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Sample records for macaca nemestrina model

  1. Risk factors for dystocia in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

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    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-04-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources.

  2. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

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    Bronsdon, M A; Schoenknecht, F D

    1988-09-01

    Campylobacter pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa in 6 of 24 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) examined by gastric biopsy and culture; 3 isolates were recovered during gastroendoscopy, and 3 were recovered at necropsy. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically similar to the human type strain NCTC 11638, differing only in colony diameter, pigmentation, and rate of growth. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by whole-genomic DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain. Colonization of the monkey stomachs was associated with hypochlorhydria and histologic features resembling type B chronic gastritis in humans. Host animals exhibited no morbid clinical effects of colonization, although endoscopy revealed inflammation, erythema, and friable tissue in some animals. The discovery of C. pylori occurring spontaneously in M. nemestrina extends the known range of the hosts of the organism and offers the possibility of a natural or experimental model of the infection in monkeys.

  3. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

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    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  4. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

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    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

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    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  6. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

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    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD. METHODS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in

  7. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

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    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde, Emanuela Prato; Spiezio, Caterina

    2005-08-01

    Four puzzle boxes were used to investigate localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment (OMR) in 13 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and 30 human infants (Homo sapiens). Participants received contrasting demonstrations on each box. A circular lid was gripped by its rim or handle and swiveled to the left or right. A flap door was pushed or flipped. A sliding lid was pushed to the left or right. A pin bolt was demonstrated being pushed down, or the participants were left to solve the puzzle for themselves. Despite the fact that the monkeys watched the demonstrations about 60% of the time, only a weak OMR effect was found on the sliding lid. In contrast, the children watched significantly more, and there was clear evidence of socially mediated learning on all of the boxes.

  8. Trisomy 16 in a Pigtailed Macaque ("M. nemestrina") with Multiple Anomalies and Developmental Delays

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    Ruppenthal, Gerald C.; Moore, Charleen M.; Best, Robert G.; Walker-Gelatt, Coleen G.; Delio, Patrick J.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2004-01-01

    A female pigtailed macaque ("Macaca nemestrina") with unusual physical characteristics, deficits in learning and cognitive tasks, abnormal social behavior, and abnormal reflexes and motor control was followed from birth until 3 years of age and found to have trisomy 16, which is homologous to trisomy 13 in humans. The animal described here showed…

  9. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  10. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

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    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  11. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  12. High resolution karyotype of thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH-banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method suited very well to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB applying probes derived from Homo sapiens was used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result pinpoints, that morphological differences within the Ceropithecoidae must be founded rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  13. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

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    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  14. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

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    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species.

  15. Social Preferences by and for Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca Nemestrina) with Trisomy 18.

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    Swartz, Karyl B.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of social choices of trisomic macaques and of control groups found that groups showed few differences in preferences for stimulus animals with and without disabilities. Results suggest that the avoidance of individuals with disabilities is not a general primate trait and the presence of mental retardation and physical handicaps need not…

  16. The pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) as a space-flight candidate. [for cardiovascular studies

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    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Mains, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Scientific attributes which make the pig-tailed monkey an optimal candidate for studing the nature of cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations in man during exposure to high altitutes for long periods of time include: a calm, quiet, patient temperament; a short tail and the presence of ischial callosities permitting comfortable seated restraint during long duration experiments; and the close phylogenetic relationships and comparable body size to man.

  17. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta).

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    Salegio, Ernesto A; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L; Edgerton, V R; Ferguson, Adam R; Tuszynski, Mark H; Beattie, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies.

  18. Hepatitis G virus genomic RNA is pathogenic to Macaca mulatta

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    Hao Ren; Fen-Lu Zhu; Ming-Mei Cao; Xin-Yu Wen; Ping Zhao; Zhong-Tian Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathogenicity and infectivity of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by observing replication and expression of the virus, as well as the serological and histological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with HGV genomic RNA or HGV RNA-positive serum.METHODS: Full-length HGV cDNA clone (HGVqz) was constructed and proved to be infectious, from which HGV genomic RNA was transcribed in vitro. Macaca mulatta BY1 was intra-hepatically inoculated with HGV genomic RNA, HGV RNA-positive serum from BY1 was intravenously inoculated into Macaca mulatta BM1, and then BB1 was infected with serum from BM1. Serum and liver tissue were taken regularly, and checked with RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and other immunological, serological,histological assays.RESULTS: Serum HGV RNA was detectable in all the 3Macaca mulattas, serological and histological examinations showed the experimental animals had slightly elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) and developed HGV viremia during the infectious period. The histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization in liver tissues of the inoculated animals demonstrated a very mild hepatitis with HGV antigen expression in cytoplasm of hepatocytes.RT-PCR and quantitative PCR results showed that HGV could replicate in liver.CONCLUSION: The genomic RNA from full-length HGV cDNA is infectious to the Macaca mulatta and can cause mild hepatitis. HGV RNA-positive serum, from HGV RNA inoculated Macaca mulatta, is infectious to other Macaca mulattas. Macaca mulatta is susceptible to the inoculated HGV, and therefore can be used as an experimental animal model for the studies of HGV infection and pathogenesis.

  19. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

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    Mandell, Dorothy J; Sackett, Gene P

    2008-03-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a training procedure and software that was developed to teach infant monkeys to interact with a touch screen computer. Eighteen infant pigtail macaques began training at 90-postnatal days and five began at 180-postnatal days. All animals were trained to reliably touch a stimulus presented on a computer screen and no significant differences were found between the two age groups. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using computers to assess cognitive and perceptual abilities early in development.

  20. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a trai

  1. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a

  2. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a trai

  3. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

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    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  4. The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines

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    Gabriel Grimaldi Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. Given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective Leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. This includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. Old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc. have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. The Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to Leishmania and parasite-specific T-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. Results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. This review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.

  5. A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

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    Antony, Joseph M; MacDonald, Kelly S

    2015-06-17

    The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

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    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  7. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

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    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  8. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  9. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  10. Pediculosis in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Douglas L; Smith, Vincent; Pizarro, Mark; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory; Fuentes, Agustin; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John

    2007-04-10

    Pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. This is the first published report confirming the presence of Pedicinus albidus (Rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar. The diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.

  11. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  12. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  14. Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca, nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ruliang

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. Results Morphometric analysis (Principal Components was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. Conclusions The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this

  15. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xu; Liang Xie; Xin Li; Qi Li; Tao Wang; Yongjia Ji; Fei Kong; Qunlin Zhan; Ke Cheng; Liang Fang; Peng Xie

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of th...

  16. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Javed

    Full Text Available A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using

  17. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  18. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  19. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  20. Biodistribution of Yttrium-90-Labeled Anti-CD45 Antibody in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemecek, Eneida; Hamlin, Donald K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Pagel, John M.; Applebaum, F. R.; Press, Oliver W.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2005-01-15

    Radioimmunotherapy may improve the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies by delivering targeted radiation to hematopoietic organs while relatively sparing nontarget organs. We evaluated the organ localization of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 (90Y-anti-CD45) antibody in macaques, a model that had previously predicted iodine-131-labeled anti-CD-45 (131I-anti-CD45) antibody biodistribution in humans. Experimental Design: Twelve Macaca nemestrina primates received anti-CD45 antibody labeled with 1 to 2 mCi of 90Y followed by serial blood sampling and marrow and lymph node biopsies, and necropsy. The content of 90Y per gram of tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Time-activity curves were constructed using average isotope concentrations in each tissue at measured time points to yield the fractional residence time and estimate radiation absorbed doses for each organ per unit of administered activity. The biodistribution of 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody was then compared with that previously obtained with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody in macaques. Results: The spleen received 2,120, marrow 1,060, and lymph nodes 315 cGy/mCi of 90Y injected. The liver and lungs were the nontarget organs receiving the highest radiation absorbed doses (440 and 285 cGy/mCi, respectively). Ytrrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody delivered 2.5- and 3.7-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. The ratios previously observed with 131I-antiCD45 antibody were 2.5-and 2.2-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody can deliver relatively selective radiation to hematopoietic tissues, with similar ratios of radiation delivered to target versus nontarget organs, as compared with the 131I immunoconjugate in the same animal model.

  1. Co-localization of histamine and norepinephrine in sympathetic ganglia and exocytosis of endogenous histamine from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings of macaca mulatto monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-kaiLI; Xiao-xingLUO; Liang-weiCHEN; ZhongCHEN; JiaMENG; JingHU; Yu-meiWU; Jing-ruMENG; ZhengHOU; XueMA

    2005-01-01

    AIM To provide the evidence about localization, biosynthesis, metabolism and release of histamine from the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, and endogenous sympathetic histamine could inhibit itsel frelease from the nerve terminal through the presynaptic histamine H3 receptor. METHODS Using double-labeled immunohistochemistry to observe the co-localization of histamine and NE in the superior cer-vical ganglia (SCG) of macaca mulatto monkey; Different-speed centrifugation to obtain the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal model (the cardiac synaptosomes), spectrofluorometer and ELISA techniques to detect the release of histamine from the cardiacsynaptosomes. RESULTS ( 1 ) The coexistence of histamine and norepinephrine immunoreactivities was identified in the same neuron within SCG of macaca mulatto monkey. (2) Depolarization of macaca mulatto monkey cardiac synaptosomes with 50 mmol/L potassium caused the release of endogenous histamine,

  2. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  3. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  4. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  5. A Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Dose That Models Human Use and Its Effect on Vaginal SHIV Acquisition Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Katherine; Ritter, Jana M; Ellis, Shanon; Morris, Monica R; Hanson, Debra L; McNicholl, Janet M; Kersh, Ellen N

    2016-08-01

    Hormonal contraception with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may increase HIV acquisition risk, but observational human studies are inconclusive, and animal models can help investigate this risk. In this study, we test the impact of a low DMPA dose, designed to resemble human contraceptive use, on Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) acquisition risk in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Macaques metabolize DMPA faster than humans. We previously identified a per-weight DMPA dose and administration frequency that achieves long-lasting suppression of ovulation in macaques. Eight macaques were given 1.5-mg/kg DMPA monthly, whereas 11 were untreated controls. For comparison, women receive 150 mg (approximately 2 mg/kg) every 3 months. We exposed monkeys to 20 suboptimal SHIV challenges, designed to slowly infect half of controls and allow increased infection in the DMPA group. It took a median 5.5 viral challenges to infect DMPA-treated macaques and 9 challenges for controls (P = 0.27; exact conditional logistic regression). The exact odds ratio was 2.2 (CI: 0.6 to 8.3). Ovulation was suppressed, and the vaginal epithelium was thinned after DMPA treatment in all animals (mean, 30 and 219 mm in DMPA-treated and control macaques, respectively, P = 0.03, t test using the Satterthwaite degrees-of-freedom approximation). SHIV infections in DMPA-treated macaques were 2.2 times those of controls, but this was not statistically significant. The result is remarkably similar to studies of human DMPA use, which have shown HIV risk increases of a similar magnitude and of variable significance. Taken together with previous studies of higher DMPA doses in macaques, the results suggest a dose-dependent effect of DMPA on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) or SHIV acquisition.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  9. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  10. Fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Smith, Peter C; Zelterman, Daniel; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2011-07-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in several species of Old and New World nonhuman primates. Fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of DM. However, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced DM in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. Reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) but currently are not available for rhesus macaques. At our institution, DM is a common diagnosis in aging rhesus macaques. Here we report a reference range for fructosamine in rhesus macaques. The overall range was 157 to 230 μmol/L, with male rhesus and macaques 10 y or older having significantly higher values than do female rhesus and macaques younger than 10 y, respectively. This range provides clinical veterinarians with an additional tool for evaluating glycemic control in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  11. Biologic data of Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, and Saimiri sciureusused for research at the fiocruz primate center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters of laboratory animals used for biomedical research is crucial for following several experimental procedures. With the intent to establish baseline biologic parameters for non-human primates held in closed colonies, hematological and morphometric data of captive monkeys were determined. Data of clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus were collected over a period of five years. Animals were separated according to sex and divided into five age groups. Hematological data were compared with those in the literature by Student's t test. Discrepancies with significance levels of 0.1, 1 or 5% were found in the hematological studies. Growth curves showed that the sexual dimorphism of rhesus monkeys appeared at an age of four years. In earlier ages, the differences between sexes could not be distinguished (p < 0.05. Sexual dimorphism in both squirrel monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys occurred at an age of about 32 months. Data presented in this paper could be useful for comparative studies using primates under similar conditions.

  12. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  13. Protection of stem cell-derived lymphocytes in a primate AIDS gene therapy model after in vivo selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant D Trobridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no effective AIDS vaccine, emphasizing the importance of developing alternative therapies. Recently, a patient was successfully transplanted with allogeneic, naturally resistant CCR5-negative (CCR5Delta32 cells, setting the stage for transplantation of naturally resistant, or genetically modified stem cells as a viable therapy for AIDS. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy using vectors that express various anti-HIV transgenes has also been attempted in clinical trials, but inefficient gene transfer in these studies has severely limited the potential of this approach. Here we evaluated HSC gene transfer of an anti-HIV vector in the pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina model, which closely models human transplantation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used lentiviral vectors that inhibited both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV-1 (SHIV chimera virus infection, and also expressed a P140K mutant methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT transgene to select gene-modified cells by adding chemotherapy drugs. Following transplantation and MGMT-mediated selection we demonstrated transgene expression in over 7% of stem-cell derived lymphocytes. The high marking levels allowed us to demonstrate protection from SHIV in lymphocytes derived from gene-modified macaque long-term repopulating cells that expressed an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. We observed a statistically significant 4-fold increase of gene-modified cells after challenge of lymphocytes from one macaque that received stem cells transduced with an anti-HIV vector (p<0.02, Student's t-test, but not in lymphocytes from a macaque that received a control vector. We also established a competitive repopulation assay in a second macaque for preclinical testing of promising anti-HIV vectors. The vectors we used were HIV-based and thus efficiently transduce human cells, and the transgenes we used target HIV-1 genes that are also in SHIV, so our findings can be rapidly

  14. The Establishment of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Induced Precocious Puberty Macaca Fascicularis Model and the Intervention of Yin Nourishing Fire Purging Chinese Materia Medica%由环境内分泌干扰物引致食蟹猴性早熟疾病模型建立及滋阴泻火中药治疗干预的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 蔡德培

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立灵长类--食蟹猴的由环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disruptors,EEDs)引致的性早熟疾病模型,验证滋阴泻火中药对EEDs拟雌激素活性的拮抗作用.方法 (1)不同月龄组青春前期雌性食蟹猴喂饲高、低剂量EEDs,通过观察EEDs拟雌激素作用,以确定最佳月龄、染毒剂量及染毒时间.(2)15只青春前期雌性食蟹猴随机分为染毒组、治疗组及对照组,每组5只.染毒组喂饲壬基酚(nonylphenol,4-NP)及双酚A(bisphenol,BPA),治疗组将染毒物质及滋阴泻火中药合剂同时喂饲,对照组喂饲溶剂玉米油.疗程4周.疗程完成时,检测血清雌激素水平、阴道脱落细胞成熟指数,取出子宫,测定其子宫湿重、子宫内膜及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度.结果 (1)20月龄为最佳染毒月龄,低剂量EEDs为最佳染毒剂量,4周为最佳染毒时间.(2)与对照组比较,染毒组血清雌激素水平明显升高,阴道脱落细胞成熟指数显著增加,子宫湿重、子宫内膜厚度及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度显著增加(P<0.05).与染毒组比较,治疗组上述指标均显著降低(P<0.05).结论 本研究成功地建立了灵长类--食蟹猴由EEDs引致性早熟的疾病模型,证实了EEDs具有显著的拟雌激素活性,并验证了滋阴泻火中药合剂对其拟雌激素活性具有显著的拮抗作用.%Objective To establish the environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) induced precocious puberty macaca fascicularis model, thus verifying the antagonism of yin nourishing fire purging Chinese materia medica (YNFPCMM) against the estrogenic effects. Methods (1) The female prepubescent monkeys at different months old were fed with high dose and low dose EEDs. By observing EEDs' estrogenic effects, the optimal age, the optimal exposure dose, and the optimal exposure time were determined. (2) Fifteen female prepubescent monkeys were

  15. Long-Term Neuropathological Changes Associated with Cerebral Palsy in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M; Fleiss, Bobbi; Traudt, Christopher; Schwendimann, Leslie; Snyder, Jessica M; Haynes, Robin L; Natarajan, Niranjana; Gressens, Pierre; Juul, Sandra E

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood, with a worldwide prevalence of 1.5-4/1,000 live births. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina macaques were included in this long-term neuropathological study: 9 control animals delivered by cesarean section and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia delivered by cesarean section after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO). UCO animals were randomized to saline (n = 11), therapeutic hypothermia (TH; n = 6), or TH + erythropoietin (Epo; n = 8). Epo was given on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Animals had serial developmental assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging at 9 months of age followed by necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of brain and brainstem sections were performed. All UCO animals demonstrated and met the standard diagnostic criteria for human neonates with moderate-to-severe HIE. Four animals developed moderate-to-severe CP (3 UCO and 1 UCO + TH), 9 had mild CP (2 UCO, 3 UCO + TH, 3 UCO + TH + Epo, and 1 control), and 2 UCO animals died. None of the animals treated with TH + Epo died, had moderate-to-severe CP, or demonstrated signs of long-term neuropathological toxicity. Compared to animals grouped together as having no CP (no-CP; controls and mild CP only), animals with CP (moderate and severe) demonstrated decreased fractional anisotropy of multiple white-matter tracts including the corpus callosum and internal capsule, when using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Animals with CP had decreased staining for cortical neurons and increased brainstem glial scarring compared to animals without CP. The cerebellar cell density of the internal granular layer and white matter was decreased in CP animals compared to that in control animals without CP. In this nonhuman primate HIE

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  19. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  20. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

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    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Sonia; Tan, Soon Guan; Yong Seok Yien, Christina; Ng, Jillian; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Khan, Razib; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Valdiani, Alireza; Khajeaian, Parastoo; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized. Thirteen sites of wild populations of long-tailed macaques representing six states were sampled and analyzed with 18 STR markers. The Sunggala and Penang Island populations showed the highest genetic diversity estimates, while the Jerejak Island population was the most genetically discrete due to isolation from the mainland shelf. Concordant with pairwise F(st) estimates, STRUCTURE analyses of the seven PCA-correlated clusters revealed low to moderate differentiation among the sampling sites. No association between geographic and genetic distances exists, suggesting that the study sites, including island study sites, are genetically if not geographically contiguous. The status of the genetic structure and composition of long-tailed macaque populations require further scrutiny to develop this species as an important animal model in biomedical research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Blood genomic profiles of exposures to Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

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    Hammamieh Rasha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocytes provide invaluable whistle blowers of changes due to infections. We use the information registered by these cells using their mRNAs as they encounter the pathogen to develop patterns of expression that correspond to that specific pathogen. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease characterized by fever and one or more of the following: severe headache, back pain, myalgias, prostration, chills, nausea, vomiting, weakness and other flu-like symptoms. Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment. Results We have been carrying out gene expression analysis of PBMC exposed to VEEV to extract signatures and diagnostic markers of early exposure to be used in non invasive blood analysis methods. In this study, we used high throughput gene expression analysis to identify markers of early and late exposures to VEEV in vivo in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis. We carried out cDNA microarrays and real time PCR on blood samples obtained from the NHP model resulting in a panel of host genes that are altered in response to VEEV. Conclusion Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment.

  3. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  4. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  5. Evaluation of Infrared Thermometry in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffins, Michael M; Mellal, Nacera; Almlie, Cynthia L; Regalia, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Recording an accurate body temperature is important to assess an animal's health status. We compared temperature data from sedated cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to evaluate differences between rectal, infrared (inguinal and chest), and implanted telemetry techniques with the objective of demonstrating the diagnostic equivalence of the infrared device with other approaches. Infrared thermometer readings are instantaneous and require no contact with the animal. Body temperature data were obtained from 205 (137 male, 68 female) cynomolgus macaques under ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) sedation over a 3-mo period during scheduled physical examinations. Infrared measurements were taken 5 cm from the chest and inguinal areas. We evaluated 10 (9 functional devices) sedated cynomolgus macaques (5 male, 5 female) implanted with telemetry units in a muscular pouch between the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. We determined that the mean body temperature acquired by using telemetry did not differ from either the mean of inguinal and chest infrared measurements but did differ from the mean of temperature obtained rectally. In addition, the mean rectal temperature differed from the mean of the inguinal reading but not the mean of the chest temperature. The results confirm our hypothesis that the infrared thermometer can be used to replace standard rectal thermometry. PMID:28905720

  6. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  7. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  8. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  9. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  10. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  12. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  13. Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

    1990-06-01

    Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference.

  14. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  15. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  16. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  17. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Capitanio

    Full Text Available Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta living in large social groups: (i those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness, (ii those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness, and (iii those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness. This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and

  18. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  19. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  20. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  1. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, KC; Bloomsmith, MA; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facil...

  2. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  3. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  4. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of immunoglobulin, complements and CRP levels in serum of captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Deng, De-Yao; Lv, Long-Bao; Feng, Yue; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (NPM,Macaca leonina) has become a widely used animal model in biomedical research. In this study, we measured serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, complement C3, C4 and CRP levels in 3-11 year old captive northern pig-tailed macaques using HITACHI 7600-20 automated chemistry analyzer in order to determine the influences of age and gender on these items. The results showed that serum IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were not correlated with age (P>0.05), while serum IgG levels increased progressively with age (r=0.202;P=0.045). Serum IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 levels were higher in females than in males (P<0.05). Moreover, serum C3 concentration was both positively and strongly correlated with that of C4 (r=0.700; P<0.0001). This study provides basic serum immunoglobulin and complement data of captive northern pig-tailed macaques, which may prove useful for future breeding efforts and biomedical research.

  6. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  7. Complete Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) Mitochondrial Genome: Reference-Assisted de novo Assembly with Multiple k-mer Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit; Chen, Tzu-Han; Wang, Yu-Tai; Smith, David Glenn; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese (Formosan) macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to Taiwan. This primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. However, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. We employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy to characterize the M. cyclopis mitogenome. We compared the assembled mitogenome with that of other macaque species for phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that, the M. cyclopis mitogenome consists of 16,563 nucleotides encoding for 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. cyclopis is most closely related to M. mulatta lasiota (Chinese rhesus macaque), supporting the notion of Asia-continental origin of M. cyclopis proposed in previous studies based on partial mitochondrial sequences. Our work presents a novel approach for assembling a mitogenome that utilizes the capabilities of de novo genome assembly with assistance of a reference genome. The availability of the complete Taiwanese macaque mitogenome will facilitate the study of primate evolution and the characterization of genetic variations for the potential usage of this species as a non-human primate model for medical research.

  8. Behavioural and pharmacokinetic studies in the monkey (Macaca mulatta) with diazepam, nordiazepam and related 1,4-benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S H; Whelpton, R; Nicholson, A N; Wright, C M

    1977-11-01

    1. Behavioural activity (delayed differentiation and spatial delayed alternation) and pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its metabolites, N-desmethyldiazepam (nordiazepam), 3-hydroxydiazepam (temazepam) and 3-hydroxy-N-desmethyldiazepam (oxazepam), and of dipotassium clorazepate (clorazepate), were studied in the monkey (Macaca mulatta). Diazepam and its metabolites (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) and clorazepate (2.6 and 4.3 mg/kg) were given by intraperitoneal injection. 2. Hydroxylation of diazepam (temazepam and oxazepam) led to a loss of, or a considerable reduction in, behavioural activity, whereas activity was preserved, though modified, by demethylation (nordiazepam). It was not possible to establish change in behaviour at specific time intervals after clorazepate, but combined performance data revealed an effect. 3. The maximum mean plasma concentrations of diazepam, temazepam, oxazepam and clorazepate were observed at 0.5 h, and the maximum mean plasma concentration of nordiazepam was observed at 1 hour. Plasma concentrations of nordiazepam were the highest and decreased monoexponentially. Plasma concenqrations of the other drugs declined rapidly at first but more slowly later, and these data were analysed as biexponential models. In the analysis for metabolites, nordiazepam reached measurable levels after the injection of diazepam and clorazepate. 4. It is suggested that differences in the effects of closely related benzodiazepines may not be due solely to their plasma pharmacokinetic properties, but may arise from differences in their intrinsic activity.

  9. The Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-06-01

    Circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vgamma2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vgamma2 chain was highly homologous to the Vgamma2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vgamma2/Vdelta2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-gamma secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vgamma2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vgamma2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species.

  10. The Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vγ2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vγ2 chain was highly homologous to the Vγ2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vγ2/Vδ2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-γ secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vγ2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vγ2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species. PMID:15885125

  11. Generation of Macaca fascicularis iPS cell line ATCi-MF1 from adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Coppiello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated ATCi-MF1 induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell line from Macaca fascicularis adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses carrying OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and c-MYC. Once established, ATCi-MF1 cells present a normal karyotype, are Sendai virus-free and express pluripotency associated markers. Microsatellite markers analysis confirmed the origin of the iPS cells from the parental fibroblasts. Pluripotency was tested with the in vivo teratoma formation assay. ATCi-MF1 cell line may be a useful primate iPS cell model to test different experimental conditions where the use of human cells can imply ethical issues, as microinjection of pluripotent stem cells in pre-implantational embryos.

  12. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D

    2005-05-17

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females.

  13. Differences in the morphology of the maxillary sinus and roots of teeth between Macaca fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui determined using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaizen, Tomonori; Sato, Iwao; Miwa, Yoko; Sunohara, Masataka; Yosue, Takashi; Mine, Kazuharu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese macaque is an endemic species consisting of two subspecies: Macaca fuscata fuscata (MFF) and Macaca fuscata yakui (MFY). The MFY is indigenous to Yakushima Island and represents a subspecies of MFF that lives from Honshu to Shikoku and Kyushu, Japan. However, the differences in the skulls of the MFY and MFF are unknown, despite these subspecies having different skull sizes. The maxillary sinus (MS) indicates that the features of the frontal view reflect the transversal growth of the maxilla of the skull. In this study, we show the MS structures of the MFF (n = 9, 18 sides) and MFY (n = 10, 20 sides) using a cone-beam computed tomography instrument. Base on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images the MS and nasal cavity were found to present almost to no significant differences between MFF and MFY. However, we designated three classifications of the sinus floor based on the 3D MS images of these Japanese macaques: a round-like shape (type a, MFF = 66.7% (12/18), MFY = 45% (9/20)), a flat-like shape (type b, MFF = 22.2% (4/18), MFY = 35% (7/20)), and an irregular shape (type c, MFF = 11.1% (2/18), MFY = 20.0% (4/20)). The sinus floor shapes of the MFF were mostly type a, while those of the MFY were mostly type b. The prevalence of a root contacting the cortical bone is higher in the canine (26.7%, (8/30)) and second premolar (20%, (6/30) of the MFY at the nasal cavity, moreover, this value is higher in the third molar (42.9%, (9/21)) of the MS in the MFY. These results suggest that the features of the floor of the MS are related to the differences in maxillary root apices teeth between MMF and MMF.

  14. Genetic evidence for host specificity in the adhesin-encoding genes hxaA of Helicobacter acinonyx, hnaA of H. nemestrinae and hpaA of H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G; Lampert, H C; Nakano, H; Eaton, K A; Burnens, A P; Bronsdon, M A; Evans, D J

    1995-09-22

    Gastric and non-gastric species of Helicobacter were examined for the presence of the adhesin-encoding gene, hpaA, from the human-associated gastric Helicobacter H. pylori (Hp), and for adhesin subunit protein HpaA. Amplification of a 375-bp internal DNA fragment of hpaA by PCR demonstrated the presence of the gene in Hp and in two closely related gastric Helicobacters, H. nemestrinae (Hn) and H. acinonyx (Hx), but not in the more distantly related H. felis (Hf) and H. mustelae (Hm). The non-gastric Helicobacters, H. canis (Hc), H. muridarum (Hr), H. fennelliae (He) and H. cinaedi (Hi), were all negative for hpaA. An immunoblot assay of water extracts with adhesin-specific antibody confirmed these results. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of Hp HpaA and Hn adhesin A (hereafter termed HnaA) are very similar, having identical receptor-binding motifs (rbm); also, the hemagglutination (HA) properties of Hn and Hp cells were indistinguishable. In contrast, the rbm of Hx adhesin A (hereafter termed HxaA), compared to that of Hp, contained a non-conservative aa substitution (Ile to Thr); also, there was variance in five consecutive aa from 10 to 14 residues upstream from the rbm. We conclude that these aa substitutions in HxaA are probably responsible for the difference in receptor recognition of this adhesin, as evidenced by the resistance of Hx HA to inhibition with N-acetylneuraminyl-alpha(2,3)-lactose. These results are consistent with the biological similarity between the natural host(s) of Hp and Hn; i.e., human and non-human primates, and the dissimilarity between these hosts and the feline host, the cheetah.

  15. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates.

  16. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  17. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  18. Dietary Variation of Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macaca, member of sub-family Cercopithecinae, is the most widely distributed non-human primates in Asian countries. The habitats are strongly influence the dietary variation of the populations. The dietary variation of the macaques reflect ecological plasticity in coping with differences both in availability and abundance of food. The macaques are plastic in taking any kind of food that available in their home range and adjust their behaviour according to its abundance. Here, we present the dietary variation of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in the high altitude rain forest of Telaga Warna, West Java, Indonesia. The proportion of their food from natural sources is greater than those from visitors. The natural food consisted of plants, small animals (insects and earthworm, fungi and water from lake. The plant food comprised of 29 species plus a few mosses. The frequency of eating artificial food was influenced by visitors who come for picnic. In this site, the macaques learned that the visiting of tourists is identical with food.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  20. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  1. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  2. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  3. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  4. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  5. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (10(5) copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 10(4) copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 10(3 )copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 x 10(4) copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 x 10(3) copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 x 10(1) copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 x 10(1) copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection.

  6. The acquisition of Streptococcus mutans by infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its relationship to the initiation of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, D; Hayday, H; Walker, J

    1982-08-01

    The acquisition and transmission of Streptococcus mutans by 16 consecutively born infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied. The 16 infant monkeys were weaned in four groups and caged together to form a commune. Transmission from mother to infant occurred infrequently. Streptococcus mutans was isolated from nine of the mothers but only from the dental plaque of two infant monkeys at weaning at which time the predominant streptococci were S. sanguis and S. mitior. One further animal was colonized by S. mutants during the formation of the commune, but only after it was caged with an infant harbouring the same organism. For 46 d after the completion of the commune, the monkeys were fed a starch-based diet during which time S. mutans of serotypes c, e or h were isolated from the faeces of all 16 animals and from the dental plaque taken from the developmental groove of the first deciduous molar of 11 animals. Faecal transmission appeared to be an important factor in the spread of S. mutans between monkeys in the commune. The monkeys were then fed a caries-promoting high sucrose diet resulting in a rapid increase in the proportion of S. mutans in the plaque and in the faeces. Streptococcus mutans serotype e was more frequently isolated from both plaque and faeces and its predominance may in part be due to the production of a bacteriocin active in vitro against S. mutans serotype h and other species of oral streptococci isolated from monkey dental plaque. The proportion of S. mutans in the developmental groove 8 d after the introduction of the high sucrose diet was significantly related to both the caries status of the groove and the total caries score 6 months later. The results suggest that, in this model of human dental caries, S. mutans is the major bacterial factor in the initiation of tooth decay.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection alters endogenous retrovirus expression in distinct brain regions of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag Judith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases which are presumably caused by an infectious conformational isoform of the cellular prion protein. Previous work has provided evidence that in murine prion disease the endogenous retrovirus (ERV expression is altered in the brain. To determine if prion-induced changes in ERV expression are a general phenomenon we used a non-human primate model for prion disease. Results Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fasicularis were infected intracerebrally with BSE-positive brain stem material from cattle and allowed to develop prion disease. Brain tissue from the basis pontis and vermis cerebelli of the six animals and the same regions from four healthy controls were subjected to ERV expression profiling using a retrovirus-specific microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. We could show that Class I gammaretroviruses HERV-E4-1, ERV-9, and MacERV-4 increase expression in BSE-infected macaques. In a second approach, we analysed ERV-K-(HML-2 RNA and protein expression in extracts from the same cynomolgus macaques. Here we found a significant downregulation of both, the macaque ERV-K-(HML-2 Gag protein and RNA in the frontal/parietal cortex of BSE-infected macaques. Conclusions We provide evidence that dysregulation of ERVs in response to BSE-infection can be detected on both, the RNA and the protein level. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential expression of ERV-derived structural proteins in prion disorders. Our findings suggest that endogenous retroviruses may induce or exacerbate the pathological consequences of prion-associated neurodegeneration.

  8. Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seltmann

    2016-07-01

    collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. The number of individuals displaying pre-departure behavior predicted the success of an initiation of a collective movement. Pauses of the first departing individual after departure enhanced following behavior and might have served as recruitment signal. However, the opposite was the case for back-glancing, which functions as a monitoring signal in other species. Because in our study frequently back-glancing individuals were also less socially integrated, back glances may better be interpreted as indicators of hesitation and insecurity. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.

  9. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  10. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  11. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  12. AKTIVITAS HARIAN KERA EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM SANGEH, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wahyu Saputra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis telah dilakukan di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh, Kabupaten Badung, Bali dari bulan Oktober – Desember 2012. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku harian kera ekor panjang (M.  fascicularis di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh. Penelitian perilaku harian kera dilakukan dengan metode Focal Animal Sampling. Data yang terkumpul dari berbagai jenis perilaku di analisa secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa frekuensi aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang didominasi oleh perilaku bergerak, kemudian berturut-turut diikuti oleh perilaku istirahat, makan, grooming, mendekap di dada, objek manipulasi, cuddling, agresif. sedangkan perilaku yang paling jarang dilakukan adalah kawin. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin individu dewasa, perilaku istirahat, makan, bergerak, agresif, objek manipulasi dan kawin didominasi oleh jantan sedangkan perilaku mendekap di dada, cuddling, dan grooming di dominasi oleh betina.

  13. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  14. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  15. Impact of human pressure and forest fragmentation on the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Nelly; Rantier, Yann; Foulquier, Adrien; Qarro, Mohamed; Chillasse, Lahcen; Vallet, Dominique; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Butet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Overexploitation of forests by humans can lead to highly fragmented populations of forest-dependent species that have poor dispersal abilities. We tested the influence of habitat quality, landscape structure and human pressure on densities of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the largest wild population, in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. We surveyed 14 forest fragments of 5-142 km2 that are separated from each other by an inhospitable matrix. We estimated the habita...

  16. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

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    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  17. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  18. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

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    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  20. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

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    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  1. Troop Takeover and Reproductive Success of Wild Male Japanese Macaques on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui

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    Sachiko Hayakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Troop takeover is common in one-male primate groups, but there are few reports in multimale groups. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata form multimale groups and males commonly join troops at the bottom rank. On Yakushima island, however, where group size is relatively small, entrance into groups at the alpha position is also observed. This paper reports on the general features of troop takeover, on the predictors of takeover events, and on the reproductive success of takeover males. Troop takeovers occurred only in the mating season; nontroop males (NTMs did not cooperate with each other; former alpha males were rarely expelled from the troop; new alpha males did not commit infanticide; new alpha male tenure in the group was usually less than two years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of NTMs associating with a troop predicted the occurrence of troop takeover. Paternity discrimination revealed that 33.3% (3/9 of takeover males succeeded in siring offspring. Contrary to this low success rate, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the takeover males can expect higher reproductive success compared to troop males. Entering a troop and out-competing the alpha male is one of many available strategies to attain reproductive success in male Japanese macaques.

  2. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

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    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  3. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

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    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  4. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  5. Development of an integrative database with 499 novel microsatellite markers for Macaca fascicularis

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    Higashino Atsunori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are a valuable resource for linkage studies of genetic disorders, but their microsatellite markers are not sufficient. In genetic studies, a prerequisite for mapping genes is development of a genome-wide set of microsatellite markers in target organisms. A whole genome sequence and its annotation also facilitate identification of markers for causative mutations. The aim of this study is to establish hundreds of microsatellite markers and to develop an integrative cynomolgus macaque genome database with a variety of datasets including marker and gene information that will be useful for further genetic analyses in this species. Results We investigated the level of polymorphisms in cynomolgus monkeys for 671 microsatellite markers that are covered by our established Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones. Four hundred and ninety-nine (74.4% of the markers were found to be polymorphic using standard PCR analysis. The average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity at these polymorphic loci in ten cynomolgus macaques were 8.20 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion BAC clones and novel microsatellite markers were assigned to the rhesus genome sequence and linked with our cynomolgus macaque cDNA database (QFbase. Our novel microsatellite marker set and genomic database will be valuable integrative resources in analyzing genetic disorders in cynomolgus macaques.

  6. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  7. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  8. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  9. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  10. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

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    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  11. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  12. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anapatricia; Paul, Katherine; Beall, Bernard; McClure, Harold

    2006-09-01

    Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause myocardial necrosis. In addition, recently reported streptococcal infections in obstetric human patients appear to be clinically different from classic puerperal sepsis. Here, we report a case of spontaneous streptococcal infection in a pregnant female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In addition to lesions consistent with bacteremia and toxic shock, this animal had severe cardiac lesions resembling those described in humans with rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes was isolated from intracardiac blood, liver, placenta, and fetal tissues. This isolate also had a unique M protein gene.

  13. Exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus.

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    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Social relationships between group members are a key feature of many animal societies. The quality of social relationships has been described by three main components: value, compatibility and security, based on the benefits, tenure and stability of social exchanges. We aimed to analyse whether this three component structure could be used to describe the quality of social relationships in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. Moreover, we examined whether relationship quality was affected by the sex, age and rank differences between social partners, and investigated the asymmetric nature of social relationships. We collected over 1,900 hours of focal data on seven behavioural variables measuring relationship quality, and used principal component analysis to investigate how these variables clustered together. We found that relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques can be described by a three component structure that represents the value, compatibility and security of a relationship. Female-female dyads had more valuable relationships and same-age dyads more compatible relationships than any other dyad. Rank difference had no effect on the quality of a social relationship. Finally, we found a high degree of asymmetry in how members of a dyad exchange social behaviour. We argue that the asymmetry of social relationships should be taken into account when exploring the pattern and function of social behaviour in animal societies.

  14. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

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    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  15. Body signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Akie; Berman, Carol M

    2014-02-01

    Social play involves one of the most sophisticated types of communication, that is, the use of play signals. Most primate research on play signals has focused on the use of the play face. However, some species appear to exhibit a variety of play signals. For example, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been reported to use body movements or postures that might have signal value during social play, in addition to the play face. However, it is not clear whether these body signals actually meet several criteria necessary to label them as "play signals." Here we examine the forms and possible functions of seven candidate signals that we observed exclusively during social play contexts among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. We aim to (1) distinguish them from actual play behavior (play involving contact or chasing) using loglinear analysis and (2) determine whether they predict playful behavior using modified PC-MC methods. Two candidate signals did not resemble any behaviors used in actual play. The other five signals contained elements that lasted longer or increased their conspicuousness over similar play behaviors, suggesting ritualized characteristics. Youngsters were likely to initiate contact or chasing play significantly sooner after candidate signals than in their absence. Thus, these candidate signals appear to meet critical criteria of signals that promote, moderate or facilitate play. As such, these findings open the door to questions about why multiple play signals have evolved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia) than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level.

  17. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  18. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  19. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  20. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  1. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  2. Alterations in the upper facial growth of Macaca mulatta resulting from high-pull headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J

    1975-04-01

    Four prepubertal Macaca mulatta monkeys, ranging in age from 13 to 24 months, were used in an investigation of the effects of high-pull headgear (to a face-bow) therapy on the growth of the upper facial skeleton. Amalgam bone implants were placed across the frontomaxillary, frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures in each animal. Three of the monkeys wore appliances consisting of a maxillary dental spling, a face-bow, two coil springs, and an acrylic helmet. The fourth monkey (control) wore only a dental splint and a face-bow. A continuous high-pull headgear force of 300 grams per side was applied to the three monkeys for 81, 87 and 89 days, respectively, before death. Procion brilliant red 8-HBS vital stain was administered to all four animals at the start of and 3 days before the end of the treatment period. The facial growth patterns were determined from lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment, from direct measurement of implant separation at the sutures, and from histologic sections of the four mentioned facial sutures.

  3. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  4. The influence of exposure to UVβ of fluorescent light on the bone remodeling of hypoestrogenic Macaca fascicularis

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    I. A. Rachman

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of osteoporosis is a spesific problem that should be dealt with by increasing the women's lift expectation. The decrease of calcitriol and estrogen levels, which have a receptor in the osteoblast, will result in bone mineralization (due to calcitriol and the information of type 1 collagen (due to estrogen. The formation of calcitriol with the main basic materials from vitamin D3 is achieved with the aid of sunray UVβ, The changes in the lifestyle of women, which make them now accustomed to performing indoor activities and prevent them from being exposed to UVβ all day, have resulted in the decrease of vitamin D3 in calcitriol in women. In addition, when entering the menopausal age they will be threatened with early osteoporosis. The exposure to the UVβ of fluorescent light with the wave length identical to sun of 290-320 nm has long been known as a modality for treating skin diseases in the hope that the production of vitamin D3  will be increased. We exposed Macaca fascicularis, whose estrogen levels were set at normal, beginning low, beginning very low levels, to UVβ of fluorescent light. It showed that the Macaca fascicularis that were exposed to UVβ experienced an increase in osteocalcin with unchanged DPD which means that bone remodeling remains unchanged. By contrast, Macaca fascicularis with normal, beginning low, and beginning very low estrogen levels which were not exposed to UVβ were found to experience a decrease in osteocalcin and unchanged DPD levels. This means that a change has occurred in the bone remodeling toward bone resorption. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 63-8Keywords: UVβ, osteoporosis, estrogen, vitamin D3, calcitriol, osteocalcin, DPD

  5. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  6. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states. PMID:26452693

  7. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  8. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  9. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  10. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

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    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  11. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  12. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  13. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

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    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  14. When dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in Gibraltar macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Martin, Robert D; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Krũtzen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of Morocco and Algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on Gibraltar. For many decades, the Gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from North Africa. Moreover, because of complete isolation, Gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences of dispersal in cercopithecines in situ. Predictions of genetic consequences due to male-biased dispersal in cercopithecines will be different for autosomal and maternally inherited genetic markers, such as the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. We used a panel of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and part of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region to estimate genetic structure between five social groups in Gibraltar. Surprisingly, for autosomal markers, both classical summary statistics and an individual-based method using a Bayesian framework detected significant genetic structure between social groups in Gibraltar, despite much closer proximity than wild Algerian and Moroccan populations. Mitochondrial data support this finding, as a very substantial portion of the total genetic variation (70.2%) was found between social groups. Using two Bayesian approaches, we likewise identified not only a small number of male first-generation immigrants (albeit less than expected for cercopithecines) but also unexpectedly a few females. We hypothesize that the culling of males that are more likely to disperse might slow down genetic homogenization among neighbouring groups, but may also and more perversely produce selection on certain behavioural traits. This may have important repercussions for conservation, as it could lead to evolutionary changes that are not due to inbreeding or genetic drift.

  15. Patterns of infant handling and relatedness in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) on Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Martin, Robert D

    2008-10-01

    Among papionin primates, the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. Two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. Previous investigations showed that infant handling by males is best explained as use of infants to manage relationships with other males. In contrast, no adaptive explanation for infant handling by females emerged. Here, we compared the infant-handling pattern between subadult/adult males and subadult/adult females in a free-ranging group of 46 Barbary macaques on Gibraltar to test whether the relationship management hypothesis also applies to female handlers. We further investigated the infant-handling pattern of juveniles and used microsatellite markers to estimate relatedness between infant handlers and the infant's mother. We found that males, females and juveniles all participated extensively in triadic interactions using infants of above-average related females. In contrast, only males and juveniles were highly involved in dyadic interactions with infants of related females, while females rarely handled infants other than their own. The pattern of infant handling was entirely compatible with the predictions of the relationship management hypothesis for males and mostly so for females. Moreover, our genetic analysis revealed that males and females differ in their partner choice: while females preferred to interact with related females, males had no significant preference to interact with related males. We further discuss the observed above-average relatedness values between infant handlers and the infant's mother in the light of kin-selection theory.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  18. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

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    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  19. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

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    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  20. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

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    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

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    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  2. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

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    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

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    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  4. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

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    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  5. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

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    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  6. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

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    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  7. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony

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    Saib Ali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses are exogenous complex retroviruses that are highly endemic in several animal species, including monkeys and apes, where they cause persistent infection. Simian foamy viral (SFV infection has been reported in few persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP in zoos, primate centers and laboratories, and recently in few hunters from central Africa. Most of the epidemiological works performed among NHP populations concern cross-sectional studies without long-term follow-up. Therefore, the exact timing and the modes of transmission of SFVs remain not well known, although sexual and oral transmissions have been suspected. We have conducted a longitudinal study in a free-breeding colony of Macaca tonkeana in order (1 to determine the prevalence of the infection by foamy viruses, (2 to characterize molecularly the viruses infecting such animals, (3 to study their genetic variability overtime by long-term follow-up of several DNA samples in a series of specific animals, and (4 to get new insights concerning the timing and the modes of SFVs primary infection in these monkeys by combining serology and molecular means, as well as studies of familial structures and long-term behavioral observations. Results/conclusion We first demonstrated that this colony was highly endemic for SFVs, with a clear increase of seroprevalence with age. Only 4.7% of immatures, and 43,7% of sub-adults were found seropositive, while 89.5% of adults exhibited antibodies directed against SFV. We further showed that 6 different strains of foamy viruses (exhibiting a very low intra-strain and overtime genetic variability in the integrase gene are circulating within this group. This suggests a possible infection by different strains within an animal. Lastly, we provide strong evidence that foamy viruses are mostly acquired through severe bites, mainly in sub-adults or young adults. Most cases of seroconversion occur after 7 years of age

  8. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

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    Laëtitia Maréchal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1 naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2 exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3 expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral

  9. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants' level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques' facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques' facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed faces, and a trend was found for

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Smith, David Glenn; McDonough, John

    2005-01-01

    DNA was extracted from the buffy coats or serum of 212 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) sampled throughout the species' geographic range. An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from each sample, sequenced, aligned, and used to estimate genetic distances from which phylogenetic trees were constructed. A tree that included sequences from rhesus macaques whose exact origins in China are known was used to determine the regional origin of clusters of haplotypes, or haplogroups, defined by the trees. Indian rhesus sequences formed one large homogeneous haplogroup with very low levels of nucleotide diversity and no geographic structure, and a second much smaller haplogroup apparently derived from Burma. The sequences from Burma and eastern and western China were quite divergent from those in the major haplogroup of India. Each of these sequences formed separate clusters of haplotypes that exhibited far greater nucleotide diversity and/or population structure. Correspondingly, sequences from Indian rhesus macaques that are considered to represent different subspecies (based on morphological differences) were intermingled in the tree, while those from China reflected some, but not all, aspects of subspecific taxonomy. Regional variation contributed 72% toward the paired differences between sequences in an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), and the average differences between the populations of eastern and western China were also statistically significant. These results suggest that Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques were reproductively isolated during most, if not all, of the Pleistocene, during which time Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe genetic bottleneck, and that some gene flow westward into India was subsequently reestablished. Samples from breeding centers in three different provinces of China included sequences from rhesus macaques that originated in both eastern (or southern) and western China, confirming anecdotal

  11. Efeito do CO2 e etileno no período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata cv. Macaca Effect of CO2 and ethylene on the dormancy period of potato cv. Macaca minitubers

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    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do CO2 e etileno no período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata da cultivar Macaca produzidos em telado durante duas safras. Imediatamente após a colheita, os minitubérculos foram submetidos aos tratamentos de abafamento com etileno (1000 mL L-1 por 72 h; CO2 (20% por 72 h; carbureto de cálcio (200 g m-3 por 72 h; e 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP (1mL L-1 por 24 h (apenas na safrinha; e imersão em solução de ethephon (840 mg L-1 por 5 s. A testemunha não recebeu nenhum tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi um fatorial (safras x tratamentos no inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 15 minitubérculos. Em intervalos semanais foram avaliadas a respiração e a produção de etileno. A cada 15 dias avaliou-se o número de brotos e a percentagem de tubérculos brotados, calculando-se a área abaixo da curva de progressão. Os minitubérculos produzidos durante a safra, comparados com os da safrinha, apresentaram menor período de dormência e aumentaram a taxa respiratória durante o período de armazenamento, claramente relacionados com a brotação dos minitubérculos. O CO2 e etileno não promoveram o encurtamento, enquanto que o 1-MCP prolongou o período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata cv. Macaca.The effect of CO2 and ethylene treatments were evaluated on the dormancy period of 'Macaca' minitubers produced in greenhouse during two growing seasons. Minitubers were treated soon after harvesting. The treatments were suffocation with ethylene (1000 mL L-1 during 72 h; CO2 (20 % during 72 h; calcium carburet (200 g m-3 during 72 h; and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (1 mL L-1 during 24 h (only for second season; and immersion with 2-cloroetil fosfonic acid (840 mg L-1 during 5 s. Control minitubers did not receive any treatment. The experiment was a factorial (seasons x treatments in a randomized design, with four replications of 15 minitubers. Respiration and ethylene production were

  12. Contrasting the edge- and surface-based theories of object recognition: behavioral evidence from macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parron, Carole; Washburn, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of edge and surface cues on object representation in macaques (Macaca mulatta). In Experiments 1 and 2, 5 macaques were trained to discriminate 4 simple volumetric objects (geons) and were subsequently tested for their ability to recognize line drawings, silhouettes, and light changes of these geons. Performance was above chance in all test conditions and was similarly high for the line drawings and silhouettes of geons, suggesting the use of the outline shape to recognize the original objects. In addition, transfer for the geons seen under new lighting was greater than for the other stimuli, stressing the importance of the shading information. Experiment 3, using geons filled with new textures, showed that a radical change in the surface cues does not prevent object recognition. It is concluded that these findings support a surface-based theory of object recognition in macaques, although it does not exclude the contribution of edge cues, especially when surface details are not available.

  13. Land use in semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana depends on environmental conditions: A geographical information system approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cédric SUEUR; Paul SALZE; Christiane WEBER; Odile PETIT

    2011-01-01

    Wild animals use their habitat according to ecological pressures such as predaton, resource availability or temperature, yet little is known about how individuals use their environment in semi free-ranging conditions. We assessed whether a semi-free ranging group of Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana used its wooded parkland in a heterogeneous way. GIS and GPS were used to determine whether individuals adjusted their behaviors according to variation in environmental constraints over time of day and the course of a year. We demonstrated that social and resting activities occurred in high altitude areas and areas with a high density of bushes, whereas the group foraged in areas where the density of bushes and grass was low. In general, the animals used areas exposed to the sun that were not on a slope. Semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques seemed to behave like their wild counterparts in terms of activity budget, land use per activity and thermoregulation.

  14. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2016-01-01

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David X; Doyle, Lara A; Bouljihad, Mostafa T; Didier, Peter J; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Lackner, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional densely spherical condensations of fibroblasts resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis were present in the mesenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67, S-100, and CD34 indicated that both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the neoplasm had low proliferation. Alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff, and trichrome stains showed an immature stromal component with no collagen formation. Based on the clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features, the tumor was identified as a locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma.

  16. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  17. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  19. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  20. Control of finite critical behaviour in a small-scale social system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Krakauer, David C.; Flack, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Many adaptive systems sit near a tipping or critical point. For systems near a critical point small changes to component behaviour can induce large-scale changes in aggregate structure and function. Criticality can be adaptive when the environment is changing, but entails reduced robustness through sensitivity. This tradeoff can be resolved when criticality can be tuned. We address the control of finite measures of criticality using data on fight sizes from an animal society model system (Macaca nemestrina, n=48). We find that a heterogeneous, socially organized system, like homogeneous, spatial systems (flocks and schools), sits near a critical point; the contributions individuals make to collective phenomena can be quantified; there is heterogeneity in these contributions; and distance from the critical point (DFC) can be controlled through biologically plausible mechanisms exploiting heterogeneity. We propose two alternative hypotheses for why a system decreases the distance from the critical point. PMID:28186194

  1. Fear reactions to snakes in naïve mouse lemurs and pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lucie; Brandl, Pavel; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Primates have been predated on by snakes throughout their evolution and as a result, antipredator responses accompanied by signs of fear are often witnessed in the wild. In captivity, however, the fear of snakes is less clear, as experiments with naïve nonhuman primates have given inconsistent results. In this study, we present evidence that naïve mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) and putatively naïve pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) do exhibit fear of snakes, even though the apparent reactions are mild. In an experiment with control- or snake-odoured boxes, mouse lemurs clearly avoided feeding in the latter. When the latency of touching rubber models was measured, pig-tailed macaques took longer to touch a toy snake compared with a toy lizard. Our findings that fear of snakes is shown by naïve individuals support the hypothesis that it is innate in primates.

  2. Control of critical behavior in a small-scale social system

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, Bryan C; Flack, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade new technologies for making large numbers of fine-grained measurements have led to the surprising discovery that many biological systems sit near a critical point. These systems are potentially more adaptive in that small changes to component behavior can induce large-scale changes in aggregate structure and function. Accounting for criticality remains a challenge as sensitivity to perturbation suggests a lack of robustness. Furthermore, change induced by perturbation may not be adaptive. Complicating matters further critical phenomena can result from history-dependent stochastic processes. A question central to distinguishing among these conflicting views of criticality is to what degree criticality can be controlled by the components of the system. We address the control of criticality using data on conflict dynamics and fight sizes from an animal society model system (Macaca nemestrina, n=48). The system is fundamentally finite so we operationalize criticality in information theoretic ...

  3. Immunopathology and histopathology of experimental chlamydial salpingitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, D L

    1985-01-01

    Experimental infection of fallopian tubes was produced in four sexually mature pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) by intratubal inoculation with serovar E or F Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection was confirmed by reisolation of the organism from both the endosalpinx and the endocervix. An antibody response to the infecting strain of C. trachomatis was demonstrated in monkey sera and in cervical secretions by the microimmunofluorescence test. A cellular immune response to C. trachomatis was shown by the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. Histopathologic examination of the endosalpinx following infection showed epithelial degeneration and deciliation of ciliated cells. Lymphocytic infiltration into both submucosa and mucosa was present at day 7 and approximated areas of epithelial cell degeneration. Two control monkeys remained unresponsive throughout the study. These results indicate that the pig-tailed macaque should be a suitable model for further studies of the pathogenesis of, immune responses to, and therapy for acute C. trachomatis salpingitis.

  4. Symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria)--passive transfer experiments from human to monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G M; Zollman, P E; Greaves, M W; Winkelmann, R K

    1987-06-01

    Passive transfer experiments were carried out on three species of monkey, Macaca mulatta, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis, using human serum from patients affected with severe symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria), cholinergic urticaria, chronic idiopathic urticaria and normal subjects. The monkeys were tested for dermographism by means of a calibrated dermographometer 24 h after intradermal injection of the serum, using Evans blue as a marker. Positive responses were seen initially in the M. nemestrina. Four sites injected with serum from patients with severe symptomatic dermographism gave positive responses, one site injected with serum from a normal subject produced a faint response. One of the four responses was reproduced one month later in M. fascicularis. These results indicate that passive transfer of dermographism is possible from human to monkey.

  5. Eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion as the cause of death in a Macaca mulatta: a first case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christal, J.L.; Hubbard, G.B.; Dick, E.J.; Brasky, K.M.; Jagirdar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described, relatively benign condition in humans that is characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The exact cause of this condition is currently unknown, however has been associated with various occupational exposures in humans. It has also been reported to progress to irreversible airway obstruction. This disease has been reported in dogs and horses, but not in non-human primates. Methods Gross examination of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old, colony-born Macaca mulatta, which died of severe non-responsive respiratory distress revealed that the lungs were markedly inflated and moist. Results Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from the lungs contained widespread accumulation of eosinophils, sloughed epithelial cells, and mucus centered around bronchioles and adjacent airways. There was no evidence of mast cell infiltration of peribronchiolar smooth muscle, goblet cell hyperplasia, or basement membrane thickening. Conclusions This ruled out recurrent episodes as would be expected in asthma, favoring the diagnosis of an eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion. We report a first case of eosinophilic bronchitis-like features in a M. mulatta. PMID:18333916

  6. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  7. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  8. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming.

  9. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  10. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  11. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species.

  12. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  13. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  14. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (ppregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (phormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers with varied caretaking experience. In addition, infant exposure to relatively higher levels of maternal cortisol during the late fetal and early postnatal periods is predictive of poorer developmental outcomes.

  15. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  16. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  17. Large-scale analysis of Macaca fascicularis transcripts and inference of genetic divergence between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugano Sumio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are widely used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. We isolated 85,721 clones and determined 9407 full-insert sequences from cynomolgus monkey brain, testis, and liver. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes and stored in a database, QFbase http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. Results We found that 1024 transcripts did not represent any public human cDNA sequence and examined their expression using M. fascicularis oligonucleotide microarrays. Significant expression was detected for 544 (51% of the unidentified transcripts. Moreover, we identified 226 genes containing exon alterations in the untranslated regions of the macaque transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Considering the polymorphism in the common ancestor of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques and the rate of PCR errors, the divergence time between the two species was estimated to be around 0.9 million years ago. Conclusion Transcript data from Old World monkeys provide a means not only to determine the evolutionary difference between human and non-human primates but also to unveil hidden transcripts in the human genome. Increasing the genomic resources and information of macaque monkeys will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical sciences.

  18. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  19. 太行山猕猴掌面肤纹三角分布%Distribution of the triradius on the palms in Taihang Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓进; 范红军; 靳想

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the characteristic of the triradius on the palms in the Taihang Macaca mulatto.. Methods: The sample comprised 31 individuals (8 males and 23 females) whose dermatoglyphics were completed and clear. The triradii on palms were taken with a digital camera or direct observation. Results : There constantly existed ten triradii on the palms in Macaca mulatto , and the average number of the triradius was 9. 1, and they ranged from 8 to 11. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the position of palmar triradii between Macaca mulatto and other primates. Sex difference and bi-manual difference were not significant. The difference is mainly due to the evolution degree of primates, the development of palmar pad, the dermatoglyphic patterns and the printing procedure.%目的:了解太行山猕猴掌面三角的分布特征.方法:直接观察太行山猕猴掌面肤纹标本31例.结果:太行山猕猴掌面三角常出现的三角有10个,三角数目在8~11个之间,平均9.1个.结论:太行山猕猴掌面三角分布模式与其他灵长类掌面三角相比有差异.掌面三角性差和侧差无差异.造成这些差异的主要原因与灵长类动物进化程度、掌垫发育、花纹类型以及观察方法有关.

  20. 猕猴脱毛的营养学因素分析%Analysis on the Nutriology Parameters of Shed in Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁帅尧; 和占龙; 陈丽雄; 赵远; 禹文海; 王俊斌; 杨凤梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve and prevent shed of Macaca mulatta by comparison and analysis the nutriology parameters. Methods Macaca mulatta was divided into A, B and C group according to condition of their hair. Hair and serum were collected to determine trace elements, amino acid and mineral in serum. Results The content of Mn, Zn, Pb and As in hair show extremely significant difference (P <0. 01 ), but no significant change in the content of Cu and Fe (P >0. 05). The content of Pro, Val, NH3, Arg, Tyr, Gystine, Phe, Lys, His and total amino acids in hair show extremely significant difference (P <0. 01 ). The content of trace element in serum was no big change, except Mg, P, Cu and Ca in A and B groups were higher than C group. Conclusion The quantity of Mn and Zn in addition maybe the reason caused Macaca mulatta shed. Gystine may improve and enhance the hair quantity; Ca, Mg, P and Cu possibly can affect the hair quantity in artificial raising Macaca mulatta when fed in high nutritional level.%目的 通过对猕猴脱毛的相关营养学指标的比较分析,为改善人工饲养猕猴脱毛状况及其防治提供参考数据.方法 根据被毛状况分组A、B、C,采集试验猴被毛和血清,测定其微量元素和氨基酸以及血清矿物元素,对各组相应指标进行比较分析.结果 各组试验猴被毛Cu、Fe含量无显著性差异(P>0.05),但Mn、Zn、Pb、As则均有极显著性差异(P0.05).A、B组的血清Mg、P、Cu和Ca的含量高于C组,其余矿物元素的含量基本一致.结论 Mn过量、Zn的供给不足可能是影响人工饲养猕猴被毛质量的因素;胱氨酸对改善猕猴被毛品质、提高被毛质量应该有一定作用;高营养水平的Ca、Mg、P和Cu可能会影响人工饲养的猕猴的被毛质量.

  1. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

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    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  2. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

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    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  3. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-09-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)--defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)--is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO₂ was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft(3)) room but not the smaller (2340 ft(3)) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods.

  4. DINAMIKA PROFIL HEMATOLOGI DAN RASIO NETROFIL:LIMFOSIT MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS PADA PENGATURAN MIKROKLIMAT RUANGAN

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    Ridzki M.F. Binol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the profile of physiological hematology (erythrocyte, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and leukocyte and the profile of ratio between neutrophil and lymphocyte of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis in different microclimate conditions due to the room’s temperature and humidity setting. The symptom of stress was also observed in this study. The research used 10 male macaques aged of 4 until 5 years old which placed in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% respectively 7 days for adaptation period. Further more, the room temperature and humidity were set into 25,79±1,16°C and 80,19±9,05% during 14 days for treatment period. For the last treatment, macaques were reconditioned in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% during 14 days for post-treatment period. Blood samplings were collected through femoralis vein on last day of adaptation period, continued with treatment and post-treatment periods as the day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28. The results showed that there were not significant difference by room temperature and humidity setting to hematology and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. It could be proven by all parameters score obtained were still in normal ranges compared to literatures. There was also no stress symptom based on neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio measurement. Condition with room temperature and humidity of 25,79±1,16°C dan 80,19±9,05% regarded as the most suitable condition for long-tailed macaque’s life

  5. A comparative of G-banded chromosome of Assam Macaque (Macaca assamensis and relationship to human (Homo sapiens

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    Bunjongrat, R.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first to report a comparative analysis of G-banded chromosome of Assam macaque, Macaca assamensis (Primate, Cercopithecidae and relationship to human, Homo sapiens (Primate, Hominidae. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females held captive in Nakhonratchasima Zoo and Songkla Zoo. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr in presence of colchicine, metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. G-banding technique was applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Assam macaque was 2n = 42. The type of autosomes are 18 metacentric and 22 submetacentric chromosomes. In addition, a pair of short arm chromosome 13 showed clearly observable satellite chromosome. X-chromosome was the submetacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest telocentric chromosome. We found that chromosome 5, 12, 13, 19 and X had the same G-banding patterns as those of human chromosomes. The short arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 22 of human as indicated by G-banding techniques. In addition, the long arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 15 of human. These results indicate that the chromosome 13 of the Assam macaque was split into 2 chromosomes. Chromosome 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 20 are similar to those of human chromosomes. This study suggest that the chromosome 1 is a pericentric inversion of human chromosome 1. Chromosomes 2, 4, 15, 16, 18 and Y are different from those of human chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Assam macaque and human.

  6. Ordered recall in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta: Can monkeys recall the correct order of sequentially presented images?

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    Heather E O'Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are capable of identifying sequentially shown images in any order among distractors (i.e. images not part of the list sequence. We investigated ordered recall in rhesus monkeys in which subjects were expected to recognize the correct order of images during a “test” phase (simultaneous presentation of images after they had seen the images presented sequentially in a “presentation” phase (sequential presentation of images. If subjects were successfully able to execute the ordered recall task, the first trial accuracy data would appear close to 100% accuracy and it would only take one day to learn the list since the lists used were short, 3-item lists. While this study did not conclusively demonstrate monkeys are capable of ordered recall of sequentially presented, trial unique images (i.e. a list sequence presented only once per session, the data suggests that when the stimuli are not trial unique the monkeys treat each sequence as a simultaneous chaining task. A simultaneous chaining paradigm entails simultaneous presentation of all items without any previous sequential presentation of the images. It is unclear whether results resembling simultaneous chaining are seen because these animals have previous experience with simultaneous chaining, if the training procedure needs to be modified for the monkeys to understand the task, or if the task is beyond their cognitive abilities. Further research with serial learning will clarify this finding and also seek to prove whether rhesus monkeys are in fact capable of such ordered recall tasks.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

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    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  8. Indirect Immunofluorescence, Serum Neutralization, and Viremia Responses of Thesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) to Machupo Virus,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-22

    immunofluorescent antibody tests (iFAT) have been developed V: for several arenaviruses , none has been applied to the rhesus monkey model for Bolivian...though indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IUAT) have been developed for several arenaviruses , none has been applied to the rhesus monkey model for...specific for individual arenaviruses than the SN procedure. Substantial cross- reactivity by IFAT has been described between New World arenaviruses

  9. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta.

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    Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Hard Af Segerstad, C; Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Van der Wel, H

    1983-04-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta.2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin.3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals.4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0.3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min.5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0.99.6. A solution of 0.1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests.7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2.3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group.8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are involved in

  10. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  11. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

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    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

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    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  13. Functional MRI of brain in macaca fascicularis under alcohol scent stimulation%乙醇气味刺激食蟹猴的脑fMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠; 朱建忠; 孙向东; 赵梦; 李传福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the fMRl changes of brain in macaca fascicularis with alcohol scent stimulation. Methods Six healthy macaca fascicularis were selected and anesthetized. The block design was "rest-stimulation-rest". fMRI under alcohol scent stimulation and resting state were performed, respectively. The animals inhaled air mixed with 95% alcohol in the stimulation period, while inhaled pure air in rest period. BOLD-fMRI sequences and 128 phases scanning were performed, 16 slices axial images of the entire brain and total 2048 images were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPM2. The outcomes were superposed on the template of macaca fascicularis at last. Random effect mode group analysis was applied in estimating and calculating with f-test Results When alcohol scent stimulation was given, increased or decreased BOLD signals were observed in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, paracentral lobules, cingulate gyri, and lenticular nucleus, and anterior central gyrus, respectively. Conclusion Uncus gyri hippocampi and orbitofrontal are the most advanced center of olfaction. The central reaction induced by scent stimulation had an affinity with paracentral lobule, cingulate gyrus and lenticular nucleus.%目的 应用3.0T fMRI探讨食蟹猴经乙醇气味刺激引起的脑功能活动.方法 选取健康食蟹猴6只,麻醉后行乙醇气味刺激下的fMRI.采取“静息-刺激-静息”组块设计.刺激组块予乙醇气味刺激,静息组块无气味刺激.BOLDfMRI扫描128 phase,整个猴脑扫描16层.采用SPM2软件随机效应模式t检验进行组分析.将统计结果覆盖于食蟹猴模板图像上.结果 乙醇气味刺激下,在额叶、颞叶、中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核、中央前回分别可以检测到正激活和负激活.结论 海马回钩和眶额回为嗅觉最高级中枢.fMRI可以显示额叶、颞叶的激活.气味刺激引起的中枢反应与中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核有密切关系.

  14. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

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    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  15. The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

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    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R

    1989-01-01

    In five adult monkeys, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from bipolar surface electrodes positioned over the superficial masseter and from bipolar fine-wire electrodes within both the superficial and deep masseter. Relative masseter force was estimated by measuring surface bone strain from the lateral aspect of the zygomatic arch using rosette strain gauges. Multiple step-wise regression procedures demonstrated that peak values of the averaged masseter EMG could often explain a considerable amount of the variation of peak relative masseter force during mastication, i.e. r2 values ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 for the various single-electrode models and R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.96 for the various multiple-electrode models. The r2 values for relative masseter force and EMG data from the surface electrodes ranged from 0.69 to 0.96, and, on average, EMG data from surface electrodes provided somewhat more information about overall relative muscle force than data from fine-wire electrodes. The R2 values for a two-electrode model, consisting of data from surface electrodes over the superficial masseter and fine-wire electrodes in the posterior portion of the deep masseter, ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The latency between the averaged surface EMG and relative muscle force was determined and the data indicated that the surface EMG usually preceded muscle force. This latency tended to decrease gradually throughout the entire power stroke of mastication. At peak values, the surface EMG preceded muscle force by about 22 ms. Towards the end of the power stroke, i.e. the 25% of peak values during unloading, muscle force may actually precede the average EMG.

  16. Characterization of single-nucleotide variation in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Wheeler David A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate valuable genetic analyses, as well as provide markers for genome-wide linkage analysis and the genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Results We used the available rhesus macaque draft genome sequence, new sequence data from unrelated individuals and existing published sequence data to create a genome-wide SNP resource for Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. The original reference animal and two additional Indian-origin individuals were resequenced to low coverage using SOLiD™ sequencing. We then used three strategies to validate SNPs: comparison of potential SNPs found in the same individual using two different sequencing chemistries, and comparison of potential SNPs in different individuals identified with either the same or different sequencing chemistries. Our approach validated approximately 3 million SNPs distributed across the genome. Preliminary analysis of SNP annotations suggests that a substantial number of these macaque SNPs may have functional effects. More than 700 non-synonymous SNPs were scored by Polyphen-2 as either possibly or probably damaging to protein function and these variants now constitute potential models for studying functional genetic variation relevant to human physiology and disease. Conclusions Resequencing of a small number of animals identified greater than 3 million SNPs. This provides a significant new information resource for rhesus macaques, an important research animal. The data also suggests that overall genetic variation is high in this species. We identified many potentially damaging non-synonymous coding SNPs

  17. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract.

  18. Isolation and characterization of liver epithelial progenitor cells from normal adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifang Jin; Shaohui Ji; Xianghui Tang; Xiangyu Guo; Yongqing Lu; Hongwei Chen; Hongkui Deng; Qi Zhou; Weizhi Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Based on their ability to proliferate and the capacity to differentiate into specific cell types, hepatic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) from adult human liver may have potential therapeutic effects on end-stage liver failure. In addition, adult HPCs have a reduced risk of teratoma formation and are not subject to the same ethical issues as fetal HPCs or embryonic stem cells [1]. The HPCs from rhesus monkeys are relevant because they may serve as a valuable preclinical model for assessment of cell therapy in humans. To date, there are no reports of HPCs or liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) isolated from normal adult rhesus monkey although a few studies in other species were reported [2, 3]. We report here for the first time the successful isolation of rhesus monkey LEPCs (mLEPCs) from normal adult livers (n=12).

  19. Physiological, Behavioral, and Scientific Impact of Different Fluid Control Protocols in the Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Henri; Mindus, Claire; Flecknell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhesus macaques are an important model in behavioral neuroscience due to their advanced cognitive abilities. To motivate animals to engage in complex tasks, fluid rewards, in conjunction with fluid control protocols, are often used. The impact of these protocols on animal welfare is controversial. We compared two fluid control protocols against a protocol providing free access to water and evaluated the impacts on physiological states of hydration, behavioral measures of welfare, and scientific output. Blood physiology did not significantly differ between any of the protocols, and urine measures were indicative of well functioning, healthy kidneys. Changes in behaviors were limited, the main one being an increase in motivation to drink on the stricter fluid control protocol, and improved task performance early in the week. Overall, fluid control protocols had little measurable impact on the welfare of rhesus macaques while ensuring that scientific data of high quality could be obtained. PMID:27679812

  20. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine ABO blood types of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S; Satkoski, J; Smith, D G

    2011-06-01

    Rhesus macaques are the most common nonhuman primate model organism used in biomedical research. Their increasingly frequent use as subjects in studies involving transplantation requires that blood and other tissue antigens of donors and recipients be compatible. We report here an easy and rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the ABO blood group phenotypes of rhesus macaques that can be performed with only small amounts of DNA. We phenotyped 78 individuals and found this species to exhibit the A, B and AB phenotypes in frequencies that vary by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.

  1. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  2. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  3. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  4. Immune correlates of aging in outdoor-housed captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Elizabeth S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions remain about whether inflammation is a cause, consequence, or coincidence of aging. The purpose of this study was to define baseline immunological characteristics from blood to develop a model in rhesus macaques that could be used to address the relationship between inflammation and aging. Hematology, flow cytometry, clinical chemistry, and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analyses were performed on a group of 101 outdoor-housed captive rhesus macaques ranging from 2 to 24 years of age, approximately equivalent to 8 to 77 years of age in humans. Results These results extend earlier reports correlating changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines/chemokines with increasing age. There were significant declines in numbers of white blood cells (WBC overall, as well as lymphocytes, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells with increasing age. Among lymphocytes, there were no significant declines in NK cells and T cells, whereas B cell numbers exhibited significant declines with age. Within the T cell populations, there were significant declines in numbers of CD4+ naïve T cells and CD8+ naïve T cells. Conversely, numbers of CD4+CD8+ effector memory and CD8+effector memory T cells increased with age. New multiplex analyses revealed that concentrations of a panel of ten circulating cytokines/chemokines, IFNγ, IL1b, IL6, IL12, IL15, TNFα, MCP1, MIP1α, IL1ra, and IL4, each significantly correlated with age and also exhibited concordant pairwise correlations with every other factor within this group. To also control for outlier values, mean rank values of each of these cytokine concentrations in relation to age of each animal and these also correlated with age. Conclusions A panel of ten cytokines/chemokines were identified that correlated with aging and also with each other. This will permit selection of animals exhibiting relatively higher and lower inflammation status as a model to test mechanisms of inflammation

  5. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  6. Variation in intergroup encounters among two provisioned free-ranging populations of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Kunio WATANABE

    2012-01-01

    Typically,Japanese macaques are thought to avoid encountering other groups wherever possible.Intergroup relations between macaques on Shodoshima Island,however,appear exceptional.We show that neighboring groups of Shodoshima monkeys spent 32.8% of their active time in proximity to (<100 m) and even foraged simultaneously at the same provisioning site with another group.The average duration and rate of intergroup encounters at Shodoshima (59.8 min,0.33 times/hour,n=269)were approximately ten times longer and 16.5 times more frequent than those at Jigokudani (6.1 min,0.02 times/hour,n=14).Since both populations have similar provisioning and ecological conditions,such variation cannot be explained by the socioecology model alone.Compared with other populations of Japanese macaques,intergroup relations of Shodoshima monkeys are also characterized by more frequent neutral encounters,less frequent agonistic encounters,more frequent unsuccessful displacement,a lower intensity of aggression,and more frequent counter-aggression between groups.These characteristics suggest that intergroup relationships on Shodoshima Island are more tolerant than those in other Japanese macaque populations.This study reveals considerable differences in intergroup encounters within local populations of Japanese macaques living in similar environments,and emphasizes the role of social factors in such intra-specific variation.

  7. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil; Witzel, Ulrich; Fitton, Laura; O'higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Computational finite element analyses (FEAs) of the skull predict structural deformations under user specified loads and constraints, with results normally presented as stress and strain distributions over the skull's surface. The applied loads are generally a representation of the major adductor musculature, with the skull constrained at bite positions and at the articulating joints. However, virtually all analyses ignore potentially important anatomical structures, such as the fasciae that cover the temporalis muscle and attach onto the zygomatic arch. In vivo experimental studies have shown that removal of the temporal fasciae attachment onto the zygomatic arch in Cebus monkeys results in significant bone adaptation and remodeling in this region, suggesting the fasciae play an important role in stabilising the arch during biting. Here we investigate this potential stabilising role by carrying out FEAs of a macaque skull with and without temporal fasciae included. We explore the extent to which the zygomatic arch might be stabilized during biting by a synchronized tensioning of the temporal fasciae, acting to oppose masseteric contraction forces. According to our models, during temporalis muscle bulging the forces generated within the tensioned temporal fasciae are large enough to oppose the pull of the masseter. Further, a near bending-free state of equilibrium within the arch can be reached, even under forceful biting. We show that it is possible to eliminate the high strain gradients in and around the zygomatic arch that are present in past computational studies, with strains being more uniform in magnitude than previously thought.

  8. Factors affecting aggression among females in captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Isbell, Lynne A

    2011-11-01

    Captive groups of primates often exhibit higher rates of aggression than wild, free-ranging groups. It is important to determine which factors influence aggression in captivity because aggression, particularly intense aggression, can be harmful to animal health and well-being. In this study, we investigated the effect of ground substrate as well as season, rank, age, and group size on rates of agonistic interactions per female in seven captive groups of rhesus macaques (n = 70 females, 1,723 focal samples) at the California National Primate Research Center. Agonistic interactions were divided into three categories: displacements, mild aggression, and intense aggression. Females living in enclosures with gravel substrate were 1.7 times more likely to be involved in intense aggression (e.g. chases and physical contact) than females living in enclosures with grass (Poisson regression model: P females were at least 1.3 times more likely to be involved in mild (e.g. threats and lunges) aggression than lower-ranking females (low rank: P = 0.03; mid rank: P = 0.001). Females of all ranks were 1.5-1.9 times more likely to be involved in both intense and mild aggression during the breeding season than other seasons. Age and group size did not affect rates of mild or intense aggression. These findings indicate that although some aggression appears to be natural and unavoidable, i.e. aggression during the breeding season, the well-being of captive macaques can be improved by developing grass substrate in outdoor enclosures.

  9. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  10. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  11. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienesberger, Sabine; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Rivera-Correa, Juan L; Tosado-Acevedo, Rafael; Li, Huilin; Dubois, Andre; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis A; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2012-08-24

    Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to

  12. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to study effects of these two important human mucosal bacteria on a population.

  13. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  14. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes the Effects of Estrogen Treatment on Social and Sexual Behavior in Female Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) commonly is used in contraception and hormone replacement therapy. However, little is known about its effects within the central nervous system. Using ovariectomized pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina), we evaluated the potential for MPA to antagonize estradiol (E2) effects on female sociosexual behavior. Subjects (n = 6) were treated sequentially with placebo, E2 alone, E2 + progesterone (P4), and E2 + MPA. The order of treatments was balanced among subject...

  15. Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates hemorrhagic-induced splanchnic hypo-perfusion in post-resuscitation experimental hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S Madjid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to assess the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on splanchnic perfusion, bacterial translocation and histopathologic changes in experimental hemorrhagic shock in short-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina. Sixteen Macaca nemestrinas were randomly assigned to one of two groups i.e. the lidocaine group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia plus lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia; and the saline group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia alone as control. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood gradually to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 40 mm Hg, and maintained for 60 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with their own blood and ringer lactate solution (RL. After resuscitation, epidural lidocaine 2% was given in the lidocaine group and saline in the control group. Resuscitation that was performed after one hour hemorrhagic shock, with hemodynamic variables and urine output returned to normal, revealed there was no improvement of splanchnic perfusion. PgCO2, P(g-aCO2, and pHi remained in critical value and tended to deteriorate in the saline group. Contrast to saline group, splanchnic perfusion in lidocaine group tended to improve. This condition was supported by the finding of less bacterial translocation and better histopathologic changes in lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia group than in saline group. This study concludes that lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates splachnic hypoperfusion in post-resuscitation hemorrhagic shock in Macaca nemestrina. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 73-81Keywords: thoracic epidural anesthesia, lidocaine, hemorrhagic shock, splanchnic hypoperfusion, bacterial translocation

  16. 小鼠抗食蟹猴IgG单克隆抗体的制备%Preparation Monoclonal Antibodies Of Mice Against Macaca fascicularis IgG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张段玲; 张彦龙; 白素英

    2012-01-01

    目的 制备抗食蟹猴、恒河猴等非人灵长类实验动物免疫球蛋白二级抗体,开展对其传染病血清学快速诊断方法的建立.方法 采用饱和硫酸铵盐析、Agarose-Protein G亲和层析技术,从食蟹猴血清中提纯IgG.经SDS-PAGE电泳鉴定,采用常规法免疫C57BL/6小鼠,三次免疫后取脾细胞与Sp2/0-Agl4骨髓瘤细胞通过PEG4000融合制备杂交瘤细胞,利用间接ELISA、Western blot等方法进行筛选、鉴定.结果 得到5株阳性杂交瘤,分别命名为2B6、2B7、2D9、3B2、5E4,并且5株杂交瘤分泌的抗体均与恒河猴的IgG或血清发生交叉反应,而与其他物种如东北虎、犬等动物的IgG或血清无交叉反应.结论 5株杂交瘤产生的单克隆抗体(McAb)具有较好免疫活性,且能长期、稳定地分泌抗体.此项研究工作为后续研究食蟹猴、恒河猴传染病血清学诊断方法奠定基础.%Objective In order to prepare imraunoglobulin G (IgG) secondary antibody of non-human primates such as Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta and establish a quick serological method to diagnose their diseases. Methods Macaco fascicularis IgG was isolated and purified from Macaco fascicularis serum by precipitated use saturated ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography technology with Agarose-Protein G. After identified by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis murine monoclonal antibody ( McAb) were produced by conventional immune method and hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibody was produced when C57BL/6 mice was immunized three times and its spleen cells were fused with SP2/0-Agl4 myeloma cells. Indirect ELISA and Western blot methods were used for identification. Result 5 strains of myeloma cells acquired which were named 2B6, 2B7, 3B2, 5E4, 2D9. The antibodies they secret can all react well with both IgG and their serum of Macaco fascicularis and Macaca mulatto. There are no cross reaction with other species such as east-northern tigers and dogs. Conclusion The 5

  17. 太行山猕猴研究进展与展望%Research Advances and Prospects for Macaca mualatta tcheliensis in the Taihangshan Mountains Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路纪琪; 王好峰; 谢东明

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaques are found ubiquitously throughout Asia, from Afghanistan to India and Thailand to southern China. They are used for an extraordinary range of biomedical and basic research. Due to their close genetic, physiologic, and metabolic similarity to humans, this species serves as an essential research tool in neuroscience, behavioral biology, reproductive physiology, neuroendocrinology, endocrinology, cardiovascular studies, pharmacology, and many other areas. Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, an endemic subspecies of rhesus macaque to China, are distributed mainly in the southern parts of the Taihangshan and Zhongtiaoshan Mountains area which was the northernmost range of rhesus macaque. These macaques, referred to as the Taihangshan macaque, live in secondary deciduous forests at elevations between 300 m and 1200 m (984 ft and 3937 ft) with a temperate climate and cold, snowy winters similar to the climate of the central, midwestern United States. Rhesus macaque are categorized into Grade II in the list Chinese Key protected animal species. Since early the 1980s, researchers had conducted some works on its population and distribution, morphology (including general morphology and skeleton morphology), ecology, microbiology, diseases, and other fields. In this article, we summarized those published works, and outlined further research needs to be done in the future. We aim to promote effective and long-term conservation on Taihangshan macaques.%猕猴广泛分布于从阿富汗到泰国和中国南部的亚洲地区.分布于中国的猕猴有6个亚种.太行山猕猴为猕猴华北亚种Macaca mulatta tcheliensis,系中国所特有,目前仅分布于河南、山西两省交界的太行山和中条山南端地区,为世界野生猕猴分布最北的种群.自20世纪80年代初期开始,学者们在数量与分布、形态学(包括普通形态学、骨骼系统形态学)、生态学、微观生物学、疾病、实验技术等方面,对太行山猕猴展开了

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of six Mauritian Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reveals a genome-wide pattern of polymorphisms under extreme population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-03-23

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates.

  19. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  20. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  1. Concentration of radiocesium in the wild Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata over the first 15 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

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    Shin-ichi Hayama

    Full Text Available Following the massive earthquake that struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear reactor core meltdown occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and was followed by the release of large amounts of radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in the muscle of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City and to determine the change in concentration over time as well as the relationship with the level of soil contamination. Cesium concentrations in the muscle of monkeys captured at locations with 100,000-300,000 Bq/m(2 were 6,000-25,000 Bq/kg in April 2011 and decreased over 3 months to around 1,000 Bq/kg. However, the concentration increased again to 2,000-3,000 Bq/kg in some animals during and after December 2011 before returning to 1,000 Bq/kg in April 2012, after which it remained relatively constant. This pattern of change in muscle radiocesium concentration was similar to that of the change in radiocesium concentration in atmospheric fallout. Moreover, the monkeys feed on winter buds and the cambium layer of tree bark potentially containing higher concentrations of radiocesium than that in the diet during the rest of the year. The muscle radiocesium concentration in the monkeys related significantly with the level of soil contamination at the capture locations.

  2. Effects of Simian Betaretrovirus Serotype 1 (SRV1) Infection on the Differentiation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (CD34+) Derived from Bone Marrow of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Nestor A; Todd, Patricia A; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these hematologic abnormalities are not well understood. The current study investigated the in vitro tropism of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) for both hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) and stromal cells obtained from rhesus macaque bone marrow and assessed the effects of infection on hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. After in vitro exposure, SRV proviral DNA could be demonstrated by real-time PCR in cells and the reverse transcriptase assay in supernatants from SRV-exposed progenitor-associated stroma, but not in differentiated colonies derived from SRV-exposed progenitors. Furthermore, in vitro exposure involving cell–cell contact of uninfected CD34+ progenitor cells with SRV-infected stromal cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction in granulocyte–macrophage colony formation in absence of detectable SRV-infection of progenitor cells. Reduction in colony formation occurred in a ‘dose-dependent’ fashion with increasing contact time. No effects on erythroid lineages and RBC differentiation were noted. Our results suggest that hematologic abnormalities observed during SRV disease (natural or experimental) of rhesus macaques may not result from direct effects of viral infection of progenitor cell populations, but rather be (at least in part) a consequence of SRV infection of supportive bone marrow stroma with secondary effects on differentiation of associated progenitor cells. PMID:22330653

  3. Use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography to aid in diagnosing intestinal adenocarcinoma in 2 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET-CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates.

  4. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

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    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  5. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  6. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

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    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  7. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  8. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus: Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

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    Anne Seltmann

    Full Text Available Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism. Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in

  9. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

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    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  11. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  12. Study on the Dermatoglyphics of Taihang Macaca Mulatta*Ⅲ Palmar Patterns%太行猕猴掌面花纹研究*Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢芹; 赵晓进; 宛霞; 张红绪

    2001-01-01

    Epidermal patterns of palms of 32 Taihang Macaca Mulatta (16males and 16 females)were examined. We found that there were six kinds of pattern types in different areas. Refer to the dermatoglyph i- cs' opening direction and rotating direction, loops were mainly radialward while whorls ulnarward;On interdigital I,palmar patterns indicated their pecularity and complexity in percentile frequencies,print pattern and sexual difference;clustering the true pattern percentile frequencies of the five species of primates, the result conveyed that the print patterns and percentile frequencies were different in primates' different classification, it's one of the criterions to judge the morphological characteristics among different species.%本文对32只太行猕猴的掌面花纹进行观察。结果表明:有6种花纹分布在掌面的不同区域;纹路的开口方向和旋转方向,箕形纹以桡侧、斗形纹以尺侧居多;指间Ⅰ区花纹在花纹类型、分布频率和性别差异等方面表现出一定的特异性和复杂性;通过对5种非人灵长类定型花纹分布频率聚类,结果提示,肤纹类型和分布频率在灵长类不同分类阶元中有一定差异,是判别种间形态特征的依据之一。

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  14. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

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    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  15. Histopathological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi%恒河猴感染诺氏疟原虫的病理组织学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 李国桥; 户耀增; 罗灼玲

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨诺氏疟原虫(Plasmodium knowlesi)感染恒河猴(Macaca mu1atta)引起有关脏器的病理组织学变 化。 方法病解3例感染疟原虫未经治疗病死的猴;2例感染疟原虫经青蒿琥酯(artesunate)栓剂治疗后又复发 的猴;1例感染疟原虫经磷酸哌喹(piperaquine phosphate)治愈后死于上肢坏死感染的猴。对有关脏器均进 行切片检查。 结果 3例(1号、7号和12号)未经治疗而病死的猴和1例(72号)虽经青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗但很快被排出 体外的猴的心、肝、脾、肺、肾、大小脑、胰腺、甲状旁腺、脑垂体和淋巴结等均有严重病变,含原虫的红细胞 和疟色素聚集于这些脏器的毛细血管内。1例(131号)经用哌喹治愈而死于上肢坏死的猴,除见多个脏器 内有色素沉积或被巨噬细胞吞噬外,可见胰岛细胞、甲状旁腺和垂体细胞萎缩和消失等病变。1例(33号) 用青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗后短期原虫转阴,但又复燃的猴被灌药致死,多个脏器所见与感染后未经治疗者明显 不同,仅见肝脏Kupffer细胞和大脑基质细胞内含原虫和疟色素,多个脏器均呈修复。 结论本文报导了诺氏疟原虫感染恒河猴后各有关脏器的病理组织学变化,特别是观察到胰岛细胞、甲状 旁腺和垂体细胞的萎缩和消失与心肌细胞的溶解是国内外文献所未记载过的。%Objective To study the histopathological changes of relevant intemal organs of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi ( P. knowlesi). Methods Histopathological examination of 3 monkeys who died of P. knowlesi infection, 2 P. knowlesi infected monkeys who died of treatment failure with artesunate suppository and 1 P. knowlesi infected monkey that was cured by piperaquine phosphate (PQP) but died of trauma and necrosis of the fore limb. Results The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, pancreas, parathyriod, pituitary and lymph nodes showed severe

  16. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu LX

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  17. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  18. Differences in compact bone tissue microscopic structure between adult humans (Homo sapiens) and Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Phatsara, Manussabhorn; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the osteon structure of adult humans and Assam macaques, which served as a nonhuman primate model, to find an adequate key for species identification. Samples of compact bone from humans (n=5) and Assam macaques (n=5) - including humerus (n=20), radius (n=20), ulna (n=20), femur (n=20), tibia (n=20) and fibula (n=20) - were processed using conventional histological techniques. 100 secondary osteons from each sample were evaluated under light microscopy. Parameter measurements included: diameter, perimeter and area of Haversian canal and osteon; distance between centers of Haversian canals; and ratio between diameter of Haversian canal and osteon. Four parameters, including diameters and areas of Haversian canal and osteon, demonstrated significantly higher (P<0.05) values in humans than in Assam macaques. Therefore, compact bone microstructure could thus be used as a potential tool to differentiate human and nonhuman primates.

  19. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  1. 食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中的注意事项%Guidelines for PET/CT scanography in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪文; 秦朝军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To search for the best scanning parameters of PET/CT scanning examination in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis, and to obtain the best images. Methods One male and one female monkeys respectively received the CT multiparameter scanning and PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan. Results When the scanning conditions were 420 mAs and 120 kV,the best resolution ratio and the lightest constructed defect could be obtained. In the images of PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan, the best image effects could be obtained from the images within 40-60 min. Conclusion Before the animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis on the PET/CT machine, the monkeys should receive the pre - scanning. And the best scanning parameters should be selected in order to obtain satisfactory results in the experiment.%目的 寻找食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中最佳的扫描参数,获得最佳图像.方法 两只食蟹猴为一雄一雌,对两只食蟹猴分别采用CT多参数扫描和PET的多时段动态断层扫描.结果 扫描条件采用420 mAs、120 kV时,可以获得最佳的图像分辨率和最轻的伪影.PET扫描多时段动态断层扫描的图像中,40~60 min的图像可以获得最佳图像效果.结论 食蟹猴在PET/CT机上行动物实验前,应进行预扫描,选择最佳的扫描参数,才能获得满意的实验结果.

  2. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  3. Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, N; Saleque, A; Sood, N K; Singla, L D

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  4. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  5. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis.

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    Jane S Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  6. Identification of an Enterocytozoon bieneusi-like microsporidian parasite in simian-immunodeficiency-virus-inoculated macaques with hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, K G; Carville, A; Shvetz, D; MacKey, J; Tzipori, S; Lackner, A A

    1997-04-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common opportunistic pathogen of human patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) causing significant morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective analysis utilizing conventional histochemical techniques, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and ultrastructural examination, we identified 18 simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected macaques (16 Macaca mulatta, 1 M. nemestrina, and 1 M. cyclopis) with Enterocytozoon infection of the hepatobiliary system and small intestine. The organisms were readily identified in the bile ducts and gall bladder by special stains and by in situ hybridization using a probe directed against the small subunit ribosomal RNA of human origin E. bieneusi. Infection of the biliary system was associated with a nonsuppurative and proliferative cholecystitis and choledochitis. Hepatic involvement was characterized by bridging portal fibrosis and nodular hepatocellular regeneration accompanied by marked bile ductular and septal duct hyperplasia. Ultrastructurally, all developmental stages of the organism were found in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm; spores and sporoblasts contained a double layer of polar tubes. Sequencing of a 607-bp segment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA revealed 97 and 100% identity to two clones of small subunit ribosomal RNA derived from E. bieneusi of human origin. Extensive morphological and genetic similarities between the simian and human enterocytozoons suggest that experimentally infected macaques may serve as a useful model of microsporidial infection in AIDS.

  7. Experimentally induced ocular chlamydial infection in infant pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, P A; Patton, D L; Kuo, C C; Wang, S P; Lindquist, T D

    1989-05-01

    Four Macaca nemestrina monkeys were inoculated in the conjunctiva with Chlamydia trachomatis (strain E) at 6 weeks of age. A fifth monkey was inoculated with HeLa cell materials only. Ten weeks later, all monkeys were reinoculated with either strain E or strain C. All inoculated monkeys were susceptible to infection with C. trachomatis as documented by fluorescent antibody staining of smears and reisolation of the organism from conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Rectal and vaginal swab specimens remained negative throughout the study. Three of four inoculated animals responded with IgM titers reaching a peak of 1:16 (M#3) and 1:32 (M#1, M#4) 2 weeks after the primary inoculation. IgG appeared in all inoculated animals and titers rose to peak levels of 1:64 (M#2), 1:128 (M#1, M#3), and 1:256 (M#4). Histopathology documented a dramatic difference in immunological response following secondary inoculation. Primary inoculation elicited a typical inflammatory response characterized by moderate stromal infiltration of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. Plasma cells appeared by week 3 postinoculation (pi). Following a secondary inoculation, classic follicle formation was evident by 1 week pi. Mononuclear markers identified a germinal center composed of B cells and a T cell cap. Epithelial thinning near the cap of the follicle was accompanied by a complete loss of goblet cells. This model may be useful for studying the immunopathology of infant chlamydial infections.

  8. Observations on healing following endodontic surgery in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis): effects of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Gunnar; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sorensen, Rachel G; Xiropaidis, Andreas V; Wozney, John M

    2006-01-01

    The potential of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance bone healing following endodontic surgery was tested. The pattern and timing of de novo bone formation and cementum regeneration, and the potential for root resorption and ankylosis to accompany bone formation were evaluated. Pulpal infections were induced in maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth in young adult Cynomolgus monkeys. The teeth received conventional endodontic treatment immediately followed by surgical root resection. In a randomized split-mouth design, contralateral apical bone defects received rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier or served as sham-surgery controls to provide histological and radiographic evaluations following 1 (mandibular incisors) and 4.5 (maxillary incisors) month(s) postsurgery. At 1 month postsurgery trabecular bone filled the apical bone defects. The newly formed bone appeared considerably more mature and had assumed characteristics of the contiguous resident bone at 4.5 months postsurgery. The resected root tips were almost completely covered by new cementum with a maturing functionally oriented periodontal ligament. Localized inflammatory infiltrates were associated with the filled root canals and extruded root-filling material. Root resorption and ankylosis were not observed. There were no apparent differences in healing patterns between sites implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS and those serving as sham-surgery controls. Under conditions where the influence of infectious elements and irritation caused by root filling material are minimized, bone formation and cementum regeneration appears rapid following endodontic surgery. rhBMP-2/ACS did not offer an obvious benefit above and beyond that of the native osteogenic potential in this animal model.

  9. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7–3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing. PMID:23568382

  10. Risk factor analysis may provide clues to diarrhea prevention in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prongay, Kamm; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J

    2013-08-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15-39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21-33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7-3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing.

  11. 圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染情况调查%Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Captive Macaques ( Macaca mulatt )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤; 齐萌; 王鹤磊; 冯超; 张龙现

    2011-01-01

    为了解圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用卢戈氏碘液染色法、饱和蔗糖溶液漂浮法和改良抗酸染色法对广西、河南和四川的3个猕猴养殖场共346份新鲜猕猴粪便进行检查.结果显示,寄生虫总感染率为51.4%(178/346),共栓出6种肠道寄生虫:阿米巴原虫、球虫、贾第虫、鞭虫、类圆线虫和钩虫,感染率分别为39.6%、0.9%、0.3%、22.8%、3.2%、2.3%;河南、广西和四川圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染率分别为89.2%、42.2%和35.0%,地区之间差异达极显著水平,均以阿米巴原虫和鞭虫为主要感染虫种;0~1岁、1~3岁和3~5岁猕猴感染率分别为96.4%、47.4%和51.3%.%To understand the prevalence of intestinal parasites in macaques (Macaca mulatt), a total of 346 fresh fecal samples from three farms in Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan provinces were examined for the presence of (oo)cysts using Lugol's iodine solution stain method, Shether's sugar floatation technique,and modified acid-fast stain method.The results showed that the overall infection rate of parasites was 51.4% (178/346).Six species of parasites were detected, including amebic protozoa, coccidian,Giardia sp.,whipworm, threadworm, and hook worm, with the prevalence rate being 39.6%, 0.9%, 0.3%, 22.8%, 3.2%, and 2.3%, respectively.The infection rate of parasites was 89.2%, 42.2%, and 35.0% in Henan, Guangxi and Sichuan, respectively (P<0.01), with the amebic protozoa and whipworm being the major species of parasite.The prevalence rate of parasites was 96.4%, 47.4%, and 51.3%, respectively (P<0.01).The present study provided useful reference data for clinically preventing and treating the intestinal parasites in macaques.

  12. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the pl

  13. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the

  14. Hallazgos de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp., serovariedades Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani y Patoc, en un grupo de monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en condiciones de cautiverio Antibodies findings against Leptospira sp., of the serovars Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani, and Patoc, in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in conditions of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis ha emergido como una importante enfermedad infecciosa, lo que ha ocurrido en diferentes entornos desde urbanos hasta medios naturales; los portadores son animales salvajes o domésticos. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en monos rhesus en condiciones de bioterio. Se utilizaron 59 monos de diferentes etapas fisiológicas. Se determinaron anticuerpos contra Leptospira a partir de la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (TAM, utilizando como antígenos 25 serovariedades de Leptospira. Se observó que de los 59 animales, únicamente el 30,50% reaccionaron contra una o más serovariedades de Leptospira. En este trabajo se determinaron anticuerpos contra cuatro serovariedades de Leptospira: Panama, Lai, Australis y Shermani, consideradas como patógenas, y once de las muestras reaccionaron contra la serovariedad Patoc, considerada no patógena y saprófita. Ninguno de los animales que resultaron positivos contra Leptospira presentó signos clínicos compatibles con leptospirosis.During the last decade leptospirosis has emerged as a worldwide and very important infectious disease, affecting different environments from urban to rural, with carriers usually being wild or domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in a Research Center. Fifty nine non-human primates of different physiological stages were studied. The animals were held in groups and in individual cages. Blood samples were obtained from the saphenous vein to determine the presence of antibodies through the microscopic agglutination test (MA, using twenty five serovars of Leptospira as antigens. It was observed that 18 out of the 59 monkeys (30.50% reacted against one or more serovars of Leptospira. In this study, antibodies of 4 serovars of Leptospira, (Panama, Lai, Australis, and Shermani were detected. All 4 serovars were considered

  15. Human Short Tandem Repeat (STR Markers for Paternity Testing in Pig-Tailed Macaques

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    DYAH PERWITASARI-FARAJALLAH

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of human short tandem repeat (STR or microsatellite loci markers for assessing paternity and genetic structure of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina breeding colony. Four human microsatellite primer pairs located at human map position D1S548, D3S1768, D5S820, and D2S1777, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for pig-tailed macaques. Four loci were found to be clearly and reliably amplified, and three loci exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity. These loci were sufficiently informative to differentiate discretely between related and unrelated pairs.

  16. NEURONAS ESPEJO Y EL APRENDIZAJE EN ANESTESIA Learning anaesthesia and mirror neurons

    OpenAIRE

    John Bautista; José R Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  17. Neuronas espejo y el aprendizaje en anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Jhon; Navarro, José Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  18. Neuronas espejo y el aprendizaje en anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Jhon; Navarro, José Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  19. 靶向食蟹猴NTCP基因的CRISPR/Cas9系统gRNA筛选%gRNA Screening of CRISPR/Cas9 System Targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂利; 高新; 刘铮铸; 巩元芳; 宋海峰

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to screen gRNA of efficient knockout activity targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 enzyme digestion method and PCR amplification methods in vitro .Comparing NTCP gene sequences between Macaca fascicularis and human,the sequences of NTCP gene coding amino acid 84 to 87 and 157 to 1 65 were chosen as gene knockout targets.3 to 4 candidate gRNA sequences were designed in two target sequence regions through gRNA software.By screening cleavage activity targeting NTCP gene in vitro ,gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 were selected and inserted into pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP plasmid,respectively.The genome DNA was extracted from primary hepatocytes after gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 being trans-ferred,respectively.Then NTCP sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced by being cloned into T vector.The results indicated that compared to gRNA1.2,gRNA2.1 had much higher activ-ity to make a frame-shift mutation in NTCP gene.This study laid a theoretical foundation for fur-ther editing NTCP gene and its biological function in Macaca fascicularis .%本研究旨在通过 CRISPR/Cas9体外酶切法及细胞水平上的 PCR 扩增测序筛选出靶向食蟹猴 NTCP 基因具有高敲除活性的 gRNA。首先通过比对食蟹猴与人类 NTCP 氨基酸序列,选择差异位点,即第84—87位和第157—165位氨基酸作为基因靶点序列区;利用 gRNA 软件设计针对上述基因靶点序列的 gRNA,每个靶点设计3~4条候选 gRNA 序列;然后利用 gRNA 体外检测试剂盒,筛选出靶向 NTCP 基因的体外敲除活性较高的两条gRNA 序列:gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1。将 gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1分别插入 pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP 载体中,转染食蟹猴原代肝细胞。提取转染后细胞基因组 DNA,通过 PCR 扩增 NTCP 基因并将其克隆到 T 载体中进行测序分析。结果表明,gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1均可使 NTCP 基因产生移码突变,但 gRNA2.1比 gRNA1.2具有更高的敲除活性。本研究为下一步编辑食蟹猴 NTCP

  20. Investigation on Gastrointestinal Parasites in Captive-bred Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis in Guangxi%广西地区人工驯繁猕猴、食蟹猴胃肠道寄生虫感染情况的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 全琛宇; 施维; 周庆安; 张鸿满; 黄维义; 何国声

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in captive-bred non-human primates (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) in Guangxi,and provide basis for prevention and control strategies.Methods The monkeys were divided into three groups,the growth group,the breeding group,and the quarantine group.Totally 784 fresh feces samples from M.mulatta and M.fascicularis were collected at six monkey shelters in Guangxi,during 2008~2012.The direct smear method (DS),saturation salt solution float method (SSF) and formaldehyde-ether precipitation method (FEP) were used for fecal parasite examination under the microscope.Results The total infection rate was 72.4% among 784 sample.Five protozoan species Ameoba,Trichomonas sp.,Giardia sp.,Balantidium coli and Coccidia),five species of nematodes(Trichuris sp.,Streptopharagus sp.,Physaloptera sp.,Oesophagostmum sp.and Strongyloides sp.),two species of cestodas (Hymenolepis sp.and Bertiella studeri),one speice of trematoda and one speice of arthropod were identified.The gastrointestinal parasites infection of the growth group was possessed of the fewest among three groups,while the quarantine group was the largest.Relatively higher prevalence of protozoan was observed in both the growth monkey group and the breeding group,and the highest infection rate was found in both Amoeba and B.coli.Conclusions The results suggest that the protozoans with simple lifecycle and the soil transmitted nematodes which are difficult to kill by antihelmintic products nowadays,have become the major parasitic species that does serious harm to the captive-bred monkeys for experiment used in Guangxi.Herein,the infestation status could provide reference for prevention and controling strategies on parasitic disease of monkeys.Some species identified from this study have been considered as the pathogens of zoonose,which will have important public sanitation significances of countermeasure on disease spread between humans and

  1. 圈养川金丝猴、猕猴肠道寄生虫感染及其形态观察%The Intestinal Parasitic Infection and Its Morphology of Rhinopithecus roxellanaes and Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕向辉; 陈旭旭; 袁美群; 蔡伟霞; 乔继英; 吴晓民

    2010-01-01

    2007年11~12月对陕西省珍稀野生动物抢救饲养中心的川金丝猴(R.roxellanae)、猕猴(Macaca mulatta)进行了肠道寄生虫感染情况及其种类形态的研究.采用生理盐水涂片、碘液染色、铁苏木素染色法对川金丝猴、猕猴进行粪便检查,并对检出的寄生虫进行数码显微摄像.结果川金丝猴、猕猴肠道寄生虫的感染率分别为91.67%、100%,共检出7种肠道寄生虫,其中以鞭虫(Capillaria sp.)、芽囊原虫(Blastocystis sp.)、溶组织内阿米巴(Entamoeba histolytica)感染较为严重.

  2. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei

    2014-08-01

    The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported.

  3. Preliminary Study on Population Ecology of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang Mountain Nature Reserve Yulin Guangxi%广西天堂山自然保护区红面猴种群生态学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 黄肇宇

    2014-01-01

    Population ecology and habitat characteristics of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang mountain nature reserve of Guangxi were studied by interview survey and sampling methods. There are two stump-tailed macaque populations. The number of two stump-tailed macaque populations reduced sharply because of the loss and fragmentation of their habitats, human disturbance and severe poaching. This study provides basic suggestion n on how to effectively protect the monkey.%通过访问调查和样方法对广西天堂山自然保护区的红面猴的种群生态学和栖息地特征进行了初步研究,保护区内分布有2群红面猴,由于栖息地的丧失和破碎化,人为干扰严重及其长期盗猎等因素,导致红面猴种群数量急剧下降。

  4. Polymorphic analysis of Mhc-DPB1 gene exon 2 in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)%藏酋猴 Mhc-DPB1基因 exon2的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳薏; 姚永芳; 周亮; 徐怀亮

    2012-01-01

    主要组织相容性复合体(Major histocompatibility complex,MHC)对许多疾病的易感性和抵抗力起着 重要的作用.为了解藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)的 MHC 基因遗传背景,以促进藏酋猴遗传资源的保护及其在生 物医学研究中的应用,文章采用 PCR 扩增和克隆测序等方法对来自四川地区的 70 个藏酋猴样品的 Mhc-DPB1 基因 exon 2 进行了检测和分析.首次在藏酋猴中获得了 18 个 DPB1 等位基因(Math-DPB1),其中 1 个为假基因(Math- DPB1*01:06N).18 个等位基因中,Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) 的阳性检出率最高,其次为 Math-DPB1*01:03:01 (37.14%)、Math-DPB1*09:02(25.71%)和 Math-DPB1*22:01(15.71%).氨基酸序列比对发现,藏酋猴 Math-DPB1 等位基因编码的氨基酸序列中,有 5 个氨基酸残基变异位点表现出物种特异性.不同物种来源的 DPB1 等位基 因系统发生树表明,藏酋猴、猕猴(Macaca mulatta)和食蟹猴(Macaca fascicularis)的 DPB1 等位基因不是以物种 特异性方式聚类,而是种间混聚在一起,并显示出明显的跨物种多态性(Trans-species polymorphism).选择性检 验表明,平衡选择(Balancing selection)在维持 Math-DPB1 基因的多态性中起着重要的作用.%Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background of the Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the Mhc-DPBl genes from 70 Tibetan macaques in Sichuan Province were characterized by PCR, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. A total of 18 Mhc-DPB1 alleles were identified from Tibetan macaques, of which one (Math-DPB1* 01:06N) was a pseudogene. Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) was the most frequent allele in all the 18 alleles detected, followed by Math-DPBl* 01:03:01 (37.14%), Math-DPB 1*09:02 (25.71%), and Math-DPB 1

  5. 桂林七星公园猕猴的食物组成及季节性变化%Diet and seasonal changes in Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata) at Seven-star Park, Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岐海; 唐华兴; 韦春强; 黄乘明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 觅食是动物最重、最常见的行为,动物通过觅食获取其生长发育、繁殖和运动所需要的营养与能量.%Data on diet were collected from one group of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto,) between November 2005 and October 2006 at Seven-star Park, Cuilin, Guangxi Province, using the instantaneous scan sampling method. Our results indicated that 60 plant species were used as food by the macaques. The types of foods including 40 species of trees, 12 species of shrubs, 4 species of vines, and 4 species of herbs. They showed food preference, and 69. 4% of the diet came only from 10 species. Leaves constituted 41. 0% of the diet, comprising 16. 7% young leaves and 24. 3% mature leaves. Petiole and bark accounted for 27. 3% and 21. 8% respectively. Fruits, flowers and seeds contributed a small proportion of the diet, 6. 2% , 2. 2% , and 1.4%, respectively. The macaques' diet varied according to season. In spring, the macaques fed predominantly on young leaves, petiole and bark. In summer, they increased the consumption of mature leaves and bark. The consumption of young leaves and mature leaves peaked in autumn, and the consumption of petiole and bark decreased significantly. In winter, the macaques increased significantly the consumption of petiole and bark, and also consumed mature leaves in large quantity.

  6. NEURONAS ESPEJO Y EL APRENDIZAJE EN ANESTESIA Learning anaesthesia and mirror neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bautista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente comprender las acciones sino también las intenciones de otros individuos. Se les atribuye función en los procesos de aprendizaje simple a través de la observación y la imitación que pueden ser aprovechados en la enseñanza de la anestesiología.Mirror neurons were initially described in primates from the Macaca nemestrina species around 1990 by the neurophysiologist Giacomo Rizzolatti and his group from Parma University in Italy. They are motor neurons which become activated when an individual observes a concrete action for which they are predetermined without any type of motor activity being produced. It is currently considered that these neurons participate in adapting to the social setting since they lead to understanding other individuals' actions and intensions. A function has been ascribed to them regarding simple learning through observation and imitation which can be exploited in teaching anesthesiology.

  7. A macaque model for hantavirus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.P. Koeman; P.J.M. Roholl (Paul); G. van Amerongen (Geert); H.G.M. Jordans; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hallnas), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild pro

  8. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive non human primates of Assam State Zoo, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bichitra Gopal Nath

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to know the parasitic infestation in captive non human primates of Assam State Zoo. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty two faecal samples from non human primates of different species viz. Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang (3, Pig tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina (3, Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides (5, Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis (1, Bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata (1, Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei (6 and Hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock (3 were analysed from August, 2009 to December, 2009 by using routine sedimentation and floatation techniques as described by Georgi (1985. Identification of parasitic ova was carried out as described by Soulsby (1982 and Wallach and Boever (1983. Results: Out of 22 faecal samples examined, 1 (20% in stump-tailed macaque was found positive for Oesophagostomum spp. and 1(16.67% in golden langur and 1 (33.33% in hoolock gibbon, were found positive for the presence of Trichuris spp. Conclusion: Incidence of parasitic infection was 13.63% in captive non human primates of Assam State Zoo. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 614-616

  9. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid.......In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  10. 利用 TALEN 技术建立恒河猴 TRIM5α基因 突变细胞株%Establishment of Mutagenesis Cell Line of Macaca mulatta Gene TRIM5α by TALEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小莉; 余庆; 袁雅红; 腾智平; 李东升; 曾毅

    2016-01-01

    利用 TALEN 技术建立恒河猴 TRIM5α基因突变细胞株,为进一步研究 TRIM5α基因的功能奠定基础。构建针对TRIM5α打靶基因的 TALEN,通过点突变的方法获得包含 TRIM5α第7个外显子中打靶位点1211-1224的基因序列并构建点突变donor 载体。将打靶 TRIM5α基因的 TALEN 质粒和 donor 质粒电转入恒河猴肾细胞(LLC-MK2)中,无限稀释法获得单克隆细胞系,通过抽提基因组 DNA,再利用 PCR 技术扩增目标序列并测序筛选出 TRIM5α碱基缺失(1215-1216)和点突变(1213-1215,1217)的细胞系。通过共转 TALEN 质粒和点突变的 donor 质粒筛选获得了 TRIM5α基因敲除和 TRIM5α基因点突变的 LLC-MK2细胞系。%Using transcription activator-like effector nuclease(TALEN)to establish the mutagenesis cell line of Macaca mulatta gene TRIM5α is to lay the foundation for further studying the function of TRIM5α gene. The TALEN plasmids targeting TRIM5α was constructed. The site-directed gene mutagenesis donor vector was obtained by site-directed gene mutagenesis technology and the sequence contained the seventh exon of TRIM5α at the position from 1 211 to 1 224. The TALEN plasmids and donor vector were co-transfected into the M. mulatta’s kidney cell line(LLC-MK2)by electroporation. The single cell line was obtained by the infinite dilution method. By extracting the genomic DNA and amplifying the target sequence by PCR,the cell line with base deletion(1 215-1 216)and site mutations(1 213-1 215,1 217)of TRIM5α was screened. Conclusively,the LLC-MK2 single cell line with knockout and site-directed gene mutagenesis of gene TRIM5α was obtained.

  11. 基于PAE编码系统的太行山猕猴行为谱%PAE coding system-based ethogram of Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ), Jiyuan, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军东; 王振龙; 路纪琪; 郭相保; 刘金栋

    2011-01-01

    2009年2月至2010年3月,在河南太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区济源管理局愚公管理分局所辖的天坛山管护区,利用焦点动物取样法,观察并记录了野生太行山猕猴行为的发生过程、内容和环境.基于以"姿势-动作-环境"(Posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心、以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统,对野生太行山猕猴的行为进行分类和系统编码并构建PAE行为谱.结果:1)研究中分辨并记录到猕猴的14种姿势,93种动作,121种行为;2)将所记录到的行为分别划归于摄食、排遗、调温、配对、交配、育幼、竞争、亲密、聚群、通讯、休息、运动和其他等13个类别中;3)得到了基于PAE编码系统的野生太行山猕猴行为谱.%From February 2009 to March 2010, by using focal animal sampling method, we recorded the processes, contents, and surrounding habitat of behaviors of free - ranging Taihangshan macaques ( Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ) in Henan Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve ( HTMNNR ).We collected behavioral data and coded them following the " posture-act-environment" ( PAE ) coding system which concerns posture, act, environment, and ecological function of behaviors.The results showed that: 1 ) a total of 14 postures, 93 acts and 121 behaviors of Taihangshan macaques were recorded and identified; 2) based on ecological function of behaviors, all of the recorded behaviors were categoried into 13 groups including foraging, eliminate, thermo-regulatory, paring, mating, parental, agonistic, affiliative, aggregation, communication, resting, locomotive, and miscellaneous behaviors; and 3 ) PAE ethogram of free-ranging Taihangshan macaques was successfully established following the PAE coding system.

  12. 白马雪山自然保护区猕猴冬季栖息地的选择%Winter Habitat Selection by Macaca mulatta in Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎大勇; 胡杰; 任宝平; 沈永生; 周岐海

    2012-01-01

    x Winter habitat selection of one group of Macaca mulatto was investigated from November,2009 to February,2010 in Gehuaqing region in Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,Yunnan province,China. Fourteen ecological factors were measured in 60 plots (20 m× 20 m) where the study group ever stayed. These factors included canopy cover,topographic feature,elevation,slope aspect,slope degree, vegetation type,the distance to water,human disturbance,numbers of trees,dead wood,cutting trees, DBH (diameter of breast height of tree),fruit abundance on the ground. The analysis indicated that in winter,M. mulatto tended to stay at elevations ranging from 2 500 m to 3 200 m,and selected the 20° ~ 40° mountain slope with 60%-100% canopy cover. M. mulatto preferred evergreen broadleaf forests, where there were more trees with DBH>20 cm. They tended to stay in the forests far from human disturbance (>500 m) ,and close to water resource.%2009年12月至2010年2月,在白马雪山自然保护区格华箐对一群数量约为50只的野生猕猴冬季栖息地的选择进行初步调查.根据记录的猕猴活动位点,设置60个20m×20m的样方,测定了14个生态因子(郁闭度、地形特征、海拔、坡向、坡度、坡位、植被类型、水源距离、人为干扰、乔木数、死树情况、砍伐情况、乔木胸径、地面果实数).主成分分析表明,格华箐猕猴冬季偏好在坡度20°~40°、郁闭度在60%~100%的山坡坡面活动;活动区间一般在海拔2 500~3 200m;比较喜欢常绿阔叶林,喜欢的乔木平均胸径>20cm;喜欢远离人群(>500m)的生境;较为偏好离水源较近的栖息环境.

  13. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Chanchareonsook, N.; Tideman, H.; Teoh, S.H.; Chow, J.K.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth socke

  14. Group B streptococcal infection of the choriodecidua induces dysfunction of the cytokeratin network in amniotic epithelium: a pathway to membrane weakening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen P Vanderhoeven

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early events leading to intrauterine infection remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing preterm delivery. To determine molecular pathways within fetal membranes (chorioamnion associated with early choriodecidual infection that may progress to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, we examined the effects of a Group B Streptococcus (GBS choriodecidual infection on chorioamnion in a nonhuman primate model. Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either GBS (n = 5 or saline (n = 5. Cesarean section was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation. RNA extracted from chorioamnion (inoculation site was profiled by microarray. Single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis results were validated using qRT-PCR (chorioamnion, Luminex (amniotic fluid, AF, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p2-fold change, p<0.05. Remarkably, GBS exposure was associated with significantly downregulated expression of multiple cytokeratin (CK and other cytoskeletal genes critical for maintenance of tissue tensile strength. Immunofluorescence revealed highly significant changes in the CK network within amniocytes with dense CK aggregates and retraction from the cell periphery (all p = 0.006. In human pregnancies affected by PPROM, there was further evidence of CK network retraction with significantly shorter amniocyte foot processes (p = 0.002. These results suggest early choriodecidual infection results in decreased cellular membrane integrity and tensile strength via dysfunction of CK networks. Downregulation of CK expression and perturbations in the amniotic epithelial cell intermediate filament network occur after GBS

  15. Evaluating multispecies landscape connectivity in a threatened tropical mammal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Dickson, Brett; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Anderson, Jesse; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Habitat corridors are important tools for maintaining connectivity in increasingly fragmented landscapes, but generally they have been considered in single-species approaches. Corridors intended to facilitate the movement of multiple species could increase persistence of entire communities, but at the likely cost of being less efficient for any given species than a corridor intended specifically for that species. There have been few tests of the trade-offs between single- and multispecies corridor approaches. We assessed single-species and multispecies habitat corridors for 5 threatened mammal species in tropical forests of Borneo. We generated maps of the cost of movement across the landscape for each species based on the species' local abundance as estimated through hierarchical modeling of camera-trap data with biophysical and anthropogenic covariates. Elevation influenced local abundance of banded civets (Hemigalus derbyanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus). Increased road density was associated with lower local abundance of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and higher local abundance of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor). Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) local abundance was lower in recently logged areas. An all-species-combined connectivity scenario with least-cost paths and 1 km buffers generated total movement costs that were 27% and 23% higher for banded civets and clouded leopards, respectively, than the connectivity scenarios for those species individually. A carnivore multispecies connectivity scenario, however, increased movement cost by 2% for banded civets and clouded leopards. Likewise, an herbivore multispecies scenario provided more effective connectivity than the all-species-combined scenario for sambar and macaques. We suggest that multispecies habitat connectivity plans be tailored to groups of ecologically similar, disturbance-sensitive species to maximize their effectiveness. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. A fruit in hand is worth many more in the bush: steep spatial discounting by free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Jerald D; Sampson, William W L

    2012-03-01

    Decision making is one of the principal cognitive processes underlying goal-directed behaviour and thus there is justifiably strong interest in modeling it. However, many of these models have yet to be tested outside of the laboratory. At the same time, field work would benefit from the use of experimental methods developed in the laboratory to determine the causal relationships between environmental variables and behaviour. We therefore adapted a laboratory-derived experimental paradigm to test decision making in the wild. The experiment used an indifference-point procedure to determine the influence of both the amount and distance of food on choice behaviour. Free-ranging rhesus monkeys were given the choice between a smaller amount of food at a closer distance and a larger amount farther away. In four conditions, we held the closer amount constant across trials and varied the farther amount to determine the point at which the monkeys were indifferent to the choice alternatives. For example, in condition one, we used one piece of food at the closer location, and determined how many pieces would be equivalent in the farther location. Four different closer amounts were tested to obtain an indifference point curve, with the indifference amounts at the farther location plotted against the closer amounts. The slope of the obtained linear indifference curve was surprisingly high, suggesting that rhesus monkeys significantly discount food that is farther away. Possible reasons for this steep spatial discounting are discussed.

  17. Safety and colonization of two novel VirG(IcsA)-based live Shigella sonnei vaccine strains in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Todd A; Barnoy, Shoshana; Baqar, Shahida; Ranallo, Ryan T; Nemelka, Kevin W; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2008-02-01

    Shigella are gram-negative bacterium that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Symptoms include diarrhea and discharge of bloody mucoid stools, accompanied by severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and fever. Persons traveling to regions with poor sanitation and crowded conditions become particularly susceptible to shigellosis. Currently a vaccine for Shigella has not been licensed in the United States, and the organism quickly becomes resistant to medications. During the past 10 y, several live attenuated oral Shigella vaccines, including the strain WRSS1, have been tested in humans with considerable success. These Phase I vaccines lack the gene for the protein VirG also known as IcsA, which enables the organism to disseminate in the host target tissue. However, 5% to 20% of the vaccinated volunteers developed mild fever and brief diarrhea, and the removal of additional virulence-associated genes from the vaccine strain may reduce or eliminate these side effects. We administered 2 Shigella sonnei vaccines, WRSs2 and WRSs3, along with WRSS1 to compare their rates of colonization and clinical safety in groups of 5 rhesus macaques. The primate model provides the most physiologically relevant animal system to test the validity and efficacy of vaccine candidates. In this pilot study using a gastrointestinal model of infection, the vaccine candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3, which have additional deletions in the enterotoxin and LPS modification genes, provided better safety and comparable immunogenicity to those of WRSS1.

  18. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bee Tin; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Teoh, Swee Hin; Chow, James Kwok Fai; Jansen, John A

    2014-05-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. The monkeys were sacrificed after 6 months and the specimens were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry. Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. The mean bone-to-implant contact was 27.6 ± 19.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 7.9% (test group). The mean bone area percentage was 11.8 ± 10.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 6.9% (test group). Implant survival was 100% at 6 months for both the groups. It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect.

  19. Procedures for the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from the testes of infant, juvenile, and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S S; Winters, S J; Plant, T M

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish culture conditions for the in vitro study of the rhesus monkey Sertoli cell (Sc) at three major stages of development, namely infancy, adulthood, and the intervening prepubertal period. Conditions for the culture of Sc from juveniles were first established using collagenase and pancreatin digestion of seminiferous tubules. The addition of 1% fetal bovine serum for the first 24 h of culture was necessary for attachment of Sc clusters. Confluency of Sc from juveniles was reached as early as 4 days of culture. Histochemical and ultrastructural observations confirmed that the cultures were enriched with Sc and that contamination by peritubular cells was minimal (2%). Although application of similar culture conditions was successful in establishing cultures of Sc from infants, significant modification of the procedure was required before Sc from adults could be cultured. Specifically, adult testicular tissue required two sequential collagenase digestions at elevated temperature. The yield of adult Sc, however, remained low. Cultures of juvenile Sc produced substantial quantities of 31-kDa inhibin, which was bioactive as reflected by its ability to suppress FSH secretion from rat pituitary cells in vitro. Although aromatase activity in juvenile Sc cultures was stimulated by FSH, inhibin synthesis, as reflected by immunoactive inhibin production and steady-state levels of alpha inhibin mRNA, was not increased by FSH. The establishment of conditions for the culture of infant, juvenile, and adult Sc from the rhesus monkey will provide a model for study of the postnatal ontogeny of Sc function in higher primates.

  20. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load

  1. 利用微卫星标记分析4个食蟹猴群体的遗传多样性%Analysis of genetic diversity of four Macaca fascicularis populations with microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮道元; 谢莉萍; 卢晟盛; 卢克焕

    2011-01-01

    利用7个恒河猴源微卫星标记和4个人源微卫星标记共11个标记,分析了来源于束埔寨(Pop1)、老挝(Pop2)、越南1(Pop3)和越南2(Pop4)共4个群体食蟹猴的遗传多样性.研究结果显示,所选择的11个微卫星位点表现出很高的多态性,群体内的多态性较低,存在较严重的近亲交配.Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测说明4个群体在这11个位点上均处于不平衡状态,可能存在较严重的人工选择繁育.亚群体内的固定指数平均为0.526 2,说明群体内存在近亲交配;亚种群间的固定指数均值为0.016 6,说明各群体间的遗传分化很小;各位点上的基因流均值为14.814 2,说明其交流很活跃,可有效地防止因遗传漂移而产生的遗传分化.从基于Nei氏标准遗传距离的UPGMS聚类图看出,先是Pop3和Pop4聚为一类,再和Pop1聚在一起,最后和Pop2聚在一起,其结果和其地理分布所表现的遗传差异一致.%The genetic diversity of Macaca fascicularis from four populations was analyzed by using eleven microsatellite markers including seven rhesus-derived markers and four human-derived makers. The four populations came from Cambodia (Pop 1) ,Laos (Pop 2) ,Vietnam 1 (Pop 3) and Vietnam 2 (Pop 4) ,respectively. It is illuminated that the high polymorphism was showed in 11 microsatellite locus. There was low polymorphism and seriously inbreeding within the groups. The unbalance on 11 locus from four groups was proved according to Hardy-Weinberg test. There may be more serious artificial selection inbreeding. When Fis is 0. 526 2,it showed that inbreeding was existed within groups. The Fst is 0.016 6,meaning that the genetic differentiation between groups is very small. The gene flow on every locus is 14.814 2, showing that the exchange of them is active. It may be effective by preventing genetic from differentiation because of genetic drift. According to dendrogram of UPGMS based on Nei's Unbiased Measures of genetic distance,Pop3

  2. 基于分块主成分分析的太行山猕猴面部相似性%Facial similarity in Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis)based on modular principal components analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王白石; 王振龙; 鹿鹤; 李利; 路纪琪

    2013-01-01

    From April to August in 2012,a target troop (named as WW-1) of Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) was investigated for facial similarity in the Tiantanshan area (35°05′-35°15′ N,112°12′-112°22′ E) of the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve (TMNNR) in Jiyuan,China.Facial close-up photos of 26 individuals over 3-years-old belonging to 3 matrilineal units within troop Wangwu-1 (WW-1) were photographed and facial similarity values between every two different individuals were analyzed using modular principal component analysis (MPCA) method.We aimed to find the correlation between facial similarity and individual kinship.The results showed that:(1) facial similarity was significantly associated with kinship between individuals; the facial similarity between mothers and offspring (0.93 ±0.00) was significantly higher than those of the intra-unit group (0.89 ±0.00) and the inter-unit group (0.84 ± 0.01) ; the similarity value of the intra-unit group is significantly higher than the inter-unit group; and (2) individual face features varied with increasing age in Taihangshan macaques; higher facial similarity was found between≥4 year old individuals and their mothers (0.88-0.95),and mother-offspring relationship could be assuredly recognized via this value.The results from this study may provide reasonable and effective methods for individual identification in nonhuman primates.%2012年4~8月,在太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区济源管理局天坛山管护区(北纬35°05′~ 35°15′,东经112°12′~112°22′),对太行山猕猴王屋1群(WW-1)内的3个母系单元(matrilineal unit)中大于(等于)3岁龄的26只个体进行面部拍照,获取其面部特写照片,进而利用分块主成分分析(modular principal component analysis,MPCA)法,对个体进行面部识别分析,旨在探讨个体间面部相似度与亲缘关系的相关性.结果表明:(1)太行山猕猴个体间的面部相似度与亲

  3. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  4. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  5. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that t...

  6. Vicarious Reinforcement in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this...

  7. Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...

  8. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  9. model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trie neural construction oí inoiviouo! unci communal identities in ... occurs, Including models based on Information processing,1 ... Applying the DSM descriptive approach to dissociation in the ... a personal, narrative path lhal connects personal lo ethnic ..... managed the problem in the context of the community, using a.

  10. Comparative virulence of in vitro-cultured primate- and pig-associated Helicobacter suis strains in a BALB/c mouse and a Mongolian gerbil model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschem, Iris; Flahou, Bram; Bakker, Jaco; Heuvelman, Edwin; Langermans, Jan A M; De Bruyne, Ellen; Joosten, Myrthe; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. This bacterium mainly colonizes the stomach of pigs, but it has also been detected in the stomach of nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to obtain better insights into potential differences between pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains in virulence and pathogenesis. In vitro-isolated H. suis strains obtained from pigs, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used for intragastric inoculation of BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils. Nine weeks and six months later, samples of the stomach of inoculated and control animals were taken for PCR analysis and histopathological examination. The cynomolgus monkey-associated H. suis strain only colonized the stomach of mice, but not of Mongolian gerbils. All other H. suis strains colonized the stomach in both rodent models. In all colonized animals, severe gastric inflammation was induced. Gastric lymphoid follicles and destruction of the antral epithelium were observed in infected gerbils, but not in mice. Infection with both pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains evoked a similar marked Th17 response in mice and gerbils, accompanied by increased CXCL-13 expression levels. Apart from the cynomolgus monkey-associated strain which was unable of colonizing the stomach of Mongolian gerbils, no substantial differences in virulence were found in rodent models between in vitro-cultured pig-associated, cynomolgus monkey-associated and rhesus monkey-associated H. suis strains. The experimental host determines the outcome of the immune response against H. suis infection, rather than the original host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of 2 formulations of buprenorphine in macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng × h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng × h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings.

  13. Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents and bystanders occurs in several species of non-human primates. It is classified in four categories of which affiliation received by the former victim, 'consolation', has received most attention. The hypotheses of cognitive constraint and social constraint are inadequate to explain its occurrence. The cognitive constraint hypothesis is contradicted by recent evidence of 'consolation' in monkeys and the social constraint hypothesis lacks information why 'consolation' actually happens. Here, we combine a computational model and an empirical study to investigate the minimum cognitive requirements for post-conflict affiliation. In the individual-based model, individuals are steered by cognitively simple behavioural rules. Individuals group and when nearby each other they fight if they are likely to win, otherwise, they may groom, especially when anxious. We parameterize the model after empirical data of a tolerant species, the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana. We find evidence for the four categories of post-conflict affiliation in the model and in the empirical data. We explain how in the model these patterns emerge from the combination of a weak hierarchy, social facilitation, risk-sensitive aggression, interactions with partners close-by and grooming as tension-reduction mechanism. We indicate how this may function as a new explanation for empirical data.

  14. Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan; Butovskaya, Marina; Thierry, Bernard; Hemelrijk, Charlotte Korinna

    2014-01-01

    Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents and bystanders occurs in several species of non-human primates. It is classified in four categories of which affiliation received by the former victim, 'consolation', has received most attention. The hypotheses of cognitive constraint and social constraint are inadequate to explain its occurrence. The cognitive constraint hypothesis is contradicted by recent evidence of 'consolation' in monkeys and the social constraint hypothesis lacks information why 'consolation' actually happens. Here, we combine a computational model and an empirical study to investigate the minimum cognitive requirements for post-conflict affiliation. In the individual-based model, individuals are steered by cognitively simple behavioural rules. Individuals group and when nearby each other they fight if they are likely to win, otherwise, they may groom, especially when anxious. We parameterize the model after empirical data of a tolerant species, the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). We find evidence for the four categories of post-conflict affiliation in the model and in the empirical data. We explain how in the model these patterns emerge from the combination of a weak hierarchy, social facilitation, risk-sensitive aggression, interactions with partners close-by and grooming as tension-reduction mechanism. We indicate how this may function as a new explanation for empirical data.

  15. A macaque model for hantavirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J; Gerding, M; Koeman, J P; Roholl, P J; van Amerongen, G; Jordans, H G; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hällnäs), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild proteinuria and

  16. Sequence length polymorphisms within primate amelogenin and amelogenin-like genes: usefulness in sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Benson H; Rickords, Lee F; Schafstall, Heather J

    2008-10-01

    Sequence length polymorphisms between the amelogenin (AMELX) and the amelogenin-like (AMELY) genes both within and between several mammalian species have been identified and utilized for sex determination, species identification, and to elucidate evolutionary relationships. Sex determination via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of the AMELX and AMELY genes has been successful in greater apes, prosimians, and two species of old world monkeys. To date, no sex determination PCR assay using AMELX and AMELY has been developed for new world monkeys. In this study, we present partial AMELX and AMELY sequences for five old world monkey species (Mandrillus sphinx, Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fuscata, Macaca mulatta, and Macaca fascicularis) along with primer sets that can be used for sex determination of these five species. In addition, we compare the sequences we generated with other primate AMELX and AMELY sequences available on GenBank and discuss sequence length polymorphisms and their usefulness in sex determination within primates. The mandrill and four species of macaque all share two similar deletion regions with each other, the human, and the chimpanzee in the region sequenced. These two deletion regions are 176-181 and 8 nucleotides in length. In analyzing existing primate sequences on GenBank, we also discovered that a separate six-nucleotide polymorphism located approximately 300 nucleotides upstream of the 177 nucleotide polymorphism in sequences of humans and chimps was also present in two species of new world monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis and Saimiri sciureus). We designed primers that incorporate this polymorphism, creating the first AMELX and AMELY PCR primer set that has been used successfully to generate two bands in a new world monkey species.

  17. Genes ynthesis, prokaryotic expression and purification of Macaca mulatta granulocytemacrophage colony stimulating factor%恒河猴粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子的基因合成、原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李鼎锋; 陈丹; 李璐; 刘新颖; 王冉; 史洪娜; 王维龙; 沈林; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 人工合成恒河猴粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(Macaca mulatta granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor,mGM-CSF)基因,在大肠杆菌中高效表达并纯化.方法 根据大肠杆菌遗传密码子偏爱性优化设计并合成mGM-CSF基因,克隆至原核表达载体pET-43.1a(+)中,构建重组表达质粒pET-43.1a-mGM-CSF,转化大肠杆菌BL21-CodonPlus( DE3)-RIPL,IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组mGM-CSF蛋白经Sephacryl S-200分子筛层析纯化,复性后,Western blot检测其反应原性,MTT法检测其生物学活性.结果 重组表达质粒pET-43.1a-mGM-CSF经双酶切及测序证实构建正确;表达的重组蛋白相对分子质量约为15000,表达量约占菌体总蛋白的30%,主要以包涵体形式存在;纯化复性后的重组蛋白纯度可达95%以上,并可与大鼠抗人GM-CSF单克隆抗体特异性结合,比活性为1.2×107 IU/mg.结论 在大肠杆菌中高效表达了重组mGM-CSF蛋白,纯化复性后的蛋白具有良好的生物学活性.%Objective To synthesize Macaca mulatto granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) gene, highly express in E. Coli and purify the expressed product. Methods According to the E. Co/I-preferred codon, mGM-CSF gene was designed and synthesized, and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-43. La ( + ). The constructed recombinant plasmid pET-43. La-mGM-CSF was transformed to E. Coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL and induced with IPTG. The expressed recombinant mGM-CSF was purified by Sephacryl S-200 molecular sieve chromatography, re-naturalized, then determined for reactogenicity by Western blot, and for biological activity by MTT method. Results Both restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid pET-43. La-mGM-CSF was constructed correctly. The expressed recombinant protein, with a relative molecular mass of about IS 000, contained about 30% of total somatic protein and mainly existed in a form of inclusion body. The protein

  18. Usefulness of the monkey model to investigate the role soy in postmenopausal women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appt, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Some of the important health issues for postmenopausal women include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and relief of menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) have many strengths as models for research in this area including a close phylogenetic relationship to humans, similarities in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and coronary artery anatomy, similar skeletal anatomical and morphological characteristics, mammary glands with similar pathophysiological characteristics, and a 28-day menstrual cycle with similar hormonal fluctuations. Monkeys (macaques) also experience declining ovarian function and irregular menstrual cycles (natural menopause) when they approach 24 to 29 yr of age. However, because of their very short life span after natural menopause, ovariectomized macaques are used to model postmenopausal women. The cynomolgus monkey model has been useful in defining the potential cardiovascular benefits of soy foods and soy supplements; however, it remains unclear whether the observations are generalizable to all women or only to those who, like cynomolgus monkeys, convert the soy isoflavone daidzein to the metabolite equol. Particularly important has been the use of the cynomolgus monkey model to understand the effects of soy on breast health. There is evidence from a cynomolgus monkey trial to suggest that soy/soy phytoestrogens have no estrogen agonist effects for breast. Finally, soy/soy phytoestrogens do not appear to be an adequate alternative to postmenopausal hormone therapy. Nevertheless, important attributes of soy have been identified, and it may have potential as a complementary component to hormone therapy.

  19. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

  20. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  1. Mammalian communities as indicators of disturbance across Indonesian Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Cheyne

    2016-07-01

    (Prionailurus bengalensis and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, generalists; sambar deer (Rusa unicolour, large, wide-ranging herbivores and clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi as a proxy for at least 2 of the smaller felid species.

  2. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  3. Application of Multivariate Modeling for Radiation Injury Assessment: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate radiation injury estimation algorithms were formulated for estimating severe hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS injury (i.e., response category three or RC3 in a rhesus monkey total-body irradiation (TBI model. Classical CBC and serum chemistry blood parameters were examined prior to irradiation (d 0 and on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 25 after irradiation involving 24 nonhuman primates (NHP (Macaca mulatta given 6.5-Gy 60Co Υ-rays (0.4 Gy min−1 TBI. A correlation matrix was formulated with the RC3 severity level designated as the “dependent variable” and independent variables down selected based on their radioresponsiveness and relatively low multicollinearity using stepwise-linear regression analyses. Final candidate independent variables included CBC counts (absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets in formulating the “CBC” RC3 estimation algorithm. Additionally, the formulation of a diagnostic CBC and serum chemistry “CBC-SCHEM” RC3 algorithm expanded upon the CBC algorithm model with the addition of hematocrit and the serum enzyme levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Both algorithms estimated RC3 with over 90% predictive power. Only the CBC-SCHEM RC3 algorithm, however, met the critical three assumptions of linear least squares demonstrating slightly greater precision for radiation injury estimation, but with significantly decreased prediction error indicating increased statistical robustness.

  4. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  5. Expression of cannabinoid and opioid receptors in nervous as well as immune systems of Macaca mulatta and Tupaia belangeri%正常猕猴与树鼩神经系统和免疫系统组织中大麻素与阿片受体的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆余; 范晓娜; 曹毅

    2011-01-01

    为应用猕猴和树鼩动物模型研究毒品成瘾对神经/免疫系统的影响提供基础数据,对大麻素及阿片受体在正常猕猴和树鼩神经系统和免疫系统的表达进行初步确定.采集正常猕猴和树鼩新鲜组织(皮质、小脑、脑干、海马、脊髓、脾脏),应用半定量逆转录PCR和实时定量PCR的方法检测大麻素与阿片受体mRNA在猕猴和树鼩各组织中的表达情况.猕猴脑部各区包括脾脏均表达大麻索受体1(CNR1),而大麻素受体2(CNR2)只表达于脾脏内.三类阿片受体中,mu(μ)受体表达最为广泛,在以上各组织中均有表达;delta(δ)受体表达的组织最少,只在海马表达;kappa(κ)受体表达介于两者之间,分别在皮质、小脑、脑干、脊髓中表达.在树鼩组织中,CNR1和CNR2表达于整个大脑重要脑区中,且CNR1表达量高于同一区域内CNR2表达的鼍:脾脏中CNR2的表达较高,而CNR1不表达.三类阿片受体只有检测到μ受体在脑部与脾脏表达,且在各个脑区的表达量明显高于脾脏的表达量;δ体和κ受体在被检各个组织中均无表达.总体而言,两种大麻素受体在猕猴和树鼩体内表达情况与人类和鼠的情况类似,而三类阿片受体在猕猴体内表达情况与人类吏为接近.猕猴和树鼩可能可用于人类毒品成瘾的研究;猕猴在某些神经受体的表达更接近人类,其在研究毒品成瘾的机理和对免疫系统的影响方面仍有不可替代的地位.%To make Macaca mulatta and Tupaia belangeri as experimental animals for studying functions of opioid and cannabinoid receptors in drug addiction, we examined expression of the opioid and cannabinoid receptors in nervous and immune system of the two animals. We dissected normal adult M. mulatta and T. belangeri, collected tissues of cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, hippocampus, spinal cord, and spleen, and then applied the semi-quantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR methods to

  6. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear.

  7. Activation of innate immunity in healthy Macaca mulatta macaques by a single subcutaneous dose of GMP CpG 7909: safety data and interferon-inducible protein-10 kinetics for humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, V Ann; McGrath, Shannon; Krieg, Arthur M; Larson, Noelle S; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Christopher L; Brewer, Thomas G; Heppner, D Gray

    2008-02-01

    Following a demonstration that mouse-optimized cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides stimulated innate immune protection against intracellular pathogens, we tested the ability of CpG 7909, a primate-optimized Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, to stimulate rhesus macaques to produce interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), a biomarker of immune activation. This study was performed prior to a similar trial with humans in order to facilitate the development of CpG 7909 as an immunomodulator for biodefense. A single subcutaneous dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 was given to four groups of healthy adult rhesus macaques (0-mg dose [n = 5], 0.75-mg dose [n = 9], 1.5-mg dose [n = 9], and 3.0-mg dose [n = 9]). Directed physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, and serum IP-10 concentrations were collected at scheduled intervals for 28 days. All three dose levels of CpG 7909 were safe and not associated with significant clinical or laboratory abnormality. The time to peak serum IP-10 concentration was 1.0 days at the 0.75-mg dose and 0.5 days at the 1.5- and 3.0-mg doses. A dose-dependent response was observed for the magnitude and duration of IP-10 concentrations, which remained significantly above baseline for 3 days for the 3.0-mg and 1.5-mg dose groups but above baseline for only 2 days for the 0.75-mg dose group. There were no nonresponders to CpG 7909. These rhesus macaque safety and IP-10 response data closely parallel a subsequent phase 1 human study of subcutaneously administered CpG 7909. A single dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 induced a rapid, sustained IP-10 response, a biomarker for activation of the innate immune system. Given the similar susceptibilities of humans and rhesus macaques to infectious diseases, the rhesus macaque appears to be a suitable model to evaluate the potential of CpG 7909-mediated innate immune activation to protect humans against pathogens.

  8. Effect of physical and chemical factors on Macaca Mulatta′s pulp and change of the collagen in pulp%理化因素刺激对牙髓及其胶原 影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁理; 岳林; 毛秀萍; 高岩

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of pulp and its collagen to outside stimuli. Methods 51 permanent teeth from 10 adult healthy Macaca Mulatta′s monkeys were chosen as experimental teeth. 39 of them were prepared Class V cavities. The teeth were divided into two groups, one was filled with zinc phosphate cement and another group with zinc oxide eugenol. A blank control group of 12 teeth was set at the same time. Just after the operation, 3 d, 7 d, 1 month and 3 months later, the animals were executed. Histologic changes were evaluated by means of HE and collagen staining method. Results Local inflammation was the major representation in the pulps of the zinc phosphate cement group from 7d to 3 months after operation. The percentage of collagen decrease dropped sharply,and there was no inflammation cells infiltration in the pulps of zinc oxide eugenol group from 1 to 3 months after operation. By means of collagen staining method, the morphological characters ,distribution and the change of pulpal collagen during a certain pathologic process were clearly represented in histologic slices. The change of collagen appeared earlier than the inflammation cells infiltration. Conclusions Zinc phosphate cement can lead to medium inflammation of the pulp. The change of collagen appears earlier than that of WBC, which can be used as a sensitive indicator.%目的了解猴牙髓及其胶原对物理、化学刺激的反应。方法观察磷酸锌粘固剂及氧化锌丁香油酚粘固剂(zinc oxide eugenol,ZOE)间接盖髓后,恒河猴牙髓即刻、3 d、7 d、1个月、3个月HE和胶原特殊染色后的组织学变化。结果①磷酸锌粘固剂组术后7 d~3个月,牙髓以局限性炎症损伤为主;②ZOE组术后1~3个月胶原减少明显下降,已无炎症细胞浸润;③胶原特殊染色法可清楚地反映牙髓胶原的形态特点、分布及变化,术后3 d胶原明显减少早于炎症细胞的出现。结论磷酸锌粘固剂对

  9. VASEKTOMI PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARISDI LOKASI WISATA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  10. Births in captive stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, G S; Zothansiama

    2013-01-01

    In this report, nighttime births of 3 stump-tailed macaques observed at the Aizawl Zoological Park, India, are described. Continuous focal observations were collected a long with video and still photographs, on the 3 parturitions, from the first observed onset of labour. The average time taken for infant birth, beginning with visibility of the head at the vaginal opening, was 45 s. The births observed were similar in many respects, regardless of parity and social context. The average time taken for consuming the placenta was 4 min 4 s and the average number of contractions was 6.3. In all cases births occurred with the infant emerging in the occiput posterior position, assisted by the mother. Individual variations existed in the number of contractions, intercontraction intervals, self-examination of the anogenital region, duration of labour and the interval between infant birth and the delivery of the placenta. Each mother ingested the placenta completely, while holding her neonate, but without paying much attention to the neonate during placentophagia. Placentophagia appears to provide nutrition to the mothers. Detailed data on parturition in non-human primates, and particularly for Macacaarctoides , are still scarce. Data, such as those presented here, contribute to our understanding of primate birth and the adaptive pressures that shape parturition behaviour and reproductive success.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  12. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  13. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: murakami@mprcf.or.jp; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Noda, Akihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Osoda, Kazuhiko [Chemical Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [{sup 11}C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [{sup 11}C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4{+-}6.4 and 19.7{+-}4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients.

  14. Utah optrode array customization using stereotactic brain atlases and 3-D CAD modeling for optogenetic neocortical interrogation in small rodents and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Ronald W; Merlin, Sam; Yona, Guy; Griffiths, Brandon; Angelucci, Alessandra; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy; Blair, Steve

    2017-10-01

    As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1.5-mm-diameter through glass via. The [Formula: see text] UOA was customized for optrode length ([Formula: see text]), optrode width ([Formula: see text]), optrode pitch ([Formula: see text]), backplane thickness ([Formula: see text]), and overall form factor ([Formula: see text]). Two [Formula: see text] UOAs were inserted into layer VI of macaque V4D cortices with minimal damage as assessed in fixed tissue cytochrome oxidase staining in nonrecoverable surgeries. Additionally, two [Formula: see text] arrays were implanted in mice (Mus musculus) motor cortices, providing early evidence for long-term tolerability (over 6 months), and for the ability to integrate the UOA with a Holobundle light delivery system toward patterned optogenetic stimulation of cortical networks.

  15. Studies on the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on methanol poisoning using the monkey as an animal model: with particular reference to the ocular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstrand, R; Ingemansson, S O

    1984-07-01

    Young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were chosen as a model to investigate the ocular toxicity in animals poisoned with methanol and treated with 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP). The metabolism of methanol in the monkey was investigated after administration of 4-MP. Plasma levels of methanol, formic acid, 4-MP and 4-hydroxy-MP (4-OH-MP) were determined. After intramuscular injection, 4-MP was rapidly absorbed and depressed the elimination rate of methanol as well as the accumulation of formate in the blood. The results show the same great individual variations in monkeys as in humans regarding the susceptibility to methanol poisoning. Administration of a single dose of 5 g/kg induces a serious intoxication in most monkeys, causing death to some of them. Two monkeys receiving a single dose of 6 g/kg of methanol developed a serious initial inebriation and were treated with 4-MP. These monkeys survived and showed no signs of toxicity on ocular examinations which included ophtalmoscopy and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings.

  16. Improved xenobiotic metabolism and reduced susceptibility to cancer in gluten-sensitive macaques upon introduction of a gluten-free diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sestak, Karol; Conroy, Lauren; Aye, Pyone P; Mehra, Smriti; Doxiadis, Gaby G; Kaushal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    A non-human primate (NHP) model of gluten sensitivity was employed to study the gene perturbations associated with dietary gluten changes in small intestinal tissues from gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta...

  17. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  18. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  19. 非人灵长类糖尿病动物模型研究进展%Progress on nonhuman primate models of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁斌; 吴晓云

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is the third most severely chronic disease after cardiovascular disease and cancer. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 220 million diabetes patients worldwide in 2009. The rational animal models of diabetes are necessary for understanding the mechanisms of diabetes, diagnosis and prevention of diabetes as well as screen and evaluation of new drugs for diabetes treatment. Compared to other animal models of diabetes, the causes and symptoms of diabetes of nonhuman primates is more like human diabetes. We here reviewed the reported nonhuman primate models of diabetes based on the sources they were generated; especially focused on three models, Macaca mullata, M.fascicularis, Tupaia belangeri. Furthermore, we discussed the perspective development of nonhuman primate models of diabetes mellitus.%糖尿病是继心血管疾病和肿瘤之后的另一种严重危害人类健康的重要慢性疾病,据世界卫生组织(WHO)报道,2009年全世界约有2.2亿糖尿病患者.对糖尿病发病机理的研究、预防和诊断、治疗药物的筛选和评价都需要合适的动物模型.在已报道的糖尿病动物模型中,非人灵长类动物糖尿病病程、病症与人类的糖尿病最为相似.该文从糖尿病动物模型的来源归纳了目前报道的主要的非人灵长类糖尿病模型,重点介绍了猕猴、食蟹猴和树鼩糖尿病模型及其特征,并对该领域的发展提出了一些思考.

  20. Strontium-90 Biokinetics from Simulated Wound Intakes in Non-human Primates Compared with Combined Model Predictions from National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 156 and International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark B; Brey, Richard R; Gesell, Thomas; Derryberry, Dewayne; Poudel, Deepesh

    2016-01-01

    This study had a goal to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) wound model coupled to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) systemic model for 90Sr-contaminated wounds using non-human primate data. Studies were conducted on 13 macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys, each receiving one-time intramuscular injections of 90Sr solution. Urine and feces samples were collected up to 28 d post-injection and analyzed for 90Sr activity. Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) software was configured with default NCRP and ICRP model transfer coefficients to calculate predicted 90Sr intake via the wound based on the radioactivity measured in bioassay samples. The default parameters of the combined models produced adequate fits of the bioassay data, but maximum likelihood predictions of intake were overestimated by a factor of 1.0 to 2.9 when bioassay data were used as predictors. Skeletal retention was also over-predicted, suggesting an underestimation of the excretion fraction. Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo sampling were applied using IMBA to vary the default parameters, producing updated transfer coefficients for individual monkeys that improved model fit and predicted intake and skeletal retention. The geometric means of the optimized transfer rates for the 11 cases were computed, and these optimized sample population parameters were tested on two independent monkey cases and on the 11 monkeys from which the optimized parameters were derived. The optimized model parameters did not improve the model fit in most cases, and the predicted skeletal activity produced improvements in three of the 11 cases. The optimized parameters improved the predicted intake in all cases but still over-predicted the intake by an average of 50%. The results suggest that the modified transfer rates were not always an improvement over the default NCRP and ICRP model values.

  1. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  2. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of

  3. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Mechanical Design and Analysis of a Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Salegio, Ernesto A; Camisa, William; Tam, Horace; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C

    2016-06-15

    Non-human primate (NHP) models of spinal cord injury better reflect human injury and provide a better foundation to evaluate potential treatments and functional outcomes. We combined finite element (FE) and surrogate models with impact data derived from in vivo experiments to define the impact mechanics needed to generate a moderate severity unilateral cervical contusion injury in NHPs (Macaca mulatta). Three independent variables (impactor displacement, alignment, and pre-load) were examined to determine their effects on tissue level stresses and strains. Mechanical measures of peak force, peak displacement, peak energy, and tissue stiffness were analyzed as potential determinants of injury severity. Data generated from FE simulations predicted a lateral shift of the spinal cord at high levels of compression (>64%) during impact. Submillimeter changes in mediolateral impactor position over the midline increased peak impact forces (>50%). Surrogate cords established a 0.5 N pre-load protocol for positioning the impactor tip onto the dural surface to define a consistent dorsoventral baseline position before impact, which corresponded with cerebrospinal fluid displacement and entrapment of the spinal cord against the vertebral canal. Based on our simulations, impactor alignment and pre-load were strong contributors to the variable mechanical and functional outcomes observed in in vivo experiments. Peak displacement of 4 mm after a 0.5N pre-load aligned 0.5-1.0 mm over the midline should result in a moderate severity injury; however, the observed peak force and calculated peak energy and tissue stiffness are required to properly characterize the severity and variability of in vivo NHP contusion injuries.

  5. The Effects of a Calorie Reduced Diet on Periodontal Inflammation and Disease in a Non Human Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Mays, Grishondra L.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Gunsolley, John C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Novak, Karen F.; Mattison, Julie A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Novak, M. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Low calorie diets are commonplace for reducing body weight. However, no information is available on the effects of a reduced calorie diet on periodontal inflammation and disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a long term calorie restricted diet (CR) on periodontitis in an animal model of periodontitis. Methods Periodontitis was induced in 55 young, healthy, adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by tying 2.0 silk ligatures at the gingival margins of maxillary premolar/molar teeth. Animals on a CR diet (30% CR; n=23) were compared to ad libitum diet controls (n=32). Clinical measures including plaque (PLI), probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), modified Gingival Index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were taken at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 months after ligature placement. Results Significant effects of CR were observed on the development of inflammation and the progression of periodontal destruction in this model. When compared to controls, CR resulted in a significant reduction in ligature induced GI (p<0.0001), BOP (p<0.0015), PD (p<0.0016), and CAL (p<0.0038). When viewed over time, periodontal destruction, as measured by CAL, progressed significantly more slowly in the CR animals than in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusions These clinical findings are consistent with available evidence that CR has anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, these experimental findings are the first observations that CR dampens the inflammatory response and reduces active periodontal breakdown associated with an acute microbial challenge. PMID:18597600

  6. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  7. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrat, Camille N Z; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2013-01-30

    Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA), central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099), Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed); Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018) and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017). We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006-2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011-2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  8. Behavioral measurement of temperament in male nursery-raised infant macaques and baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath-Lange, S; Ha, J C; Sackett, G P

    1999-01-01

    We define temperament as an individual's set of characteristic behavioral responses to novel or challenging stimuli. This study adapted a temperament scale used with rhesus macaques by Schneider and colleagues [American Journal of Primatology 25:137-155, 1991] for use with male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina, n = 7), longtailed macaque (M. fascicularis, n = 3), and baboon infants (Papio cynocephalus anubis, n = 4). Subjects were evaluated twice weekly for the first 5 months of age during routine removal from their cages for weighing. Behavioral measures were based on the subject's interactions with a familiar human caretaker and included predominant state before capture, response to capture, contact latency, resistance to tester's hold, degree of clinging, attention to environment, defecation/urination, consolability, facial expression, vocalizations, and irritability. Species differences indicated that baboons were more active than macaques in establishing or terminating contact with the tester. Temperament scores decreased over time for the variables Response to Capture and Contact Latency, indicating that as they grew older, subjects became less reactive and more bold in their interactions with the tester. Temperament scores changed slowly with age, with greater change occurring at younger ages. The retention of variability in reactivity between and within species may be advantageous for primates, reflecting the flexibility necessary to survive in a changing environment.

  9. Acute Fetal Demise with First Trimester Maternal Infection Resulting from Listeria monocytogenes in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bryce; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Schotzko, Michele; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Durning, Maureen; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Faith, Nancy G.; Sampene, Emmanuel; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Kathariou, Sophia; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Four pregnant cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) received a single intragastric inoculation between days 36 and 46 of gestation with 107 CFU of an L. monocytogenes strain isolated from a previous cluster of human listeriosis cases that resulted in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal shedding, maternal bacteremia, and fetal demise were consistently noted within 7 to 13 days. Biopsy specimens of maternal liver, spleen, and lymph node displayed variable inflammation and relatively low bacterial burden. In comparison, we observed greater bacterial burden in the decidua and placenta and the highest burden in fetal tissues. Histopathology indicated vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombosis of the decidual spiral arteries, acute chorioamnionitis and villitis in the placenta, and hematogenous infection of the fetus. Vascular pathology suggests early impact of L. monocytogenes infection on spiral arteries in the decidua, which we hypothesize precipitates subsequent placentitis and fetal demise. These results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes tropism for the maternal reproductive tract results in infection of the decidua, placenta, and the fetus itself during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:28223455

  10. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Marriott

    Full Text Available Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units. This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common influenza

  11. Novel Serum Proteomic Signatures in a Non-Human Primate Model of Retinal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    that circulate in body fluids. Additionally, these glycosphingolipids function in embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, tumor metastasis , inflammation...expression of phosphoglycerate kinase and antitumor activity of troxacitabine and gemcitabine in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther 2009; 8...murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene-like protein) OS=Macaca mulatta GN=c-fos PE=2 SV=1 DB=tr 8 13 2 4 0.293291 0.028692 B2LW69 MHC class I antigen OS

  12. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  13. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  14. Modelling business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Business model design does not always produce a “design” or “model” as the expected result. However, when designers are involved, a visual model or artifact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers’ challenge is to combine both strategy and design n

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Macaca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusc...ata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  16. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  17. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  18. Actant Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants.......This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants....

  19. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  20. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  1. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  2. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to...

  3. Model Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new conception:model warehouse,analyzes the reason why model warehouse appears and introduces the characteristics and architecture of model warehouse.Last,this paper points out that model warehouse is an important part of WebGIS.

  4. A guidance channel seeded with autologous Schwann cells for repair of cauda equina injury in a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Blair; Madsen, Parley W; Wood, Patrick; Marcillo, Alexander E; Levi, Allan D; Bunge, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate an implantable guidance channel (GC) seeded with autologous Schwann cells to promote regeneration of transected spinal nerve root axons in a primate model. Schwann cells were obtained from sural nerve segments of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; cynomolgus). Cells were cultured, purified, and seeded into a PAN/PVC GC. Approximately 3 weeks later, monkeys underwent laminectomy and dural opening. Nerve roots of the L4 through L7 segments were identified visually. The threshold voltage needed to elicit hindlimb muscle electromyography (EMG) after stimulation of intact nerve roots was determined. Segments of 2 or 3 nerve roots (each approximately 8-15 mm in length) were excised. The GC containing Schwann cells was implanted between the proximal and distal stumps of these nerve roots and attached to the stumps with suture. Follow-up evaluation was conducted on 3 animals, with survival times of 9 to 14 months. Upon reexposure of the implant site, subdural nerve root adhesions were noted in all 3 animals. Several of the implanted GC had collapsed and were characterized by thin strands of connective tissue attached to either end. In contrast, 3 of the 8 implanted GC were intact and had white, glossy cables entering and exiting the conduits. Electrical stimulation of the tissue cable in each of these 3 cases led to low-threshold evoked EMG responses, suggesting that muscles had been reinnervated by axons regenerating through the repair site and into the distal nerve stump. During harvesting of the GC implant, sharp transection led to spontaneous EMG in the same 3 roots showing a low threshold to electrical stimulation, whereas no EMG was seen when harvesting nerve roots with high thresholds to elicit EMG. Histology confirmed large numbers of myelinated axons at the midpoint of 2 GC judged to have reinnervated target muscles. We found a modest rate of successful regeneration and muscle reinnervation after treatment of nerve root transection with a Schwann cell

  5. Exome screening to identify loss-of-function mutations in the rhesus macaque for development of preclinical models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Adam S; Gibbs, Robert M; Norgren, Robert B

    2016-03-02

    Exome sequencing has been utilized to identify genetic variants associated with disease in humans. Identification of loss-of-function mutations with exome sequencing in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could lead to valuable animal models of genetic disease. Attempts have been made to identify variants in rhesus macaques by aligning exome data against the rheMac2 draft genome. However, such efforts have been impaired due to the incompleteness and annotation errors associated with rheMac2. We wished to determine whether aligning exome reads against our new, improved rhesus genome, MacaM, could be used to identify high impact, loss-of-function mutations in rhesus macaques that would be relevant to human disease. We compared alignments of exome reads from four rhesus macaques, the reference animal and three unrelated animals, against rheMac2 and MacaM. Substantially more reads aligned against MacaM than rheMac2. We followed the Broad Institute's Best Practice guidelines for variant discovery which utilizes the Genome Analysis Toolkit to identify high impact mutations. When rheMac2 was used as the reference genome, a large number of apparent false positives were identified. When MacaM was used as the reference genome, the number of false positives was greatly reduced. After examining the variant analyses conducted with MacaM as reference genome, we identified two putative loss-of-function mutations, in the heterozygous state, in genes related to human health. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations. We followed the transmission of one of these mutations (in the butyrylthiocholine gene) through three generations of rhesus macaques. Further, we demonstrated a functional decrease in butyrylthiocholinesterase activity similar to that observed in human heterozygotes with loss-of-function mutations in the same gene. The new MacaM genome can be effectively utilized to identify loss-of-function mutations in rhesus macaques without generating a high level of

  6. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also......This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available acaca_mulatta_L.png Macaca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  8. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  9. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  10. Proliferation-linked apoptosis of adoptively transferred T cells after IL-15 administration in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Berger

    Full Text Available The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific effector T cells is being used to treat human infections and malignancy. T cell persistence is a prerequisite for therapeutic efficacy, but reliably establishing a high-level and durable T cell response by transferring cultured CD8(+ T cells remains challenging. Thus, strategies that promote a transferred high-level T cell response may improve the efficacy of T cell therapy. Lymphodepletion enhances persistence of transferred T cells in mice in part by reducing competition for IL-15, a common γ-chain cytokine that promotes T cell memory, but lymphodepleting regimens have toxicity. IL-15 can be safely administered and has minimal effects on CD4(+ regulatory T cells at low doses, making it an attractive adjunct in adoptive T cell therapy. Here, we show in lymphoreplete macaca nemestrina, that proliferation of adoptively transferred central memory-derived CD8(+ effector T (T(CM/E cells is enhanced in vivo by administering IL-15. T(CM/E cells migrated to memory niches, persisted, and acquired both central memory and effector memory phenotypes regardless of the cytokine treatment. Unexpectedly, despite maintaining T cell proliferation, IL-15 did not augment the magnitude of the transferred T cell response in blood, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. T cells induced to proliferate by IL-15 displayed increased apoptosis demonstrating that enhanced cycling was balanced by cell death. These results suggest that homeostatic mechanisms that regulate T cell numbers may interfere with strategies to augment a high-level T cell response by adoptive transfer of CD8(+ T(CM/E cells in lymphoreplete hosts.

  11. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  12. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  13. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rigaill

    Full Text Available The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  14. The socioendocrinology of adolescent development in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, A F; Nevison, C M

    1997-04-01

    Observations were made on four captive breeding groups of rhesus monkeys in order to measure hormonal, behavioral, and genital changes in adolescent males during the annual mating season. Three questions were addressed with regard to possible effects of social environment upon reproductive maturation: (1) Does male agonistic rank influence adolescent development? (2) Does affiliation between adolescent males and adult females during the mating season influence the males' reproductive development? (3) Does maternal rank exert any effect upon reproductive maturation in adolescent sons? In many (but not all) cases male rank was positively correlated with circulating testosterone and testes weights during the mating season. Affiliative behavior (allogrooming and sexual interactions) between adolescents and adult females in their social groups bore no relationship to the degree of reproductive maturation in males. Mounts involving intromission were infrequent, but sons of high-ranking mothers gained significantly more intromissions than sons of lower-ranking females. Maternal rank was also found to correlate with circulating testosterone levels, testes weights, growth of the baculum (os penis), and maintenance of body weight in adolescent sons during the mating season. By contrast, levels of beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of adolescent males did not correlate with social rank, testosterone levels, or genital development. These findings point to possible effects of maternal rank, as well as intermale agonistic rank, in determining reproductive maturation during adolescence in the male rhesus monkey.

  15. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  16. Kadar Kolesterol Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca Fascicularis Obesitas di Pura Uluwatu Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Ratna Wulan Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian deskriptif-observasional dengan pendekatan cross-sectional telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kadar kolesterol total monyet ekor panjang obesitas yang hidup liar di Pura Luhur Uluwatu, Bali. Sebanyak enam belas monyet ekor panjang berhasil ditangkap bius menggunakan ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg berat badan dicampur dengan premedikasi xylazin dosis 1-2 mg/kg berat badan, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan, pengukuran morfometri dan pengambilan sampel darah. Penentuan kadar kolesterol menggunakan mesin automatic chemistry analyzer by Indiko- Thermo Scientific. Dari 16 ekor monyet, 12 ekor tergolong obesitas berdasarkan Indeks Masa Tubuh dan Berat Badan (IMT ?32,81±1,1 kg/m2 menurut Putra et al. (2006; BB ?8 kg. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rataan kadar kolesterol total monyet obesitas adalah 107,75 ml/dL. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kadar kolesterol monyet ekor panjang obesitas di Pura Uluwatu, Bali masih normal.

  17. Personality Traits in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Are Heritable but Do Not Predict Reproductive Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J N; Semple, Stuart; Maclarnon, Ann; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or "personalities," in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components. We collected observational data for 108 adult females living in three social groups in a free-ranging population via focal animal sampling. We applied principal component analysis to nine spontaneously occurring behaviors and identified six putative personality components, which we named Meek, Bold, Aggressive, Passive, Loner, and Nervous. All components were repeatable and heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.14 to 0.35. We found no evidence of an association with reproductive output, measured either by infant survival or by interbirth interval, for any of the personality components. This finding suggests either that personality does not have fitness-related consequences in this population or that selection has acted to reduce fitness-associated variation in personality.

  18. Cerebromalacia with epilepsy and cortical blindness in a laboratory Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuko; Habiro, Mayu; Hayashi, Kazuko; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Nakamura, Kae; Tsubura, Airo

    2010-12-01

    The authors performed a pathological examination of a 5-year-old female laboratory Japanese monkey who developed cortical blindness and epileptic seizures. Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures started to occur during behavioral training to get the animal to enter a carrying cage for future psychological experiments. Blindness was suspected because of a lack of approaching behavior toward foods such as fruits. Although the monkey was extensively treated with anticonvulsants, the clinical signs did not improve. An increased serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level and bilateral occipital brain atrophy were detected. Histopathologically, a severe degree of cerebromalacia was detected bilaterally in the occipital lobe, and necrosis and gliosis were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Focal inflammation was found in the meninges. No other changes were observed in other nervous tissues or organs, and no signs of a parasitic or viral infection were found in the systemic organs. Spontaneously occurring lesions in the central nervous system have been rarely reported in laboratory monkeys. In the present case, the cause of cerebromalacia could not be confirmed, but the relationship between symptoms such as abnormal vision and the presence of brain lesions was distinct. The authors believe that this case is a valuable historical control case for the laboratory Japanese macaque.

  19. Focused-ultrasound termination of an early pregnancy in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hong; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Bai, Jin; Zhan, Yang; Wu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2012-12-01

    We explored the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of focused ultrasound in terminating undesired pregnancy. A high-intensity focused ultrasound therapeutic unit was employed to terminate early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. B-mode ultrasound incorporated within the system was used to locate and study the gestational sacs of 6 rhesus macaques with gestation ages of 37 to 66 days, and varying modes of ultrasound exposure were adopted in the termination of the early pregnancies of the rhesus macaques. After focused ultrasound exposure, B-mode ultrasound of the gestational sacs showed significant lethal changes. Of the 6 rhesus macaques, 5 underwent complete abortions whereas 1 rhesus macaque underwent an incomplete abortion. The rhesus macaques resumed their menstrual cycles 50 days after focused-ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that focused ultrasound could be safe, feasible, and effective in terminating early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. As a novel physical method, it may be a promising ablation for a potentially clinical application. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  1. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As cogni

  2. Architecture and connections of retrosplenial area 30 in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R; Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1999-07-01

    Because of the sharp curvature of the retrosplenial region around the splenium of the corpus callosum, standard coronal sections are not appropriate for architectonic analysis of its posteroventral part. In the present study, examination of the posteroventral retrosplenial region of the rhesus monkey in sections that were orthogonal to its axis of curvature (and therefore appropriate for architectonic analysis) has permitted definition of its architecture and precise extent. This analysis demonstrated that areas 29 and 30 of the retrosplenial cortex, as well as adjacent area 23 of the posterior cingulate cortex, extend together as an arch around the splenium of the corpus callosum and maintain their topographical relationship with one another throughout their entire course. Injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers confined to retrosplenial area 30 revealed that this area has reciprocal connections with adjacent areas 23, 19 and PGm, with the mid-dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (areas 9, 9/46 and 46), with multimodal area TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, as well as the posterior parahippocampal cortex, the presubiculum and the entorhinal cortex. There are also bidirectional connections with the lateroposterior thalamic nucleus, as well as the laterodorsal and the anteroventral limbic thalamic nuclei. The connectivity of area 30 suggests that it may play a role in working memory processes subserved by the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in interaction with the hippocampal system.

  3. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists.

  4. Individual analyses of Levy walk in semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Animals adapt their movement patterns to their environment in order to maximize their efficiency when searching for food. The Lévy walk and the Brownian walk are two types of random movement found in different species. Studies have shown that these random movements can switch from a Brownian to a Lévy walk according to the size distribution of food patches. However no study to date has analysed how characteristics such as sex, age, dominance or body mass affect the movement patterns of an individual. In this study we used the maximum likelihood method to examine the nature of the distribution of step lengths and waiting times and assessed how these distributions are influenced by the age and the sex of group members in a semi free-ranging group of ten Tonkean macaques. Individuals highly differed in their activity budget and in their movement patterns. We found an effect of age and sex of individuals on the power distribution of their step lengths and of their waiting times. The males and old individuals displayed a higher proportion of longer trajectories than females and young ones. As regards waiting times, females and old individuals displayed higher rates of long stationary periods than males and young individuals. These movement patterns resembling random walks can probably be explained by the animals moving from one location to other known locations. The power distribution of step lengths might be due to a power distribution of food patches in the enclosure while the power distribution of waiting times might be due to the power distribution of the patch sizes.

  5. Implantation and Maintenance of Chronic Jugular Venous Catheters in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-05

    ventilation. The vest was closed in back with a zipper, which was routinely secured with a safety pin . A drawstring at the waistallowed adjustable fit to the...Laboratories, Pearl River, NY). Routine flushing procedure was then resumed. Between flushings, the exposed end of the catheter was tied to a safety pin attached

  6. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  7. Captive propagation of threatened primates - the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaumanns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many conservation-oriented breeding programs are not likely to reach their goal of establishing self-sustaining populations. Some zoo biologists propagate to reconsider zoo-based conservation policies and strategies. The Lion-tailed Macaque is a flagship species for in situ conservation and a high priority species in captive propagation. This article reviews the captive management history of the Lion-tailed Macaque, identifies management patterns that might have negatively influenced the development of the programs, and proposes to use this analysis to initiate a new management perspective. In the North American captive Lion-tailed Macaque population under the Species Survival Plan (SSP, the strong reduction in population size and group sizes due to space problems might have contributed to a decrease in population viability. The population over two decades has declined from almost 300 to less than 100 individuals. In the European population under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP, population size was not limited and larger groups were advocated. The population grew slowly but steadily to a present size of more than 350 individuals over about 23 years. The effective population size has remained low in both SSP and EEP populations. A general conceptual framework that focuses on individuals and their phenotypes for in situ and ex situ conservation recently developed by field conservationists is briefly introduced. It is used to suggest improvements in the management of the Lion-tailed Macaque. It is concluded that the size and structure of a breeding population is to be decided so as to provide conditions and materials for successful reproduction rather than by the available zoo space only. For this, large groups and populations with representation of all age-sex classes are advocated. This would result in a further reduction in the number of species kept in zoos. It is indicated that zoo biology needs to develop new concepts that include a large spectrum of concepts of biology and knowledge about the adaptive potential of animal species under altered and fragmented conditions.

  8. Cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatozoa in a chemically defined extender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hui Li; Ke-Jun Cai; Lei Su; Mo Guan; Xie-Chao He; Hong Wang; Andras Kovacs; Wei-Zhi Ji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To establish a method for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation in a chemically defined extender.Methods: Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four sexually mature male cynomolgus monkeys.The spermatozoa were frozen in straws by liquid nitrogen vapor using egg-yolk-free Tes-Tris (mTTE) synthetic extender and glycerol as cryoprotectant. The effects of glycerol concentration (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% [v/v])and its equilibration time (10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min) on post-thaw spermatozoa were examined by sperm motility and sperm head membrane integrity. Results: The post-thaw motility and head membrane integrity of spermatozoa were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 5% glycerol (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42, respectively) than those of the other groups (1%: 19.19 ± 3.22 and 24.84 ± 3.64; 3%: 34.23 ± 3.43 and 41.37 ± 3.42; 10%:15.68 ± 2.36 and 21.39 ± 3.14; 15%: 7.47 ± 1.44 and 12.90 ± 2.18). The parameters for 30 min equilibration (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42) were better (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (10 min: 31.33 ± 3.06 and 38.98 ± 3.31; 60 min: 32.49 ± 3.86 and 40.01 ± 4.18; 90 min: 31.16 ± 3.66 and 38.30 ± 3.78). Five percent glycerol and 30 min equilibration yielded the highest post-thaw sperm motility and head membrane integrity. Conclusion:Cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa can be successfully cryopreserved in a chemically defined extender, which is related to the concentration and the equilibration time of glycerol.

  9. Development of tactile discrimination capacity in Macaca mulatta. I. Normal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M

    1984-09-01

    Infant macaques between the ages of 7 and 25 weeks of age were trained on a series of manual tactile discrimination tasks. Tactile discrimination capacity, as measured by the most difficult level of size and texture discrimination tasks mastered, was the same for all ages of infants and did not differ from that of adults. Infants as young as 10 weeks of age were found to have a discrimination capacity similar to that of adult macaques, although an adult level of manual motor control had not been achieved by this early age. During the acquisition of size tasks, older animals made fewer errors than did younger animals, suggesting an improved efficiency in size discrimination capacity over the first 6 months of life. By contrast, the efficiency with which the younger animals mastered texture discrimination was superior to that of the older infants. The possible contributions of sensory experience or manual motor control to the maturation of sensory capacity were examined by applying 16 weeks of sensory restriction in one infant and a unilateral motor cortex lesion in another infant, respectively. Only transient impairment was found in either case suggesting that neither tactile experience nor motor control contribute significantly to the maturation of tactile discrimination capacity in infant macaques.

  10. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and do...

  11. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    1068. 1978. Glees, P. Spoerri, P. E. Tubular structures microtubuli and synaptic ribbon in monkey’s retinal receptors. Annales de Anatomia , 25 : 159...153 - 155. 1976. Hogan, M. J., Alvarado, J. A., Weddell, J. E. Histology of the human eye. An atlas and textbook. W. B. Saunders Co. 1971. S om61. Hori

  12. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  13. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaill, Lucie; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Higham, James P; Winters, Sandra; Shimizu, Keiko; Mouri, Keiko; Furuichi, Takeshi; Garcia, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory) to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen) data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  14. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    appearance of very few pox lesions and the appearance of observable clinical disease of short duration just prior to death. Finally, perhaps because of...the small size of the marmosets, blood was not drawn with great frequency and serum chemistries and CBCs were not performed, thus leaving many

  15. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  16. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  17. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  18. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  19. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    ECG Blood Pressure ___Ocular Motility ___Pupillary Reflexes (Direct and Indirect) Fascial Muscle Tone ___Apply Mydriatic Agents to Dilate Eyes Head...selectees would be subjected to frequent handling and manipulation . The radiographs of seven other monkeys contained evidence of abdominal opacities

  20. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  1. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenworthy David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline being developed for radical cure (blood and liver stage elimination of Plasmodium vivax. During monotherapy treatment, the compound exhibits slow parasite and fever clearance times, and toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a concern. Combination with other antimalarials may mitigate these concerns. Methods In 2005, the radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combinations was investigated in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected naïve Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys. In the first cohort, groups of two monkeys were treated with a three-day regimen of tafenoquine at different doses alone and in combination with a three-day chloroquine regimen to determine the minimum curative dose (MCD. In the second cohort, the radical curative efficacy of a single-day regimen of tafenoquine-mefloquine was compared to that of two three-day regimens comprising tafenoquine at its MCD with chloroquine or artemether-lumefantrine in groups of six monkeys. In a final cohort, the efficacy of the MCD of tafenoquine against hypnozoites alone and in combination with chloroquine was investigated in groups of six monkeys after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual parasites. Plasma tafenoquine, chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations were determined by LC-MS in order to compare doses of the drugs to those used clinically in humans. Results The total MCD of tafenoquine required in combination regimens for radical cure was ten-fold lower (1.8 mg/kg versus 18 mg/kg than for monotherapy. This regimen (1.8 mg/kg was equally efficacious as monotherapy or in combination with chloroquine after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual stages. The same dose of (1.8 mg/kg was radically curative in combination with artemether-lumefantrine. Tafenoquine was also radically curative when combined with mefloquine. The MCD of tafenoquine monotherapy for radical cure (18 mg/kg appears to be biologically equivalent to a 600-1200 mg dose in humans. At its MCD in combination with blood schizonticidal drugs (1.8 mg/kg, the maximum observed plasma concentrations were substantially lower than (20-84 versus 550-1,100 ng/ml after administration of 1, 200 mg in clinical studies. Conclusions Ten-fold lower clinical doses of tafenoquine than used in prior studies may be effective against P. vivax hypnozoites if the drug is deployed in combination with effective blood-schizonticidal drugs.

  2. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  3. Metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of (/sup 14/C)doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus (/sup 14/C)doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) acetic acid, 1-(1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination.

  4. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive the Zöllner illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman animals share the same perceptual mechanisms. In humans, the Zöllner illusion occurs when two parallel lines appear to be convergent when oblique crosshatching lines are superimposed. Although one baboon study suggests that they too might perceive this illusion, the results of that study were unclear, whereas two recent studies suggest that birds see this illusion in the opposite direction from humans. It is currently unclear whether these mixed results are an artifact of the experimental design or reflect a peculiarity of birds' visual system or, instead, a wider phenomenon shared among nonhuman mammals. Here, we trained 6 monkeys to select the narrower of two gaps at the end of two convergent lines. Three different conditions were set up: control (no crosshatches), perpendicular (crosshatches not inducing the illusion), and Zöllner (crosshatches inducing the illusion in humans). During training, the degrees of convergence between the two lines ranged from 15° to 12°. Monkeys that reached the training criterion were tested with more difficult discriminations (11°-1°), including probe trials with parallel lines (0°). The results showed that monkeys perceived the Zöllner illusion in the same direction as humans. Comparison of these data with the data from bird studies points toward the existence of different orientation-tuned mechanisms between primate and nonprimate species.

  5. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  6. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin approved for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in dogs and cats. This antibiotic may also be useful for zoo and wildlife veterinary medicine, because of its broad spectrum and long duration of activity. The aim of the study...

  7. Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minna J; Kao, Chien-Ching; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2009-03-01

    Ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. Between July 2002 and April 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the Shou-Shan Nature Park located in Taiwan's second largest city--Kaohsiung. In addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. Four hundred visitors were interviewed using a questionnaire to gather data on sex, age, purpose and frequency of visit to the park. The number of tourists was significantly higher during weekends than in weekdays in all locations. Humans dominated in the initiation of interspecies interactions--the overall ratio of human-initiated and monkey-initiated interactions was 2.44:1. Human-monkey conflicts accounted for only 16.4% of the total interactions (n=2,166), and adult human males and adult male macaques participated in higher rates than other age/sex groups in these conflicts. Visitors showed more affiliative behavior (15.9%) than agonistic behavior (8%) toward the macaques. In response to visitors' threat or attack, the Formosan macaques mostly showed submissive behavior with bared teeth, squealed or ran away to avoid confrontation (69.1%)--only few responded with counteraggression (18.7%). This study for the first time provided evidence that food provisioning increased both the frequency and duration of aggression among Formosan macaques (P<0.001). During food provisioning, the average frequency and the duration of agonistic events of macaques were more than 4 times higher compared with those without food provisioning. The average frequency of food provision by tourists was 0.73 times/hr--more than twice the incident that monkeys grabbed the food from tourists (0.34 times/hr). If people refrain from feeding monkeys and destroying the city park's natural vegetation, monkeys can be used to educate public about nature conservation in an urban setting.

  8. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  9. Comportamiento social y actividad diaria de macaca arctoides en condiciones de cautiverio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferro Pérez Maybe Bárbara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos estudios conductuales nos permiten propiciar el confort necesario a nuestros animales, lográndose de esta forma el manejo, salud y supervivencia adecuados.AbstractThe behavioural studies allow propitiating the necessary comfort to the experimentation animals

  10. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  11. Uncertain responses by humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a psychophysical same-different task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W. E.; Smith, J. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals, like humans, use an uncertain response adaptively to escape indeterminate stimulus relations. Humans and monkeys were placed in a same-different task, known to be challenging for animals. Its difficulty was increased further by reducing the size of the stimulus differences, thereby making many same and different trials difficult to tell apart. Monkeys do escape selectively from these threshold trials, even while coping with 7 absolute stimulus levels concurrently. Monkeys even adjust their response strategies on short time scales according to the local task conditions. Signal-detection and optimality analyses confirm the similarity of humans' and animals' performances. Whereas associative interpretations account poorly for these results, an intuitive uncertainty construct does so easily. The authors discuss the cognitive processes that allow uncertainty's adaptive use and recommend further comparative studies of metacognition.

  12. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) adaptively adjust information seeking in response to information accumulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a "decline test" response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information-seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and assesses dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a "reveal button." Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunk and covered by 1 critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient than when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy.

  14. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species.

  15. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  16. The comparative psychology of same-different judgments by humans (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Haas, Sarah M; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Couchman, Justin J

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the performance of humans and monkeys in a Same-Different task. They evaluated the hypothesis that for humans the Same-Different concept is qualitative, categorical, and rule-based, so that humans distinguish 0-disparity pairs (i.e., same) from pairs with any discernible disparity (i.e., different); whereas for monkeys the Same-Different concept is quantitative, continuous, and similarity-based, so that monkeys distinguish small-disparity pairs (i.e., similar) from pairs with a large disparity (i.e., dissimilar). The results supported the hypothesis. Monkeys, more than humans, showed a gradual transition from same to different categories and an inclusive criterion for responding Same. The results have implications for comparing Same-Different performances across species--different species may not always construe or perform even identical tasks in the same way. In particular, humans may especially apply qualitative, rule-based frameworks to cognitive tasks like Same-Different.

  17. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.; Háden, G.P.; Prado, L.; Bartolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis

  19. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  20. Studies on ’Macaca mulatta’ Infected with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-10

    serum proteins were analyzed using an automated immuoprecipitin system utilizing available human serum standards and human antiserum.6 Thus, the...spectrophotometry. a Total protein b(TP) was determined using refractometry . Specific serum proteins were analyzed using an automated immuzoprecipitin...system utilizing available 6human serum standards and human antiserum. Thus, the monkey serum a -acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin values

  1. Direct projections from the dorsal premotor cortex to the superior colliculus in the macaque (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Claudia; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-11-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is part of the cortical network for arm movements during reach-related behavior. Here we investigate the neuronal projections from the PMd to the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), which also contains reach-related neurons, to investigate how the SC integrates into a cortico-subcortical network responsible for initiation and modulation of goal-directed arm movements. By using anterograde transport of neuronal tracers, we found that the PMd projects most strongly to the deep layers of the lateral part of the SC and the underlying reticular formation corresponding to locations where reach-related neurons have been recorded, and from where descending tectofugal projections arise. A somewhat weaker projection targets the intermediate layers of the SC. By contrast, terminals originating from prearcuate area 8 mainly project to the intermediate layers of the SC. Thus, this projection pattern strengthens the view that different compartments in the SC are involved in the control of gaze and in the control or modulation of reaching movements. The PMD-SC projection assists in the participation of the SC in the skeletomotor system and provides the PMd with a parallel path to elicit forelimb movements.

  2. No strings attached: Physiological Monitoring of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta with Thermal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals’ natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of 5 macaques. The monkeys were exposed in 3 different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting.

  3. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  4. Visual information processing in the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus): mental rotation or rotational invariance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Britta; Dehnhardt, Guido; Mauck, Björn

    2005-01-01

    Mental rotation is a widely accepted concept indicating an image-like mental representation of visual information and an analogue mode of information processing in certain visuospatial tasks. In the task of discriminating between image and mirror-image of rotated figures, human reaction times increase with the angular disparity between the figures. In animals, tests of this kind yield inconsistent results. Pigeons were found to use a time-independent rotational invariance, possibly indicating a non-analogue information processing system that evolved in response to the horizontal plane of reference birds perceive during flight. Despite similar ecological demands concerning the visual reference plane, a sea lion was found to use mental rotation in similar tasks, but its processing speed while rotating three-dimensional stimuli seemed to depend on the axis of rotation in a different way than found for humans in similar tasks. If ecological demands influence the way information processing systems evolve, hominids might have secondarily lost the ability of rotational invariance while retreating from arboreal living and evolving an upright gait in which the vertical reference plane is more important. We therefore conducted mental rotation experiments with an arboreal living primate species, the lion-tailed macaque. Performing a two-alternative matching-to-sample procedure, the animal had to decide between rotated figures representing image and mirror-image of a previously shown upright sample. Although non-rotated stimuli were recognized faster than rotated ones, the animal's mean reaction times did not clearly increase with the angle of rotation. These results are inconsistent with the mental rotation concept but also cannot be explained assuming a mere rotational invariance. Our study thus seems to support the idea of information processing systems evolving gradually in response to specific ecological demands.

  5. Localization of orofacial representation in the corona radiata, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Binneboese, A; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Ge, J

    2017-11-01

    Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated. Medial motor area fibers (M2/M3/M4) arched over the caudate and lateral motor area fibers (M1/LPMCv) curved over the putamen. At superior IC levels, the pathways were widespread, involving the anterior limb, genu and posterior limb with the M3 projection located anteriorly, followed posteriorly by projections from M2, LPMCv, M4 and M1, respectively. Inferiorly, all pathways maintained this orientation but shifted posteriorly, with adjacent fiber bundles overlapping minimally. In the ccCP, M3 fibers were located medially and M1 fibers centromedially, with M2, LPMCv, and M4 pathways overlapping in between. Finally, at inferior ccCP levels, all pathways overlapped. Following CR and superior IC lesions, the dispersed pathway distribution may correlate with acute orofacial dysfunction with spared pathways contributing to orofacial motor recovery. In contrast, the gradually commixed nature of pathway representation inferiorly may enhance fiber vulnerability and correlate with severe, prolonged deficits following lower subcortical and midbrain injury. Additionally, in humans these findings may assist in interpreting orofacial movements evoked during deep brain stimulation, and neuroimaging tractography efforts to localize descending orofacial motor pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  7. Teratogenicity studies on late blighted potatoes in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and Saguinus labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J R; Marlar, R J; Chesney, C F; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Weckel, G; Traisman, E; White, J W

    1977-02-01

    Female rhesus monkeys and marmosets were fed a diet containing blighted potatoes (Phytophthora infestans) at a level of 10g/kg per day for at least two weeks prior to breeding and six weeks following conception in order to gain additional information on the association of blighted potatoes and the development of anencephaly and spina bifida in primate species. There was an absence of either of these neural-tube defects in 32 rhesus and 14 marmoset infants whose mothers had received a blighted potato diet. In addition there were no cranial osseous defects. There were, however, two rhesus monkey infants with internal hydrocephalus whose mothers had consumed blighted potatoes.

  8. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    your husband’s "educational experiences". And to my greatest of all r’-ildren in the world, Sarah and Jonathan, who did their best to understand when...Monogr Allergy 19:122-133. 118 Hammarstrom, L., Lefranc, G., Lefranc, M.P., Persson, MAA . Smith, C.I.E. 1986. Aberrant pattern of anti-carbohydrate

  9. Feeding Behavior of Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana in Schmutzer Primates Center and Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Dwi Riptianingsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonkean macaques are one of seven endemic macaque species on Sulawesi Island. Feeding management in captivity should pay attention to the quality, palatability, and feeding behavior patterns of animals. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding behavior of two social groups of Tonkean macaques at Schmutzer Primates Center (SPC and Ragunan Zoo (RZ with different captive management, which was expected to affect feeding behavior. Ad libitum sampling was used to observe daily behavior and hierarchy, while focal animal sampling was used to observe feeding behavior and feed preference. Data were collected from September 2013 until March 2014 with a total of 495 hours of observations. There were significant differences between the daily behavior of two groups of Tonkean macaques. Resting behavior was dominant in RZ group with non-enrichment feed cage, while feeding behavior was more common in the SPC group with an enrichment feed cage. The SPC group spent most of their feeding time in searching for feed, while choosing, carrying and refusing were greater in the RZ group. Both Tonkean macaque groups showed individual dominance in their feeding behavior. Provisioned feed in both locations had different diversity and preference values. The selection of feed required was based on preference values with attention to Tonkean macaques’ feed in nature. Cage construction, such as the SPC cage, was able to reduce abnormal behavior exhibited by individuals.

  10. High maltose sensitivity of sweet taste receptors in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Emiko; Tsutsui, Kei; Imai, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Taste sensitivity differs among animal species depending on feeding habitat. To humans, sucrose is one of the sweetest natural sugars, and this trait is expected to be similar in other primates. However, previous behavioral tests have shown that some primate species have equal preferences for maltose and sucrose. Because sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor Tas1R2/Tas1R3, we evaluated the responses of human and Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 to various natural sugars using a heterologous expression system. Human Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed high sensitivity to sucrose, as expected; however, Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed equally high sensitivity to maltose and sucrose. Furthermore, Japanese macaques showed equally high sensitivity to sucrose and maltose in a two-bottle behavioral experiment. These results indicate that Japanese macaques have high sensitivity to maltose, and this sensitivity is directly related to Tas1R2/Tas1R3 function. This is the first molecular biological evidence that for some primate species, sucrose is not the most preferable natural sugar, as it is for humans. PMID:27982108

  11. Ethane dimethylsulphonate selectively destroys Leydigcells in the adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Sumathi; V.sriraman; B.S.Kurkalli; F.F.G.Rommerts; A.JagannadhaRao

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of intratesficular administration of ethane-1,2-dimethylsulphonate (EDS) which has been exten-sively used to selectively destroy Leydig cells in rats and study ~ role of gonadotropin in regulation of differentiation ofLeydig cells (LC) in the adult male bonnet monkey. Methods and Results: In vitro studies with cultured interstitialcells isolated from monkey testis revealed an inhibitory effect of EDS on LC as assessed by decrease in testosterone pro-duction. Intratesticular administration of EDS (5, 10, 20, 50 rag/testis) resulted in a dose-dependent rapid decrease inserum testosterone levels, with a 6.5 % decrease with 5 nag of EDS by the 3rd day, which returned to control levels by the45th day. EDS treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testiculiar testosterone. In addition a significant decrease in[125 1]hCG binding and phenylesterase activity in the interstitial cells was noticed. Histological analysis of the testes onthe 5th day after administration of EDS revealed an interstitium devoid of LC indicating the destructive action of EDS.Conclusion: The monkey LC are sensitive to destructive action of EDS.

  12. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  13. Evolution of a TRIM5-CypA splice isoform in old world monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi M Newman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains. Antiviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha has a C-terminal B30.2/SPRY domain, which is the major determinant of viral target specificity. Here, we describe the evolution of a cyclophilin-A encoding exon downstream of the TRIM5 locus of Asian macaques. Alternative splicing gives rise to chimeric transcripts encoding the TRIM motif fused to a C-terminal CypA domain (TRIM5-CypA. We detected TRIM5-CypA chimeric transcripts in primary lymphocytes from two macaque species. These were derived in part from a CypA pseudogene in the TRIM5 locus, which is distinct from the previously described CypA insertion in TRIM5 of owl monkeys. The CypA insertion is linked to a mutation in the 3' splice site upstream of exon 7, which may prevent or reduce expression of the alpha-isoform. All pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina screened were homozygous for the CypA insertion. In contrast, the CypA-containing allele was present in 17% (17/101 of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. The block to HIV-1 infection in lymphocytes from animals bearing the TRIM5-CypA allele was weaker than that in cells from wild type animals. HIV-1 infectivity remained significantly lower than SIV infectivity, but was not rescued by treatment with cyclosporine A. Thus, unlike owl monkey TRIMCyp, expression of the macaque TRIM5-CypA isoform does not result in increased restriction of HIV-1. Despite its distinct evolutionary origin, Macaca TRIM5-CypA has a similar domain arrangement and shares approximately 80% amino-acid identity with the TRIMCyp protein of owl monkeys. The independent appearance of TRIM5-CypA chimeras in two primate lineages constitutes a

  14. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three

  15. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A; Manoj, N.T.

    Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...

  16. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  17. MODELING CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present tentative answers to three questions: firstly, what is to be assumed about the structure of the brain in attacking the problem of modeling consciousness; secondly, what is it about consciousness that is attempting to be modeled; and finally, what is taken on board the modeling enterprise, if anything, from the vast works by philosophers about the nature of mind.

  18. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sclütter, Flemming; Frigaard, Peter; Liu, Zhou

    This report presents the model test results on wave run-up on the Zeebrugge breakwater under the simulated prototype storms. The model test was performed in January 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The detailed description of the model is given...

  19. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  20. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...

  1. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  2. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-13

    and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation...parametrization, and workflow automation. (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  3. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.......Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares...

  4. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  5. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  6. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  7. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....

  8. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  9. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  10. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University.......This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....

  11. Stream Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    the engineers, but as the scale and the complexity of the hydraulic works increased, the mathematical models became so complex that a mathematical solution could not be obtained. This created a demand for new methods and again the experimental investigation became popular, but this time as measurements on small......-scale models. But still the scale and complexity of hydraulic works were increasing, and soon even small-scale models reached a natural limit for some applications. In the mean time the modern computer was developed, and it became possible to solve complex mathematical models by use of computer-based numerical...

  12. Ventilation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to

  13. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  14. Model Selection for Geostatistical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.

  15. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to...

  16. Didactical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to construct this approach in mathematics education research.

  17. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  18. Martingale Model

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model determines a stochastic continuous process as continuous limit of a stochastic discrete process so to show that the stochastic continuous process converges to the stochastic discrete process such that we can integrate it. Furthermore, the model determines the expected volatility and the expected mean so to show that the volatility and the mean are increasing function of the time.

  19. Dispersion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  20. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  1. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  2. Linguistic models and linguistic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedryez, W; Vasilakos, A V

    1999-01-01

    The study is concerned with a linguistic approach to the design of a new category of fuzzy (granular) models. In contrast to numerically driven identification techniques, we concentrate on budding meaningful linguistic labels (granules) in the space of experimental data and forming the ensuing model as a web of associations between such granules. As such models are designed at the level of information granules and generate results in the same granular rather than pure numeric format, we refer to them as linguistic models. Furthermore, as there are no detailed numeric estimation procedures involved in the construction of the linguistic models carried out in this way, their design mode can be viewed as that of a rapid prototyping. The underlying algorithm used in the development of the models utilizes an augmented version of the clustering technique (context-based clustering) that is centered around a notion of linguistic contexts-a collection of fuzzy sets or fuzzy relations defined in the data space (more precisely a space of input variables). The detailed design algorithm is provided and contrasted with the standard modeling approaches commonly encountered in the literature. The usefulness of the linguistic mode of system modeling is discussed and illustrated with the aid of numeric studies including both synthetic data as well as some time series dealing with modeling traffic intensity over a broadband telecommunication network.

  3. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  4. Model hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W.D.

    1972-01-01

    Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.

  5. Stereometric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, P.

    2012-07-01

    These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view

  6. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C(α) RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  8. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...... the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how...

  9. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these no...

  10. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  11. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  12. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  13. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  14. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  15. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  16. Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 59, Number RR-6, July 23, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    et al. Pathology of inhalation anthrax in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Lab Invest 2003;83:1201–9. 113. Stearns- Kurosawa DJ, Lupu F...Taylor Jr FB, Kinasewitz G, Kurosawa S. Sepsis and pathophysiology of anthrax in a nonhuman primate model. Am J Pathol 2006;169:433–44. 114

  17. Do stroke models model stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mergenthaler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the biggest reason for long-term disability. Basic research has formed the modern understanding of stroke pathophysiology, and has revealed important molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms. However, despite decades of research, most translational stroke trials that aim to introduce basic research findings into clinical treatment strategies – most notably in the field of neuroprotection – have failed. Among other obstacles, poor methodological and statistical standards, negative publication bias, and incomplete preclinical testing have been proposed as ‘translational roadblocks’. In this article, we introduce the models commonly used in preclinical stroke research, discuss some of the causes of failed translational success and review potential remedies. We further introduce the concept of modeling ‘care’ of stroke patients, because current preclinical research models the disorder but does not model care or state-of-the-art clinical testing. Stringent statistical methods and controlled preclinical trials have been suggested to counteract weaknesses in preclinical research. We conclude that preclinical stroke research requires (1 appropriate modeling of the disorder, (2 appropriate modeling of the care of stroke patients and (3 an approach to preclinical testing that is similar to clinical testing, including Phase 3 randomized controlled preclinical trials as necessary additional steps before new therapies enter clinical testing.

  18. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....

  19. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  20. Inflatable Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Vasily Volkov

    2006-01-01

    A physically-based model is presented for the simulation of a new type of deformable objects-inflatable objects, such as shaped balloons, which consist of pressurized air enclosed by an elastic surface. These objects have properties inherent in both 3D and 2D elastic bodies, as they demonstrate the behaviour of 3D shapes using 2D formulations. As there is no internal structure in them, their behaviour is substantially different from the behaviour of deformable solid objects. We use one of the few available models for deformable surfaces, and enhance it to include the forces of internal and external pressure. These pressure forces may also incorporate buoyancy forces, to allow objects filled with a low density gas to float in denser media. The obtained models demonstrate rich dynamic behaviour, such as bouncing, floating, deflation and inflation.

  1. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  2. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  3. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  4. Smashnova Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaram, C

    2007-01-01

    An alternate model for gamma ray bursts is suggested. For a white dwarf (WD) and neutron star (NS) very close binary system, the WD (close to Mch) can detonate due to tidal heating, leading to a SN. Material falling on to the NS at relativistic velocities can cause its collapse to a magnetar or quark star or black hole leading to a GRB. As the material smashes on to the NS, it is dubbed the Smashnova model. Here the SN is followed by a GRB. NS impacting a RG (or RSG) (like in Thorne-Zytkow objects) can also cause a SN outburst followed by a GRB. Other variations are explored.

  5. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  6. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Skauge, Jørn

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om......­lering og bygningsmodeller. Det bliver understreget at modellering bør udføres på flere abstraktions­niveauer og i to dimensioner i den såkaldte modelleringsmatrix. Ud fra dette identificeres de primære faser af bygningsmodel­lering. Dernæst beskrives de basale karakteristika for bygningsmodeller. Heri...... inkluderes en præcisering af begreberne objektorienteret software og objektorienteret modeller. Det bliver fremhævet at begrebet objektbaseret modellering giver en tilstrækkelig og bedre forståelse. Endelig beskrives forestillingen om den ideale bygningsmodel som værende én samlet model, der anvendes gennem...

  7. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.; Frigaard, Peter

    In the following, results from model tests with Zeebrugge breakwater are presented. The objective with these tests is partly to investigate the influence on wave run-up due to a changing waterlevel during a storm. Finally, the influence on wave run-up due to an introduced longshore current...

  8. Why Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eWolkenhauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question Why model?

  9. Why model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  10. Model CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Burianová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Cílem první části této bakalářské práce je - pomocí analýzy výchozích textů - teoretické shrnutí ekonomických modelů a teorií, na kterých model CAPM stojí: Markowitzův model teorie portfolia (analýza maximalizace očekávaného užitku a na něm založený model výběru optimálního portfolia), Tobina (rozšíření Markowitzova modelu ? rozdělení výběru optimálního portfolia do dvou fází; nejprve určení optimální kombinace rizikových instrumentů a následná alokace dostupného kapitálu mezi tuto optimální ...

  11. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  12. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  13. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  14. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  15. Quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    For modelling product behaviour, with respect to quality for users and consumers, its essential to have at least a fundamental notion what quality really is, and which product properties determine the quality assigned by the consumer to a product. In other words: what is allowed and what is to be

  16. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  17. Information Model for Product Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦国方; 刘慎权

    1992-01-01

    The Key problems in product modeling for integrated CAD ∥CAM systems are the information structures and representations of products.They are taking more and more important roles in engineering applications.With the investigation on engineering product information and from the viewpoint of industrial process,in this paper,the information models are proposed and the definitions of the framework of product information are given.And then,the integration and the consistence of product information are discussed by introucing the entity and its instance.As a summary,the information structures described in this paper have many advantage and natures helpful in engineering design.

  18. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  19. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramat