazil nut processing on the quality of nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. é uma matéria-prima importante que constitui a base de subsistência para os povos da região Amazônica. Em razão do alto teor de lipídios insaturados, cerca de 60 a 70% torna-se altamente perecível. Inadequadas práticas de beneficiamento fazem com que o descascamento resulte alto índice de amêndoas quebradas ou danificadas. Neste trabalho objetivou-se fazer um comparativo das propriedades físico-químicas, teor de minerais, ácidos graxos e perfil de aminoácidos essenciais de amêndoas que sofreram danos mecânicos em comparação a amêndoas intactas, que foram beneficiadas, embaladas e armazenadas nas mesmas condições. O teor de minerais totais de amêndoas danificadas e intactas, armazenadas durante três meses à temperatura ambiente, não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si. Entretanto, resultou em perdas significativas de ácidos graxos insaturados, como o oléico e o linoléico, além de aminoácidos essenciais, principalmente a lisina. Isso pode implicar na redução do valor biológico da castanha, principalmente na sua qualidade sensorial.Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. is an important raw material. It constitutes a basic stable of the population living in the Amazon region. Due to high unsaturated lipid content, around 60 to 70% is highly perishable. Moreover, inadequate processing practices result in high broken or damaged nuts. The objective this work was to make a comparative study of the physicochemical properties, mineral contents, lipids, and essential amino acid profiles between intact and highly damaged Brazil nut. All samples were stored in the same conditions. Samples were stored during three months at room temperature.The mineral profile of both samples did not show significant variation in total contents. It resulted, however, in significant loss of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid, besides essential amino acid

  20. APPLICABILITY OF FS-ALL-METAL SELF-LOCK NUTS FOR RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK OF 1520 MM GAUGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Кreis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of key requirements for rolling stock of next generation is essential increase of warranty period or running between maintenance depots and in periods between programming repair works. This will lead to a reduction of costs to maintenance and repair during service life of rolling stock. In this regard, the industry aspires to use (during construction, repairs, modernization of rolling stock a modern screw joints in structures for fixing parts. These screw joints could provide a high reliability under the action of vibration load. FS-hexagon all-metal self-lock nuts of multiple use, Flaig + Hommel GmbH company meets these requirements. Therefore, there is the need to consider the results of tests to confirm the reliability of FS-nuts in the new environment. Methodology. Test complex of developed programs and methods was carried out on railway rolling stock for functional demonstration of screw joints with FS-nuts. These tests include: 1 proof test and locking moment test as specified in ISO 2320 under normal climatic conditions and after low temperatures impact; 2 running test for rolling stock, secured the most load condition and according to supervised operation of next generation cars on the railway. Findings. Results of the tests testify that FS-all-metal self-lock nuts meet the requirements of international standards and confirm the reliability of the next generation rolling stock during its operation on the railway of 1520 mm gauge. Namely, locking moment and tightening torque is maintained in screw joints both on spring-suspended and unspring parts of freight car bogies by the action of vibration load under multiple use of FS-nuts. Originality. The developed software and methods was improved by conducting additional tests after exposure of screw joints with FS-nuts to low temperatures, as well as by control operations for assessing the condition of screw joints with FS-nuts, in the conditions of controlled operation of rolling

  1. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period.

  2. Gender Roles and Challenges of Small Scale Processed Cashew Nut Marketers in Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Enwelu I. A; Ugwu S. T; Irohibe I.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined gender roles and challenges of small scale processed cashew nut marketers in Enugu North senatorial zone of Enugu State. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 72 respondents. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. Small scale processed cashew nut marketers were dominated by female youths with mean age of 31 years and making a monthly income of between ₦10,000.00 - ₦14,999.00 from cashew nut marketing. The marketing strategy mostly used by ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut extract in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2004-12-01

    The article relates to investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract (SA), and also an anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, on carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma tests for their effects on acute and chronic phases of inflammation, respectively. The effect of SA on developing and developed adjuvant arthritis was also evaluated. SA significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Indomethacin also decreased the acute and chronic phases of inflammation. SA decreased the adjuvant induced (arthritis) paw edema after the treatment, in both developing and developed adjuvant arthritis. These results indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract against all phases of inflammation, is comparable to that of indomethacin.

  4. Separation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K

    2003-05-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation.

  5. Supersymmetry of topological Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT-AdS spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Alberca, N; Ortín, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    We extend the topological Kerr-Newman-$aDS$ solutions by including NUT chargeand find generalizations of the Robinson-Bertotti solution to the negativecosmological constant case with different topologies. We show how all thesesolutions can be obtained as limits of the general Plebanski-Demianskisolution. We study the supersymmetry properties of all these solutions in thecontext of gauged $N=2,d=4$ supergravity. Generically they preserve at most 1/4of the total supersymmetry. In the Plebanski-Demianski case, although gauged$N=2,d=4$ supergravity does not have electric-magnetic duality, we find thatthe family of supersymmetric solutions still enjoys a sort of electric-magneticduality in which electric and magnetic charges and mass and Taub-NUT charge arerotated simultaneously.

  6. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction.

  7. Thermodynamic volumes for AdS-Taub-NUT and AdS-Taub-Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-12-01

    In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS4 with an S3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

  8. Yield performance of half-sib families of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mousinho Spinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the oilseed plants, physic nut stands out for its yield potential and for the quality of its oil for biodiesel and biokerosene production. Currently, low seed yield, uneven fruit maturation and the lack of high yielding genotypes limit the viability of this crop. Here we evaluated the yield performance of a population, structured in 16 half-sib families, in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th years after planting (2009-11. Seed yield showed variability. The families maintained their relative performance over time. Contrary to expectations, seed yield was lower in the 4th year, probably due the increased competition between plants and leafhopper (Empoasca spp incidence. Temporal yield stability and adaptability estimates indicated a trend toward maintaining plant superiority over time, and families 7 (1059 kg ha-1 and 12 (984 kg ha-1 showed the best stability and yield performance. Physic nut has the potential for greater yield gains.

  9. Weak electromagnetic field admitting integrability in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Kolar, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of higher-dimensional generally rotating black-hole spacetimes, so called Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes, as well as a family of related spaces which share the same explicit and hidden symmetries. In these spaces, we study a particle motion in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field and compare it with its operator analogies. First, we find general commutativity conditions for classical observables and for their operator counterparts, then we investigate a fulfillment of these conditions in the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS and related spaces. We find the most general form of the weak electromagnetic field compatible with the complete integrability of the particle motion and the comutativity of the field operators. For such a field we solve the charged Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations by separation of variables.

  10. Phenols from cashew nut shell oil as a feedstock for making resins and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbiersky, J. [UCP Chemicals, Vienna (Austria); Polaczek, J. [Ola International Ltd, Warszawa (Poland); Ramamoorty, Rajaraman [UCP Chemicals India Ltd, Chennai (India); Shishlov, O. [Uralchimplast, Nizhniy Tagil (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    Phenols are generally important for the manufacturing of polymers, resins, drugs, cosmetics, herbicides and more. For industrial applications in Western Europe synthetic phenols and phenols from coal are normally used. But also phenols from renewable raw materials like cashew nuts are available in high tonnages (CNSL 400.000 t/a) and in a stable quality: The phenolic Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) has a high potential in chemical reactions resulting in products with interesting properties. Main application of CNSL is the production of polymers and resins but there are also other possibilities for use like pharmaceuticals, biocides, antioxidants and surfactants. The article gives an updated short overview regarding production, classification, chemistry, toxicology and the use of CNSL. (orig.)

  11. Stabilization of lysosomal membrane and cell membrane glycoprotein profile by Semecarpus anacardium linn. nut milk extract in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-08-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 14 days exerted an in vivo stabilizing effect on lysosomal membrane and glycoprotein content in rat hepatocellular carcinoma. This was demonstrated in normal rats and in animals whose biomembranes were rendered fragile by induction of hepatocellular carcinoma with aflatoxin B(1) and subsequent treatment with Semecarpus anacardium nut extract. In this condition, the discharge of lysosomal enzymes increased significantly with a subsequent increase in glycoprotein components. The nut extract administration reversed these adverse changes to near normal in treated animals. The possible reason for this reversal is discussed. Such stabilization of biomembranes by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers involving abnormal fragility of lysosomes and glycoprotein content providing the extract demonstrates safety in a full toxicity study. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Computational Approach for Cross-Reactivity Prediction of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Allergen from Pistachio Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: For the first time recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase from nut source was expressed as a possible allergen. This pistachio allergen could be a possible basis for cross-reactivity with MnSOD from other sources.

  13. Effect of antibloom fat migration from a nut oil filling on the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Zand, Imro't; Talbot, Geoff

    2008-03-12

    In confectionery products, loss in texture contrast between chocolate and filling and the appearance of fat bloom on the surface of the chocolate can be caused by fat migration. Bloom is often linked to the transformation of the cocoa butter betaV polymorph into betaVI. A previous study showed that small additions (1%) of nut oil can have a significant impact on the rate of transformation and that migration of nut oil from a filling would increase polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter. In the present study, antibloom fat was added to the filling in a model system. The antibloom fat migrated with the nut oil and inhibited the transformation of cocoa butter from the betaV polymorph into betaVI. Despite experiencing migration of greater amounts of nut oil, cocoa butter closest to the filling transformed more slowly than that farther away (i.e., the reverse of the situation in the absence of antibloom fat).

  14. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as indicators for irradiation treatment of cashew nuts and nutmeg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz

    2016-06-15

    Irradiation of food products and ingredients must be indicated by proper labeling. This study evaluated the appropriateness of the European Standard EN 1785:2003 for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, which are radiolysis products of fatty acids, in cashew nuts and nutmeg and confirmed its suitability to detect irradiation of cashew nut samples at average absorbed doses of 1 kGy and above. An alternative method was developed, which is based on matrix solid phase dispersion and subsequent separation and detection of oxime derivatives of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by high performance-high resolution mass spectrometry. It is more rapid, less resource consuming, and more sensitive than EN 1785:2003. This method allowed detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nuts irradiated at 100 Gray and in nutmeg irradiated at 400 Gray. None of the 26 cashew nut and 14 nutmeg samples purchased in different EU Member States contained traces of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

  15. Energy Analysis of Baby Boiler for Steaming of Raw Cashew Nut Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Mohod; Y. P. Khandetod; S. H. Sengar; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills with the help of baby boiler. The wide variations in energy intensity of these mills reveal the scope for energy conservation. The baby boiler coupled with cooker commonly used for steaming of raw seeds was evaluated. The variation in steam pressure, temperature and operating time with respect to fuel was observed along with thermal efficiency of a boiler. The energy intensity to pr...

  16. Addressing a silent killer - The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, in coordination with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research , The University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Oral Cancer Research Coordinating Center, University of Malaya, Taiwan Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and with the generous support of the Malaysia Ministry of Health, hosted the International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on April 27-28, 2016.

  17. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Integrating cover crops into a nut orchard can have some unique benefits and problems not found when used cover crops during the fallow period between cash crops. Studies show ground covers can reduce hardwood tree growth anywhere from a few percent to more than 70 percent in the case of tall fescue. This means if it takes 3 years to put on one inch of diameter growth...

  18. Entropy in the NUT-Kerr-Newman Black Holes in the Background of de Sitter Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛先辉; 沈有根

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the entropy of the fermion field in the NUT-Kerr-Newman black holes in the background of the de Sitter spacetime by using the improved brick-wall method and the membrane model. Here the Euler characteristic of the black holes is over two. The results show that, as the cut-off is properly chosen, the entropy in the black hole satisfies the Bekenstein-Hawking area law.

  19. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  20. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  1. Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Aletta E; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Huisman, Hugo W; Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Hanekom, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C

    2006-06-01

    Impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Because lipid abnormalities have been associated with impaired BRS, this study aimed to determine whether diets known to improve the lipid profile, namely a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (walnuts) or monounsaturated fatty acids (cashew nuts), would improve BRS in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). A controlled feeding trial with a randomized, controlled, parallel study design was undertaken, which involved 62 subjects with MS. Subjects were stratified according to gender and age and were randomized into three groups receiving a control diet, or a diet high (20% energy) in walnuts or unsalted cashew nuts for 8 weeks while maintaining body weight. The BRS, C-reactive protein (CRP), and MS components were measured before and after the intervention. After the intervention, BRS in the walnut-fed study group decreased (P = .038) and that in the cashew-fed study group increased (P = .036), but the BRS in the control group did not change (P = .56). The percent change of the walnut versus cashew group differed (P = .019). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol did not change. The fasting glucose concentrations of the cashew group increased (P = .03). The significant improvements in BRS obtained by a diet rich in cashew nuts underline the beneficial cardiovascular effects of nuts. However, the opposite result was obtained with a diet rich in walnuts. These significant changes observed might indicate that BRS is particularly sensitive and influenced by changes in diet without changes in obesity.

  2. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Ndi Nsami; Joseph Ketcha Mbadcam

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosa...

  3. Quarter-BPS Black Holes in AdS$_4$-NUT from $N=2$ Gauged Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Erbin, Harold

    2015-01-01

    We study $N=2$ gauged supergravity with $U(1)$ gauge group coupled to $n_v$ vector multiplets and find quite general analytic solutions for quarter-BPS black holes with mass, NUT and dyonic Maxwell charges. The solutions we find have running scalar fields and flow in the IR region to a horizon geometry of the form AdS$_2\\times \\Sigma_g$.

  4. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption.

  5. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Puneet; Herrero Langreo, Ana; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Roger, jean-michel; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Gorretta, Nathalie,; Lleó García, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with tr...

  6. Haunted Kaluza universe with four-dimensional Lorentzian flat, Kerr, and Taub-NUT slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Rossen I. [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Trinity College, University of Dublin (Ireland) and Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ivanovr@tcd.ie; Prodanov, Emil M. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin (Ireland)]. E-mail: prodanov@physics.dcu.ie

    2005-03-03

    The duality between the original Kaluza's theory and Klein's subsequent modification is duality between slicing and threading decomposition of the five-dimensional spacetime. The field equations of the original Kaluza's theory lead to the interpretation of the four-dimensional Lorentzian Kerr and Taub-NUT solutions as resulting from static electric and magnetic charges and dipoles in the presence of ghost matter and constant dilaton, which models Newton's constant.

  7. Activation of TGF-β Pathway by Areca Nut Constituents: A Possible Cause of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Kumar, Neeraj; Pant, Ila; Narra, Sivakrishna; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2012-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of excess collagen, and areca nut chewing has been proposed as an important etiological factor for disease manifestation. Activation of transforming growth factor-β signaling has been postulated as the main causative event for increased collagen production in OSF. Oral epithelium plays important roles in OSF, and arecoline has been shown to induce TGF-β in epithelial cells. In an attempt to understand the role of areca nut constituents in the manifestation of OSF, we studied the global gene expression profile in epithelial cells (HaCaT) following treatment with areca nut water extract or TGF-β. Interestingly, 64% of the differentially regulated genes by areca nut water extract matches with the TGF-β induced gene expression profile. Out of these, expression of 57% of genes was compromised in the presence of ALK5 (TβRI) inhibitor and 7% were independently induced by areca nut, highlighting the importance of TGF-β in areca nut actions. Areca nut water extract treatment induced p-SMAD2 and TGF-β downstream targets in HaCaT cells but not in human gingival fibroblast cells (hGF), suggesting epithelial cells could be the source of TGF-β in promoting OSF. Water extract of areca nut consists of polyphenols and alkaloids. Both polyphenol and alkaloid fractions of areca nut were able to induce TGF-β signaling and its downstream targets. Also, SMAD-2 was phosphorylated following treatment of HaCaT cells by Catechin, Tannin and alkaloids namely Arecoline, Arecaidine and Guvacine. Moreover, both polyphenols and alkaloids induced TGF-β2 and THBS1 (activator of latent TGF-β) in HaCaT cells suggesting areca nut mediated activation of p-SMAD2 involves up-regulation and activation of TGF-β. These data suggest a major causative role for TGF-β that is induced by areca nut in OSF progression. PMID:23284772

  8. Activation of TGF-β pathway by areca nut constituents: a possible cause of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of excess collagen, and areca nut chewing has been proposed as an important etiological factor for disease manifestation. Activation of transforming growth factor-β signaling has been postulated as the main causative event for increased collagen production in OSF. Oral epithelium plays important roles in OSF, and arecoline has been shown to induce TGF-β in epithelial cells. In an attempt to understand the role of areca nut constituents in the manifestation of OSF, we studied the global gene expression profile in epithelial cells (HaCaT following treatment with areca nut water extract or TGF-β. Interestingly, 64% of the differentially regulated genes by areca nut water extract matches with the TGF-β induced gene expression profile. Out of these, expression of 57% of genes was compromised in the presence of ALK5 (TβRI inhibitor and 7% were independently induced by areca nut, highlighting the importance of TGF-β in areca nut actions. Areca nut water extract treatment induced p-SMAD2 and TGF-β downstream targets in HaCaT cells but not in human gingival fibroblast cells (hGF, suggesting epithelial cells could be the source of TGF-β in promoting OSF. Water extract of areca nut consists of polyphenols and alkaloids. Both polyphenol and alkaloid fractions of areca nut were able to induce TGF-β signaling and its downstream targets. Also, SMAD-2 was phosphorylated following treatment of HaCaT cells by Catechin, Tannin and alkaloids namely Arecoline, Arecaidine and Guvacine. Moreover, both polyphenols and alkaloids induced TGF-β2 and THBS1 (activator of latent TGF-β in HaCaT cells suggesting areca nut mediated activation of p-SMAD2 involves up-regulation and activation of TGF-β. These data suggest a major causative role for TGF-β that is induced by areca nut in OSF progression.

  9. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  10. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on ECM and proteases in mammary carcinoma rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, P; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2007-06-01

    The early stages of invasion are characterized by the extracellular proteolysis and the accumulation of specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, that are responsible for the development of vascular bed, endothelial cell proliferation and invasion of tumour cells. The ground substance of provisional matrix consists of collagen, elastin, glycoaminoglycans and proteoglycans that facilitate the interaction of tumour cells with the host environment. In the present work, we have studied the influence of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract on localized differentials of ECM component and proteases involved in matrix metabolism of tumour tissue. Mammary carcinoma was induced in Sprague Dawley rats with 7,12, dimethyl benz(a)anthracene and treated with S. anacardium nut milk extract administered orally for 14 days. The altered amount of ECM components in tumour tissues was almost reverted back to normal level in the drug treated animals. The activities of reported proteases and glycohydrolases were also decreased on treatment with S. anacardium nut milk extract indicating decreased turnover of the matrix. Also, the factors associated with the matrix turnover and expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were restored back to near normal values. The stabilization of the ECM with the decreased activity of proteases might inhibit the epithelial-endothelial interaction and tumour cell migration thus, preventing the adjacent invasion and tumour growth and might be regarded as antineoplastic agent which demands further studies.

  11. Nut density and removal in Syagrus loefgrenii Glassman (Arecaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer, in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna. Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators.

  12. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  13. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  14. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  15. Brazil nut sorting for aflatoxin prevention: a comparison between automatic and manual shelling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Mendonça Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of automatic and manual shelling methods during manual/visual sorting of different batches of Brazil nuts from the 2010 and 2011 harvests was evaluated in order to investigate aflatoxin prevention.The samples were tested as follows: in-shell, shell, shelled, and pieces in order to evaluate the moisture content (mc, water activity (Aw, and total aflatoxin (LOD = 0.3 µg/kg and LOQ 0.85 µg/kg at the Brazil nut processing plant. The results of aflatoxins obtained for the manually shelled nut samples ranged from 3.0 to 60.3 µg/g and from 2.0 to 31.0 µg/g for the automatically shelled samples. All samples showed levels of mc below the limit of 15%; on the other hand, shelled samples from both harvests showed levels of Aw above the limit. There were no significant differences concerning the manual or automatic shelling results during the sorting stages. On the other hand, the visual sorting was effective in decreasing the aflatoxin contamination in both methods.

  16. Resolving Acetylated and Phosphorylated Proteins by Neutral Urea Triton-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, NUT-PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Christopher J.; Deng, Xiexiong; Liu, Mengyu; Hovde, Stacy; Xu, Xinjing; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Protein acetylation and phosphorylation can be key modifications that regulate both normal and pathological protein functions. Current gel systems used to analyze modified proteins require either expensive reagents or time–consuming second dimension electrophoresis. In this manuscript, we present a neutral pH gel system that allows the analysis of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. This neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, or NUT-PAGE, separates proteins based on their charge at pH 7 and generates discrete bands from each acetylated and phosphorylated species. In addition, the gel is composed of common and inexpensive laboratory reagents, and requires only a single dimension of electrophoresis. We are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this system by analyzing phosphorylated species of an acidic protein, α-synuclein, and both acetylated and phosphorylated species of a basic protein, histone H3. NUT-PAGE thus provides a cost-effective alternative to resolving acetylated and phosphorylated proteins, and potentially proteins with other post-translational modifications that alter net charge. Method Summary Here we present a single-dimension neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NUT-PAGE) system affording high-resolution separation of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. PMID:25109292

  17. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Carneiro; Sartori, Daniele; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; de Freitas Munhoz, Carla; Ferreira, Josué Maldonado; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Frisvad, Jens C; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2014-09-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigated a collection of Aspergillus nomius strains isolated from Brazil nuts using different approaches, including morphological characters, RAPD and AFLP profiles, partial β-tubulin and calmodulin nucleotide sequences, aflatoxin patterns, as well as tolerance to low water activity in cultured media. Results showed that most of the isolates do belong to A. nomius species, but a few were re-identified as Aspergillus pseudonomius, a very recently described species. The results of the analyses of molecular variance, as well as the high pairwise FST values between A. nomius and A. pseudonomius suggested the isolation between these two species and the inexistence of gene flow. Fixed interspecific nucleotide polymorphisms at β-tubulin and calmodulin loci are presented. All A. pseudonomius strains analyzed produced aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. This study contains the first-ever report on the occurrence in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius.

  18. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  19. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-08-20

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L.

  20. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  1. Nut density and removal in Syagrus loefgrenii Glassman (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2016-04-19

    In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators.

  2. Classical Monopoles Newton, NUT-space, gravomagnetic lensing and atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Lynden-Bell, Donald; Lynden-Bell, Donald; Nouri-Zonoz, Mohammad

    1996-01-01

    Stimulated by a scholium in Newton's Principia we find some beautiful results in classical mechanics which can be interpreted in terms of the orbits in the field of a mass endowed with a gravomagnetic monopole. All the orbits lie on cones! When the cones are slit open and flattened the orbits are exactly the ellipses and hyperbolae that one would have obtained without the gravomagnetic monopole. The beauty and simplicity of these results has led us to explore the similar problems in Atomic Physics when the nuclei have an added Dirac magnetic monopole. These problems have been explored by others and we sketch the derivations and give details of the predicted spectrum of monopolar hydrogen. Finally we return to gravomagnetic monopoles in general relativity. We explain why NUT space has a non-spherical metric although NUT space itself is the spherical space-time of a mass with a gravomagnetic monopole. We demonstrate that all geodesics in NUT space lie on cones and use this result to study the gravitational lens...

  3. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  4. How do peanut and nut-allergic consumers use information on the packaging to avoid allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Leftwich, J; Muncer, K; Grimshaw, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Gowland, M H; Lucas, Jane S

    2011-07-01

    Recent legislation has sought to improve the information printed on packaged foods relevant to the safety of food allergic consumers. We aimed to understand the complex risk assessment decisions made by peanut and nut-allergic adults when purchasing food, with particular reference to use of printed package information. The behaviour and 'thinking aloud' of 32 participants were recorded during their normal food shop, followed by a semi-structured interview. During the interview they were given 13 potentially problematic packaged foods, and asked if they would purchase the product and what their reasons were. Transcribed data from the shop, interview and 13-product task were analysed to explore use of allergy advice boxes, ingredients lists and other packaging information. Some participants used the ingredients list as their primary check for allergens, but most used the allergy advice box. Package-based information was generally considered reliable, but some supermarket and brand labels were trusted more than others. Images and product names were used to draw inferences about the presence of nuts. A number of improvements were suggested by participants, particularly a request for more 'nut free' labelling. Food labels were used in conjunction with nonpacket-based strategies (e.g. previous experience) to make choices. External factors (e.g. trust of manufacturer) informed interpretation of and confidence in labels. Images and product names, not intended by manufacturers as an allergen risk assessment aid, were also used to inform choices. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. How similar are nut-cracking and stone-flaking? A functional approach to percussive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Blandine; Parry, Ross; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-11-19

    Various authors have suggested similarities between tool use in early hominins and chimpanzees. This has been particularly evident in studies of nut-cracking which is considered to be the most complex skill exhibited by wild apes, and has also been interpreted as a precursor of more complex stone-flaking abilities. It has been argued that there is no major qualitative difference between what the chimpanzee does when he cracks a nut and what early hominins did when they detached a flake from a core. In this paper, similarities and differences between skills involved in stone-flaking and nut-cracking are explored through an experimental protocol with human subjects performing both tasks. We suggest that a 'functional' approach to percussive action, based on the distinction between functional parameters that characterize each task and parameters that characterize the agent's actions and movements, is a fruitful method for understanding those constraints which need to be mastered to perform each task successfully, and subsequently, the nature of skill involved in both tasks.

  6. The Extended Thermodynamic Properties of a topological Taub-NUT/Bolt-AdS spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chong Oh

    2015-01-01

    We consider the extended thermodynamic quantities of higher dimensional topological Taub-NUT/Bolt-AdS black holes with a cosmological constant treated as a pressure and find their general form for arbitrary dimensions and the thermodynamics of these configurations is argued to some extent. In particular by introducing Gibbs free energy, it is found out to be a new thermodynamically stable region of these black holes. At an equilibrium condition we find an entropy of a NUT solution, volume, and latent heat are negative where the Clapeyron equation is satisfied for these thermodynamic quantities. These negative volume and entropy may be interpreted as that the environment applies work to the system in the process of the Taub-NUT-AdS black hole formation, and such negative latent heat may indicate a net release of latent energy back into the environment because of evaporating of the system. Intriguingly, we also find that like the AdS black hole case, Taub-Bolt-AdS black hole with two phases (phase of small and ...

  7. Mixed models identify physic nut genotypes adapted to environments with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Laviola, B G; Martins, L D; Amaral, J F T; Rodrigues, W N

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to screen physic nut (Jatropha curcas) genotypes that differ in their phosphorous (P) use, using mixed models. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in Alegre, ES, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, using a 10 x 3-factorial scheme, including ten physic nut genotypes and two environments that differed in their levels of soil P availability (10 and 60 mg/dm(3)), each with four replications. After 100 days of cultivation, we evaluated the plant height, stem diameter, root volume, root dry matter, aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, as well as the efficiency of absorption, and use. The parameters were estimated for combined selection while considering the studied parameters: stability and adaptability for both environments were obtained using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of the predicted genotypic values. High genotype by environment interactions were observed for most physic nut traits, indicating considerable influences of P availability on the phenotypic value. The genotype Paraíso simultaneously presented high adaptability and stability for aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, and P translocation efficiency. The genotype CNPAE-C2 showed a positive response to P fertilization by increasing both the total and aerial part dry matter.

  8. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushkodi Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  9. Ontogeny of manipulative behavior and nut-cracking in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a perception-action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-11-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal developmental data from semifree-ranging tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to evaluate predictions arising from Perception-action theory linking manipulative development and the onset of tool-using. Percussive actions bringing an object into contact with a surface appeared within the first year of life. Most infants readily struck nuts and other objects against stones or other surfaces from 6 months of age, but percussive actions alone were not sufficient to produce nut-cracking sequences. Placing the nut on the anvil surface and then releasing it, so that it could be struck with a stone, was the last element necessary for nut-cracking to appear in capuchins. Young chimpanzees may face a different challenge in learning to crack nuts: they readily place objects on surfaces and release them, but rarely vigorously strike objects against surfaces or other objects. Thus the challenges facing the two species in developing the same behavior (nut-cracking using a stone hammer and an anvil) may be quite different. Capuchins must inhibit a strong bias to hold nuts so that they can release them; chimpanzees must generate a percussive action rather than a gentle placing action. Generating the right actions may be as challenging as achieving the right sequence of actions in both species. Our analysis suggests a new direction for studies of social influence on young primates learning sequences of actions involving manipulation of objects in relation to surfaces.

  10. The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc-Nickel: OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners - Getting It Into Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Blake Simpson Louie Tran The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners – Getting It Into Production Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel : OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on...currently in production 2. Problem at Hand – Hexavalent Chromates 3. Transition to Zinc- Nickel 4. Preliminary Testing 5. Plan moving forward for

  11. Anti cancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joice P; Raval, Sunant K; Sadariya, Kamlesh A; Jhala, Mayur; Kumar, Pranay

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the anticancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic preparation made of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts. Five groups of rats were used for the study. Group I served as water control. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced in groups II, III and IV animals using N-nitrosodiethylamine as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as promoter for 13 weeks. Group-II animals were kept untreated as hepatocellular carcinoma control. Group-III animals were treated with Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts at dose mentioned in Ashtangahridaya, an authentic book of Ayurveda for 49 days and group-IV animals were treated with doxorubicin as reference drug at dose of 1mg/kg twice a week for 7 weeks. Group V animals were kept as drug (SA nut milk extract) control for studying the effect of nut milk extract on normal rats. After 154 days of experiment, all animals were subjected to screening for HCC by estimation of liver enzymes, HCC marker (alpha-2 macroglobulin) and histopathology. Both liver enzymes and HCC marker were increased in hepatocellular carcinoma control along with neoplastic changes in liver and were decreased in Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract treated group. The Ayurvedic drug showed positive correlation with the action of doxorubicin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma either alone or along with chemotherapy.

  12. Effect of Processing on the Chemical, Pasting and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Bambara Nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Abiodun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of processing on the chemical, pasting and anti-nutritional composition of bambara nut flour. Bambara nut seeds were divided into two portions. Portion A was milled into raw flour while portion B was boiled for 10 min. The coats were removed and the dehulled nuts were dried in the oven at 50oC for 18 h. They were milled and sealed in polythene bags. Proximate, mineral and antinutritional compositions of the samples were carried out on the flour samples. Raw flour had the highest ash content (3.26% while the least value was in the coat. Protein content ranged from 3.49-19.94%. Dehulled bambara nut had higher protein content than the raw sample. The coat was high in fibre content when compared to the raw and dehulled flour samples. The mineral composition of raw bambara nut flour were higher than the dehulled flour. Tannin contents ranged from 0.16 mg/100 g in dehulled flour to 0.32 mg/100 g in raw flour. Raw bambara nut flour had higher phytate content while the dehulled flour had lower value. The value of oxalate ranged from 0.10-1.34 mg/100 g. Boiling and dehulling drastically reduced the mineral and the antinutritional composition of the flour.

  13. Betel nut extract and arecoline block insulin signaling and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Chou, Pong-Chun; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2011-12-01

    According to several population-based studies, betel nut chewing is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes in British South Asians and Taiwanese. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not yet clear. Arecoline is an alkaloid-type natural product found in betel nuts. Our aim was to clarify the influence of betel nut extract and arecoline on lipid accumulation and insulin signaling in adipocytes. We found that betel nut extract and arecoline blocked lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The possible mechanism may function by inhibiting the expression of the insulin receptor, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and the lipid droplet proteins perilipin and adipophilin. In addition, betel nut extract and arecoline increased the basal level of IRS-1 serine(307) phosphorylation and decreased insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine, Akt, and PI3 kinase phosphorylation. In conclusion, betel nut extract and arecoline have diabetogenic potential on adipocytes that may result in insulin resistance and diabetes at least in part via the obstruction of insulin signaling and the blockage of lipid storage.

  14. Use of the chloroplast gene ycf1 for the genetic differentiation of pine nuts obtained from consumers experiencing dysgeusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Sara M; Parks, Matthew B; Deeds, Jonathan R; Liston, Aaron; de Jager, Lowri S; Luccioli, Stefano; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest; Fardin-Kia, Ali R; Begley, Timothy H; Rader, Jeanne I; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2011-10-26

    Pine nuts are a part of traditional cooking in many parts of the world and have seen a significant increase in availability/use in the United States over the past 10 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) field offices received 411 complaints from U.S. consumers over the past three years regarding taste disturbances following the consumption of pine nuts. Using analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, previous reports have implicated nuts from Pinus armandii (Armand Pine) as the causative species for similar taste disturbances. This method was found to provide insufficient species resolution to link FDA consumer complaint samples to a single species of pine, particularly when samples contained species mixtures of pine nuts. Here we describe a DNA based method for differentiating pine nut samples using the ycf1 chloroplast gene. Although the exact cause of pine nut associated dysgeusia is still not known, we found that 15 of 15 samples from consumer complaints contained at least some Pinus armandii, confirming the apparent association of this species with taste disturbances.

  15. Mechanistic analysis of the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in BRD4-NUT oncoprotein-induced transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; You, Jianxin

    2015-01-30

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC.

  16. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.

  17. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. V. Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility and energy value of almond cashew nut by-products for slow-growing broiler chickens. Seventy-six chickens (males and females were allocated in a completely randomized design to four treatments: a control diet and the same diet in which the conventional ingredients were replaced with 30% (kg/kg almond cashew nut film, almond cashew nut meal or almond cashew nut mass. The animals were housed in individual cages adapted for excreta collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of film, full meal and almond mass were, respectively, 81.3, 87.3 and 86.2% for dry matter; 32.1, 71.2 and 56.7% for crude protein (CP; 82.7, 92.6 and 92.8% for ether extract; 10.9, 29.9 and 34.7% for neutral detergent fiber; 7.7, 17.9 and 19.6% for acid detergent fiber; 41.9, 57.2 and 66.7% for coefficient of gross energy metabolism (CGEM; 1,189, 2,648 and 3,719 kcal/kg for apparent metabolizable energy (AME; 8.1, 19.9 and 12.9% for digestible protein, and 3.9, 15.2 and 6.3% for mineral matter (MM. The CP and MM apparent digestibility coefficients of full meal were higher than those of film and almond cashew nut mass, while the latter exhibited higher apparent digestibility of fiber, CGEM and AME compared to the other by-products. The inclusion of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens results in lower nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and AME, in diets containing 30% almond cashew nut mass.

  19. Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-15

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p nut consumers had a higher percentage (p nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating.

  20. Activated carbon preparation with pore nanosized from biomass precursors; Preparacao de carvoes ativados com poros de dimensoes nanometricas a partir de precursores de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, Gino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Coutinho, Aparecido dos Reis [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Carbonosos; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos

    2004-07-01

    Here are reported preliminary tests using pinnus wood, mesocarpo of green coconut and macadamia shell. They are carbonized and later physically activated with CO{sub 2} or chemically with ZnCl{sub 2}. The resulting activated carbons (AC) are characterized with scanning electronic microscopy, the BET method for determination of the specific surface area-ASE, real density-DR, helium picnometry among others. The results indicate macadamia shell originates better AC, with average micropores in the range of 1,2-1,6 nm, apparent density of 1,08 g/cm{sup 3}, and ASE-BET 1400m{sup 2}/g. Then, these AC have the possibility to be applied in NG storage. (author)